Sample records for blending components derived

  1. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  2. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson III, George R. (Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin (United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)); Freerks, Robert L. (Rentech, Incorporated, 1331 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States))

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.

  3. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  4. The relationship between the thermoplastic behavior of blends and their component coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, R.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoplastic behaviors of a number of coking coal blends were measured using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) to determine to what extent they were affected by interactions between the component coals. Most blends showed evidence that at temperatures near their temperatures of maximum fluidity the extent to which they fused was different to that expected if the coals did not interact. Only blends of coking coals of different rank fused to a greater extent than expected in the absence of interactions. Semi-anthracite, low rank coals and charcoal reduced the extent of fusion of coking coals to values below those expected if they were acting as inert diluents. These interactions are interpreted as being mediated by transfer of volatile material between the coals on heating.

  5. ETBE as a gasoline blending component. The experience of Elf Aquitaine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatin, L.; Fombarlet, C.; Bernasconi, C.; Gauthier, A.; Schmelzle, P.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study, led by Elf Aquitaine for several years, shows the possibility to use ETBE instead of MTBE as a gasoline component and compares properties of these two ethers regarding different parameters like octanes, volatility, engine cleanliness, stability of the ethers themselves and of gasoline blends, lubricant compatibility and toxicological data. ETBE appears at least as good as MTBE and sometimes better, as ETBE is chemically more similar to hydrocarbons than MTBE and can be used advantageously as a gasoline oxygenated component. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Powertrain Component Inspection from Mid-Level Blends Vehicle Aging Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoffner, Brent [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Johnson, Ryan [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Heimrich, Martin J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Lochte, Michael [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls on the nation to significantly increase its use of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law expands the renewable fuel standard to require use of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Given that ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the U.S. market, ethanol will likely make up a significant portion of the 36-billion-gallon requirement. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10-gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85 - a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). Consumption of E85 is at present limited by both the size of the FFV fleet and the number of E85 fueling stations. Gasoline consumption in the United States is currently about 140 billion gallons per year; thus the maximum use of ethanol as E10 is only about 14 billion gallons. While the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market represented less than 1% of the ethanol consumed in 2010 and will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Because of these factors, DOE and others have been assessing the viability of using mid-level ethanol blends (E15 or E20) as a way to accommodate growing volumes of ethanol. The DOE Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program has been under way since 2007, supported jointly by the Office of the Biomass Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program. One of the larger projects, the Catalyst Durability Study, or Vehicle Aging Study, will be completed early in calendar year 2011. The following report describes a subproject of the Vehicle Aging Study in which powertrain components from 18 of the vehicles were examined at Southwest Research Institute under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  7. Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

  8. The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diethyl ether (DEE) in ethanol fuel blends for a range ofbio-derived fuel components (ethanol) in emission productsHCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

  9. Biodiesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2-page fact sheet discussing general biodiesel blends and the improvement in engine performance and emissions.

  10. Hardgrove grindability study of Powder River Basin and Appalachian coal components in the blend to a midwestern power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padgett, P.L.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Five coals representing four distinct coal sources blended at a midwestern power station were subjected to detailed analysis of their Hardgrove grindability. The coals are: a low-sulfur, high volatile A bituminous Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal (Pike County, KY); a medium-sulfur, high volatile A bituminous Pittsburgh coal (southwestern PA); a low-sulfur, subbituminous Wyodak coal from two mines in the eastern Powder River Basin (Campbell County, WY). The feed and all samples processed in the Hardgrove grindability test procedure were analyzed for their maceral and microlithotype content. The high-vitrinite Pittsburgh coal and the relatively more petrographically complex Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal exhibit differing behavior in grindability. The Pittsburgh raw feed, 16x30 mesh fraction (HGI test fraction), and the {minus}30 mesh fraction (HGI reject) are relatively similar petrographically, suggesting that the HGI test fraction is reasonably representative of the whole feed. The eastern Kentucky coal is not as representative of the whole feed, the HGI test fraction having lower vitrinite than the rejected {minus}30 mesh fraction. The Powder River Basin coals are high vitrinite and show behavior similar to the Pittsburgh coal.

  11. EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

  12. Application of Kernel Principal Component Analysis for Single Lead ECG-Derived Respiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    signal from ECGs. In this study, an improved ECG-derived respiration (EDR) algorithm based on kernel PCA function (RBF) kernel performs the best when deriving EDR signals. Further improvement is carried outPCA is assessed by comparing the EDR signals to a reference respiratory signal, using the correlation

  13. Optimal Blending Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, S.P.

    2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a functional program developed for product blending. The program is installed at a Savannah River Plant production site on their VAX computer. A wide range of blending choices is available. The program can be easily changed or expanded. The technology can be applied at other areas where mixing or blending is done.

  14. An improved ECG-Derived Respiration Method using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) of heart beats generates well-performing ECG- derived respiratory signals (EDR). This study aims at im- proving the performance of EDR signals using kernel PCA (kPCA). Kernel PCA is a generalization of PCA and kPCA is eval- uated by comparing the EDR signals to the reference res- piratory signal. Correlation

  15. Fuel blending with PRB coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr. [Roberts and Schaefer, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

  16. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications.

  17. Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heavin, Leonard J. (Olympia, WA); King, Edward E. (Gig Harbor, WA); Milliron, Dennis L. (Lacey, WA)

    1982-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

  18. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Commercial power plant tests blend of refuse-derived fuel and coal to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MSW can be converted to energy in two ways. One involves the direct burning of MSW to produce steam and electricity. The second converts MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) by reducing the size of the MSW and separating metals, glass, and other inorganic materials. RDF can be densified or mixed with binders to form fuel pellets. As part of a program sponsored by DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory participated in a cooperative research and development agreement to examine combustion of binder-enhanced, densified refuse-derived fuel (b-d RDF) pellets with coal. Pelletized b-d RDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of less than 3% in large utility systems. The DOE project involved the use of b-d RDF in quantities up to 20%. A major goal was to quantify the pollutants released during combustion and measure combustion performance.

  19. Impact of Biodiesel on Fuel System Component Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, B.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the effects of biodiesel blends on fuel system components and the physical characteristics of elastomer materials.

  20. Conjugated-Polymer Blends for Optoelectronics By Christopher R. McNeill* and Neil C. Greenham*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Conjugated-Polymer Blends for Optoelectronics By Christopher R. McNeill* and Neil C. Greenham* 1. Introduction Blending of polymers has long been established as a technique to tune their physical properties the microstructure of the blend has new properties not present in either component. In the field of polymer

  1. Stocks of Motor Gasoline Blending Components

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights 2008DeutscheState470,6036,190

  2. HIGH-TEMPERATURE STEAM-TREATMENT OF PEEK, PEKK, PBI, AND THEIR BLENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    1 HIGH-TEMPERATURE STEAM-TREATMENT OF PEEK, PEKK, PBI, AND THEIR BLENDS: A SOLID-STATE NMR AND IR and their pure components after treating them with liquid water and steam at elevated temperatures and pressures. The pure polymer components and the PAEK-PBI (50 : 50 wt%) blends are steam-treated at 150 °C (302 °F

  3. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT MISSION ANALYSIS WASTE BLENDING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHUFORD DH; STEGEN G

    2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary evaluation for blending Hanford site waste with the objective of minimizing the amount of high-level waste (HLW) glass volumes without major changes to the overall waste retrieval and processing sequences currently planned. The evaluation utilizes simplified spreadsheet models developed to allow screening type comparisons of blending options without the need to use the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model. The blending scenarios evaluated are expected to increase tank farm operation costs due to increased waste transfers. Benefit would be derived from shorter operating time period for tank waste processing facilities, reduced onsite storage of immobilized HLW, and reduced offsite transportation and disposal costs for the immobilized HLW.

  4. DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends Aaron Williams, Bob McCormick, Bob Hayes, John Ireland National Renewable Energy Laboratory Howard L. Fang Cummins, Inc. Diesel Engine...

  5. Ethanol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1, 13 DE@EnergyErnestEthanol-Blended Fuels A Study

  6. Effect of Organoclay on Compatibilization, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polycarbonate/Polystyrene Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, A K

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pristine and organoclay modified polycarbonate/polystyrene (PC/PS) blends are prepared using melt-mixing technique. These blends are characterized for their morphology, structural, thermal and mechanical properties. Though our FTIR and XRD results show weak interactions between PC and PS phases, however, DSC and morphological study reveals that pristine PC/PS blends are immiscible. On other hand, introduction of organoclay results compatibilization of two polymer phases which is supported by significant shift in glass transition temperatures of the component phases and a distinct morphology having no phase segregation on sub-micron scale. Intercalation of polymers inside the clay gallery is achieved and is supported by XRD studies. A better thermal stability and higher value of modulus of the compatibilized blends compared to pristine PC/PS blends also support the reinforcement effect of organoclay to the PC/PS blend matrix.

  7. BLENDED AND ONLINE LEARNING IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Randy

    ) "Flipped classroom" - focus on active learning and enhanced student engagement in the classroom #12;First dissatisfied with student learning experience #12;Blended Learning Initiative Large, first-year courses student engagement improve student learning outcomes improve knowledge retention #12;Framework for Blended

  8. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  9. Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This Blend Plan documents the feed material items that are stored in 2736-2 vaults, the 2736-ZB 638 cage, the 192C vault, and the 225 vault that will be processed through the thermal stabilization furnaces. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all water and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI) or percent water. The stabilized material must meet water content or LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the water or LOI limits are met.

  10. Evaluation of bitumen by realization of bitumen/polymer blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cogneau, P.; Goosse, S. [Parc Industriel, Perwez (Belgium)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, if we want to guarantee the durability of bitumen/polymer blends and membranes, characterization of bitumen by penetration hardness and softening point is not enough. Bitumen which is a {open_quotes}residue{close_quotes} of distillation is a poor relation of the petrochemistry. It will tend to become more so in view of the more sophisticated treatment units of the heavy components coming from refining. This paper will present the correlation existing between generic composition of bitumen and the characteristics of the bitumen/polymers (atatic polypropylene) blends. The generic composition of the bitumen is determined by thin layer chromatography associated with a detection flame ionization (Iatroscan method). More than 20 bitumens of different origins have been studied. The quality of the blends done with an EPP batch for each of these bitumens is acquired by using determination trials of viscosity, cold bending (new state and after aging), segregation, and morphological analyses.

  11. Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

  12. Numerical Model Investigation for Potential Methane Explosion and Benzene Vapor Intrusion Associated with High-Ethanol Blend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    ABSTRACT: Ethanol-blended fuel releases usually stimulate methanogenesis in the subsurface, which could conditions exist. Ethanol- derived methane may also increase the vapor intrusion potential of toxic fuel to be modified when dealing with some high ethanol blend fuel (i.e., E20 up to E95) releases. INTRODUCTION

  13. Polycarbonate blends having an improved impact strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, S.; Lazear, N.R.

    1984-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoplastic molding compositions characterized by their improved impact performance and deformation under load are disclosed comprising a homogeneous, intimate blend of a polycarbonate resin and a nuclear alkylated polycarbonate resin wherein blend dispersed is a polymeric modifier.

  14. Intrinsically safe moisture blending system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: blending feedstock varieties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Transportation Energy Winemakers have long known that blending different grape varietals can favorably...

  16. The association of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components of the F3 derived F4 progeny of two upland cotton populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basal, Huseyin

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the negative correlation between lint yield components and fiber quality parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components within two diverse populations of F3:4 lines. Fiber quality...

  17. Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels ? Implementation Perspectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives William Woebkenberg - US Fuels Technical and Regulatory Affairs Mercedes-Benz Research & Development North America July 25, 2013...

  18. Local and regional components of aerosol in a heavily trafficked street canyon in central London derived from PMF and cluster analysis of single particle ATOFMS spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giorio, Chiara; Tapparo, Andrea; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C.S.; Esser-Gietl, Johanna; Healy, Robert M; Harrison, Roy Michael

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    components (i.e., lubricating oils, fresh elemental carbon, organonitrogen and aromatic compounds), secondary aerosol locally produced (i.e., nitrate, oxidized organic aerosol and oxidized organonitrogen compounds), urban background together with regional...

  19. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

  20. CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior Presentation given by Jay...

  1. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  2. Sandia Energy - Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks Home Renewable Energy Energy Transportation Energy Biofuels...

  3. Comparison of Simulated and Experimental Combustion of Biodiesel Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of biodiesel content on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine performance has been investigated both experimentally and by computer simulation. Combustion experiments were performed in a single cylinder HCCI engine using blends of soy biodiesel in ultra low sulfur diesel, with concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 vol% and equivalence ratios ( ) from 0.38 to 0.48. Data from the engine tests included combustion analysis and exhaust composition analysis with standard gaseous emissions equipment. The engine utilized a custom port fuel injection strategy to provide highly premixed charges of fuel and air, making it possible to compare the results with single zone chemical kinetics simulations that were performed using CHEMKIN III, with a reaction set including 670 species and over 3000 reactions. The reaction mechanism incorporated equations for the combustion of a paraffinic fuel, n-heptane, and an oxygenated component, methyl butanoate, as well as reactions for the formation of NOx. The zero-dimensional model did a reasonably good job of predicting the HCCI combustion event, correctly predicting intake temperature effects on the phasing of both low temperature heat release (LTHR) and the main combustion event. It also did a good job of predicting the magnitude of LTHR. Differences between the simulation and experimental data included the dependence on biodiesel concentration and the duration of both LTHR and the main combustion event. The probable reasons for these differences are the changing derived cetane number (DCN) of the model fuel blend with biodiesel concentration, and the inability of the model to account for stratification of temperature and . The simulation also showed that concentrations of intermediate species produced during LTHR are dependent on the magnitude of LTHR, but otherwise the addition of biodiesel has no discernable effect.

  4. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  5. Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Siclovan, Oltea Puica (Rexford, NY); Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar (Bangalore, IN); Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao (Bangalore, IN); Porob, Digamber G. (Goa, IN); Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi (Bangalore, IN); Heward, William Jordan (Saratoga Springs, NY); Radkov, Emil Vergilov (Euclid, OH); Briel, Linda Jane Valyou (Niskayuna, NY)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

  6. Thermal characterization of polymer blends prepared by reactive blending of PC and PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiorini, M.; Marchese, P. [Univ. of Bologna (Italy); Pilati, F. [Univ. of Modena (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-Bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC/PET) blends were prepared by reactive blending poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Bisphenol A polycarbonate in a batch mixer in the presence of ester exchange catalysts with different catalytic activity, such as Titanium, Terbium, Cerium, Samarium, Europium and Calcium/Antimony compounds. The catalytic activity and mixing time have been correlated with the extent of ester-carbonate exchange reactions and hence the influence of the PET/PC block copolymers formed during the blending on miscibility has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the thermal characterization showed that blends with a single glass transition temperature can be prepared at different mixing time determined by the ester-carbonate exchange reaction activity of the different catalysts employed. In addition, the Tg`s values for the miscible blends were lower than those predicted by the widely used Flory-Fox equation, except from the blends prepared with the Titanium catalyst. Crystallization of PET in PC/PET blends was also investigated. Thermal analysis is a powerful technique that can be applied to the determination of miscibility in polymer blends. In this communication, the results of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study on blends prepared by reactive blending PC and PET are reported.

  7. Two glass transitions in miscible polymer blends?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Douglas, Jack F. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to mixtures of two small molecule fluids, miscible binary polymer blends often exhibit two structural relaxation times and two glass transition temperatures. Qualitative explanations postulate phenomenological models of local concentration enhancements due to chain connectivity in ideal, fully miscible systems. We develop a quantitative theory that explains qualitative trends in the dynamics of real miscible polymer blends which are never ideal mixtures. The theory is a synthesis of the lattice cluster theory of blend thermodynamics, the generalized entropy theory for glass-formation in polymer materials, and the Kirkwood-Buff theory for concentration fluctuations in binary mixtures.

  8. A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauls, R. E. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

  9. Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pernenkil, Lakshman

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

  10. Imaginative play with blended reality characters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert, David Yann

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea and formative design of a blended reality character, a new class of character able to maintain visual and kinetic continuity between the fully physical and fully virtual; the technical underpinnings of its unique ...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

  12. Carnegie Mellon Multiperiod Blend Scheduling Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Department of Chemical Engineering Center for Advanced Process Decision-making Carnegie Mellon University frequently in the petrochemical industry. -Large cost savings can be achieved if the correct blending

  13. Exciting careers blending engineering, science, and ecology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Exciting careers blending engineering, science, and ecology New Opportunities Making the world://bee.oregonstate.edu/ecoe Ecological Engineering is: · Ecosystem restoration and habitat design at multiple scales · Watershed · Phytoremediation and bioremediation · Industrial ecology · Constructed wetlands and tidal marshlands · Mitigation

  14. Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against the corporation income tax imposed under KRS 141.040 and/or the limited liability entity tax (LLET) imposed under KRS...

  15. Viscoelastic properties of bidisperse homopolymer blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juliani

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF BIDISPKRSE HOMOPOLYMER BLENDS A Thesis by JULIANI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2000... Major Subject. Chemical Engineering VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF BIDISPERSE HOMOPOLYMER BLENDS A Thesis by JULIANI Submitted to Texas A&M University m partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style...

  16. Study of Performance Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel, Yellow Grease Biodiesel and its Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virender Singh; Shubham Saxena; Shibayan Ghosh; Ankit Agrawal

    Abstract — The feedstock used in our experiment for the production of biodiesel was Yellow Grease. The whole experiment was divided into two parts: Production and Testing. Production involves Transesterification of free fatty acids in yellow grease to form yellow grease alkyl esters. The process of testing involved calculation of the physio – chemical properties, acid value, density, kinematics viscosity and various performance characteristics. The properties obtained were similar to the standards of biodiesel set by ASTM D6751. The conclusions derived from the experiments conducted were that the break thermal efficiency with biodiesel blends was little lower than that of diesel. The break specific energy consumption for B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 is slightly higher than neat diesel. At all loads, diesel was found to have the lowet exhaust tempearture and the temperature for the different blends showed the upward trend with increasing concentration of biodiesel in the blends.

  17. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office�¢����s (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost�¢���effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally�¢���friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  18. Concentration fluctuations in miscible polymer blends: Influence of temperature and chain rigidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Douglas, Jack F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States) [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to binary mixtures of small molecule fluids, homogeneous polymer blends exhibit relatively large concentration fluctuations that can strongly affect the transport properties of these complex fluids over wide ranges of temperatures and compositions. The spatial scale and intensity of these compositional fluctuations are studied by applying Kirkwood-Buff theory to model blends of linear semiflexible polymer chains with upper critical solution temperatures. The requisite quantities for determining the Kirkwood-Buff integrals are generated from the lattice cluster theory for the thermodynamics of the blend and from the generalization of the random phase approximation to compressible polymer mixtures. We explore how the scale and intensity of composition fluctuations in binary blends vary with the reduced temperature ? ? (T ? T{sub c})/T (where T{sub c} is the critical temperature) and with the asymmetry in the rigidities of the components. Knowledge of these variations is crucial for understanding the dynamics of materials fabricated from polymer blends, and evidence supporting these expectations is briefly discussed.

  19. INVESTIGATION ON THE FLAME EXTINCTION LIMIT OF FUEL BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean flame extinction limits of binary fuel mixtures of methane (CH{sub 4}), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were measured using a twin-flame counter-flow burner. Experiments were conducted to generate an extinction equivalence ratio vs. global stretch rate plot and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the equivalence ratio corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The foregoing gases were selected because they are the primary constitutes of natural gas, which is the primary focus of the present study. To validate the experimental setup and methodology, the flame extinction limit of pure fuels at zero stretch conditions were also estimated and compared with published values. The lean flame extinction limits of methane (f{sub ext} = 4.6%) and propane (f{sub ext} = 2.25%) flames measured in the present study agreed with the values reported in the literature. It was observed that the flame extinction limit of fuel blends have a polynomial relation with the concentration of component fuels in the mixture. This behavior contradicts with the commonly used linear Le Chatelier's approximation. The experimentally determined polynomial relations between the flame extinction limits of fuel blends (i.e. methane-propane and methane-ethane) and methane concentration are as follows: (1) Methane-Propane--%f{sub ext} = (1.05 x 10{sup -9}) f{sup 5}-(1.3644 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(6.40299 x 10{sup -6}) f{sup 3}-(1.2108459 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2}+(2.87305329 x 10{sup -3}) f+2.2483; (2) Methane-Ethane--%f{sub ext} = (2.1 x 10{sup -9})f{sup 5}-(3.5752 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(2.095425 x 10{sup -5}) f{sup 3}-(5.037353 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2} + 6.08980409 f + 2.8923. Where f{sub ext} is the extinction limits of methane-propane and methane-ethane fuel blends, and f is the concentration (% volume) of methane in the fuel mixture. The relations were obtained by fitting fifth order curve (polynomial regression) to experimentally measured extinction limits at different mixture conditions. To extend the study to a commercial fuel, the flame extinction limit for Birmingham natural gas (a blend of 95% methane, 5% ethane and 5% nitrogen) was experimentally determined and was found to be 3.62% fuel in the air-fuel mixture.

  20. Isotopic Tracing of Fuel Carbon in the Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchholz, B A; Cheng, A S; Dibble, R W

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental tests were conducted on a Cummins 85.9 direct-injected diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. 20% and 50% blend levels were tested, as was 100% (neat) biodiesel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), hydrocarbons (HC) and CO were measured under steady-state operating conditions. The effect of biodiesel on PM emissions was mixed; however, the contribution of the volatile organic fraction to total PM was greater for the higher biodiesel blend levels. When only non-volatile PM mass was considered, reductions were observed for the biodiesel blends as well as for neat biodiesel. The biodiesel test fuels increased NO{sub x}, while HC and CO emissions were reduced. PM collected on quartz filters during the experimental runs were analyzed for carbon-14 content using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMs). These measurements revealed that carbon from the biodiesel portion of the blended fuel was marginally less likely to contribute to PM, compared to the carbon from the diesel portion of the fuel. The results are different than those obtained in previous tests with the oxygenate ethanol, which was observed to be far less likely contribute to PM than the diesel component of the blended fuel. The data suggests that chemical structure of the oxygen- carbon bonds in an oxygenate affects the PM formation process.

  1. Development of By-Pass Blending Station System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Barnes, D.; Bunz, K.; Rosenberry, N.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new building blending station system named by-pass blending station (BBS) has been developed to reduce building pump energy consumption in both district heating and cooling systems. Theoretical investigation demonstrated that the BBS can...

  2. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues The United States has 11...

  3. Exploration of parameters for the continuous blending of pharmaceutical powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Ben Chien Pang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition from traditional batch blending to continuous blending is an opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry to reduce costs and improve quality control. This operational shift necessitates a deeper understanding ...

  4. Blended Shelf: Reality-based Presentation and Exploration of Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    Blended library; shelf browsing; digital library ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2. [InformationBlended Shelf: Reality-based Presentation and Exploration of Library Collections Abstract We location of the library. Blended Shelf offers a 3D visualization of library collections

  5. Ashing properties of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, D.L.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fusion properties of sulfur materials present in coals were investigated. The treatment of the samples of eleven different coals is described. Thermal treatment of low temperature ashing (LTA) concentrates of eight of the coals was performed, and raw and wash ashing curves were examined to determine what quantitative correlations, if any, exist between ashing parameters and rank of coal. The actual form of the function which describes the ashing curve is derived.

  6. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

  7. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than is the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This report provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate blending option to produce oxide for disposal. This the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) alternative will have two missions (1) convert HEU materials into HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend the HEU uranyl nitrate with depleted and natural assay uranyl nitrate to produce an oxide that can be stored until an acceptable disposal approach is available. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  8. SOFA Component Revision Identification 1 Premysl Brada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOFA Component Revision Identification 1 Premysl Brada Department of Computer Science versions, component revision numbers and change indications are derived as a well- founded version called "component revisions" and the basic fine-grained "type revisions", can subsequently be used

  9. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  10. The Blend Down Monitoring System Demonstration at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, J.; Close, D.; Johnson, W., Jr.; Kerr, P.; March-Leuba, J.; Mastal, E.; Moss, C.; Powell, D.; Sumner, J.; Uckan, T.; Vines, R.; Wright, P.D.

    1999-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Agreements between the governments of the US and the Russian Federation for the US purchase of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons calls for the establishment of transparency measures to provide confidence that nuclear nonproliferation goals are being met. To meet these transparency goals, the agreements call for the installation of nonintrusive US instruments to monitor the down blending of HEU to LEU. The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) has been jointly developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continuously monitor {sup 235}U enrichments and mass flow rates at Russian blending facilities. Prior to its installation in Russian facilities, the BDMS was installed and operated in a UF{sub 6} flow loop in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant simulating flow and enrichment conditions expected in a typical down-blending facility. A Russian delegation to the US witnessed the equipment demonstration in June, 1998. To conduct the demonstration in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the BDMS was required to meet stringent Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing, safety and operational requirements. The Paducah demonstration was an important milestone in achieving the operational certification for the BDMS use in Russian facilities.

  11. Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, S. [SS Energy Environmental International, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States); Scaroni, A.; Miller, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through -200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc.

  12. Mode-of-Action of Self-Extinguishing Polymer Blends Containing Organoclays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pack, S.; Si, M; Koo, J; Sokolov, J; Koga, T; Kashiwagi, T; Rafailovich, M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have shown that the addition of nanoclays is an effective means for enhancing the flame retardant properties of polymer blends. Polymer blends are difficult to render flame retardant even with the addition of flame retardant agents due to dispersion and phase segregation during the heating process. We show that the addition of 5% functionalized Cloisite 20A clays in combination with 15% decabromodiphenyl ether and 4% antimony trioxide to a polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) blend can render the compound flame resistant within the UL-94-V0 standard. Using a variety of micro-characterization methods, we show that the clays are concentrated at the interfaces between the polymers in this blend and completely suppress phase segregation. The flame retardant (FR) is absorbed onto the clay surfaces, and the exfoliation of the clays also distributes the FR agent uniformly within the matrix. TGA of the nanocomposite indicates that prior to the addition of clay, the dissociation times of the individual components varied by more than 20 C, which complicated the gas-phase kinetics. Addition of the clays causes all the components to have a single dissociation temperature, which enhanced the efficacy of the FR formula in the gas phase. Cone calorimetry also indicated that the clays decreased the heat release rate (HRR) and the mass loss rate (MLR), due to the formation of a robust char. In contrast, minimal charring occurred in blends containing just the FR. SEM examination of the chars showed that the clay platelets were curved and in some cases tightly folded into nanotube-like structures. These features were only apparent in blends, indicating that they might be associated with thermal gradients across the polymer phase interface. SEM and SAXS examinations of the nanocomposites after partial exposure to the flame indicated that the clays aggregated into ribbon-like structures, approximately microns in length, after the surfactant thermally decomposed. Thermal modeling indicated that these ribbons might partially explain the synergy due to better distribution of the heat and improve the mechanical properties of the melt at high temperatures, in a manner similar to the one reported for carbon nanotubes.

  13. Feedstock blending studies with laboratory indirectly heated gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, A.E.S.; Mullin, J.P.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the further development of indirectly heated gasifiers intended to provide fuels for advanced gas turbines, several indirectly heated laboratory gasifiers were constructed. During many comparative tests, advantages and problems with each system were observed. The most useful systems make use of laboratory tube furnaces in conjunction with temperature, time and pressure or volume yield measuring systems and a gas chromatograph with a thermal conductivity detector. In this paper, high temperature pyrolysis results obtained with the latest system are presented. Contrasting feedstocks suitable for commercial systems separately or in blends are used. Yield versus time measurements are used to determine relevant rate constants and outputs. Since the rate constants are mainly reflective of heat transfer effects, cylindrical dowel sticks of varying radii were volatilized. The data set leads to an analytic heat transfer model that considers the hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin components of the dowels. Also developed from the dowel experiments is an approximate procedure for estimating the proportionate releases of CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} for any type of biomass whose component proportions are known.

  14. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    117 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated February 2009 Prepared by Keith Knoll Brian West Wendy Clark...

  15. Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends Accurately measure exhaust profile from an HCCI engine with a variety of fuels and create a better understanding of HCCI...

  16. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  17. Interface modification in an immiscible rod-coil polymer blend using functionalized copolymers and polyelectrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passinault, Robbie J

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -polymer specific interactions on interfacial properties and mechanical performance of the blend. Specifi cally, in uncompatibilized blends, the effect of vectra concentration and domain size on shear modulus is studied. While, in blends compatibilized with small...

  18. Purification Testing for HEU Blend Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, M.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Pierce, R.A.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is working to dispose of the inventory of enriched uranium (EU) formerly used to make fuel for production reactors. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has agreed to take the material after blending the EU with either natural or depleted uranium to give a {sup 235}U concentration of 4.8 percent low-enriched uranium will be fabricated by a vendor into reactor fuel for use in TVA reactors. SRS prefers to blend the EU with existing depleted uranium (DU) solutions, however, the impurity concentrations in the DU and EU are so high that the blended material may not meet specifications agreed to with TVA. The principal non-radioactive impurities of concern are carbon, iron, phosphorus and sulfur. Neptunium and plutonium contamination levels are about 40 times greater than the desired specification. Tests of solvent extraction and fuel preparation with solutions of SRS uranium demonstrate that the UO{sub 2} prepared from these solutions will meet specifications for Fe, P and S, but may not meet the specifications for carbon. The reasons for carbon remaining in the oxide at such high levels is not fully understood, but may be overcome either by treatment of the solutions with activated carbon or heating the UO{sub 3} in air for a longer time during the calcination step of fuel preparation.Calculations of the expected removal of Np and Pu from the solutions show that the specification cannot be met with a single cycle of solvent extraction. The only way to ensure meeting the specification is dilution with natural U which contains no Np or Pu. Estimations of the decontamination from fission products and daughter products in the decay chains for the U isotopes show that the specification of 110 MEV Bq/g U can be met as long as the activities of the daughters of U- 235 and U-238 are excluded from the specification.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels Clean Cities ReflectsElectricityEthanol Blends to

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminate blend phosphate Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Sciences Collection: Physics 42 Formation of Biomimetic Porous Calcium Phosphate Coatings on Surfaces of PolyethyleneZinc Stearate Blends Summary: -zinc stearate blends...

  1. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization...

  2. Anomalous Phase Inversion in Polymer Blends Prepared by Cryogenic Mechanical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , as well as interpenetrating and bicontinu- ous networks.7,8 Phase inversion occurs when the mi- norityAnomalous Phase Inversion in Polymer Blends Prepared by Cryogenic Mechanical Alloying Archie P strategies for producing highly dis- persed multicomponent polymer blends. By their very nature

  3. CASIMIR EFFECT IN CROSSLINKED POLYMER BLENDS M. Benhamou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -potential. I. INTRODUCTION Interpenetrated polymer networks (IPNs) or crosslinked polymer blends constitute new interpenetrating networks used as electronic device encapsulants [3]. For certain practical realizations, the IPNsCASIMIR EFFECT IN CROSSLINKED POLYMER BLENDS M. Benhamou , M. Boughou, H. Ka¨idi M. El Yaznasni, H

  4. Achieving High Chilled Water Delta T Without Blending Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Wang, G.; Xu, K.; Yu, Y.; Liu, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the blending station performance. The results show that the blending station is not necessary in the building chilled water systems with 2-way modulation valves at end users. Actually the end user valve configuration and control mainly impacts building chilled...

  5. Calcination of calcium carbonate and blend therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallow, William A. (Helotes, TX); Dziuk, Jr., Jerome J. (San Antonio, TX)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for calcination of a calcium carbonate material comprising heating the calcium carbonate material to a temperature and for a time sufficient to calcine the material to the degree desired while in the presence of a catalyst; said catalyst comprising at least one fused salt having the formula MCO.sub.3.CaCO.sub.3.CaO.H.sub.2 O.sub.x, wherein M is an alkali metal and x is 0 to 1 and formed by fusing MCO.sub.3 and CaCO.sub.3 in a molar ratio of about 1:2 to 2:1, and a blend adapted to be heated to CaO comprising a calcium carbonate material and at least one such fused salt.

  6. Phosphor blends for high-CRI fluorescent lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Manivannan, Venkatesan (Clifton Park, NY); Beers, William Winder (Chesterland, OH); Toth, Katalin (Pomaz, HU); Balazs, Laszlo D. (Budapest, HU)

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A phosphor blend comprises at least two phosphors each selected from one of the groups of phosphors that absorb UV electromagnetic radiation and emit in a region of visible light. The phosphor blend can be applied to a discharge gas radiation source to produce light sources having high color rendering index. A phosphor blend is advantageously includes the phosphor (Tb,Y,LuLa,Gd).sub.x(Al,Ga).sub.yO.sub.12:Ce.sup.3+, wherein x is in the range from about 2.8 to and including 3 and y is in the range from about 4 to and including 5.

  7. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  8. NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

  9. NMOG Emissions Characterizations and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

  10. Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

  11. Time phased alternate blending of feed coals for liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweigharett, Frank (Allentown, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Garg, Diwaker (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for reducing process performance excursions during feed coal or process solvent changeover in a coal hydroliquefaction process by blending of feedstocks or solvents over time. ,

  12. Photonic polymer-blend structures and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, Michael D.

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises the formation of photonic polymer-blend structures having tunable optical and mechanical properties. The photonic polymer-blend structures comprise monomer units of spherical microparticles of a polymer-blend material wherein the spherical microparticles have surfaces partially merged with one another in a robust inter-particle bond having a tunable inter-particle separation or bond length sequentially attached in a desired and programmable architecture. The photonic polymer-blend structures of the present invention can be linked by several hundred individual particles sequentially linked to form complex three-dimensional structures or highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of 3D columns with 2D spacing.

  13. Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review May 10, 2011 Neeraj Shidore (PI) - Vehicle...

  14. ash blended cement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass blends Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: , low ash partially composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC)...

  15. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Bob McCormick (PI) With Teresa Alleman, Wendy Clark, Lisa Fouts, John Ireland, Mike Lammert, Jon Luecke, Dan Pedersen, Ken Proc, Matt Ratcliff, Matt...

  16. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic...

  17. Disease resistance and performance of blended populations of creepi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abernathy, Scott David

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . Materials and Methods. . Results and Discussion. Conclusions. . . . 41 . . 41 . . 42 . . 45 . 74 SUMMARY REFERENCES. . 80 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Dollar spot progression in January, 1998 on single cultivar treatments. Page 32 Figure 2.... Dollar spot progression in January 1998 on Crenshaw, L-93 and Crenshaw / L-93 blended treatments. 33 Figure 3. Dollar spot progression in January, 1998 on Crenshaw, A-4 and Crenshaw / A-4 blended treatments. 34 Figure 4. Dollar spot progression...

  18. Evolution of crystalline structures of poly([epsilon]-caprolactone)/polycarbonate blends; 1: Isothermal crystallization kinetics as probed by synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Y.W.; Stein, R.S. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering); Chu, B.; Wu, G. (State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Long Island, NY (United States))

    1994-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Evolution of the poly([epsilon]-caprolactone) (PCL) lamellae in blends of PCL/PC (polycarbonate) was monitored by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The effects of crystallization temperature, PC concentration, and PC crystallinity on the PCL lamellar growth in the PCL-rich blends were investigated. The half-crystallization time derived from the temporal change of the peak intensity increased with crystallization temperature and generally increased with the addition of PC. For a given blend composition, the lamellar growth rate increased with increasing PC crystallinity. The interlamellar spacing initially varied with time and then approached a plateau value at the later stage of crystallization. An insertion mechanism is proposed in which the PCL is crystallized in the amorphous intralamellar phase. This model is also consistent with the quantitative SAXS results, which suggested that random mixing of PCL and PC lamellae occurred in the semicrystalline (PCL)/semicrystalline (PC) state.

  19. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  20. Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Photo-response of a P3HT:PCBM blend in metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devynck, M.; Rostirolla, B.; Watson, C. P.; Taylor, D. M., E-mail: d.m.taylor@bangor.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are investigated, in which the insulator is cross-linked polyvinylphenol and the active layer a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and the electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Admittance spectra and capacitance-voltage measurements obtained in the dark both display similar behaviour to those previously observed in P3HT-only devices. However, the photo-capacitance response is significantly enhanced in the P3HT:PCBM case, where exciton dissociation leads to electron transfer into the PCBM component. The results are consistent with a network of PCBM aggregates that is continuous through the film but with no lateral interconnection between the aggregates at or near the blend/insulator interface.

  2. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  3. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  4. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  5. Exploiting Photo-induced Reactions in Polymer Blends to Create Hierarchically Ordered, Defect-free Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balazs, Anna (U of Pittsburgh) [U of Pittsburgh

    2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer simulations reveal how photo-induced chemical reactions can be exploited to create long-range order in binary and ternary polymeric materials. The process is initiated by shining a spatially uniform light over a photosensitive AB binary blend, which undergoes both a reversible chemical reaction and phase separation. We then introduce a well-collimated, higher-intensity light source. Rastering this secondary light over the sample locally increases the reaction rate and causes formation of defect-free, spatially periodic structures. These binary structures resemble either the lamellar or hexagonal phases of microphase-separated di-block copolymers. We measure the regularity of the ordered structures as a function of the relative reaction rates for different values of the rastering speed and determine the optimal conditions for creating defect-free structures in the binary systems. We then add a non-reactive homo-polymer C, which is immiscible with both A and B. We show that this component migrates to regions that are illuminated by the secondary, higher-intensity light, allowing us to effectively write a pattern of C onto the AB film. Rastering over the ternary blend with this collimated light now leads to hierarchically ordered patterns of A, B, and C. The findings point to a facile, non-intrusive process for manufacturing high-quality polymeric devices in a low-cost, efficient manner.

  6. Blended learning through the eyes of Malagasy students Hoby ANDRIANIRINA Anne-Laure FOUCHER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Clermont-Ferrand, France Keywords: blended learning ; experience of students ; didactics French in a blended learning environment. This is part of a wider action research study in the Didactics of Languages

  7. Theoretical and experimental investigation of particle interactions in pharmaceutical powder blending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pu, Yu, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In pharmaceutical manufacturing practices, blending of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with excipients is a crucial step in that homogeneity of active ingredient after blending is a key issue for the quality assurance ...

  8. BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends in Small Engines BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends in Small Engines June 22,...

  9. Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Solid State Blending of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) with Polystyrene: Extent of PET Amorphization and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Brian S.

    Solid State Blending of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) with Polystyrene: Extent of PET Amorphization.interscience.wiley.com). ABSTRACT: Polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were blended to- gether in the solid. CMA PS/PET blend morphologies were characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively through

  11. Designing Polymer Blends Using Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, and Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potter, Don

    1 Designing Polymer Blends Using Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, and Markov Chains N. K. Roy1 potential candidates for blending using Neural Networks. Generally the parent polymers of the blend need systems like branched polymers, high molecular weight polymer mixtures, block copolymers, interpenetrating

  12. ccsd00000932 Electronic structure of wurtzite and zinc-blende AlN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ccsd­00000932 (version 1) : 10 Dec 2003 Electronic structure of wurtzite and zinc-blende AlN P. (December 10, 2003) Abstract The electronic structure of AlN in wurtzite and zinc-blende phases is studied in the calculations. Di#11;erences 1 #12; between the wurtzite and zinc-blende phases are small and re ect the slight

  13. Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

  14. Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we- ration, air-to-fuel ratio control, gasoline-ethanol blend, flex-fuel vehicles I. INTRODUCTION Currently

  15. HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU UNH for commercial use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form that is more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UNH blending HEU disposition option. Process requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste/emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

  16. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  17. Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobasher, Barzin

    Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials Barzin Mobasher1. A simplified model is presented which used cement chemistry, concrete physics, and mechanics to develop of hardened concrete, principally the cement paste, caused by exposure of concrete to sulfates and moisture

  18. NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labbe, D.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Evaluation of polyethylene-modified asphalt blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Consuegra Granger, Fernando

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aggregate and asphalt modified with LDPE (binder contents of 4. 8%%u and 5. 87'). 42 Table 9. Summary of statistical parameters derived from IDT testing on crushed granite mixtures bound with AC-20 + LDPE (4. 8%, and 5. 8/ binder). 46 Table 10. Summary... of creep to rupture data for crushed granite mixtures. 71 Table 11. Summary of the results of IDT repeated load fatigue testing of river gravel mixtures bound with Texaco asphalt: AC- 10, AC-10 + LDPE and AC-20. Table 12. K, ' and n, values of river...

  20. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  1. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Oxide blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for commercial use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the oxide blending HEU disposition option. This option provides for a yearly HEU throughput of 1 0 metric tons (MT) of uranium metal with an average U235 assay of 50% blended with 165 MT of natural assay triuranium octoxide (U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) per year to produce 177 MT of 4% U235 assay U{sub 3} O{sub 8}, for LWR fuel. Since HEU exists in a variety of forms and not necessarily in the form to be blended, worst case scenarios for preprocessing prior to blending will be assumed for HEU feed streams.

  2. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  3. Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 ?m diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 ?m in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations; Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction; Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign; o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks; o Blends from the qualification tanks; Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation experience). As experience is ga

  4. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1 component prioritization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods for nuclear power plants utilize seismic ''fragilities'' - probabilities of failure conditioned on the severity of seismic input motion - that are based largely on limited test data and on engineering judgment. Under the NRC Component Fragility Research Program (CFRP), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed and demonstrated procedures for using test data to derive probabilistic fragility descriptions for mechanical and electrical components. As part of its CFRP activities, LLNL systematically identified and categorized components influencing plant safety in order to identify ''candidate'' components for future NRC testing. Plant systems relevant to safety were first identified; within each system components were then ranked according to their importance to overall system function and their anticipated seismic capacity. Highest priority for future testing was assigned to those ''very important'' components having ''low'' seismic capacity. This report describes the LLNL prioritization effort, which also included application of ''high-level'' qualification data as an alternate means of developing probabilistic fragility descriptions for PRA applications.

  5. Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

  6. Unconventional fuel: Tire derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hope, M.W. [Waste Recovery, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Material recovery of scrap tires for their fuel value has moved from a pioneering concept in the early 1980`s to a proven and continuous use in the United States` pulp and paper, utility, industrial, and cement industry. Pulp and paper`s use of tire derived fuel (TDF) is currently consuming tires at the rate of 35 million passenger tire equivalents (PTEs) per year. Twenty mills are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The utility industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 48 million PTEs per year. Thirteen utilities are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The cement industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 28 million PTEs per year. Twenty two cement plants are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. Other industrial boilers are currently consuming tires at the rate of 6.5 million PTEs per year. Four industrial boilers are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. In total, 59 facilities are currently burning over 117 million PTEs per year. Although 93% of these facilities were not engineered to burn TDF, it has become clear that TDF has found acceptance as a supplemental fuel when blending with conventional fuels in existing combustion devices designed for normal operating conditions. The issues of TDF as a supplemental fuel and its proper specifications are critical to the successful development of this fuel alternative. This paper will focus primarily on TDF`s use in a boiler type unit.

  7. Multi-scale analysis and simulation of powder blending in pharmaceutical manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngai, Samuel S. H

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Multi-Scale Analysis methodology was developed and carried out for gaining fundamental understanding of the pharmaceutical powder blending process. Through experiment, analysis and computer simulations, microscopic ...

  8. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    IMPACT OF LOW OCTANE HYDROCARBON BLENDING STREAMS ON "E85" ENGINE OPTIMIZATION Jim Szybist and Brian West Oak Ridge National Laboratory October 19, 2012 Acknowledgement This...

  9. BLENDING STUDY FOR SRR SALT DISPOSITION INTEGRATION: TANK 50H SCALE-MODELING AND COMPUTER-MODELING FOR BLENDING PUMP DESIGN, PHASE 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

    2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. Blending requires the miscible salt solutions from potentially multiple source tanks per batch to be well mixed without disturbing settled sludge solids that may be present in a Blend Tank. Disturbing solids may be problematic both from a feed quality perspective as well as from a process safety perspective where hydrogen release from the sludge is a potential flammability concern. To develop the necessary technical basis for the design and operation of blending equipment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) completed scaled blending and transfer pump tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A 94 inch diameter pilot-scale blending tank, including tank internals such as the blending pump, transfer pump, removable cooling coils, and center column, were used in this research. The test tank represents a 1/10.85 scaled version of an 85 foot diameter, Type IIIA, nuclear waste tank that may be typical of Blend Tanks used in SDI. Specifically, Tank 50 was selected as the tank to be modeled per the SRR, Project Engineering Manager. SRNL blending tests investigated various fixed position, non-rotating, dual nozzle pump designs, including a blending pump model provided by the blend pump vendor, Curtiss Wright (CW). Primary research goals were to assess blending times and to evaluate incipient sludge disturbance for waste tanks. Incipient sludge disturbance was defined by SRR and SRNL as minor blending of settled sludge from the tank bottom into suspension due to blending pump operation, where the sludge level was shown to remain constant. To experimentally model the sludge layer, a very thin, pourable, sludge simulant was conservatively used for all testing. To experimentally model the liquid, supernate layer above the sludge in waste tanks, two salt solution simulants were used, which provided a bounding range of supernate properties. One solution was water (H{sub 2}O + NaOH), and the other was an inhibited, more viscous salt solution. The research performed and data obtained significantly advances the understanding of fluid mechanics, mixing theory and CFD modeling for nuclear waste tanks by benchmarking CFD results to actual experimental data. This research significantly bridges the gap between previous CFD models and actual field experiences in real waste tanks. A finding of the 2009, DOE, Slurry Retrieval, Pipeline Transport and Plugging, and Mixing Workshop was that CFD models were inadequate to assess blending processes in nuclear waste tanks. One recommendation from that Workshop was that a validation, or bench marking program be performed for CFD modeling versus experiment. This research provided experimental data to validate and correct CFD models as they apply to mixing and blending in nuclear waste tanks. Extensive SDI research was a significant step toward bench marking and applying CFD modeling. This research showed that CFD models not only agreed with experiment, but demonstrated that the large variance in actual experimental data accounts for misunderstood discrepancies between CFD models and experiments. Having documented this finding, SRNL was able to provide correction factors to be used with CFD models to statistically bound full scale CFD results. Through the use of pilot scale tests performed for both types of pumps and available engineering literature, SRNL demonstrated how to effectively apply CFD results to salt batch mixing in full scale waste tanks. In other words, CFD models were in error prior to development of experimental correction factors determined during this research, which provided a technique to use CFD models fo

  10. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  11. Electrical Conductivity in Polymer Blends/ Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Ajit R.; Bose, Suryasarathi; Bhattacharyya, Arup R. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India)

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) based polymer composites have emerged as the future multifunctional materials in view of its exceptional mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. One of the major interests is to develop conductive polymer composites preferably at low concentration of CNT utilizing their high aspect ratio (L/D) for numerous applications, which include antistatic devices, capacitors and materials for EMI shielding. In this context, polymer blends have emerged as a potential candidate in lowering the percolation thresholds further by the utilization of 'double-percolation' which arises from the synergistic improvements in blend properties associated with the co-continuous morphology. Due to strong inter-tube van der Waals' forces, they often tend to aggregate and uniform dispersion remains a challenge. To overcome this challenge, we exploited sodium salt of 6-aminohexanoic acid (Na-AHA) which was able to assist in debundlling the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) through 'cation-{pi}' interactions during melt-mixing leading to percolative 'network-like' structure of MWNT within polyamide6 (PA6) phase in co-continuous PA6/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) blends. The composite exhibited low electrical percolation thresholds of 0.25 wt% of MWNT, the lowest reported value in this system so far. Retention of 'network-like structure' in the solid state with significant refinement was observed even at lower MWNT concentration in presence Na-AHA, which was assessed through AC electrical conductivity measurements. Reactive coupling was found to be a dominant factor besides 'cation-{pi}' interactions in achieving low electrical percolation in PA6/ABS+MWNT composites.

  12. Emissions mitigation of blended coals through systems optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Labbe [IOM Invensys Operations Management (United States)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For coal fired power stations, such as those located in the US, that have installed NOx and SOx emissions abatement equipment substantial carbon dioxide reduction could be achieved by shifting from pure PRB coal to blended coals with local bituminous coal. Don Labbe explains how. The article is based on a presentation at Power-Gen Asia 2009, which takes place 7-9 October in Bangkok, Thailand and an ISA POWID 2009 paper (19th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controlls and Instrumentation Conference, Chicago, Illinois, May 2009). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Hydrogen effects on materials for CNG/H2 blends.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farese, David (Air Products, USA); Keller, Jay O.; Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No concerns for Hydrogen-Enriched Compressed Natural gas (HCNG) in steel storage tanks if material strength is < 950 MPa. Recommend evaluating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in higher strength steels at H{sub 2} partial pressure in blend. Limited fatigue testing on higher strength steel cylinders in H{sub 2} shows promising results. Impurities in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (e.g., CO) may provide extrinsic mechanism for mitigating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in steel tanks.

  14. Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement of the National 93-4 AcquisitionO 231.1B ChgMicrosoft WordBlends

  15. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non?Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); West, Brian H [ORNL; Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Orban, John [Battelle, Columbus; Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In summer 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20--gasoline blended with 15 and 20% ethanol--on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This first report provides the results available to date from the first stages of a much larger overall test program. Results from additional projects that are currently underway or in the planning stages are not included in this first report. The purpose of this initial study was to quickly investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the following: (1) Regulated tailpipe emissions for 13 popular late model vehicles on a drive cycle similar to real-world driving and 28 small non-road engines (SNREs) under certification or typical in use procedures. (2) Exhaust and catalyst temperatures of the same vehicles under more severe conditions. (3) Temperature of key engine components of the same SNREs under certification or typical in-use conditions. (4) Observable operational issues with either the vehicles or SNREs during the course of testing. As discussed in the concluding section of this report, a wide range of additional studies are underway or planned to consider the effects of intermediate ethanol blends on materials, emissions, durability, and driveability of vehicles, as well as impacts on a wider range of nonautomotive engines, including marine applications, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Section 1 (Introduction) gives background on the test program and describes collaborations with industry and agencies to date. Section 2 (Experimental Setup) provides details concerning test fuels, vehicle and SNRE selection, and test methods used to conduct the studies presented in this report. Section 3 (Results and Discussion) summarizes the vehicle and SNRE studies and presents data from testing completed to date. Section 4 (Next Steps) describes planned future activities. The appendixes provide test procedure details, vehicle and SNRE emissions standards, analysis details, and additional data and tables from vehicle and SNRE tests.

  16. Characterization of Polymer Blends: Optical Microscopy (*Polarized, Interference and Phase Contrast Microscopy*) and Confocal Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan [ORNL; Darling, Seth B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 15 surveys the characterization of macro, micro and meso morphologies of polymer blends by optical microscopy. Confocal Microscopy offers the ability to view the three dimensional morphology of polymer blends, popular in characterization of biological systems. Confocal microscopy uses point illumination and a spatial pinhole to eliminate out-of focus light in samples that are thicker than the focal plane.

  17. Interface modification in an immiscible rod-coil polymer blend using functionalized copolymers and polyelectrolytes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passinault, Robbie J

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blends of rod-like and flexible-coil polymers are attractive for synthesizing molecular composites. In this study, a blend of a rod-like polymer (Vectra B950) and a flexible polymer (polystyrene) is used to investigate the influence of polymer-polymer...

  18. Blended Interaction Toward a Framework for the Design of Interactive Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    Blended Interaction ­ Toward a Framework for the Design of Interactive Spaces Hans-Christian Jetter, Florian Geyer, Tobias Schwarz, Harald Reiterer Human-Computer Interaction Group, University of Konstanz In this paper, we propose Blended Interaction as a conceptual framework for the design of interactive spaces. We

  19. Probing Water Phases in Cement Blends using 1 Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Probing Water Phases in Cement Blends using 1 H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry Jean)114 222 5973 Fax: +44 (0)114 222 5943 E-Mail: j.gorce@sheffield.ac.uk Extended Abstract: Cement and Concrete Science, Warwick, 16th + 17th September 2004 Introduction The nuclear industry uses blended cement

  20. In vitro analysis of biodegradable polymer blend/hydroxyapatite composites for bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Lee E.

    In vitro analysis of biodegradable polymer blend/hydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue engineering Kacey G. Marra,1 Jeffrey W. Szem,2 Prashant N. Kumta,3 Paul A. DiMilla,4 Lee E. Weiss5 1 14 April 1999 Abstract: Blends of biodegradable polymers, poly(capro- lactone) and poly

  1. Calculation of critical dimensions for wurtzite and cubic zinc blende coaxial nanowire heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Calculation of critical dimensions for wurtzite and cubic zinc blende coaxial nanowire-shell heterostructures in 111 zinc blende and 0001 wurtzite geometries. These calculations reveal that critical wurtzite nanowire systems. In this article we extend this methodology to explore and contrast coherency

  2. Phase controlled synthesis of ZnS nanobelts: zinc blende vs wurtzite Yong Ding a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Phase controlled synthesis of ZnS nanobelts: zinc blende vs wurtzite Yong Ding a , Xu Dong WangS nanostructures normally take the metastable wurtzite structure. This Letter investigates the conditions under which the formed phase can be con- trolled between zinc blende and wurtzite in nanomaterials synthesis

  3. Structural and Room-Temperature Transport Properties of Zinc Blende and Wurtzite InAs Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli

    Structural and Room-Temperature Transport Properties of Zinc Blende and Wurtzite InAs Nanowires between pure zinc blende (ZB) NWs and wurtzite (WZ) NWs containing stacking faults and small ZB segments their growth-direction axis while wurtzite (WZ) InAs NWs grown on InAs (111)B substrates have numerous stacking

  4. Theoretical study of nonpolar surfaces of aluminum nitride: Zinc blende ,,110... and wurtzite ,,1010...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandey, Ravi

    Theoretical study of nonpolar surfaces of aluminum nitride: Zinc blende ,,110... and wurtzite ,,101 structure and electronic properties of the nonpolar surfaces, namely zinc blende 110 and wurtzite (10 1 and small ther- mal expansion coefficient. At ambient conditions, AlN crys- tallizes in the wurtzite phase

  5. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  6. X-ray Microscopy of Photovoltaic Polyfluorene Blends: Relating Nanomorphology to Device Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X-ray Microscopy of Photovoltaic Polyfluorene Blends: Relating Nanomorphology to Device Performance no features on the length scale of 50 nm or greater. Additionally, the performance of photovoltaic devices evaluated and compared to the performance of chloroform blends with varied weight ratio. By studying

  7. "Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xibin Wang "Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends" Abstract : Combustion, performance and emission were studied for DI diesel engine fuelled with DMM/diesel fuel blends for DMM content from 0 to 50%. Results showed that, for diesel engine with fuel

  8. Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being

  11. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

  12. Critical pulse power components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarjeant, W.J.; Rohwein, G.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Critical components for pulsed power conditioning systems will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on those components requiring significant development efforts. Capacitors, for example, are one of the weakest elements in high-power pulsed systems, especially when operation at high-repetition frequencies for extended periods of time are necessary. Switches are by far the weakest active components of pulse power systems. In particular, opening switches are essentially nonexistent for most applications. Insulaton in all systems and components requires development and improvement. Efforts under way in technology base development of pulse power components will be discussed.

  13. Modeling the Auto-Ignition of Biodiesel Blends with a Multi-Step Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toulson, Dr. Elisa [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Allen, Casey M [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, Dennis J [Michigan State University, East Lansing; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Schock, Harold [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing interest in using biodiesel in place of or in blends with petrodiesel in diesel engines; however, biodiesel oxidation chemistry is complicated to directly model and existing surrogate kinetic models are very large, making them computationally expensive. The present study describes a method for predicting the ignition behavior of blends of n-heptane and methyl butanoate, fuels whose blends have been used in the past as a surrogate for biodiesel. The autoignition is predicted using a multistep (8-step) model in order to reduce computational time and make this a viable tool for implementation into engine simulation codes. A detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends was used as a basis for validating the multistep model results. The ignition delay trends predicted by the multistep model for the n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends matched well with that of the detailed CHEMKIN model for the majority of conditions tested.

  14. ccsd-00000932(version1):10Dec2003 Electronic structure of wurtzite and zinc-blende AlN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ccsd-00000932(version1):10Dec2003 Electronic structure of wurtzite and zinc-blende AlN P. Jonnard) Abstract The electronic structure of AlN in wurtzite and zinc-blende phases is studied experimentally. Differences 1 #12;between the wurtzite and zinc-blende phases are small and reflect the slight variations

  15. The Relationships of Diesel Fuel Properties, Chemistry, and HCCI Engine Performance as Determined by Principal Component Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Crawford, Robert W [Rincon Ranch Consulting

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to meet common fuel specifications such as cetane number and volatility, a refinery must blend a number of refinery stocks derived from various process units in the refinery. Fuel chemistry can be significantly altered in meeting fuel specifications. Additionally, fuel specifications are seldom changed in isolation, and the drive to meet one specification may significantly alter other specifications or fuel chemistry. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines depend on the kinetic behavior of a fuel to achieve reliable ignition and are expected to be more dependent on fuel specifications and chemistry than today's conventional engines. Regression analysis can help in determining the underlying relationships between fuel specifications, chemistry, and engine performance. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in this work, because of its ability to deal with co-linear variables and to uncover 'hidden' relationships in the data. In this paper, a set of 11 diesel fuels with widely varying properties were run in a simple HCCI engine. Fuel properties and engine performance are examined to identify underlying fuel relationships and to determine the interplay between engine behavior and fuels. Results indicate that fuel efficiency is mainly controlled by a collection of specifications related to density and energy content and ignition characteristics are controlled mainly by cetane number.

  16. Biodiesel Production From Animal Fats And Its Impact On The Diesel Engine With Ethanol-Diesel Blends: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darunde Dhiraj S; Prof Deshmukh Mangesh M

    Abstract — Mainly animal fats and vegetable oils are used for the production of biodiesel. Several types of fuels can be derived from triacylglycerol-containing feedstock. Biodiesel which is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterifying the oil or fat with an alcohol (methanol/ethanol) under mild conditions in the presence of a base catalyst. This paper discuses fuel production, fuel properties, environmental effects including exhaust emissions and co-products. This also describes the use of glycerol which is the by-product in esterification process along with biodiesel. The impact of blending of biodiesel with ethanol and diesel on the diesel engine has described.

  17. Conducting polymer blends: Polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, polycarbonate resin, poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl methyl ketone)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.L.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various aromatic compounds can be polymerized by electrochemical oxidation in solution containing a supporting electrolyte. Most studies have been devoted to polypyrrole and polythiophene. In situ doping during electrochemical polymerization yields free standing conductive polymer film. One major approach to making conducting polymer blends is electrochemical synthesis after coating the host polymer on a platinum electrode. In the electrolysis of pyrrole or thiophene monomer, using (t-Bu[sub 4]N)BF[sub 4] as supporting electrolyte, and acetonitrile as solvent, monomer can diffuse through the polymer film, to produce a polypyrrole or polythiophene blend in the film. Doping occurs along with polymerization to form a conducting polymer alloy. The strongest molecular interaction in polymers, and one that is central to phase behavior, is hydrogen bonding. This mixing at the molecular level enhances the degree of miscibility between two polymers and results in macroscopic properties indicative of single phase behavior. In this dissertation, the authors describes the syntheses of conducting polymer blends: polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, poly(bisphenol-A-carbonate), polyvinyl alcohol and poly(vinyl methyl ketone). The syntheses are performed both electrochemically and chemically. Characterization of these blends was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Percolating threshold conductivities occur from 7% to 20% for different polymer blends. The low threshold conductivity is attributed to blend homogeneity enhanced by hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl group in the insulating polymer and the N-H group in polypyrrole. Thermal stability, environmental stability, mechanical properties, crystallinity and morphological structure are also discussed. The authors have also engaged in the polymerization of imidazoles.

  18. Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

  19. Removing the Microlensing Blending-Parallax Degeneracy Using Source Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assef, R J; Afonso, C; Albert, J N; Andersen, J; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Bareyre, P; Beaulieu, J P; Charlot, X; Coutures, C; Ferlet, R; Fouqué, P; Glicenstein, J F; Goldman, B; Graff, D; Gros, M; Haïssinski, J; Hamadache, C; De Kat, J; Le Guillou, Laurent; Lesquoy, E; Loup, C; Magneville, C; Marquette, J B; Maurice, E; Maury, A; Milsztajn, A; Moniez, M; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perdereau, O; Rahal, Y R; Rich, J; Spiro, M; Tisserand, P; Vidal-Madjar, A; Vigroux, L; Zylberajch, S; Bennett, D P; Becker, A C; Griest, K; Vandehei, T; Welch, D L; Udalski, A; Szymanski, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Wyrzykowski, L

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microlensing event MACHO 97-SMC-1 is one of the rare microlensing events for which the source is a variable star, simply because most variable stars are systematically eliminated from microlensing studies. Using observational data for this event, we show that the intrinsic variability of a microlensed star is a powerful tool to constrain the nature of the lens by breaking the degeneracy between the microlens parallax and the blended light. We also present a statistical test for discriminating the location of the lens based on the \\chi^2 contours of the vector \\Lambda, the inverse of the projected velocity. We find that while SMC self lensing is somewhat favored, neither location can be ruled out with good confidence.

  20. Influence of Substrate on Crystallization in Polythiophene/fullerene Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C He; D Germack; J Kline; D Delongchamp; D Fischer; C Snyder; M Toney; J Kushmerick; L Richter

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The nanoscale morphology of the active layer in organic, bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is crucial to device performance. Often a combination of casting conditions and post deposition thermal treatment is used to optimize the morphology. In general, the development of microscopic crystals is deleterious, as the exciton diffusion length is {approx}10 nm. We find that the microscopic crystallization behavior in polythiophene/fullerene blends is strongly influenced by the substrate on which the BHJ is cast. With a silicon oxide substrate, the crystal nucleation density is high and significant crystallization occurs at a temperature of 140 C. On more hydrophobic substrates, significantly higher temperatures are required for observable crystallization. This difference is attributed to the interfacial segregation of the PCBM, controlled by the substrate surface energy. The substrate dependence of crystallization has significant implications on the fullerene crystal growth mechanisms and practical implications for device studies.

  1. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  2. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  3. HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UF{sub 6} blending alternative to produce LEU UF{sub 6} for commercial use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials; the nuclear material will be converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed; blending as UF{sub 6} to produce a UF{sub 6} product for commercial use is one of them. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UF{sub 6} blending HEU disposition option. Resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

  4. The development of nanoscale morphology in polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blends during solvent casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Travis, Adrian

    The development of nanoscale morphology in polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blends during solventsm00343c The power conversion efficiency in a conjugated polymer-functionalized fullerene bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) device is dependent both on the electronic properties

  5. Characterization and Combustion Performance of Corn Oil-Based Biofuel Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savant, Gautam Sandesh

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    into biodiesel. It is well known vegetable oil to biodiesel conversion involves many processes including transesterification, which makes biodiesel costly and time-consuming to produce. In this study, the effects of blending high-viscosity fresh and used corn...

  6. Knock limits in spark ignited direct injected engines using gasoline/ethanol blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasseris, Emmanuel P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct Fuel Injection (DI) extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in DI is therefore ...

  7. Morphological effects on glass transition behavior in selected immiscible blends of amorphous and semicrystalline polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the systems polystyrene/polypropylene (PS/PP), polystyrene/high density polyethylene (PS/PE) and polycarbonate were conducted to study these effects by preparing blends with various polymers that varied

  8. Leaching and standing water characteristics of bottom ash and composted manure blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, James Gregory

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in significantly higher concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P, and potassium (K). Generally, a higher CM content in acidic and alkaline blends resulted in higher leachate concentrations for total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total...

  9. Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation andEngine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Engine-in-the-Loop Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies...

  10. Exciton localization mechanisms in wurtzite/zinc-blende GaAs nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Alexandra; Corfdir, Pierre; Heiss, Martin; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Uccelli, Emanuele; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna; Phillips, Richard

    We investigate the emission properties of excitons in GaAs nanowires containing quantum disks formed by structural alternation between the zinc-blende and wurtzite phases, by means of temperature-dependent photoluminescence. At 10 K the emission...

  11. Glass Transition Phenomena in Melt-Processed Polystyrene/Polypropylene Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The presence of a rigid polycarbonate matrix as PET cools through its glass transition gives rise to a "wall" effect, causing the Tg of PET to increase [6]. The Tg of polybutadiene in polycarbonate/ABS blends

  12. Influence of branch content on the microstructure of blends of linear and octene-branched polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.

    experimental densities of the two polymer melts. Initially, chains of LLDPE and HDPE were completely mixed POLYMER JOURNAL #12;short chain branching (SCB) [26]. Few studies have made use of m-LLDPE in blend

  13. Process simulation, integration and optimization of blending of petrodiesel with biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ting

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    strategies to meet these requirements. The primary objective of this work is to analyze alternatives for producing ULSD. In addition to the conventional approach of revamping existing hydrotreating facilities, the option of blending petrodiesel with biodiesel...

  14. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Keywords: Methyl decanoate; Methyl decenoate; Surrogate; Oxidation; Biodiesel fuels; Kinetic modeling; Engine; Low

  15. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  16. Transverse Component Acknowledgements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 232-237. Raw Data Radial Component Analysis of Treasure Island earthquake data using seismic by Treasure Island Geotechnical Array near San Francisco, California on 06/26/94. It was a magnitude 4

  17. Characterization of Jeffamine (polyoxypropyleneamine) based compatibilizers and bisphenol-a polycarbonate blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guenther, Gerhard Kurt

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHARACTERIZATION OF IEFFAMINE (POLYOXYPROPYLENEAMINE) BASED COMPATIBILIZERS AND BISPHENOL-A POLYCARBONATE BLENDS A Thesis by GERHARD KURT GUENTHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering CHARACTERIZATION OF JEFFAMINE (POLYOXYPROPYLENEAMINE) BASED COMPATIBILIZERS AND BISPHENOL-A POLYCARBONATE BLENDS A Thesis by GERHARD KURT GUENTHER...

  18. Solvent Blending Strategy to Upgrade MCU CSSX Solvent to Equivalent Next-Generation CSSX Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the present study have validated an equal-volume blending strategy for upgrading freshly prepared CSSX solvent to a blended solvent functionally equivalent to NG-CSSX solvent. It is shown that blending fresh CSSX solvent as currently used in MCU with an equal volume of an NG-CSSX solvent concentrate of appropriate composition yields a blended solvent composition (46.5 mM of MaxCalix, 3.5 mM of BOBCalixC6, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, 3 mM of guanidine suppressor, and 1.5 mM of TOA in Isopar L) that exhibits equivalent batch ESS performance to that of the NG-CSSX solvent containing 50 mM of MaxCalix, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, and 3 mM of guanidine suppressor in Isopar L. The solvent blend composition is robust to third-phase formation. Results also show that a blend containing up to 60% v/v of CSSX solvent could be accommodated with minimal risk. Extraction and density data for the effect of solvent concentration mimicking diluent evaporation or over-dilution of the equal-volume blended solvent are also given, providing input for setting operational limits. Given that the experiments employed all pristine chemicals, the results do not qualify a blended solvent starting with actual used MCU solvent, which can be expected to have undergone some degree of degradation. Consequently, further work should be considered to evaluate this risk and implement appropriate remediation if needed.

  19. Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

  20. Vaporization modeling of petroleum-biofuel drops using a hybrid multi-component approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lei; Kong, Song-Charng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering Building, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical modeling of the vaporization characteristics of multi-component fuel mixtures is performed in this study. The fuel mixtures studied include those of binary components, biodiesel, diesel-biodiesel, and gasoline-ethanol. The use of biofuels has become increasingly important for reasons of environmental sustainability. Biofuels are often blended with petroleum fuels, and the detailed understanding of the vaporization process is essential to designing a clean and efficient combustion system. In this study, a hybrid vaporization model is developed that uses continuous thermodynamics to describe petroleum fuels and discrete components to represent biofuels. The model is validated using the experimental data of n-heptane, n-heptane-n-decane mixture, and biodiesel. Since biodiesel properties are not universal due to the variation in feedstock, methods for predicting biodiesel properties based on the five dominant fatty acid components are introduced. Good levels of agreement in the predicted and measured drop size histories are obtained. Furthermore, in modeling the diesel-biodiesel drop, results show that the drop lifetime increases with the biodiesel concentration in the blend. During vaporization, only the lighter components of diesel fuel vaporize at the beginning. Biodiesel components do not vaporize until some time during the vaporization process. On the other hand, results of gasoline-ethanol drops indicate that both fuels start to vaporize once the process begins. At the beginning, the lighter components of gasoline have a slightly higher vaporization rate than ethanol. After a certain time, ethanol vaporizes faster than the remaining gasoline components. At the end, the drop reduces to a regular gasoline drop with heavier components. Overall, the drop lifetime increases as the concentration of ethanol increases in the drop due to the higher latent heat. (author)

  1. Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    García-Maté, M.; De la Torre, A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)] [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); León-Reina, L. [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigación, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)] [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigación, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Aranda, M.A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain) [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); Santacruz, I., E-mail: isantacruz@uma.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 ± 2 and 72 ± 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

  2. Components in the Pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan (Jenny); Yin, Jian

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists commonly describe their data processing systems metaphorically as software pipelines. These pipelines input one or more data sources and apply a sequence of processing steps to transform the data and create useful results. While conceptually simple, pipelines often adopt complex topologies and must meet stringent quality of service requirements that place stress on the software infrastructure used to construct the pipeline. In this paper we describe the MeDICi Integration Framework, which is a component-based framework for constructing complex software pipelines. The framework supports composing pipelines from distributed heterogeneous software components and provides mechanisms for controlling qualities of service to meet demanding performance, reliability and communication requirements.

  3. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

  4. Gas and hydrocarbon vapor permeation in poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne)/poly(1-phenyl-1-propyne) blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morisato, A.; Shen, H.C.; Toy, L.G. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeation properties of phase-separated blends prepared from glassy poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) and poly(1-phenyl-1-propyne) (PPP) were determined as a function of blend composition with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and butane. Blend permeabilities decrease significantly with increasing PPP concentration and suggest the occurrence of a phase inversion at low PPP content (5 to 20 wt%). Based on TEM analysis high-aspect-ratio (extended) PPP ellipsoidal dispersions are found in a PTMSP matrix, indicating that the phase inversion is closely related to dispersed-phase connectivity in the blends.

  5. Micro-fabrication Techniques for Target Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, R; Hamilton, J; Crawford, J; Ratti, S; Trevino, J; Graff, T; Stockton, C; Harvey, C

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro-fabrication techniques, derived from the semi-conductor industry, can be used to make a variety of useful mechanical components for targets. A selection of these components including supporting cooling arms for prototype cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets, stepped and graded density targets for materials dynamics experiments are described. Micro-fabrication enables cost-effective, simultaneous fabrication of multiple high-precision components with complex geometries. Micro-fabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, photo-lithographic patterning and etch processes normally used in the semi-conductor manufacture industry, can be exploited to make useful mechanical target components. Micro-fabrication processes have in recent years been used to create a number of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) components such as pressure sensors, accelerometers, ink jet printer heads, microfluidics platforms and the like. These techniques consist primarily of deposition of thin films of material, photo-lithographic patterning and etching processes performed sequentially to produce three dimensional structures using essentially planar processes. While the planar technology can be limiting in terms of the possible geometries of the final product, advantages of using these techniques include the ability to make multiple complex structures simultaneously and cost-effectively. Target components fabricated using these techniques include the supporting cooling arms for cryogenic prototype fusion ignition targets, stepped targets for equation-of-state experiments, and graded density reservoirs for material strength experiments.

  6. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

  7. On the Majorana equation - Relations between its complex two-component and real four-component eigenfunctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsch, Eckart

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We first derive without recourse to the Dirac equation the two-component Majorana equation with a mass term by a direct linearization of the relativistic dispersion relation of a massive particle. Thereby, we make only use of the complex conjugation operator and the Pauli spin matrices, corresponding to the irreducible representation of the Lorentz group. Then we derive the complex two-component eigenfunctions of the Majorana equation and the related quantum fields in a concise way, by exploiting the so called chirality conjugation operator that involves the spin-flip operator. Subsequently, the four-component spinor solutions of the real Majorana equation are derived, and their intrinsic relations with the spinors of the complex two-component version of the Majorana equation are revealed and discussed extensively.

  8. On the Majorana equation - Relations between its complex two-component and real four-component eigenfunctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckart Marsch

    2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We first derive without recourse to the Dirac equation the two-component Majorana equation with a mass term by a direct linearization of the relativistic dispersion relation of a massive particle. Thereby, we make only use of the complex conjugation operator and the Pauli spin matrices, corresponding to the irreducible representation of the Lorentz group. Then we derive the complex two-component eigenfunctions of the Majorana equation and the related quantum fields in a concise way, by exploiting the so called chirality conjugation operator that involves the spin-flip operator. Subsequently, the four-component spinor solutions of the real Majorana equation are derived, and their intrinsic relations with the spinors of the complex two-component version of the Majorana equation are revealed and discussed extensively.

  9. Chain ordering of regioregular polythiophene films through blending with a nickel bisdithiolene complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, D. [CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France) [CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LCC, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Ramos, B.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Séguy, I. [LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France) [LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LCC, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Villeneuve-Faure, C. [LAPLACE, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France)] [LAPLACE, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); Sournia-Saquet, A.; Moineau-Chane Ching, K. I., E-mail: kathleen.chane@lcc-toulouse.fr [CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Alary, F.; Heully, J. L. [LCPQ-IRSAMC, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)] [LCPQ-IRSAMC, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An “annealing-free” strategy consisting of using a planar nickel bisdithiolene complex nickel bis[1,2-di(3?,4?-di-n-decyloxyphenyl)ethene-1,2-dithiolene] ([Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}]) is proposed for structuring poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT). Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopies, in conjunction with electronic absorption, have been used for evidencing P3HT changes due to blending. PL and absorption observations are consistent and show a correlation between polymer chain organization and increasing amounts of [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}]. Blending with [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}] do not modify the Raman ring-breathing modes energies indicating that blending does not induce strongly disorder in P3HT chains. Atomic force microscopic measurements show that blends nanoscale morphology presents a homogeneous matrix and small fibrils related to [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}] concentration, especially for blends with a [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}] weight ratio lower than 50%.

  10. Analysis Of Exhaust Emission Of Internal Combustion Engine Using Biodiesel Blend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suvendu Mohanty; Dr. Om Prakash; Reasearch Scholar

    Abstract-The main purpose of this research is to study the effect of various blends of an environmental friendly alternative fuel such as biodiesel on the performance of diesel engine. In the Present investigation experimental work has been carried out to analyze the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a single cylinder internal combustion engine fuelled with biodiesel blend at the different load. In this experiment the biodiesel which is use as a waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel.To investigation of the emission characteristics of the engine loads, which is supplied from the alternator. The experiment was carried out different load i.e. (NO LOAD, 100W 200W, 500W, 1000W, 1500W, 2000W, 2500W & 3000Watt) at engine speed 1500 rpm/min. A test was applied in which an engine was fuel with diesel and seven different blends of diesel. Biodiesel (B5, B10, B20, B40, B60, B80, B100) made from waste cooking oil and the results were analyzed.The emission of were measured carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon carbon(HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and oxygen ().The experimental results will be compared with biodiesel blends and diesel. The biodiesel results of (WCO) in lower emission of hydro carbon (HC) and (CO) and increase emission of (NO2). This study showed that the results of exhaust emission of biodiesel blends were lower than the diesel fuel. Keyword- Biodiesel (WCO), diesel engine, gas analyzer, Exhaust emission. I.

  11. Instantaneous symmetrical components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salehfar, Hossein

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be traced to Evans and Monseth, who used tham in the detarminaCion of recovery volCages in 1937. Thi- was followed by Pipe's wor'x in 1940 [1]. No systematic approach oased on Che use of inscantaneous symm trical components was not d until Lyon [2...-, pasitive-, &Ojwt i aI(jet) i 2(jwt) = I/3 I a a and negative-sequence components of i (t) ars a 1 ib (t) i (t) (2. 3) The valu s or the phase currents in terms ot the symmacrrcal 10 i 1(jest) ~ l (jet) Zero-time axis i. b1(jm t) iC2(j t) (a...

  12. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  13. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald; Yuan, Thomas

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  14. Injection molded component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Allister W; Arrell, Douglas J

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An intermediate component includes a first wall member, a leachable material layer, and a precursor wall member. The first wall member has an outer surface and first connecting structure. The leachable material layer is provided on the first wall member outer surface. The precursor wall member is formed adjacent to the leachable material layer from a metal powder mixed with a binder material, and includes second connecting structure.

  15. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  16. Reconciling Components and Services The Apam Component-Service Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Reconciling Components and Services The Apam Component-Service Platform Jacky Estublier, German as with SOC. No platform today satisfies both needs. This paper presents the Component-Service model-service platform. Keywords-Service; CBSE, SOC, SOA, service platform, component platform, adaptability . I

  17. Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

  18. The photospheric solar oxygen project: III. Investigation of the centre-to-limb variation of the 630nm [OI]-NiI blend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caffau, E; Steffen, M; Livingston, W; Bonifacio, P; Malherbe, J -M; Doerr, H -P; Schmidt, W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar photospheric abundance of oxygen is still a matter of debate. For about ten years some determinations have favoured a low oxygen abundance which is at variance with the value inferred by helioseismology. Among the oxygen abundance indicators, the forbidden line at 630nm has often been considered the most reliable even though it is blended with a NiI line. In Papers I and Paper II of this series we reported a discrepancy in the oxygen abundance derived from the 630nm and the subordinate [OI] line at 636nm in dwarf stars, including the Sun. Here we analyse several, in part new, solar observations of the the centre-to-limb variation of the spectral region including the blend at 630nm in order to separate the individual contributions of oxygen and nickel. We analyse intensity spectra observed at different limb angles in comparison with line formation computations performed on a CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical simulation of the solar atmosphere. The oxygen abundances obtained from the forbidden line at differe...

  19. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  20. A novel reactive processing technique: using telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize polymer blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashcraft, Earl C [ORNL; Ji, Haining [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Difunctional reactive polymers, telechelics, were used to reactively form multiblock copolymers in situ when melt-blended with a blend of polystyrene and polyisoprene. To quantify the ability of the copolymer to compatibilize the blends, the time evolution of the domain size upon annealing was analyzed by SEM. It was found that the most effective parameter to quantify the ability of the copolymer to inhibit droplet coalescence is Kreltstable, the relative coarsening constant multiplied by the stabilization time. These results indicate that intermediate-molecular-weight telechelic pairs of both highly reactive Anhydride-PS-Anhydride/NH2-PI-NH2 and slower reacting Epoxy-PS-Epoxy/COOH-PI-COOH both effectively suppress coalescence, with the optimal molecular weight being slightly above the critical molecular weight of the homopolymer,Mc. The effects of telechelic loading were also investigated, where the optimal loading concentration for this system was 0.5 wt %, as higher concentrations exhibited a plasticizing effect due to the presence of unreacted low-molecular-weight telechelics present in the blend. A determination of the interfacial coverage of the copolymer shows that a conversion of 1.5-3.0% was required for 20% surface coverage at 5.0 wt % telechelic loading, indicating a large excess of telechelics in this system. At the optimal loading level of 0.5 wt %, a conversion of 15% was required for 20% surface coverage. The results of these experiments provide a clear understanding of the role of telechelic loading and molecular weight on its ability to reactively form interfacial modifiers in phase-separated polymer blends and provide guidelines for the development of similar reactive processing schemes that can use telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize a broad range of polymer blends.

  1. Spectral Components Analysis of Diffuse Emission Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malyshev, Dmitry; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a novel method to separate the components of a diffuse emission process based on an association with the energy spectra. Most of the existing methods use some information about the spatial distribution of components, e.g., closeness to an external template, independence of components etc., in order to separate them. In this paper we propose a method where one puts conditions on the spectra only. The advantages of our method are: 1) it is internal: the maps of the components are constructed as combinations of data in different energy bins, 2) the components may be correlated among each other, 3) the method is semi-blind: in many cases, it is sufficient to assume a functional form of the spectra and determine the parameters from a maximization of a likelihood function. As an example, we derive the CMB map and the foreground maps for seven yeas of WMAP data. In an Appendix, we present a generalization of the method, where one can also add a number of external templates.

  2. Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

  3. APSEC Keynote, Dec 2012, BG Ryder Blended Program Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryder, Barbara G.

    , without running the program § Allows checking of specific program properties § Dynamic program analysis, property validation, program understanding, test case generation... § Dynamic Analysis § Input: trace/ components § E.g., personal financial managers, e-commerce applications, information records managers

  4. Derivative actions in China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Shaowei

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The enactment of derivative action was expected to be actively used by shareholders to protect their interests. In fact, it turned out that this reform effort seemed futile as the right to engage in such actions was ...

  5. Dynamic Derivative Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2003-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper studies the optimal investment strategy of an investor who can access not only the bond and the stock markets, but also the derivatives market. We consider the investment situation where, in addition to the usual ...

  6. Credit derivatives in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rüther, Henrique

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amounts outstanding of credit derivatives have grown exponentially over the past years, and these financial intruments that allow market participants to trade credit risk have become very popular in Europe and in the ...

  7. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  8. Precision Cleaning Titanium Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, T.E.; Bohnert, G.W.

    2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean bond surfaces are critical to the operation of diffusion bonded titanium engine components. These components can be contaminated with machining coolant, shop dirt, and fingerprints during normal processing and handling. These contaminants must be removed to achieve acceptable bond quality. As environmental concerns become more important in manufacturing, elimination of the use of hazardous materials is desired. For this reason, another process (not using nitric-hydrofluoric acid solution) to clean titanium parts before bonding was sought. Initial cleaning trials were conducted at Honeywell to screen potential cleaning techniques and chemistries. During the initial cleaning process screening phase, Pratt and Whitney provided Honeywell with machined 3 inch x 3 inch x 1 inch titanium test blocks. These test blocks were machined with a water-based machining coolant and exposed to a normal shop environment and handling. (Honeywell sectioned one of these blocks into smaller samples to be used for additional cleanliness verification analyses.) The sample test blocks were ultrasonically cleaned in alkaline solutions and AUGER analysis was used by Honeywell FM and T to validate their cleanliness. This information enabled selection of final cleaning techniques and solutions to be used for the bonding trials. To validate Honeywell's AUGER data and to verify the cleaning processes in actual situations, additional sample blocks were cleaned (using the chosen processes) and then bonded. The bond quality of the test blocks was analyzed according to Pratt and Whitney's requirements. The Charpy impact testing was performed according to ASTM procedure {number_sign}E-23. Bond quality was determined by examining metallographic samples of the bonded test blocks for porosity along the bondline.

  9. Effect of thermal history on the molecular orientation in polystyrene/poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezolet, Michel

    ether) (PS/PVME) has been studied using polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism (PM to an increased orientation if the heating time at 51 8C is kept short. Moreover, PS and PVME develop a larger) blends; Thermal history; Polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism 1. Introduction The influence

  10. Ultrasonic and microscopic investigation of blends of polydimethylsiloxane and polyisobutylene at all

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    it would be important to control the mixing of two polymers during blend processing, in an extruder in different fields of application, in particular to characterize solid and molten polymers [Bridge (1987 50 years back. In 1948, Urick reported data of the ultrasonic attenuation in aqueous kaolin and sand

  11. Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1 Department; accepted 6 June 2000 Abstract This paper reviews literature on co-firing of coal with biomass fuels. Here of coal and biomass fuels are presented. Different classes of co-firing methods are identified

  12. TURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELING OF COAL:BIOMASS BLENDS IN A SWIRL BURNER I -PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daripa, Prabir

    coal or by ex- haust clean up technology. For the power plants, the simplest solution is the preventive- ity well into the 21st century. This dependency on coal calls for better technologies to reduceTURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELING OF COAL:BIOMASS BLENDS IN A SWIRL BURNER I - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

  13. Relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzawa, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kashiwabara, Kimito [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujisawa, Norihiro; Matsubara, Michiro

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between MBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100 C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio ({lambda}) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated. The results indicate that the new DI worsen when heavy reformate containing large amounts of aromatics or MTBE, an oxygen-containing compound, is used for the octane improver, leaving the balance of the volatility out of consideration.

  14. Detonations in Hydrocarbon Fuel Blends J.M. Austin and J.E. Shepherd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    in high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fuels of interest to pulse detonation engine applications of thermally decomposed JP-10 was studied at 295 K. This blend consisted of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane to be comparable. The addition of lower molecular weight fuels (hydrogen, acetylene, ethylene, 1 #12;and carbon

  15. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene January 2010 Keywords: Wood plastic composites Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Polyethylene Extrusion a b into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre

  16. Zinc-blende ZnO and its role in nucleating wurtzite tetrapods and twinned nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Zinc-blende ZnO and its role in nucleating wurtzite tetrapods and twinned nanowires Yong Ding of wurtzite WZ ZnO tetrapods. The formation of the wurtzite 011¯3 twined nanowires is proposed based on the ZB core. Simple bonding density calculation shows that the wurtzite nanowires with 011¯0 side surfaces

  17. Using blends of cerambycid beetle pheromones and host plant volatiles to simultaneously attract a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    ethanol and a-pinene to determine whether such blends could be effective lures for detecting and moni-(undecyloxy)-ethanol, and race- mic 2-methyl-1-butanol. Bioassays in east-central Illinois captured 3070 to ethanol, with a-pinene enhancing attraction only for the pine specialist M. carolinensis. The optimal

  18. Kinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ju, Yiguang

    analyses of kinetic path ways and species transport on flame extinction were also conducted. The results and emission properties, such as the ignition delay times, extinction limits, flame speeds, species profilesKinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames Sang Hee

  19. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  20. Optimization of Crude-Oil Blending Operations Sylvain Mouret Ignacio E. Grossmann Pierre Pestiaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    refinery Crude-oil blending scheduling Scheduling formulations 2 Proposed approach Basic idea MINLP model Proposed approach Results and comparisons Conclusion Oil refinery A typical oil refinery Refining crude definition Given Refinery configuration Logistics constraints Initial tank inventory and composition Vessel

  1. Femtosecond electron-transfer holography in C{sub 60}/polymer blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maniloff, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vacar, D. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Polymers and Organic Solids; McBranch, D.; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Mattes, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heeger, A.J. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Polymers and Organic Solids

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Holographic recording has recently been demonstrated in conducting polymer/C{sub 60} blends. Results are presented that demonstrate an improved signal-to-noise ratio is obtained when holographic detection is used to observe the dynamics of photo-induced absorption.

  2. Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost Effectiveness Stephen J in Method? #12;Deicing and Anti-icing Treatments ·Sodium Chloride (NaCl) ·Cargill, NA Salt ·Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) w/additives ·Envirotech Serv., Scotwood Ind., NA Salt ·Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) ·Tiger

  3. Molecular Packing and Solar Cell Performance in Blends of Polymers with a Bisadduct Fullerene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Molecular Packing and Solar Cell Performance in Blends of Polymers with a Bisadduct Fullerene States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We compare the solar cell performance of several polymers the efficiency of the solar cells only when they do not intercalate between the polymer side chains. When

  4. Vapour Phase Hydration of Blended Oxide Magnox Waste Glasses Neil C. Hyatt,1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Vapour Phase Hydration of Blended Oxide ­ Magnox Waste Glasses Neil C. Hyatt,1* William E. Lee,1 BNFL Technology Centre, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG. UK. ABSTRACT Vapour phase hydration across the alteration layer. Vapour phase hydration leads to formation of surface alteration products

  5. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.

    1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  6. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

  7. NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide, UO{sub 3}, was used in the testing. Next, NU made up of UO{sub 3} and DU made up of UO{sub 2} was used in the test work. In every test, the blend achieved was characterized by spatial sampling of the ground product and analyzing for {sup 235}U concentration. The test work proved that these uranium oxide materials can be blended successfully. The spatial concentration was found to be uniform. Next, sintered thorium oxide pellets were used as surrogate for light water breeder reactor pellets (LWBR). To simulate LWBR pellet dispositioning, the thorium oxide pellets were first ground to a powder form and then the powder was blended with NU. In these tests also the concentration of {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th in blended products fell within established limits proving the success of RM-2 milling technology. RM-2 milling technology is applicable to any dry radioactive waste, especially brittle solids that can be ground up and mixed with the non-radioactive stock.

  8. Fluid description of multi-component solar partially ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khomenko, E., E-mail: khomenko@iac.es; Collados, M.; Vitas, N. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Díaz, A. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive self-consistent formalism for the description of multi-component partially ionized solar plasma, by means of the coupled equations for the charged and neutral components for an arbitrary number of chemical species, and the radiation field. All approximations and assumptions are carefully considered. Generalized Ohm's law is derived for the single-fluid and two-fluid formalism. Our approach is analytical with some order-of-magnitude support calculations. After general equations are developed, we particularize to some frequently considered cases as for the interaction of matter and radiation.

  9. Automotive Component Product Development Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Science in Engineering and Management February 2005 ABSTRACT Automotive industry is facing a tough periodAutomotive Component Product Development Enhancement Through Multi-Attribute System Design Engineering Systems Division #12;Automotive Component Product Development Enhancement Through Multi

  10. Modeling the Phillips curve with unobserved components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey, Andrew C

    is then nonstationary. However, writing the equation as #1;#25;t = #12;xt+"t makes it clear that what we have is not really a Phillips curve (though adding lags of xt and incorporating a unit root could retrieve the situation). On the other hand, a stationary model... -looking. The conditions under which a model with an expectational term reverts to (10) are derived below. The fact that the forecast function for a random walk component is constant simpli?es matters considerably. The reduced form of (10) is an ARMAX model in which #1;#25...

  11. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, J; Zhang, Q; Tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

    2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Significantly improved returns in their aerosol chemistry data can be achieved via the development of a value-added product (VAP) of deriving OA components, called Organic Aerosol Components (OACOMP). OACOMP is primarily based on multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix. The key outputs of OACOMP are the concentration time series and the mass spectra of OA factors that are associated with distinct sources, formation and evolution processes, and physicochemical properties.

  12. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

  14. Development of shape memory polymer (SMP) blend for biomedical and clinical applications Shape memory polymers (SMP) are a class of responsive stimuli materials that are able to respond to external stimulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of shape memory polymer (SMP) blend for biomedical and clinical applications Shape properties of this shape memory biopolymers and blends. The bio-compatible SMP blend will be fabricated by melt-blending and gas foaming. The various shape memory and mechanical properties of the foam and solid

  15. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more components of the elastomers (by the solvent). This extraction of additives can negatively change the properties of the elastomer, leading to reduced performance and durability. For a seal application, some level of volume swell is acceptable, since the expansion will serve to maintain a seal. However, the acceptable level of swell is dependent on the particular application of the elastomer product. It is known that excessive swell can lead to unacceptable extrusion of the elastomer beyond the sealed interface, where it becomes susceptible to damage. Also, since high swell is indicative of high solubility, there is a heightened potential for fluid to seep through the seal and into the environment. Plastics, on the other hand, are used primarily in structural applications, such as solid components, including piping and fluid containment. Volume change, especially in a rigid system, will create internal stresses that may negatively affect performance. In order to better understand and predict the compatibility for a given polymer type and fuel composition, an analysis based on Hansen solubility theory was performed for each plastic and elastomer material. From this study, the solubility distance was calculated for each polymer material and test fuel combination. Using the calculated solubility distance, the ethanol concentration associated with peak swell and overall extent of swell can be predicted for each polymer. The bulk of the material discussion centers on the plastic materials, and their compatibility with Fuel C, CE25a, CE50a, and CE85a. The next section of this paper focuses on the elastomer compatibility with the higher ethanol concentrations with comparison to results obtained previously for the lower ethanol levels. The elastomers were identical to those used in the earlier study. Hansen solubility theory is also applied to the elastomers to provide added interpretation of the results. The final section summarizes the performance of the metal coupons.

  16. Derived Azumaya algebras and generators for twisted derived categories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toen, Bertrand

    implies the existence of a global compact generator. We present explicit examples of derived Azumaya

  17. Viscoelastic Properties and Phase Behavior of 12-tert-Butyl Ester Dendrimer/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    with bis- phenol A polycarbonate (PC), resulting in an in- crease in free volume with increasing dendrimer hyperbranched polyester/bisphenol A PC blends with respect to pure PC. Studies were conducted by Carr et al.24

  18. Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimou, Iason

    The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0° C to 40° C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under ...

  19. Modeling The NOx Emissions In A Low NOx Burner While Fired With Pulverized Coal And Dairy Biomass Blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uggini, Hari

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    by themselves already require cleanup technology; newer regulations will require development of new and economical technologies. Using a blend of traditional fuels & biomass is a promising technology to reduce NOX emissions. Experiments conducted previously...

  20. Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Kenneth

    The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

  1. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, K.; West, B.; Clark, W.; Graves, R.; Orban, J.; Przesmitzki, S.; Theiss, T.

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intended for policymakers and others who make decisions about, and set guidelines for, the proper use of intermediate ethanol blends such as E20 in both vehicle engines and other engine types.

  2. Ceramic Component Development Process Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boss, D.; Sambasivan, S.; Kuehmann, C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Basic Industrial Research Lab.; Faber, K. [Northwestern University, MEAS Materials Science & Engineering, Evanston, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of ceramic components and coatings is critical to the demonstration of advanced fossil energy systems. Ceramic components and coating will play critical role in hot-gas filtration, high- temperature heat exchangers, thermal barrier coatings, and the hot- section of turbines. Continuous-fiber composites (CFCC) are expected to play an increasing role in these applications. This program encompassed five technical areas related to ceramic component development for fossil energy systems.

  3. Nanowire-Induced Wurtzite InAs Thin Film on Zinc-Blende InAs Substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Jiming

    Nanowire-Induced Wurtzite InAs Thin Film on Zinc-Blende InAs Substrate By Jiming Bao, David C. Bell as that of their substrates. Here, we report on the observation of a wurtzite InAs thin-film structure on a zinc-blende In the wurtzite crystal structure. The bandgap of wurtzite InAs, obtained by low-temperature photoluminescence

  4. Durability of ACERT Engine Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Accomplishments (continued) * Determine the mechanical properties of airfoils from TiAl turbo wheel. * Provide "real" component database for verification of design and life...

  5. Pushing schedule derivation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriquez, B. [Compania Siderurgica Huachipato S.A., Talcahuano (Chile)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

  6. Solubility of carbon dioxide in an aqueous blend of diethanolamine and piperazine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondal, M.K. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility of CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of diethanolamine (DEA) and piperazine (PZ), from mixtures of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, was measured for temperatures and CO{sub 2} partial pressures ranging from (303.14 to 353.14) K and (10.133 to 20.265) kPa, respectively. Measurements were made by a saturation method using a laboratory scale bubble column. The results of CO{sub 2} solubility in liquid are expressed as {alpha}(CO{sub 2}) (mol CO{sub 2}/mol amine) for all experimental runs. A solubility model is developed to correlate and predict the solubility data of CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of DEA and PZ. There is all acceptable degree of agreement between the experimental data of the present study and predictions of the solubility model with an average absolute deviation of less than 4.5%.

  7. Finite element analysis on the fracture of rubber toughened polymer blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.; Mai, Y.W. [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Wu, J. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of rubber particle volume fraction on the constitutive relation and fracture toughness of polymer blends was studied using elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The effect of rubber particle cavitation on the stress-strain state at a crack tip was also investigated. Stress analysis reveals that because of the high rubber bulk modulus, the hydrostatic stress inside the rubber particle is close to that in the adjacent matrix material element. As a result, the rubber particle imposes a severe plastic constraint to the surrounding matrix and limits its plastic strain. Rubber particle cavitation can effectively release the constraint and enable large scale plastic strain to occur. Different failure criteria were used to determine the optimum rubber particle volume fraction for the polymer blends studied in this paper.

  8. Growth of epitaxial iron nitride ultrathin film on zinc-blende gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pak, J.; Lin, W.; Wang, K.; Chinchore, A.; Shi, M.; Ingram, D. C.; Smith, A. R.; Sun, K.; Lucy, J. M.; Hauser, A. J.; Yang, F. Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report the growth of iron nitride on zinc-blende gallium nitride using molecular beam epitaxy. First, zinc-blende GaN is grown on a magnesium oxide substrate having (001) orientation; second, an ultrathin layer of FeN is grown on top of the GaN layer. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction is used to monitor the surface during growth, and a well-defined epitaxial relationship is observed. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy is used to reveal the epitaxial continuity at the gallium nitride-iron nitride interface. Surface morphology of the iron nitride, similar to yet different from that of the GaN substrate, can be described as plateau valley. The FeN chemical stoichiometry is probed using both bulk and surface sensitive methods, and the magnetic properties of the sample are revealed.

  9. Disk-cylinder and disk-sphere nanoparticles from block copolymer blend solution construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jiahua [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Shiyi [Texas A& M University] [Texas A& M University; Zhang, Ke [Northeastern University] [Northeastern University; Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL] [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL] [ORNL; Wooley, Karen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Pochan, Darrin [University of Delaware] [University of Delaware

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers strive to produce nanoparticles with complexity in composition and structure. Although traditional spherical, cylindrical and membranous, or planar, nanostructures are ubiquitous, scientists seek more complicated geometries for potential functionality. Here we report the simple solution construction of multigeometry nanoparticles, disk-sphere and diskcylinder, through a straightforward, molecular-level, blending strategy with binary mixtures of block copolymers. The multigeometry nanoparticles contain disk geometry in the core with either spherical patches along the disk periphery in the case of disk-sphere particles or cylindrical edges and handles in the case of the disk-cylinder particles. The portions of different geometry in the same nanoparticles contain different core block chemistry, thus also defining multicompartments in the nanoparticles. Although the block copolymers chosen for the blends are important for the definition of the final hybrid particles, the control of the kinetic pathway of assembly is critical for successful multigeometry particle construction.

  10. On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

    1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

  11. Use of Savannah River Site facilities for blend down of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, W.E.; McKibben, J.M.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company was asked to assess the use of existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities for the conversion of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). The purpose was to eliminate the weapons potential for such material. Blending HEU with existing supplies of depleted uranium (DU) would produce material with less than 5% U-235 content for use in commercial nuclear reactors. The request indicated that as much as 500 to 1,000 MT of HEU would be available for conversion over a 20-year period. Existing facilities at the SRS are capable of producing LEU in the form of uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}) powder, uranyl nitrate [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] solution, or metal. Additional processing, and additional facilities, would be required to convert the LEU to uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) or uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 3}), the normal inputs for commercial fuel fabrication. This study`s scope does not include the cost for new conversion facilities. However, the low estimated cost per kilogram of blending HEU to LEU in SRS facilities indicates that even with fees for any additional conversion to UO{sub 2} or UF{sub 6}, blend-down would still provide a product significantly below the spot market price for LEU from traditional enrichment services. The body of the report develops a number of possible facility/process combinations for SRS. The primary conclusion of this study is that SRS has facilities available that are capable of satisfying the goals of a national program to blend HEU to below 5% U-235. This preliminary assessment concludes that several facility/process options appear cost-effective. Finally, SRS is a secure DOE site with all requisite security and safeguard programs, personnel skills, nuclear criticality safety controls, accountability programs, and supporting infrastructure to handle large quantities of special nuclear materials (SNM).

  12. Ab initio study of phase transition of boron nitride between zinc-blende and rhombohedral structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, S.; Funashima, H.; Sato, K.; Katayama-Yoshida, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Boron nitride has polymorphs such as zinc-blende (c-BN), wurtzite (w-BN), rhombohedral (r-BN), and graphite-like (h-BN) forms. We simulate the direct conversion of r-BN to c-BN through electronic excitation. In our calculation, the conversion is made possible by increasing the hole concentration to over 0.06/atom. This conversion should be experimentally possible by hole-doping via an electric double layer transistor (EDLT) or capacitor.

  13. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  14. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  15. Recovery and Blend-Down Uranium for Beneficial use in Commercial Reactors - 13373

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magoulas, Virginia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In April 2001 the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) signed an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 33 MT of off-specification (off-spec) highly enriched uranium (HEU) from DOE to TVA for conversion to commercial reactor fuel. Since that time additional surplus off-spec HEU material has been added to the program, making the total approximately 46 MT off-spec HEU. The disposition path for approximately half (23 MT) of this 46 MT of surplus HEU material, was down blending through the H-canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HEU is purified through the H-canyon processes, and then blended with natural uranium (NU) to form low enriched uranium (LEU) solution with a 4.95% U-235 isotopic content. This material was then transported to a TVA subcontractor who converted the solution to uranium oxide and then fabricated into commercial light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This fuel is now powering TVA reactors and supplying electricity to approximately 1 million households in the TVA region. There is still in excess of approximately 10 to 14 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for use in either currently designed light water reactors, ?5% enriched LEU, or be made available for use in subsequent advanced 'fast' reactor fuel designs, ?19% LEU. (authors)

  16. Low-temperature pyrolysis of coal to produce diesel-fuel blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, T.B.; Jett, O.J.; Wu, J.S.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-temperature (623 to 773/sup 0/K) coal pyrolysis was investigated in a bench-scale retort. Factorially designed experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature, coal-particle size, and nitrogen flow rate on the yield of liquid products. Yield of condensable organic products relative to the proximate coal volatile matter increased by 3.1 and 6.4 wt % after increasing nitrogen purge flow rate from 0.465 to 1.68 L/min and retort temperature from 623 to 723/sup 0/K, respectively. The liquid product may be suitable for blending with diesel fuel. The viscosity and density of coal liquids produced at 723/sup 0/K were compared with those of diesel fuel. The coal liquids had a higher carbon-to-hydrogen ratio and a lower aliphatic-to-aromatic ratio than premium quality No. 2 diesel fuel. It was recommended that liquids from coal pyrolysis be blended with diesel fuel to determine stability of the mixture and performance of the blend in internal combustion engines.

  17. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: RECOVERY AND DOWN BLEND URANIUM FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    For over fifty years, the H Canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has performed remotely operated radiochemical separations of irradiated targets to produce materials for national defense. Although the materials production mission has ended, the facility continues to play an important role in the stabilization and safe disposition of proliferable nuclear materials. As part of the US HEU Disposition Program, SRS has been down blending off-specification (off-spec) HEU to produce LEU since 2003. Off-spec HEU contains fission products not amenable to meeting the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) commercial fuel standards prior to purification. This down blended HEU material produced 301 MT of ~5% enriched LEU which has been fabricated into light water reactor fuel being utilized in Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) reactors in Tennessee and Alabama producing economic power. There is still in excess of ~10 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for beneficial use as either ~5% enriched LEU, or for use in subsequent LEU reactors requiring ~19.75% enriched LEU fuel.

  18. Standards for Power Electronic Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standards for Power Electronic Components and Systems EPE 14 ECCE Europe Dr Peter R. Wilson #12;Session Outline · "Standards for Power Electronic Components and Systems" ­ Peter Wilson, IEEE PELS Electronics ­ where next? · Wide Band Gap Devices ­ SiC, GaN etc... · Transformers (ETTT) · Power Modules

  19. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing at realistic conditions (e.g., elevated pressures) and differential conversions (to measure true kinetics, to avoid deactivation, and to avoid condensable concentrations of products in the outlet gas).

  20. High Heat Flux Components Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitley, J.B.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose is the development of the technologies necessary to design, build and operate high heat flux components such as actively cooled limiters, divertor collector plates, R.F. antennas, mirror end cells, mirror halo collectors, direct convertor collectors, and neutral beam dumps. These components require an integrated design that considers the plasma-materials interaction (PMI) issues, heat removal problems and materials issues (including possible low Z coatings and claddings). As a general definition, high heat flux components see heat fluxes ranging from 1 to 100 MW/m/sup 2/. Suitable materials include copper and copper alloys.

  1. Durability of ACERT Engine Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Tensile creep database of commercial TiAl alloys was generated for probabilistic turbo rotor component design and life prediction Daido HIP TiAl Howmet TiAl 16 Managed by...

  2. Technical Issues Associated With the Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends (>E10) in the U.S. Legacy Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, Bechtold [Alliance Technical Services; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Timbario, Tom [Alliance Technical Services; Goodman, Marc [Alliance Technical Services

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in assessing the impact of using intermediate ethanol blends (E10 to E30) in the legacy fleet of vehicles in the U.S. fleet. The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify the issues associated with intermediate ethanol blends with an emphasis on the end-use or vehicle impacts of increased ethanol levels; (2) assess the likely severity of the issues and whether they will become more severe with higher ethanol blend levels, or identify where the issue is most severe; (3) identify where gaps in knowledge exist and what might be required to fill those knowledge gaps; and (4) compile a current and complete bibliography of key references on intermediate ethanol blends. This effort is chiefly a critical review and assessment of available studies. Subject matter experts (authors and selected expert contacts) were consulted to help with interpretation and assessment. The scope of this report is limited to technical issues. Additional issues associated with consumer, vehicle manufacturer, and regulatory acceptance of ethanol blends greater than E10 are not considered. The key findings from this study are given.

  3. The kinematic component of the cosmological redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micha? Chodorowski

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely believed that the cosmological redshift is not a Doppler shift. However, Bunn & Hogg have recently pointed out that to settle properly this problem, one has to transport parallelly the velocity four-vector of a distant galaxy to the observer's position. Performing such a transport along the null geodesic of photons arriving from the galaxy, they found that the cosmological redshift is purely kinematic. Here we argue that one should rather transport the velocity four-vector along the geodesic connecting the points of intersection of the world-lines of the galaxy and the observer with the hypersurface of constant cosmic time. We find that the resulting relation between the transported velocity and the redshift of arriving photons is not given by a relativistic Doppler formula. Instead, for small redshifts it coincides with the well known non-relativistic decomposition of the redshift into a Doppler (kinematic) component and a gravitational one. We perform such a decomposition for arbitrary large redshifts and derive a formula for the kinematic component of the cosmological redshift, valid for any FLRW cosmology. In particular, in a universe with Omega_m = 0.24 and Omega_Lambda = 0.76, a quasar at a redshift 6, at the time of emission of photons reaching us today had the recession velocity v = 0.997c. This can be contrasted with v = 0.96c, had the redshift been entirely kinematic. Thus, for recession velocities of such high-redshift sources, the effect of deceleration of the early Universe clearly prevails over the effect of its relatively recent acceleration. Last but not least, we show that the so-called proper recession velocities of galaxies, commonly used in cosmology, are in fact radial components of the galaxies' four-velocity vectors. As such, they can indeed attain superluminal values, but should not be regarded as real velocities.

  4. Advanced Calculus 2 1. The derivative: Let Rm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logan, David

    , . . . , m). (9) We assume the transformation (9) to be invertible, that is, we can for the xj as functionsAdvanced Calculus 2 1. The derivative: Let Rm have components j and x: Rm Rn by x() = x1 matrix. You can think of A as a linear function taking Rm to Rm . We denote by AB the image of B under A

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Blend Definition An ethanol blend is defined as a blended motor fuel containing ethyl alcohol that is at least 99% pure, derived from agricultural products, and blended exclusively...

  6. Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, H. [Physikalische Chemie I, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Braun-Unkhoff, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased. (author)

  7. Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

  8. The Use of Triangular-Shaped PV Arrays to Better Blend into Historical Structures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When considering the installation of a solar PV array on a designated historical structure, placement of each solar panel requires extra attention to aesthetic considerations. If the solar array cannot be installed behind the structure or “hidden” on a roof plane that is not visible from the public street or sidewalk, it can sometimes be installed as an architectural feature that blends into the historical structure. One way to do this is to utilize triangular-shaped PV panels that conform with the building’s roof lines.

  9. Failure Analysis of Ceramic Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.W. Morris

    2000-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramics are being considered for a wide range of structural applications due to their low density and their ability to retain strength at high temperatures. The inherent brittleness of monolithic ceramics requires a departure from the deterministic design philosophy utilized to analyze metallic structural components. The design program ''Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life'' (CARES/LIFE) developed by NASA Lewis Research Center uses a probabilistic approach to predict the reliability of monolithic components under operational loading. The objective of this study was to develop an understanding of the theories used by CARES/LIFE to predict the reliability of ceramic components and to assess the ability of CARES/LIFE to accurately predict the fast fracture behavior of monolithic ceramic components. A finite element analysis was performed to determine the temperature and stress distribution of a silicon carbide O-ring under diametral compression. The results of the finite element analysis were supplied as input into CARES/LIFE to determine the fast fracture reliability of the O-ring. Statistical material strength parameters were calculated from four-point flexure bar test data. The predicted reliability showed excellent correlation with O-ring compression test data indicating that the CARES/LIFE program can be used to predict the reliability of ceramic components subjected to complicated stress states using material properties determined from simple uniaxial tensile tests.

  10. The design and management of system components for in situ methanotrophic bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombard, K.H. [Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Borthen, J.W. [ECOVA Corp., Aiken, SC (United States); Hazen, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The successful operation of an in situ bioremediation system is inherent within its design. Well-organized system components enable ease of maintenance, limited down time, and relatively rapid data acquisition. The design effort in this project focused on injection of a low-pressure air/methane mixture into a horizontal well below the water table, a methane-blending system that provided control of the injected mixture, redundant safety interlocks, vapor-phase extraction from a second horizontal well, and an off-gas treatment system that provided efficient thermal catalytic oxidation of the extracted contaminant vapors. The control instrumentation provided sufficient redundancies to allow the system to remain in operation in the event of a component failure, and equally important, the safe shut down of the system should any designed safety parameters be exceeded (i.e., high methane concentration). Final design approval took into consideration the reliability of the equipment and the components specified. Product knowledge and proper application limited the risk of a component or system failure while providing a safe, efficient, and cost-effective remediation system. Microprocessor data acquisition and system control were integrated with an autodialer to provide 24 hr emergency response and operation without on-site supervision. This integrated system also insured accurate data analysis and minimum downtime. Since operations commenced, the system has operated a total of 7,760 hours out of the possible 8,837 hours available. This equates to an operating efficiency of 87.8%.

  11. Primary Components of Binomial Ideals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eser, Zekiye

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 2.4 A band graph with an infinite component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2.5 The band graph G6pMq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2.6 Slice graphs for IpBq #16; xx4z #1; y4, x7z #1; y7y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2... decomposition in charpkq #16; 0 and the primary components are Ii1,...,ir . The following example illustrates how the operations defined above work. All the computations are performed using the computer algebra system Singular, [16]. Example 1.45. Let D #16; #20...

  12. Transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

  13. Fixed Bed Countercurrent Low Temperature Gasification of Dairy Biomass and Coal-Dairy Biomass Blends Using Air-Steam as Oxidizer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordillo Ariza, Gerardo

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    W) countercurrent fixed bed gasifier was rebuilt to perform gasification studies under quasisteady state conditions using dairy biomass (DB) as feedstock and various air-steam mixtures as oxidizing sources. A DB-ash (from DB) blend and a DB-Wyoming coal blend were...

  14. Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

    2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

  15. Effect of Blending on High-Pressure Laminar Flame Speed Measurements, Markstein Lengths, and Flame Stability of Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowry, William Baugh

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . Hydrocarbon blends of methane, ethane, and propane make up a large portion of natural gas and it has been shown that dimethyl ether can be used as a supplement or in its pure form for gas turbine combustion. Because of this, a fundamental understanding... include the flame speeds for binary blends of methane, ethane, propane, and dimethyl ether performed at elevated pressures, up to 10-atm initial pressure, using a spherically expanding flame in a constant-volume vessel. Also included in this thesis is a...

  16. Transition between wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN: An effect of deposition condition of molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, B. M.; Xie, M. H.; Wu, H. S.; Wang, N.; Tong, S. Y. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tang, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    GaN exists in both wurtzite and zinc-blende phases and the growths of the two on its (0001) or (111) surfaces are achieved by choosing proper deposition conditions of molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). At low substrate temperatures but high gallium fluxes, metastable zinc-blende GaN films are obtained, whereas at high temperatures and/or using high nitrogen fluxes, equilibrium wurtzite phase GaN epilayers resulted. This dependence of crystal structure on substrate temperature and source flux is not affected by deposition rate. Rather, the initial stage nucleation kinetics plays a primary role in determining the crystallographic structures of epitaxial GaN by MBE.

  17. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschner, Florian, E-mail: florian.deschner@gmail.com [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Neubauer, Jürgen [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)] [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 °C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the C–S–H and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 °C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 °C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the C–S–H. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the C–S–H and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: •The reaction of quartz powder at 80 °C strongly enhances the compressive strength. •Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 °C was found after 2 days. •Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. •Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. •Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 °C correlates with sulphate content of C–S–H.

  18. Experimental investigation of burning rates of pure ethanol and ethanol blended fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parag, Shintre; Raghavan, Vasudevan [Thermodynamics and Combustion Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu, 600036 (India)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental experimental study to determine the burning rates of ethanol and ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Pure liquid ethanol or its blends with liquid fossil fuels such as gasoline or diesel, has been transpired to the surface a porous sphere using an infusion pump. Burning of the fuel takes place on the surface of the porous sphere, which is placed in an air stream blowing upwards with a uniform velocity at atmospheric pressure and temperature under normal gravity conditions. At low air velocities, when ignited, a flame envelopes the sphere. For each sphere size, air stream velocity and fuel type, the fuel feed rate will vary and the same is recorded as the burning rate for that configuration. The flame stand-off distances from the sphere surface are measured by post-processing the digital image of the flame photograph using suitable imaging software. The transition velocity at which the flame moves and establishes itself at the wake region of the sphere has been determined for different diameters and fuel types. Correlations of these parameters are also presented. (author)

  19. 95 Production and Testing of Coconut Oil Biodiesel Fuel and its Blend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oguntola J Alamu; Opeoluwa Dehinbo; Adedoyin M Sulaiman; Oguntola J. Alamu; Opeoluwa Dehinbo; Adedoyin M. Sulaiman

    Many researchers have successfully worked on generating energy from different alternative sources including solar and biological sources such as the conversion of trapped energy from sunlight to electricity and conversion of some renewable agricultural products to fuel. This work considers the use of coconut oil for the production of alternative renewable and environmental friendly biodiesel fuel as an alternative to conventional diesel fuel. Test quantities of coconut oil biodiesel were produced through transesterification reaction using 100g coconut oil, 20.0 % ethanol (wt % coconut oil), 0.8% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 65°C reaction temperature and 120 min. reaction time. The experiment was carried out three times and average results evaluated. Low yield of the biodiesel (10.4%) was obtained. The coconut oil biodiesel produced was subsequently blended with petroleum diesel and characterized as alternative diesel fuel through some ASTM standard fuel tests. The products were further evaluated by comparing specific gravity and viscosity of the biodiesel blend, the raw coconut oil and conventional petroleum diesel.

  20. Updated July 2014 PROGRAM COMPONENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantaleone, Jim

    with a Student Affairs administrator and meet at least three times per semester. Students learn from mentors what in various activities. Learning occurs in different ways and through different avenues, therefore it is important to complete all of the following components: RETREATS are all day interactive activities focused

  1. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  2. Efficient speaker verification using Gaussian mixture model component clustering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Leon, Phillip L. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); McClanahan, Richard D.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In speaker verification (SV) systems that employ a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to make decisions on a supervector derived from Gaussian mixture model (GMM) component mean vectors, a significant portion of the computational load is involved in the calculation of the a posteriori probability of the feature vectors of the speaker under test with respect to the individual component densities of the universal background model (UBM). Further, the calculation of the sufficient statistics for the weight, mean, and covariance parameters derived from these same feature vectors also contribute a substantial amount of processing load to the SV system. In this paper, we propose a method that utilizes clusters of GMM-UBM mixture component densities in order to reduce the computational load required. In the adaptation step we score the feature vectors against the clusters and calculate the a posteriori probabilities and update the statistics exclusively for mixture components belonging to appropriate clusters. Each cluster is a grouping of multivariate normal distributions and is modeled by a single multivariate distribution. As such, the set of multivariate normal distributions representing the different clusters also form a GMM. This GMM is referred to as a hash GMM which can be considered to a lower resolution representation of the GMM-UBM. The mapping that associates the components of the hash GMM with components of the original GMM-UBM is referred to as a shortlist. This research investigates various methods of clustering the components of the GMM-UBM and forming hash GMMs. Of five different methods that are presented one method, Gaussian mixture reduction as proposed by Runnall's, easily outperformed the other methods. This method of Gaussian reduction iteratively reduces the size of a GMM by successively merging pairs of component densities. Pairs are selected for merger by using a Kullback-Leibler based metric. Using Runnal's method of reduction, we were able to achieve a factor of 2.77 reduction in a posteriori probability calculations with no loss in accuracy when the original UBM consisted of 256 component densities. When clustering was implemented with a 1024 component UBM, we achieved a computation reduction of 5 with no loss in accuracy and a reduction by a factor of 10 with less than 2.4% relative loss in accuracy.

  3. Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Plan to complete the experiential component as a requirement for the concentration in Nanotechnology to complete the experiential component for the Nanotechnology Concentration by: Research Experience in Lab

  4. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Chou, Y. S.; Cramer, Carolyn N.

    2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Chromium-containing iron-based alloys Crofer22 APU and SS 441 and nickel-based alloy Inconel600, all commonly used in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack as interconnect materials, heat exchanger and gas feeding pipes, were exposed at 700-850oC to a synthetic coal gas containing ?2 ppm phosphine, arsine, sulfur and antimony. Samples were characterized by SEM/EDS and XRD to monitor the secondary phase formation. Exposure of ferritic stainless steels to P led to the formation of surface Cr-Mn-P-O and Fe-P-O compounds and increased temperatures accelerated the rate of interactions. Fewer interactions were observed after exposures to As and Sb. No sulfur containing compounds were found. Nickel-based alloy exhibited much stronger interactions with As and P in comparison with ferritic steels and the arsenic interactions were particularly strong. The difference between the iron- and nickel-based alloys is explained by the different chemistry and morphology of the scales grown on the alloy surfaces in coal gas. While P and As interactions with the metallic parts in the SOFC are likely to mitigate the nickel/zirconia anode poisoning, the other degradation mechanisms should be taken into consideration to avoid potential stack failures. Manganese spinels were found to be effective as phosphorus getters and could be used in coal gas cleanup.

  5. Small-angle scattering investigations of poly([epsilon]-caprolactone)/polycarbonate blends -- 2: Small-angle X-ray and light scattering study of semicrystalline/semicrystalline and semicrystalline/amorphous blend morphologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Y.W.; Stein, R.S. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering); Lin, J.S.; Wignall, G.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

    1994-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystalline morphologies of poly([epsilon]-caprolactone) (PCL) and polycarbonate (PC) blends were probed with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle light scattering (SALS). Quantitative SAXS analysis suggested that random mixing of PCL and PC lamellae occurred in the semicrystalline/semicrystalline state. Two distinct regions of incorporation were identified in the semicrystalline/amorphous state. It was found that PCL was rejected from the PC interlamellar region in the PCL-rich blends. In contrast, PCL was incorporated into the amorphous phase between the crystalline lamellae in the PC-rich blends. This transition from interlamellar exclusion to interlamellar inclusion may be related to the glass transition temperatures or the mobility of the blends. It is proposed that the mode of incorporation or exclusion is governed by the competition between entropy and diffusion. Additionally, SALS coupled with optical microscopy indicated that PC is an effective nucleating agent for PCL crystallization as manifested by the reduction of PCL spherulitic size with the addition of PC.

  6. Uranium Weapons Components Successfully Dismantled | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home About Us Our History NNSA Timeline Uranium Weapons Components Successfully Dismantled Uranium Weapons Components Successfully...

  7. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Glenn J. (Lynchburg, VA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  8. Processing of Activated Core Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friske, A.; Gestermann, G.; Finkbeiner, R.

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Used activated components from the core of a NPP like control elements, water channels from a BWR, and others like in-core measurement devices need to be processed into waste forms suitable for interim storage, and for the final waste repository. Processing of the activated materials can be undertaken by underwater cutting and packaging or by cutting and high-pressure compaction in a hot cell. A hot cell is available in Germany as a joint investment between GNS and the Karlsruhe Research Center at the latter's site. Special transport equipment is available to transport the components ''as-is'' to the hot cell. Newly designed underwater processing equipment has been designed, constructed, and operated for the special application of NPP decommissioning. This equipment integrates an underwater cutting device with an 80 ton force underwater in-drum compactor.

  9. Stack Components Nancy L. Garland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /manufacturing · Durability · Electrode performance · Thermal and water management #12;Stack Component Targets 500 @ 0.75 VmA/cm2Performance on O2 400 @ 0.8 VmA/cm2Performance on H2 10$/kWCostMEA 5000hoursDurability 1000ppm-) · In collaboration with LANL (K. Weisbrod) and NREL (H. Wang) · Initial testing at General Motors indicates nitrided

  10. Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

  11. Excitonic properties of strained wurtzite and zinc-blende GaNAlxGa1xN quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fonoberov, Vladimir

    Excitonic properties of strained wurtzite and zinc-blende GaNÕAlxGa1ÀxN quantum dots Vladimir A 2003 We investigate exciton states theoretically in strained GaN/AlN quantum dots with wurtzite WZ of GaN QDs.1­8 Molecu- lar beam epitaxial growth in the Stranski­Krastanov mode of wurtzite WZ Ga

  12. Optical properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaNAlN quantum dots Vladimir A. Fonoberova)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fonoberov, Vladimir

    Optical properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaNÕAlN quantum dots Vladimir A. Fonoberova; published 20 August 2004 We investigate theoretically and compare optical properties of wurtzite and zincN/AlN interface governs optical properties of wurtzite quantum dots while having a small effect on zinc

  13. Excitonic complexes in single zinc-blende GaN/AlN quantum dots grown by droplet epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    -assembled wurtzite GaN QDs1 and up to 300 K in site-controlled wurtzite nanowire QDs.2 Less mature than their wurtzite counterparts, single self-assembled zinc- blende (ZB) GaN QDs already show good prospects in terms to 100 K.5 They even present several advantages over self-assembled wurtzite GaN QDs: shorter radiative

  14. Universality of electron accumulation at wurtzite c-and a-plane and zinc-blende InN surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    Universality of electron accumulation at wurtzite c- and a-plane and zinc- blende InN surfaces P. D 27 August 2007 Electron accumulation is found to occur at the surface of wurtzite 112¯0 , 0001.6 Experimental studies to date have focused on wurtzite c-plane surfaces,1­3,7 although pre- vious

  15. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

  16. Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

  17. Physical and chemical characteristics of an interesterified blend of butterfat and cottonseed oil with possible industrial applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rashidi, Nabil

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    interest in milkfat research in other parts of the world. In 1984, a symposium was held in Sweden that dealt exclusively with milkfat and its modification. Emphasis was placed on milkfat-vegetable oil blends. These products are legally sold now in some...

  18. Properties, Behavior and Material Compatibility of Hydrogen, Natural Gas and Blends — Materials Testing and Design Requirements for Hydrogen Components and Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  19. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark J. Rigali; Mike L. Fulcher

    2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    During the reporting period, work continued on development of formulations using the materials down-selected from the initially identified contenders for the fibrous monolith wear resistant components. In the previous reporting period, a two-stage binder removal process was developed that resulted in prototype parts free of voids and other internal defects. During the current reporting period, work was performed to characterize the two-stage binder removal process for WC-Co based FM material systems. Use of this process has resulted in the fabrication of defect free sintered WC-Co FM bodies, with minimal free carbon porosity and densities approaching 100% theoretical. With the elimination of free carbon porosity and other binder removal process related defects, development work focused on optimizing the densification and eliminating defects observed in WC-Co based FM consolidated by pressureless sintering. Shrinkage of the monolithic core and shell materials used in the WC-Co based FM system was measured, and differences in material shrinkage were identified as a potential cause of cell boundary cracking observed in sintered parts. Re-formulation of material blends for this system was begun, with the goal of eliminating mechanical stresses during sintering by matching the volumetric shrinkage of the core and shell materials. Thirty-three 7/8 inch drill bit inserts (WC-Co(6%)/WC-Co(16%) FM) were hot pressed during the reporting period. Six of these inserts were delivered for field-testing by Superior Rock Bit during the upcoming reporting period. In addition, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiCN FM cutting tool inserts were fabricated, and cutting tests performed.

  20. A Symmetric Free Energy Based Multi-Component Lattice Boltzmann Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qun Li; A. J. Wagner

    2007-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a lattice Boltzmann algorithm based on an underlying free energy that allows the simulation of the dynamics of a multicomponent system with an arbitrary number of components. The thermodynamic properties, such as the chemical potential of each component and the pressure of the overall system, are incorporated in the model. We derived a symmetrical convection diffusion equation for each component as well as the Navier Stokes equation and continuity equation for the overall system. The algorithm was verified through simulations of binary and ternary systems. The equilibrium concentrations of components of binary and ternary systems simulated with our algorithm agree well with theoretical expectations.

  1. Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  2. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  3. Complex higher order derivative theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico)

    2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  4. Rotor component displacement measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mercer, Gary D.; Li, Ming C.; Baum, Charles R.

    2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A measuring system for measuring axial displacement of a tube relative to an axially stationary component in a rotating rotor assembly includes at least one displacement sensor adapted to be located normal to a longitudinal axis of the tube; an insulated cable system adapted for passage through the rotor assembly; a rotatable proximitor module located axially beyond the rotor assembly to which the cables are connected; and a telemetry system operatively connected to the proximitor module for sampling signals from the proximitor module and forwarding data to a ground station.

  5. Montena Components | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLu anMicrogreen PolymersModularMontana-DakotaMontena Components

  6. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

  7. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber a-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile a-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fully synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fuel.

  8. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  9. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  10. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  11. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  12. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility (Figure 1) was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR facility is on high, well-drained ground, about 30 meters above the water table. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. It was not a defense-related facility like the materials production reactors at SRS. The reactor was moderated with heavy water and was rated at 50 megawatts thermal power. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In 1965, fuel assemblies were removed, systems that contained heavy water were drained, fluid piping systems were drained, deenergized and disconnected and the spent fuel basin was drained and dried. The doors of the reactor facility were shut and it wasn't until 10 years later that decommissioning plans were considered and ultimately postponed due to budget constraints. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR again. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. The $1.6 billion allocation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to SRS for site clean up at SRS has opened the doors to the HWCTR again - this time for final decommissioning. During the lifetime of HWCTR, 36 different fuel assemblies were tested in the facility. Ten of these experienced cladding failures as operational capabilities of the different designs were being established. In addition, numerous spills of heavy water occurred within the facility. Currently, radiation and radioactive contamination levels are low within HWCTR with most of the radioactivity contained within the reactor vessel. There are no known insults to the environment, however with the increasing deterioration of the facility, the possibility exists that contamination could spread outside the facility if it is not decommissioned. An interior panoramic view of the ground floor elevation taken in August 2009 is shown in Figure 2. The foreground shows the transfer coffin followed by the reactor vessel and control rod drive platform in the center. Behind the reactor vessel is the fuel pool. Above the ground level are the polar crane and the emergency deluge tank at the top of the dome. Note the considerable rust and degradation of the components and the interior of the containment building. Alternative studies have concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning is to remove the reactor vessel, steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. Characterization studies along with transport models have concluded that the remaining below grade equipment that is left in place including the transfer coffin will not contribute any significant contamination to the environment in the future. The below grade space will be grouted in place. A concrete cover will be placed over the remaining footprint and the groundwater will be monitored for an indefinite period to ensure compliance with environmental regulations. The schedule for completion of decommissioning is late FY2011. This paper describes the concepts planned in order to remove the major components including the dome, the reactor vessel (RV), the two steam generators (SG), and relocating the transfer coffin (TC).

  13. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 1: Refrigerant Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark O. McLinden; Arno Laesecke; Eric W. Lemmon; Joseph W. Magee; Richard A. Perkins

    2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of measuring thermodynamic properties R125, R410A and R507A, measuring viscosity and thermal conductivity of R410A and R507A and comparing data to mixture models in NIST REFPROP database. For R125, isochoric (constant volume) heat capacity was measured over a temperature range of 305 to 397 K (32 to 124 C) at pressures up to 20 MPa. For R410A, isochoric heat capacity was measured along 8 isochores with a temperature range of 303 to 397 K (30 to 124 C) at pressures up to 18 MPa. Pressure-density-temperature was also measured along 14 isochores over a temperature range of 200 to 400 K (-73 to 127 C) at pressures up to 35 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. For R507A, viscosity was measured along 5 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 421 K (28 to 148 C) at pressures up to 83 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. Mixture models were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures containing R32, R125, R134a and/or R125. The form of the model is the same for all the blends considered, but blend-specific mixing functions are required for the blends R32/125 (R410 blends) and R32/134a (a constituent binary of R407 blends). The systems R125/134a, R125/143a, R134a/143a, and R134a/152a share a common, generalized mixing function. The new equation of state for R125 is believed to be the most accurate and comprehensive formulation of the properties for that fluid. Likewise, the mixture model developed in this work is the latest state-of-the-art for thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant blends. These models were incorporated into version 7 of NIST REFPROP database.

  14. Residual activation of accelerator components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhno, I.L.; Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to calculate residual activation of accelerator components is presented. A model for residual dose estimation for thick objects made of arbitrary composite materials for arbitrary irradiation and cooling times is employed in this study. A scaling procedure is described to apply the model to thin objects with linear dimensions less than a fraction of a nuclear interaction length. The scaling has been performed for various materials and corresponding factors have been determined for objects of certain shapes (slab, solid and hollow cylinder) that can serve as models for beam pipes, magnets and collimators. Both contact residual dose and dose attenuation in the air outside irradiated objects are considered. A relation between continuous and impulse irradiation is accounted for as well.

  15. Derivative

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved:AdministrationAnalysisDarby/%2AO 474.2 Chg U.S.09 | Nationaldocument

  16. Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses: October 15, 2002--September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Toro, A.; Frailey, M.; Lynch, F.; Munshi, S.; Wayne, S.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report covers literature and laboratory analyses to identify modification requirements of a Cummins Westport B Gas Plus engine for transit buses using a hydrogen/compressed natural fuel blend.

  17. Load Component Database of Household Appliances and Small Office Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu; Puyleart, Francis; Yang, Steve

    2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the development of a load component database for household appliances and office equipment. To develop more accurate load models at both transmission and distribution level, a better understanding on the individual behaviors of home appliances and office equipment under power system voltage and frequency variations becomes more and more critical. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has begun a series of voltage and frequency tests against home appliances and office equipments since 2005. Since 2006, Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has collaborated with BPA personnel and developed a load component database based on these appliance testing results to facilitate the load model validation work for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In this paper, the testing procedure and testing results are first presented. The load model parameters are then derived and grouped. Recommendations are given for aggregating the individual appliance models to feeder level, the models of which are used for distribution and transmission level studies.

  18. Valence band density of states of zinc-blende and wurtzite InN from x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    Valence band density of states of zinc-blende and wurtzite InN from x-ray photoemission for wurtzite InN 112¯0 are shown to yield a VB-DOS similar to that of zinc-blende InN, although the nonzero the thermodynamically stable phase is the wurtzite 2H polymorph4 wz-InN , judicious choice of substrate material

  19. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  20. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of sludge and the level of dilution for the mixture. (5) Blending the size-reduced zeolite into larger quantities of sludge can reduce the amount of preferential settling. (6) Periodic dilution or resuspension due to sludge washing or other mixing requirements will increase the chances of preferential settling of the zeolite solids. (7) Mixtures of Purex sludge and size-reduced zeolite did not produce yield stresses greater than 200 Pascals for settling times less than thirty days. Most of the sludge-zeolite blends did not exceed 50 Pascals. These mixtures should be removable by current pump technology if sufficient velocities can be obtained. (8) The settling rate of the sludge-zeolite mixtures is a function of the ionic strength (or supernate density) and the zeolite- sludge mixing ratio. (9) Simulant tests indicate that leaching of Si may be an issue for the processed Tank 19 mound material. (10) Floating zeolite fines observed in water for the jet-eductor system and size-reduced zeolite were not observed when the size-reduced zeolite was blended with caustic solutions, indicating that the caustic solutions cause the fines to agglomerate. Based on the test programs described in this report, the potential for successfully removing Tank 18/19 mound material from Tank 7 with the current slurry pump technology requires the reduction of the particle size of the Tank 18/19 mound material.

  1. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM); Odinek, Judy G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  2. Reliability Analysis of Microelectronic Components and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Reliability Analysis of Microelectronic Components and Materials Increasing numbers on the structural integrity of embedded micro- electronic components and assemblies. Improved knowledge and modeling methods are critical for the reliable use of electronic packages. In particular, since the advent

  3. Predicting problems caused by component upgrades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCamant, Stephen

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a new, automatic technique to assess whether replacing a component of a software system by a purportedly compatible component may change the behavior of the system. The technique operates before ...

  4. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

  5. Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

  6. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, Myles A. (Falmouth, MA); Morris, Robert S. (Fairhaven, MA)

    1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

  7. Outsourcing the Design of Structural Building Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swearingin, Adam V.

    2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    component design work stateside. vi 1 Introduction The outsourcing of structural building component design has recently become available to component manufacturers in the United States. These manufacturers of metal plate connected (MPC) wood roof... of the effectiveness of outsourcing as a means of fulfilling the design requirements of MPC wood trusses. Although 1 this report does not evaluate other structural building components (i.e., i- joists, engineered wood beams and wall panels), the analysis provided...

  8. Tools to Implement MPDV Component Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pena, M; Daykin, E; Emmit, R; Garza, A; Gibo, M; Hutchins, M; Perez, C; Teel, M

    2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This slide show presents work on photonic Doppler velocimetry multiplexing techniques, particularly as regards measurements on components.

  9. Tensor Principal Component Analysis via Convex Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo Jiang

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 11, 2012 ... Keywords: Tensor; Principal Component Analysis; Low Rank; Nuclear Norm; Semidefinite Programming Relaxation. Category 1: Convex and ...

  10. is growing need analyze and optimize standby component power digital circuits designed portable batterypowered applications. Since these circuits remain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudge, Trevor

    Abstract There is growing need analyze and optimize stand­by component power digital circuits dynamic computational workloads. Analytical models leakage current, dynamic power, frequency a function supply voltage body derived and verified with SPICE simulation. Given these models, show how derive

  11. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of Zinc-Blende FeN(111) on Wurtzite GaN(0001)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of Zinc-Blende FeN(111) on Wurtzite GaN(0001) Wenzhi Lin, Jeongihm], but not hexagonal (wurtzite) GaN, a fast-developing semiconductor material with important technological applicationsN on wurtzite GaN(0001), by employing e-beam evaporation in an ultra-high vacuum MBE cham- ber. The FeN films

  12. LIRMM UM II Component based Software Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 LIRMM UM II Component based Software Architecture of Robot Controllers R. Passama, D. Andreu, C component approaches and robot control architectures. This methodology defines a process that guides architecture, useful for analysis and integration, and a dedicated component-based language, focusing

  13. Manufacturing complex silica aerogel target components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Defriend Obrey, Kimberly Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Day, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Espinoza, Brent F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hatch, Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patterson, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feng, Shihai [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogel is a material used in numerous components in High Energy Density Physics targets. In the past these components were molded into the proper shapes. Artifacts left in the parts from the molding process, such as contour irregularities from shrinkage and density gradients caused by the skin, have caused LANL to pursue machining as a way to make the components.

  14. Principal Components Analysis for Binary Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seokho

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Formulations of Principal Components Analysis . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Generalization of Sparse Principal Components Analysis to Binary Variables... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3 Review of Estimation Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4 Overview of Dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 II SPARSE PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS FOR BI- NARY DATA...

  15. Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Selectivity, that is, to produce one molecule out of many other thermodynamically feasible product molecules, is the key concept to develop 'clean manufacturing' processes that do not produce byproducts (green chemistry). Small differences in potential energy barriers for elementary reaction steps control which reaction channel is more likely to yield the desired product molecule (selectivity), instead of the overall activation energy for the reaction that controls turnover rates (activity). Recent studies have demonstrated the atomic- or molecular-level tailoring of parameters such as the surface structures of active sites that give rise to nanoparticle size and shape dependence of turnover rates and reaction selectivities. Here, we highlight seven molecular components that influence reaction selectivities. These include: surface structure, adsorbate-induced restructuring, adsorbate mobility, reaction intermediates, surface composition, charge transport, and oxidation states for model metal single crystal and colloid nanoparticle catalysts. We show examples of their functioning and describe in-situ instruments that permit us to investigate their roles in surface reactions.

  16. Method of using infrared radiation for assembling a first component with a second component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Whitson, Barry G. (Corryton, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of assembling a first component for assembly with a second component involves a heating device which includes an enclosure having a cavity for inserting a first component. An array of infrared energy generators is disposed within the enclosure. At least a portion of the first component is inserted into the cavity, exposed to infrared energy and thereby heated to a temperature wherein the portion of the first component is sufficiently softened and/or expanded for assembly with a second component.

  17. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  18. Quaternion Derivatives: The GHR Calculus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongpo Xu; Cyrus Jahanchahi; Clive C. Took; Danilo P. Mandic

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Quaternion derivatives in the mathematical literature are typically defined only for analytic (regular) functions. However, in engineering problems, functions of interest are often real-valued and thus not analytic, such as the standard cost function. The HR calculus is a convenient way to calculate formal derivatives of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables, however, both the HR and other functional calculus in quaternion analysis have encountered an essential technical obstacle, that is, the traditional product rule is invalid due to the non- commutativity of the quaternion algebra. To address this issue, a generalized form of the HR derivative is proposed based on a general orthogonal system. The so introduced generalization, called the generalized HR (GHR) calculus, encompasses not just the left- and right-hand versions of quaternion derivative, but also enables solutions to some long standing problems, such as the novel product rule, the chain rule, the mean-valued theorem and Taylor's theorem. At the core of the proposed approach is the quaternion rotation, which can naturally be applied to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples on using the GHR calculus in adaptive signal processing support the analysis.

  19. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  20. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

  1. Correlations of Polyimides and Blended Polyimides for High Temperature Gas Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Klaehn; Christopher J. Orme; Thomas A. Luther; Eric S. Peterson; Jagoda M. Urban-Klaehn

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance polymers are of interest for high temperature gas separations, especially for the sequestration of carbon dioxide. A new family of high performance imide polymers has been identified as a successful membrane capture material. VTEC polyimides possess desired thermal properties (up to 500 °C) along with being robust and flexible even after multiple thermal cycles (up to 400 °C). Polyimides (PI) are excellent materials for high selectivity for smaller kinetic diameter gases such as H2 and CO2; however, they have low fluxes. We blended small amounts of different polymers with VTEC polyimide, which changes the fluxes. Another critical problem when working with glassy polymers is their moisture content. It has been found that water entrapped within the polymer matrix (left over from the solvent, or physisorbed) can also cause the polymer to change dramatically. Additionally presence of molecular water in the polymer’s void volume has been validated through Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy. In this presentation, polymer characterization and gas-separation testing results will be discussed.

  2. Expandable Metal Liner For Downhole Components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe R. (Provo, UT)

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A liner for an annular downhole component is comprised of an expandable metal tube having indentations along its surface. The indentations are formed in the wall of the tube either by drawing the tube through a die, by hydroforming, by stamping, or roll forming and may extend axially, radially, or spirally along its wall. The indentations accommodate radial and axial expansion of the tube within the downhole component. The tube is inserted into the annular component and deformed to match an inside surface of the component. The tube may be expanded using a hydroforming process or by drawing a mandrel through the tube. The tube may be expanded in such a manner so as to place it in compression against the inside wall of the component. The tube is useful for improving component hydraulics, shielding components from contamination, inhibiting corrosion, and preventing wear to the downhole component during use. It may also be useful for positioning conduit and insulated conductors within the component. An insulating material may be disposed between the tube and the component in order to prevent galvanic corrosion of the downhole component.

  3. Planck 2015 results. X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Alves, M I R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planck has mapped the microwave sky in nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz in temperature and seven bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive a consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided with angular resolutions varying between 7.5 arcmin and 1 deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, wi...

  4. Infinite propagation speed for a two component Camassa-Holm equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    which are initially compactly supported will retain this prop- erty throughout their time of evolution with the evolution of certain solutions to a recently derived two-component generalisation of the Camassa-Holm (CH of tsunami waves (see however also the discussion in the papers [15, 17]). The CH equation contains a very

  5. Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunch, Wilbur L. (Richland, WA); Schenter, Robert E. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

  6. NDE Development for ACERT Engine Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ACERT ENGINE COMPONENTS J. G. Sun Argonne National Laboratory Collaborators: Jeff Jensen, Nate Phillips Caterpillar, Inc. HT Lin, Mike Kass, D. Ray Johnson Oak Ridge National...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: understanding hydrogen components

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrogen components Energy Department Awards 7M to Advance Hydrogen Storage Systems On June 12, 2014, in CRF, Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems, Facilities,...

  8. Structural Automotive Components from Composite Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Focal Project 4: Structural Automotive Components from Composite Materials Libby Berger (General Motors) John Jaranson (Ford) Presented by Hamid Kia (General Motors) May 16, 2012...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Materials & Components Compatibility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Personnel Water Power in the News Geothermal Advanced Bit Development Geothermal Energy & Drilling Technology Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Materials & Components...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Materials and Components Compatibilitiy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this is a protected post. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program On November 9, 2010, in Materials & Components Compatibility Hydrogen Behavior Quantitative Risk Assessment Hydrogen...

  11. Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts using non-light-water reactor (LWR) coolants such as liquid metal, helium, or liquid salt may provide a longer-term alternative to more conventional LWR-based concepts. The economics of AdvSMRs will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional LWRs and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance costs. Therefore, achieving the full benefits of AdvSMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management. In this context, prognostic health management of passive components in AdvSMRs can play a key role in enabling the economic deployment of AdvSMRs. In this paper, the background of AdvSMRs is discussed from which requirements for PHM systems are derived. The particle filter technique is proposed as a prognostics framework for AdvSMR passive components and the suitability of the particle filter technique is illustrated by using it to forecast thermal creep degradation using a physics-of-failure model and based on a combination of types of measurements conceived for passive AdvSMR components.

  12. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  13. Absolute kinematics of radio source components in the complete S5 polar cap sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Perez-Torres; J. M. Marcaide; J. C. Guirado; E. Ros

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We observed the thirteen extragalactic radio sources of the complete S5 polar cap sample at 15.4 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array, on 27 July 1999 (1999.57) and 15 June 2000 (2000.46). We present the maps from those two epochs, along with maps obtained from observations of the 2 cm VLBA survey for some of the sources of the sample, making a total of 40 maps. We discuss the apparent morphological changes displayed by the radio sources between the observing epochs. Our VLBA observations correspond to the first two epochs at 15.4 GHz of a program to study the absolute kinematics of the radio source components of the members of the sample, by means of phase delay astrometry at 8.4 GHz, 15.4 GHz, and 43 GHz. Our 15.4 GHz VLBA imaging allowed us to disentangle the inner milliarcsecond structure of some of the sources, thus resolving components that appeared blended at 8.4 GHz. For most of the sources, we identified the brightest feature in each radio source with the core. These identifications are supported by the spectral index estimates for those brightest features, which are in general flat, or even inverted. Most of the sources display core-dominance in the overall emission. We find that three of the sources have their most inverted spectrum component shifted with respect to the origin in the map, which approximately coincides with the peak-of-brightness at both 15.4 GHz and 8.4 GHz.

  14. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daugherty, Kenneth E. (Lewisville, TX); Venables, Barney J. (Denton, TX); Ohlsson, Oscar O. (Naperville, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  15. Organic derivatives of zirconium phosphate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fine, Steven Beryl

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -zirconium phosphate derivatives. 9 Thermogravimetric analysis of y-zirconium 2-hydroxy- 1-ethyl phosphate. 25 10 Thermogravimetric analysis of y-zirconium 2-carboxy- 2-hydroxy-1-ethyl phosphate. 28 11 Thermo gravimetric 1-ethyl phosphate. analysis of n...-ZrP Figure 3. A comparison of the layered structures of c and y zirconium phosphate. according to Yamanaka [9], ethylene oxide is 18. 4 A [ 10] . When this phase is dehydrated at 150 for one hour, the d-spacing decreases to 17. 2 A, but when left in air...

  16. Deriving Ontologies from XML Schema

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedini, Ivan; Nguyen, Benjamin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present a method and a tool for deriving a skeleton of an ontology from XML schema files. We first recall what an is ontology and its relationships with XML schemas. Next, we focus on ontology building methodology and associated tool requirements. Then, we introduce Janus, a tool for building an ontology from various XML schemas in a given domain. We summarize the main features of Janus and illustrate its functionalities through a simple example. Finally, we compare our approach to other existing ontology building tools.

  17. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  18. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  19. Hot gas path component cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  20. Application of Image And X-Ray Microtomography Technique To Quantify Filler Distribution In Thermoplastic-Natural Rubber Blend Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Sahrim; Rasid, Rozaidi; Mouad, A. T. [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Aziz Mohamed, A.; Abdullah, Jaafar; Dahlan, M.; Mohamad, Mahathir; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Hamzah Harun, M. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Yazid, Hafizal [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Hafizal Yazid, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Abdullah, W. Saffiey W.

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray microtomography and ImageJ 1.39 u is used as a tool to quantify volume percentage of B{sub 4}C as fillers in thermoplastic-natural rubber blend composites. The use of percentage of area occupied by fillers as obtain from ImageJ from the microtomography sliced images enables the proposed technique to easily obtain the amount volume percentage of B{sub 4}C in the composite non-destructively. Comparison with other technique such as density measurement and chemical analysis proves the proposed technique as one of the promising approach.

  1. Low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol and ethanol-PRF blends: An experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Francis M.; Chaos, Marcos; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this brief communication, we present new experimental species profile measurements for the low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol under knock-prone conditions. These experiments show that ethanol exhibits no global low temperature reactivity at these conditions, although we note the heterogeneous decomposition of ethanol to ethylene and water. Similar behavior is reported for an E85 blend in n-heptane. Kinetic modeling results are presented to complement these experiments and elucidate the interaction of ethanol and primary reference fuels undergoing cooxidation. (author)

  2. Development and Characterization of Boehmite Component Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Smith, Harry D.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Aker, Pamela M.; Buck, Edgar C.

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    According to Bechtel National Inc.’s (BNI’s) Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0, “Simulant Development to Support the Development and Demonstration of Leaching and Ultrafiltration Pretreatment Processes,” simulants for boehmite, gibbsite, and filtration are to be developed that can be used in subsequent bench and integrated testing of the leaching/filtration processes. These simulants will then be used to demonstrate the leaching process and to help refine processing conditions that may impact safety basis considerations (Smith 2006). This report documents the results of the boehmite simulant development and blended simulant crossflow ultrafiltration leaching completed in accordance with the test plan TP-RPP-WTP-469 Rev 0 (WTP Doc. No. 24590- 101-TSA-W000-0004-182-00001 Rev 00A) prepared and approved in response to the cited test specification. This report also includes the results of the aluminate and anion effect on boehmite dissolution performed in accordance with the test plan TP-RPP-WTP-509, Rev 0 (WTP Doc. No. 24590-101-TSA-W000-0004-72-00019 Rev 00A) prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-07-004, Rev 0 (Sundar 2007).

  3. Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajendra Bordia

    2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and processing techniques for these coatings. In addition, we investigated the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties and oxidation protection ability of the coatings. Coatings were developed to provide oxidation protection to both ferritic and austentic alloys and Ni-based alloys. The coatings that we developed are based on low viscosity pre-ceramic polymers. Thus they can be easily applied to any shape by using a variety of techniques including dip-coating, spray-coating and painting. The polymers are loaded with a variety of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles have two primary roles: control of the final composition and phases (and hence the properties); and control of the shrinkage during thermal decomposition of the polymer. Thus the selection of the nanoparticles was the most critical aspect of this project. Based on the results of the processing studies, the performance of selected coatings in oxidizing conditions (both static and cyclic) was investigated.

  4. Study of the Crystalline Morphology Evolution of PET and PET/PC Blends by Time-resolved Synchrotron Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and DSC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbosa, Irineu; Larocca, Nelson M.; Hage, Elias [Dep. de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Plivelic, Tomas S.; Torriani, Iris L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Mantovani, Gerson L. [Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09090-400 Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal melt crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET) and PET/PC (polycarbonate) blend, with and without a transesterification catalyst, was studied by time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to achieve the variation of the morphological parameters throughout the whole crystallization time. For neat PET, the catalyst promotes a decrease of the crystal lamellar thickness but for the blend no variations were observed. The effect of incorporation of catalyst in crystallization kinetics was very distinct in PET pure and the blend: in the former the catalyst leads to an increase of this kinetics while for the latter it was observed a decreasing.

  5. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 8, July 1996--August 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to examine the possible formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of blends of refuse derived fuels (RDF) and coal under conditions similar to those of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. A series of experiments were conducted using a TGA interfaced to FTIR. Additional experiments using a tube furnace preheated to AFBC operating temperatures were also conducted. The combustion products were cryogenically trapped and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The chlorination of phenols and the condensation reactions of chlorophenols were investigated in this study. A possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds such as dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, by chlorination and condensation reactions involving phenols, was proposed.

  6. Combustion properties of coal-char blends: NO{sub x} emission characteristics. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Khan, L.; Khan, S. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Germane, G.J.; Eatough, C.N. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under pulverized coal combustion conditions, NO{sub x} formed during the release of volatile matter far exceed NO{sub x} formed from combustion of the resulting char. It is believed that interactions of NO{sub x} with char is responsible for the reduced NO{sub x} formation from the combustion of char. The goal of this research is to assess the potential technical and economical benefits of co-firing coal-char blends in pulverized coal boilers to reduce NO{sub x}. The rationale for the proposed research is that the presence of char in the flame during the initial stages of combustion may provide catalytic activity for reduction of NO{sub x} produced from volatile nitrogen. This project is a cooperative effort between the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and BYU/ACERC. Seven hundred and fifty pounds of three coal-char blends containing 12.5%, 25%, and 50% char and 125 pounds of a coal-activated carbon blend containing 12.5% activated carbon were prepared. The volatile matter contents of the blends ranged from 27.3 to 35.6% (dry basis). Char (16.2 wt% volatile matter) was made from an Illinois No. 6 coal (Peabody Coal Company) in a continuous feed charring oven under mild gasification conditions. Nine combustion tests will be performed with the coal and blends in a 0.5--1.0 MBtu/hr combustor located at BYU. Combustion data will be analyzed to determine the effect of blend type, stoichiometry, and flame temperature on NO{sub x} formation, ignition characteristics, flame stability, and combustion efficiency. A four month no-cost extension has been requested for the project. The results of the combustion tests will be reported in the final technical report in December 1993.

  7. Component Technologies: Java Beans, COM, CORBA, RMI, EJB and the CORBA Component Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Wolfgang

    Component Technologies: Java Beans, COM, CORBA, RMI, EJB and the CORBA Component Model Wolfgang, such as Java Beans and distributed object technolo- gies, such as the Common Object Request Broker Archi how these technologies matured into distributed component models, in partiuclar Enterprise Java Beans

  8. Coatings and films derived from clay/wax nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.; Leyva, Argentina A.

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods for making clay/wax nanocomposites and coatings and films of same with improved chemical resistance and gas barrier properties. The invention further provides methods for making and using emulsions of such clay/wax nanocomposites. Typically, an organophillic clay is combined with a wax or wax/polymer blend such that the cohesion energy of the clay matches that of the wax or wax/polymer blend. Suitable organophilic clays include mica and phyllosilicates that have been surface-treated with edge or edge and surface modifying agents. The resulting nanocomposites have applications as industrial coatings and in protective packaging.

  9. Introduction Aliphatic polyesters derived from renewable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Introduction Aliphatic polyesters derived from renewable resources are of increasing interest, there are also opportunities to derive lactones from biomass, which can then be converted to a wide range

  10. A study on real estate derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jong Yoon, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All major asset classes including stocks and bonds have a well developed derivative market. Derivatives enable counterparties to reflect a view on a particular market, without having to trade the underlying asset. This ...

  11. NHI Component Technical Readiness Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven R. Sherman; Dane F. Wilson; Steven J. Pawel

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A decision process for evaluating the technical readiness or maturity of components (i.e., heat exchangers, chemical reactors, valves, etc.) for use by the U.S. DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative is described. This system is used by the DOE NHI to assess individual components in relation to their readiness for pilot-scale and larger-scale deployment and to drive the research and development work needed to attain technical maturity. A description of the evaluation system is provided, and examples are given to illustrate how it is used to assist in component R&D decisions.

  12. Further investigation of the impact of the co-combustion of tire-derived fuel and petroleum coke on the petrology and chemistry of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Elswick, E.R.; Roberts, J.M.; Brandsteder, K.; Trimble, A.S.; Mardon, S.M. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Kentucky cyclone-fired unit burns coal and tire-derived fuel, sometimes in combination with petroleum coke. A parallel pulverized combustion (pc) unit at the same plant burns the same coal, without the added fuels. The petrology, chemistry, and sulfur isotope distribution in the fuel and resulting combustion products was investigated for several configurations of the fuel blend. Zinc and Cd in the combustion products are primarily contributed from the tire-derived fuel, the V and Ni are primarily from the petroleum coke, and the As and Hg are probably largely from the coal. The sulfur isotope distribution in the cyclone unit is complicated due to the varying fuel sources. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) array in the pc unit shows a subtle trend towards heavier S isotopic ratios in the cooler end of the ESP.

  13. Pyrolysis and ignition behavior of coal, cattle biomass, and coal/cattle biomass blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Brandon Ray

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    derived from biomass. Current research at Texas A&M University is focused on the effectiveness of using cattle manure biomass as a fuel source in conjunction with coal burning utilities. The scope of this project includes fuel property analysis, pyrolysis...

  14. Pyrolysis and ignition behavior of coal, cattle biomass, and coal/cattle biomass blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Brandon Ray

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    derived from biomass. Current research at Texas A&M University is focused on the effectiveness of using cattle manure biomass as a fuel source in conjunction with coal burning utilities. The scope of this project includes fuel property analysis, pyrolysis...

  15. The Fourth Partial Derivative In Transport Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trinh Khanh Tuoc

    2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A new fourth partial derivative is introduced for the study of transport dynamics. It is a Lagrangian partial derivative following the path of diffusion, not the path of convection. Use of this derivative decouples the effect of diffusion and convection and simplifies the analysis of transport processes.

  16. Postgraduate Scholarship Pricing temperature derivatives and modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banaji,. Murad

    the volumetric risk of the energy units sold, rather than the price risk of each unit. Weather derivativesPostgraduate Scholarship Pricing temperature derivatives and modelling the market price of risk: Pricing temperature derivatives and modelling the market price of risk. Main Supervisor: A. Alexandridis

  17. Components for Face Recognition Bernd Heisele

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poggio, Tomaso

    Components for Face Recognition Bernd Heisele Honda Research Institute USA, Inc. Boston, USA bheisele@honda-ri.com Takamasa Koshizen Honda Research Institute Japan, Co. Ltd. Wako-shi, Japan koshiz@jp.honda

  18. Big data : evolution, components, challenges and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zarate Santovena, Alejandro

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work reviews the evolution and current state of the "Big Data" industry, and to understand the key components, challenges and opportunities of Big Data and analytics face in today business environment, this is analyzed ...

  19. Symplectic Nonlinear Component Lucas C. Parra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Lucas C.

    Symplectic Nonlinear Component Analysis Lucas C. Parra Siemens Corporate Research 755 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540 lucas@scr.siemens.com Abstract Statistically independent features can feed-forward, information conserving, nonlinear map - the explicit symplectic transformations. It also

  20. Stationary turbine component with laminated skin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Allister W. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

  1. Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project (AMD 304)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    block, bore and journal strategies 2.2 Fasteners, gaskets, sealing 2.3 Coolant and corrosion 2.4 FEA design, integration and analysis 2.5 Component casting and casting analysis...

  2. Data transmission element for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

  3. Thermochemical nanolithography components, systems, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riedo, Elisa; Marder, Seth R.; de Heer, Walt A.; Szoskiewicz, Robert J.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Jones, Simon C.; Okada, Takashi; Wang, Debin; Curtis, Jennifer E.; Henderson, Clifford L.; Hua, Yueming

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved nanolithography components, systems, and methods are described herein. The systems and methods generally employ a resistively heated atomic force microscope tip to thermally induce a chemical change in a surface. In addition, certain polymeric compositions are also disclosed.

  4. Components Interoperability through Mediating Connector Patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spalazzese, Romina; 10.4204/EPTCS.37.3

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key objective for ubiquitous environments is to enable system interoperability between system's components that are highly heterogeneous. In particular, the challenge is to embed in the system architecture the necessary support to cope with behavioral diversity in order to allow components to coordinate and communicate. The continuously evolving environment further asks for an automated and on-the-fly approach. In this paper we present the design building blocks for the dynamic and on-the-fly interoperability between heterogeneous components. Specifically, we describe an Architectural Pattern called Mediating Connector, that is the key enabler for communication. In addition, we present a set of Basic Mediator Patterns, that describe the basic mismatches which can occur when components try to interact, and their corresponding solutions.

  5. COMPONENTS, PLATFORMS, AND ARCHITECTURES Subthreshold Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    as reducing resource consumption have become emerging trends in computing. As computers increase in speed Modeling the Energy Consumption of Distributed Applications A Comparative Study of Runtime Systems for COMPONENTS, PLATFORMS, AND ARCHITECTURES Subthreshold Computing Energy-Efficient Network

  6. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  8. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickens, Larry M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  9. Experimental and computational study of methane counterflow diffusion flames perturbed by trace amounts of either jet fuel or a 6-component surrogate under non-sooting conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bufferand, H.; Tosatto, L.; La Mantia, B.; Smooke, M.D.; Gomez, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yale Center for Combustion Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8286 (United States)

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical structure of a methane counterflow diffusion flame and of the same flame doped with 1000 ppm (molar) of either jet fuel or a 6-component jet fuel surrogate was analyzed experimentally, by gas sampling via quartz microprobes and subsequent GC/MS analysis, and computationally using a semi-detailed kinetic mechanism for the surrogate blend. Conditions were chosen to ensure that all three flames were non-sooting, with identical temperature profiles and stoichiometric mixture fraction, through a judicious selection of feed stream composition and strain rate. The experimental dataset provides a glimpse of the pyrolysis and oxidation behavior of jet fuel in a diffusion flame. The jet fuel initial oxidation is consistent with anticipated chemical kinetic behavior, based on thermal decomposition of large alkanes to smaller and smaller fragments and the survival of ring-stabilized aromatics at higher temperatures. The 6-component surrogate captures the same trend correctly, but the agreement is not quantitative with respect to some of the aromatics such as benzene and toluene. Various alkanes, alkenes and aromatics among the jet fuel components are either only qualitatively characterized or could not be identified, because of the presence of many isomers and overlapping spectra in the chromatogram, leaving 80% of the carbon from the jet fuel unaccounted for in the early pyrolysis history of the parent fuel. Computationally, the one-dimensional code adopted a semi-detailed kinetic mechanism for the surrogate blend that is based on an existing hierarchically constructed kinetic model for alkanes and simple aromatics, extended to account for the presence of tetralin and methylcyclohexane as reference fuels. The computational results are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental ones for the surrogate behavior, with the greatest discrepancy in the concentrations of aromatics and ethylene. (author)

  10. 2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    ,buttheseweretoophytotoxic.Eventually, researchersconcentratedondistillatesintherangebetween kerosene and lubricating oils.Three basic classes of carbon structures present in petroleum oils2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Abstract Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop (aromatics and other un- saturated components) in oils that were removable with sulfuric acid; the remainder

  11. Zeolite Templated Sucrose Derived Carbons for Supercapacitors Brandon Piercy, Case Western Reserve University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Zeolite Templated Sucrose Derived Carbons for Supercapacitors Brandon Piercy, Case Western Reserve-layer capacitors, or "supercapacitors", offer high energy storage, exceptional operational life of up to 500 supercapacitors can become a viable and vital component within a new energy economy. The procedure followed

  12. Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel-based Na on Emissions Control Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookshear, D. William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nguyen, Ke [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Howe, Janet E [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of biodiesel-based Na on emissions control components using specially blended 20% biodiesel fuel (B20). The emissions control components investigated were a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a Cu-zeolite-based NH{sub 3}-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both light-duty vehicle, DOC-SCR-DPF, and heavy-duty vehicle, DOC-DPF-SCR, emissions control configurations were employed. The accelerated Na aging is achieved by introducing elevated Na levels in the fuel, to represent full useful life exposure, and periodically increasing the exhaust temperature to replicate DPF regeneration. To assess the validity of the implemented accelerated Na aging protocol, engine-aged lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs), DOCs and DPFs are also evaluated. To fully characterize the impact on the catalytic activity the LNT, DOC and SCR catalysts were evaluated using a bench flow reactor. The evaluation of the aged DOC samples and LNT show little to no deactivation as a result of Na contamination. However, the SCR in the light-duty configuration (DOC-SCR-DPF) was severely affected by Na contamination, especially when NO was the only fed NO{sub x} source. In the heavy-duty configuration (DOC-DPF-SCR), no impact is observed in the SCR NO{sub x} reduction activity. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) reveals that Na contamination on the LNT, DOC, and SCR samples is present throughout the length of the catalysts with a higher concentration on the washcoat surface. In both the long-term engine-aged DPF and the accelerated Na-aged DPFs, there is significant Na ash present in the upstream channels; however, in the engine-aged sample lube oil-based ash is the predominant constituent.

  13. Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malony, Allen D.

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress reports for the first two years describe those year's achievements in detail. We discuss progress in the last project period in this document. Deployment of our work in CCA components, frameworks, and applications is an important metric of success. We also summarize the project's accomplishments in this regard at the end of the report. A list of project publications is also given.

  14. Oscillating Solitons in a Three-Component Bose-Einstein Condensate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szankowski, Piotr; Trippenbach, Marek [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681, Warsaw (Poland); Infeld, Eryk [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Rowlands, George [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the properties of three-component Bose-Einstein condensate systems with spin exchange interactions. We consider different coupling constants from those very special ones leading to exact solutions known in the literature. When two solitons collide, a spin component oscillation of the two emerging entities is observed. This behavior seems to be generic. A mathematical model is derived for the emerging solitons. It describes the new oscillatory phenomenon extremely well. Surprisingly, the model is in fact an exact solution to the initial equations. This comes as a bonus.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

  16. Progress in photovoltaic system and component improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, H.P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Witt, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bower, W.; Bonn, R.; Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a partnership between the US government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and the PV industry. Part of its purpose is to conduct manufacturing technology research and development to address the issues and opportunities identified by industry to advance photovoltaic (PV) systems and components. The project was initiated in 1990 and has been conducted in several phases to support the evolution of PV industrial manufacturing technology. Early phases of the project stressed PV module manufacturing. Starting with Phase 4A and continuing in Phase 5A, the goals were broadened to include improvement of component efficiency, energy storage and manufacturing and system or component integration to bring together all elements for a PV product. This paper summarizes PV manufacturers` accomplishments in components, system integration, and alternative manufacturing methods. Their approaches have resulted in improved hardware and PV system performance, better system compatibility, and new system capabilities. Results include new products such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-listed AC PV modules, modular inverters, and advanced inverter designs that use readily available and standard components. Work planned in Phase 5A1 includes integrated residential and commercial roof-top systems, PV systems with energy storage, and 300-Wac to 4-kWac inverters.

  17. Protection of lithographic components from particle contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel J. (Lafayette, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that employs thermophoresis to protect lithographic surfaces from particle deposition and operates in an environment where the pressure is substantially constant and can be sub-atmospheric. The system (thermophoretic pellicle) comprises an enclosure that surrounds a lithographic component whose surface is being protected from particle deposition. The enclosure is provided with means for introducing a flow of gas into the chamber and at least one aperture that provides for access to the lithographic surface for the entry and exit of a beam of radiation, for example, and further controls gas flow into a surrounding low pressure environment such that a higher pressure is maintained within the enclosure and over the surface being protected. The lithographic component can be heated or, alternatively the walls of the enclosure can be cooled to establish a temperature gradient between the surface of the lithographic component and the walls of the enclosure, thereby enabling the thermophoretic force that resists particle deposition.

  18. Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Daly, Jeffery E. (Cypress, TX)

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for transmitting information between downhole components has a first downhole component with a first mating surface and a second downhole component having a second mating surface configured to substantially mate with the first mating surface. The system also has a first transmission element with a first communicating surface and is mounted within a recess in the first mating surface. The first transmission element also has an angled surface. The recess has a side with multiple slopes for interacting with the angled surface, each slope exerting a different spring force on the first transmission element. A second transmission element has a second communicating surface mounted proximate the second mating surface and adapted to communicate with the first communicating surface.

  19. Component evaluation testing and analysis algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R&E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. In order to guarantee consistency, traceability, and visibility into the results of the testing process, it is necessary to document the test and analysis procedures that are in place. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007). This document serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis and the algorithms that are applied to the Component Evaluation testing. A brief summary of each test is included to provide the context for the analysis that is to be performed.

  20. Technique for Measuring Hybrid Electronic Component Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, C.C.; Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Robinson, D.; Rutherford, B.; Uribe, F.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials compatibility studies of aged, engineered materials and hardware are critical to understanding and predicting component reliability, particularly for systems with extended stockpile life requirements. Nondestructive testing capabilities for component reliability would significantly enhance lifetime predictions. For example, if the detection of crack propagation through a solder joint can be demonstrated, this technique could be used to develop baseline information to statistically determine solder joint lifelengths. This report will investigate high frequency signal response techniques for nondestructively evaluating the electrical behavior of thick film hybrid transmission lines.

  1. Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael A.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force, urging them closer together."

  2. Loaded Transducer Fpr Downhole Drilling Component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force," urging them closer together.

  3. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

  4. Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL] [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Foster, Prof. Dave [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

  5. Calibration by Optimization Without Using Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Lazar

    2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 6, 2015 ... Abstract: Applications in engineering frequently require the ... to upper and lower bounds without relying on the knowledge of the derivative of f .

  6. Anisotropic higher derivative gravity and inflationary universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. F. Kao

    2006-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Stability analysis of the Kantowski-Sachs type universe in pure higher derivative gravity theory is studied in details. The non-redundant generalized Friedmann equation of the system is derived by introducing a reduced one dimensional generalized KS type action. This method greatly reduces the labor in deriving field equations of any complicate models. Existence and stability of inflationary solution in the presence of higher derivative terms are also studied in details. Implications to the choice of physical theories are discussed in details in this paper.

  7. GLOBAL CONVERGENCE OF GENERAL DERIVATIVE-FREE ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    a relatively recent topic [1, 3, 7, 10]. In this paper we address trust-region methods for unconstrained derivative-free optimization. These methods ... Page 2

  8. Ensemble Learning for Independent Component Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKay, David J.C.

    : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . James W. Miskin Selwyn College Cambridge December 20th, 2000 i #12; Abstract This thesis is concerned with the problem of Blind Source Separation. Speci#12;cally we consider the Independent Component Analysis (ICA the sources given only a set of observations. In chapter 1, the blind source separation problem is introduced

  9. Nonlinear principal component analysis by neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsieh, William

    bottleneck, the NLPCA is able to extract periodic or wave modes. The Lorenz (1963) 3-component chaotic system nonlinear empirical modelling methods originating from the field of artificial intelligence, raises the hope that the linear restriction in our analysis of environmental datasets may finally be lifted (Hsieh and Tang, 1998

  10. Nonlinear principal component analysis by neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsieh, William

    bottleneck, the NLPCA is able to extract periodic or wave modes. The Lorenz (1963) 3­component chaotic system, a class of powerful nonlinear empirical modelling methods originating from the field of artificial be lifted (Hsieh and Tang, 1998). Various NN methods have been developed for performing PCA (Oja, 1982

  11. Empirically Evaluating CORBA Component Model Implementations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    little systematic empirical study of the performance aspects of CORBA Component Model (CCM bottlenecks in CCM implementations. Second, we describe our benchmarking suite to evaluate the overhead of CCM implemen- tations. Third, we develop criteria to compare different CCM im- plementations using metrics

  12. James P. Mosquera Director, Reactor Plant Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the application of nuclear reactor power to capital ships of the U.S. Navy, and other assigned projects. Mr for steam generator technology (within the Nuclear Components Division); and power plant systems engineer working for the U.S. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (a.k.a. Naval Reactors). This program is a joint

  13. Component Metadata for Software Engineering Tasks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrold, Mary Jean

    functions. In particular, she has no source code, no reliability or safety information, no in- formationComponent Metadata for Software Engineering Tasks Alessandro Orso1 , Mary Jean Harrold1 , and David of an application developer who wants to perform two different software engineering tasks on her application: gen

  14. Facilitating performance predictions using software components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Steffen

    Reussner 1. Introduction Composing software systems of independent building blocks is the central vision based on the properties of its components. In civil and electrical engineering, the early assessment, performance is often mainly considered at the end of the development cycle when the complete system can

  15. Extracting mode components in laser intensity distribution by independent component analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hefei Institute of Intelligent Machines

    Extracting mode components in laser intensity distribution by independent component analysis Hai, a reliable method to charac- terize the intensity distribution of the laser beam has become a more and more important task. However, traditional optic and electronic methods can offer only a laser beam intensity

  16. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1997-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The project included four major tasks, which were as follows: (1) Selection, acquisition, and characterization of raw materials for fuels and the determination of combustion profiles of combination fuels using thermal analytical techniques; (2) Studies of the mechanisms for the formation of chlorinated organics during the combustion of MSW using a tube furnace; (3) Investigation of the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organics; and (4) Examination of the combustion performance of combination fuels in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Several kinds of coals and the major combustible components of the MSW, including PVC, newspaper, and cellulose were tested in this project. Coals with a wide range of sulfur and chlorine contents were used. TGA/MS/FTIR analyses were performed on the raw materials and their blends. The possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion was investigated by conducting a series of experiments in a tube furnace. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during combustion processes was examined in this study.

  17. Universal Whitham hierarchy, dispersionless Hirota equations and multi-component KP hierarchy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanehisa Takasaki; Takashi Takebe

    2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this paper is to identify the universal Whitham hierarchy of genus zero with a dispersionless limit of the multi-component KP hierarchy. To this end, the multi-component KP hierarchy is (re)formulated to depend on several discrete variables called ``charges''. These discrete variables play the role of lattice coordinates in underlying Toda field equations. A multi-component version of the so called differential Fay identity are derived from the Hirota equations of the $\\tau$-function of this ``charged'' multi-component KP hierarchy. These multi-component differential Fay identities have a well-defined dispersionless limit (the dispersionless Hirota equations). The dispersionless Hirota equations turn out to be equivalent to the Hamilton-Jacobi equations for the $S$-functions of the universal Whitham hierarchy. The differential Fay identities themselves are shown to be a generating functional expression of auxiliary linear equations for scalar-valued wave functions of the multi-component KP hierarchy.

  18. Correlated Component Analysis for diffuse component separation with error estimation on simulated Planck polarization data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricciardi, S; Natoli, P; Polenta, G; Baccigalupi, C; Salerno, E; Kayabol, K; Bedini, L; De Zotti, G; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16819.x

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a data analysis pipeline for CMB polarization experiments, running from multi-frequency maps to the power spectra. We focus mainly on component separation and, for the first time, we work out the covariance matrix accounting for errors associated to the separation itself. This allows us to propagate such errors and evaluate their contributions to the uncertainties on the final products.The pipeline is optimized for intermediate and small scales, but could be easily extended to lower multipoles. We exploit realistic simulations of the sky, tailored for the Planck mission. The component separation is achieved by exploiting the Correlated Component Analysis in the harmonic domain, that we demonstrate to be superior to the real-space application (Bonaldi et al. 2006). We present two techniques to estimate the uncertainties on the spectral parameters of the separated components. The component separation errors are then propagated by means of Monte Carlo simulations to obtain the corresponding contributi...

  19. A Multi-period Equilibrium Pricing Model of Weather Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yongheon; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2002). On modelling and pricing weather derivatives. Applied2003). Arbitrage-fee pricing of weather derivatives based onfects and valuation of weather derivatives. The Financial

  20. A multi-period equilibrium pricing model of weather derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yongheon; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y. : Valuation and hedging of weather derivatives on monthlyJ. Risk 31. Yoo, S. : Weather derivatives and seasonaleffects and valuation of weather derivatives. Financ. Rev.

  1. Biomass relations for components of five minnesota shrubs. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buech, R.R.; Rugg, D.J.

    1995-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The tall shrub stratum is an important component of upland forests in the Lake States, especially of deciduous forest communities. The prevalance of tall shrubs has produced a recurring research interest in this stratum both in ecological studies and wildlife habitat surveys within the region. For such purposes, estimates of the biomass of tall shrubs or their component parts are often needed. The authors examine goodness of fit of two predictor variables (shrub height and stem diameter class) in three relations. The authors provide equations that use stem diameter class or stem diameter class and height to estimate biomass of six components of five shrub species, as well as generalized equations derived from a composite of all five species. Finally, the authors provide the information needed to construct standard errors for biomass estimates.

  2. Implications of early stages in the growth of stress corrosion cracking on component reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environment-induced crack growth generally progresses through several stages prior to component failure. Crack initiation, short crack growth, and stage 1 growth are early stages in crack development that are summarized in this paper. The implications of these stages on component reliability, derive from the extended time that the crack exists in the early stages because crack velocity is slow. The duration of the early stages provides a greater opportunity for corrective action if cracks can be detected. Several important factors about the value of understanding short crack behavior include: (1) life prediction requires a knowledge of the total life cycle of the crack including the early stages, (2) greater reliability is possible if the transition between short and long crack behavior is known component life after this transition is short and (3) remedial actions are more effective for short than long cracks.

  3. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Clinton, TN); Casada, Donald A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new instrument for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician.

  4. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.; Casada, D.A.

    1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A new instrument is described for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician. 4 figs.

  5. An MDA approach to tame component based software development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FMCO'03 An MDA approach to tame component based software development Jean-Marc Jézéquel, Olivier- ture (MDA) can be used in relation with component based software engineer- ing. A software component

  6. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section components for gas turbine engines. Significant technical progress has been made towards maturation of the EBC and CMC technologies for incorporation into gas turbine engine hot-section. Promising EBC candidates for longer life and/or higher temperature applications relative to current state of the art BSAS-based EBCs have been identified. These next generation coating systems have been scaled-up from coupons to components and are currently being field tested in Solar Centaur 50S engine. CMC combustor liners were designed, fabricated and tested in a FT8 sector rig to demonstrate the benefits of a high temperature material system. Pretest predictions made through the use of perfectly stirred reactor models showed a 2-3x benefit in CO emissions for CMC versus metallic liners. The sector-rig test validated the pretest predictions with >2x benefit in CO at the same NOx levels at various load conditions. The CMC liners also survived several trip shut downs thereby validating the CMC design methodology. Significant technical progress has been made towards incorporation of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and environmental barrier coatings (EBC) technologies into gas turbine engine hot-section. The second phase of the program focused on the demonstration of a reverse flow annular CMC combustor. This has included overcoming the challenges of design and fabrication of CMCs into 'complex' shapes; developing processing to apply EBCs to 'engine hardware'; testing of an advanced combustor enabled by CMCs in a PW206 rig; and the validation of performance benefits against a metal baseline. The rig test validated many of the pretest predictions with a 40-50% reduction in pattern factor compared to the baseline and reductions in NOx levels at maximum power conditions. The next steps are to develop an understanding of the life limiting mechanisms in EBC and CMC materials, developing a design system for EBC coated CMCs and durability testing in an engine environment.

  7. RAMA Surveillance Capsule and Component Activation Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, Kenneth E.; Jones, Eric N. [TransWare Enterprises Inc., 1565 Mediterranean Dr., Sycamore, IL 60178 (United States); Carter, Robert G. [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West W. T. Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the calculated-to-measured ratios associated with the application of the RAMA Fluence Methodology software to light water reactor surveillance capsule and reactor component activation evaluations. Comparisons to measurements are performed for pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor surveillance capsule activity specimens from seventeen operating light water reactors. Comparisons to measurements are also performed for samples removed from the core shroud, top guide, and jet pump brace pads from two reactors. In conclusion: The flexible geometry modeling capabilities provided by RAMA, combined with the detailed representation of operating reactor history and anisotropic scattering detail, produces accurate predictions of the fast neutron fluence and neutron activation for BWR and PWR surveillance capsule geometries. This allows best estimate RPV fluence to be determined without the need for multiplicative bias corrections. The three-dimensional modeling capability in RAMA provides an accurate estimate of the fast neutron fluence for regions far removed from the core mid-plane elevation. The comparisons to activation measurements for various core components indicate that the RAMA predictions are reasonable, and notably conservative (i.e., C/M ratios are consistently greater than unity). It should be noted that in the current evaluations, the top and bottom fuel regions are represented by six inch height nodes. As a result, the leakage-induced decrease in power near the upper and lower edges of the core are not well represented in the current models. More precise predictions of fluence for components that lie above and below the core boundaries could be obtained if the upper and lower fuel nodes were subdivided into multiple axial regions with assigned powers that reflect the neutron leakage at the top and bottom of the core. This use of additional axial sub-meshing at the top and bottom of the core is analogous to the use of pin-wise meshing in peripheral bundles to accurately represent radial leakage effects. The representation of thermal neutron fluence and activations are found to be reasonably accurate and consistently conservative, as demonstrated by comparison to the reactor component thermal neutron reaction activation measurements. Further improvement in the comparisons to measurements could be achieved by exploring the impact of enhanced sub-meshing of the geometry near the components of interest. The mesh densities utilized in the current evaluation are consistent with the mesh requirements for high energy neutron transport. The substantially shorter transport lengths for thermal neutrons relative to high energy neutrons suggests that localized regions of finer meshing are needed in the vicinity of those reactor components requiring thermal neutron fluence evaluations. (authors)

  8. Methods for integrating a functional component into a microfluidic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake; Domeier, Linda; Woo, Noble; Shepodd, Timothy; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection molding is used to form microfluidic devices with integrated functional components. One or more functional components are placed in a mold cavity, which is then closed. Molten thermoplastic resin is injected into the mold and then cooled, thereby forming a solid substrate including the functional component(s). The solid substrate including the functional component(s) is then bonded to a second substrate, which may include microchannels or other features.

  9. Emission Control Systems and Components for Retrofit and First...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems and Components for Retrofit and First-Fit Applications Emission Control Systems and Components for Retrofit and First-Fit Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  10. adaptable component frameworks: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of QUA, we describe the integration of an advanced component model technology, the FRACTAL component model, with the QUA framework. Our experience from this exercise shows that...

  11. Friction Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components Friction Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs...

  12. Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM...

  13. DOE Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells DOE Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells This document describes test protocols...

  14. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  15. H2A Delivery Components Model and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    forms Storage Components Delivery Components -Compressed Gas Tube System -Bulk Liquid Hydrogen System -Geologic -Forecourt -Truck - Tube Trailer -Truck - LH2 -Pipeline...

  16. Electric Drive Component Manufacturing: Magna E-Car Systems of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electric Drive Component Manufacturing: Magna E-Car Systems of America, Inc. Electric Drive Component Manufacturing: Magna E-Car Systems...

  17. AMD 601 High Integrity -Magnesium Automotive Components (HI-MAC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Neutral or Less Than Current Aluminum Components USAMP AMD 601 - High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Components (HI-MAC) edm2@chrysler.com February 28, 2008 Approach Scientific...

  18. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve...

  19. Fuel Cell Subsystems and Components | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Subsystems and Components Fuel Cell Subsystems and Components As recommended by the 2004 National Research Council report, the program continues to increase its support...

  20. HVAC component data modeling using industry foundation classes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazjanac, Vladimir; Forester, James; Haves, Philip; Sucic, Darko; Xu, Peng

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HVAC Component Data Modeling Using Industry Foundationof a major extension of the HVAC part of the IFC data model.generic approach for handling HVAC components. This includes

  1. Powder Metal Performance Modeling of Automotive Components ?AMD...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Powder Metal Performance Modeling of Automotive Components AMD 410 Powder Metal Performance Modeling of Automotive Components AMD 410 Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of...

  2. System for inspecting large size structural components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birks, Albert S. (Columbus, OH); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a system for inspecting large scale structural components such as concrete walls or the like. The system includes a mobile gamma radiation source and a mobile gamma radiation detector. The source and detector are constructed and arranged for simultaneous movement along parallel paths in alignment with one another on opposite sides of a structural component being inspected. A control system provides signals which coordinate the movements of the source and detector and receives and records the radiation level data developed by the detector as a function of source and detector positions. The radiation level data is then analyzed to identify areas containing defects corresponding to unexpected variations in the radiation levels detected.

  3. FILTER COMPONENT ASSESSMENT--CERAMIC CANDLES--

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on development of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation applications. SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report summarizes the results of SWPC's filter component assessment efforts, identifying the performance and stability of porous monolithic, fiber reinforced, and filament wound ceramic hot gas candle filters, potentially for {ge}3 years of viable pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) service operating life.

  4. Columbia River Component Data Evaluation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.S. Cearlock

    2006-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Columbia River Component Data Compilation and Evaluation task was to compile, review, and evaluate existing information for constituents that may have been released to the Columbia River due to Hanford Site operations. Through this effort an extensive compilation of information pertaining to Hanford Site-related contaminants released to the Columbia River has been completed for almost 965 km of the river.

  5. Estimate of the scatter component in SPECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanovic, M.; Weber, D.A. [Univ. of California, Sacramento, CA (United States); Loncaric, S. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytical expressions that describe the dependence of slopes and amplitudes of the scatter distribution functions (SDF) on source depth and media density are used to estimate a scatter component in SPECT projection data. Since the ratio of detected scattered to total photons (S/T), SDF amplitude and slope depend strongly on line source length (SL) used to obtain SDFs, we compared estimated scattered components using SDFs, obtained for lengths of 2-21 cm. At 10 cm source depth, S/T changes from 0.19 to 0.36 when SL changes from 2 to 21 cm. Scatter amplitude`s dependence on source depth (d) in water was described by 6.38e{sup -0.186d} for a 2 cm and 16.15e{sup -0.129d} for a 21 cm SL. Slope was described by 0.292d{sup -0.601} for a cm SL and by 0.396d{sup -0.82} for a 21 cm SL. The estimated scatter components are compared with simulated SPECT projection data obtained with Monte Carlo modeling of six hot spheres placed in a cylindrical water filled phantom. The comparison of estimated with simulated total counts/projection shows very good agreement when approaching SDF for a point source (the % difference varied from 2 to 13% for 2 cm SL). Significant overestimate is seen when source length increases.

  6. Data Transmission System For A Downhole Component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

    2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. Each component has a first and second end, with a first communication element located at the first end and a second communication element located at the second end. Each communication element includes a first contact and a second contact. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second communication elements, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The system also includes a first and second connector for connecting the first and second communication elements respectively to the coaxial cable. Each connector includes a conductive sleeve, lying concentrically within the conductive tube, which fits around and makes electrical contact with the conductive core. The conductive sleeve is electrically isolated from the conductive tube. The conductive sleeve of the first connector is in electrical contact with the first contact of the first communication element, the conductive sleeve of the second connector is in electrical contact with the first contact of the second communication element, and the conductive tube is in electrical contact with both the second contact of the first communication element and the second contact of the second communication element.

  7. Data transmission system for a downhole component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., Tracy H.; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. Each component has a first and second end, with a first communication element located at the first end and a second communication element located at the second end. Each communication element includes a first contact and a second contact. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second communication elements, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The system also includes a first and second connector for connecting the first and second communication elements respectively to the coaxial cable. Each connector includes a conductive sleeve, lying concentrically within the conductive tube, which fits around and makes electrical contact with the conductive core. The conductive sleeve is electrically isolated from the conductive tube. The conductive sleeve of the first connector is in electrical contact with the first contact of the first communication element, the conductive sleeve of the second connector is in electrical contact with the first contact of the second communication element, and the conductive tube is in electrical contact with both the second contact of the first communication element and the second contact of the second communication element.

  8. The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongpo Xu; Danilo P. Mandic

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly without the differential of this function. Key results are summarized in tables. Several examples show how the quaternion matrix derivatives can be used as an important tool for solving problems related to signal processing.

  9. All-sky astrophysical component separation with Fast Independent Component Analysis (FastICA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maino, D; Baccigalupi, C; Perrotta, F; Banday, A J; Bedini, L; Burigana, C; Zotti, G D; Górski, K M; Salerno, E

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new, fast, algorithm for the separation of astrophysical components superposed in maps of the sky, based on the fast Independent Component Analysis technique (FastICA). It allows to recover both the spatial pattern and the frequency scalings of the emissions from statistically independent astrophysical processes, present along the line-of-sight, from multi-frequency observations. We apply FastICA to simulated observations of the microwave sky with angular resolution and instrumental noise at the mean nominal levels for the Planck satellite, containing the most important known diffuse signals: the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), Galactic synchrotron, dust and free-free emissions. A method for calibrating the reconstructed maps of each component at each frequency has been devised. The spatial pattern of all the components have been recovered on all scales probed by the instrument. In particular, the CMB angular power spectra is recovered at the percent level up to $\\ell_{max}\\simeq 2000$. Freque...

  10. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

  11. Diesel fuel component contribution to engine emissions and performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erwin, J.; Ryan, T.W. III; Moulton, D.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contemporary diesel fuel is a blend of several refinery streams chosen to meet specifications. The need to increase yield of transportation fuel from crude oil has resulted in converting increased proportions of residual oil to lighter products. This conversion is accomplished by thermal, catalytic, and hydrocracking of high molecular weight materials rich in aromatic compounds. The current efforts to reformulate California diesel fuel for reduced emissions from existing engines is an example of another driving force affecting refining practice: regulations designed to reduce exhaust emissions. Although derived from petroleum crude oil, reformulated diesel fuel is an alternative to current specification-grade diesel fuel, and this alternative presents opportunities and questions to be resolved by fuel and engine research. Various concerned parties have argued that regulations for fuel reformulation have not been based on an adequate data base. Despite numerous studies, much ambiguity remains about the relationship of exhaust parameters to fuel composition, particularly for diesel fuel. In an effort to gather pertinent data, the automobile industry and the oil refiners have joined forces in the Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AUTO/OIL) to address this question for gasoline. The objective of that work is to define the relationship between gasoline composition and the magnitude and composition of the exhaust emissions. The results of the AUTO/OEL program will also be used, along with other data bases, to define the EPA {open_quotes}complex model{close_quotes} for reformulated gasolines. Valuable insights have been gained for compression ignition engines in the Coordinating Research Council`s VE-1 program, but no program similar to AUTO/OIL has been started for diesel fuel reformulation. A more detailed understanding of the fuel/performance relationship is a readily apparent need.

  12. Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

  13. Comprehension by Derivation Douglas R. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comprehension by Derivation Douglas R. Smith Kestrel Institute 3260 Hillview Avenue Palo Alto, California 94304 USA smith@kestrel.edu Abstract We argue that to comprehend a software system is to have

  14. Estimating Derivatives of Noisy Simulations1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    derivative f (x0;p) by examining the errors. E(h) = (f(x0 + hp) ... Following [13], we scale the matrices by their diagonals and randomly select the base point x0 and ...

  15. Tax Credit for Forest Derived Biomass

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Forest-derived biomass includes tree tops, limbs, needles, leaves, and other woody debris leftover from activities such as timber harvesting, forest thinning, fire suppression, or forest health m...

  16. Direct synthesis of pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Matthew D. (Matthew Dennis)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. Synthesis of Substituted Pyridine Derivatives via the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of 3-Azadienynes. The two-step conversion of various N-vinyl and N-aryl amides to the corresponding substituted pyridines and ...

  17. SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

  18. Modelling and Simulating of Rain Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelling and Simulating of Rain Derivatives Master thesis Cathrin van Emmerich Supervisor, Februar 2005 Cathrin van Emmerich i #12;Table of Contents Table of Contents ii 1 Introduction 1 2

  19. Entanglement entropy in higher derivative holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arpan Bhattacharyya; Apratim Kaviraj; Aninda Sinha

    2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider holographic entanglement entropy in higher derivative gravity theories. Recently Lewkowycz and Maldacena arXiv:1304.4926 have provided a method to derive the equations for the entangling surface from first principles. We use this method to compute the entangling surface in four derivative gravity. Certain interesting differences compared to the two derivative case are pointed out. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we show that in the regime where this method is applicable, the resulting equations coincide with proposals in the literature as well as with what follows from considerations of the stress tensor on the entangling surface. Finally we demonstrate that the area functional in Gauss-Bonnet holography arises as a counterterm needed to make the Euclidean action free of power law divergences.

  20. Miscibility of blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) and oligodiols based on a bisphenol A nucleus and ethylene oxide or propylene oxide branches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jaffrennou; E. R. Soule; F. Mechin; J. Borrajo; J. P. Pascault; R. J. J. Williams

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud-point curves of blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with a series of oligodiols based on a bisphenol A nucleus and short branches of poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(propylene oxide) (BPA-EO or BPA-PO), and with PEO and PPO oligomers, were obtained using a light transmission device. Experimental results were fitted with the Flory- Huggins model using an interaction parameter depending on both temperature and composition. For PMMA/PEO and PMMA/PPO blends, the miscibility increased when increasing the size of the diol, due to the significant decrease in the entropic and enthalpic terms contributing to the interaction parameter. This reflected the decrease in the selfassociation of solvent molecules and in the contribution of terminal OH groups to the mismatching of solubility parameters. For PMMA/BPA-EO blends, a decrease of the entropic contribution to the interaction parameter when increasing the size of the oligodiol was also found. However, the effect was counterbalanced by the opposite contribution of combinatorial terms leading to cloud-point curves located in approximately the same temperature range. For PMMA/BPA-PO blends, the interaction parameter exhibited a very low value. In this case, the effect of solvent size was much more important on combinatorial terms than on the interaction parameter, leading to an increase in miscibility when decreasing the oligodiol size. For short BPA-PO oligodiols no phase separation was observed. The entropic contribution of the interaction parameter exhibited an inverse relationship with the size of the oligodiols, independent of the nature of the chains bearing the hydroxyls and the type of OH groups (primary or secondary). This indicates that the degree of self-association of solvent molecules through their OH terminal groups, was mainly determined by their relative sizes.

  1. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  2. Ambipolar blends of CuPc and C60: charge carrier mobility, electronic structure and its implications for solar cell applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Bruetting; M. Bronner; M. Goetzenbrugger; A. Opitz

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Ambipolar transport has been realised in blends of the molecular hole conductor Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and the electron conducting fullerene C60. Charge carrier mobilities and the occupied electronic levels have been analyzed as a function of the mixing ratio using field-effect transistor measurements and photoelectron spectroscopy. These results are discussed in the context of photovoltaic cells based on these materials.

  3. Analytical thermodynamics of a strongly attractive three-component Fermi gas in one dimension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Peng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Yin Xiangguo; Wang Yupeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guan Xiwen [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Batchelor, Murray T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultracold three-component atomic Fermi gases in one dimension are expected to exhibit rich physics due to the presence of trions and different pairing states. Quantum phase transitions from the trion state into a paired phase and a normal Fermi liquid occur at zero temperature. We derive the analytical thermodynamics of strongly attractive three-component one-dimensional fermions with SU(3) symmetry via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz method in unequal Zeeman splitting fields H{sub 1} and H{sub 2}. We find explicitly that for low temperature the system acts like either a two-component or a three-component Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid dependent on the system parameters. The phase diagrams for the chemical potential and specific heat are presented for illustrative values of the Zeeman splitting. We also demonstrate that crossover between different Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid phases exhibit singular behavior in specific heat and entropy as the temperature tends to zero. Beyond Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid physics, we obtain the equation of state which provides a precise description of universal thermodynamics and quantum criticality in three-component, strongly attractive Fermi gases.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant & Stack Component Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and cogeneration opportunity Standard Manufacturing Process ­ Low capex Standard Components ­ Standard HVAC

  5. FROGi: Fractal components deployment over OSGi Mikael Desertot1 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donsez, Didier

    FROGi: Fractal components deployment over OSGi Mikael Desertot1 3 , Humberto Cervantes2 and Didier, a proposal to support continuous de- ployment activities inside Fractal, a hierarchical component model of Fractal components. With FROGi, it is possible to automate the assembly of a Fractal component application

  6. Review article Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleixner, Stacy

    of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components is given and the fabrication techniques of ceramic components Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Components manufacturingReview article Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells F. Tietz *, H.-P. Buchkremer, D

  7. Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Casaponsa, B; Castex, G; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fantaye, Y; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present foreground-reduced CMB maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales $\\ell\\gtrsim40$. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with $\\ell < 20$ are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with re...

  8. The Baldwin Effect and Black Hole Accretion: A Spectral Principal Component Analysis of a Complete QSO Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhaohui Shang; Beverley J. Wills; Edward L. Robinson; D. Wills; Ari Laor; Bingrong Xie; Juntao Yuan

    2002-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique set of UV-optical spectrograms of 22 low redshift QSOs are investigated using principal component analysis. We find three significant principal components over the broad wavelength range from Ly\\alpha to H\\alpha. They together account for about 78% of the sample intrinsic variance. We present strong arguments that the first principal component represents the Baldwin effect, relating equivalent widths to the luminosity (i.e. accretion rate), but only emission-line cores are involved. The second component represents continuum variations, probably dominated by intrinsic reddening. The third principal component directly relates QSO UV properties to the optical principal component 1 found by Boroson & Green (1992). It is the primary cause of scatter in the Baldwin relationships. It is also directly related to broad emission-line width and soft X-ray spectral index, and therefore probably driven by Eddington accretion ratio. We demonstrate how Baldwin relationships can be derived using our first principal component, virtually eliminating the scatter caused by the third principal component. This rekindles the hope that the Baldwin relationships can be used for cosmological study.

  9. Color tuning of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce phosphor and their blend for white LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kottaisamy, M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kalasalingam University, Krishnankoil 626 190 (India)], E-mail: mmksamy66@yahoo.com; Thiyagarajan, P.; Mishra, J.; Ramachandra Rao, M.S. [Materials Science Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gadolinium or lanthanum co-doped (0.5 mole) yttrium aluminum garnet doped with cerium phosphors were synthesized by a citric acid gel method and the effect of co-dopants on the structural and luminescent properties were studied. A significant peak shift in the photoluminescence spectra of yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium was observed from 535 to 556 and 576 nm for gadolinium or lanthanum co-doped phosphors, respectively. The color tuned phosphor were blended with yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium which showed a considerable improvement in the Commission International De Eclairage chromaticity co-ordinate values of gallium nitride based blue light emitting diode pumped white light. White light emitted from yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium shows a Commission International De Eclairage value of (0.229, 0.182) whereas the yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium phosphor blended with gadolinium or lanthanum co-doped phosphor shows (0.262, 0.243) and (0.295, 0.282), respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility to use these phosphor blends to enhance the white light generation in the field of white-light emitting diode solid-state lighting.

  10. RECLAMATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive material packages are withdrawn from use for various reasons; loss of mission, decertification, damage, replacement, etc. While the packages themselves may be decertified, various components may still be able to perform to their required standards and find useful service. The Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems group of the Savannah River National Laboratory has been reducing the cost of producing new Type B Packagings by reclaiming, refurbishing, and returning to service the containment vessels from older decertified packagings. The program and its benefits are presented.

  11. Turbine engine component with cooling passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arrell, Douglas J. (Oviedo, FL); James, Allister W. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A component for use in a turbine engine including a first member and a second member associated with the first member. The second member includes a plurality of connecting elements extending therefrom. The connecting elements include securing portions at ends thereof that are received in corresponding cavities formed in the first member to attach the second member to the first member. The connecting elements are constructed to space apart a first surface of the second member from a first surface of the first member such that at least one cooling passage is formed between adjacent connecting elements and the first surface of the second member and the first surface of the first member.

  12. Thermal Study of Inverter Components: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, N. R.; Thomas, E. V.; Quintana, M. A.; Barkaszi, S.; Rosenthal, A.; Zhang, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal histories of inverter components were collected from operating inverters from several manufacturers and three locations. The data were analyzed to determine thermal profiles, the dependence on local conditions, and to assess the effect on inverter reliability. Inverter temperatures were shown to increase with the power dissipation of the inverters, follow diurnal and annual cycles, and have a dependence on wind speed. An accumulated damage model was applied to the temperature profiles and an example of using these data to predict reliability was explored.

  13. Method of making low work function component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Vance (Niskayuna, NY); Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Michael, Joseph Darryl (Delmar, NY)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabricating a component is disclosed. The method includes: providing a member having an effective work function of an initial value, disposing a sacrificial layer on a surface of the member, disposing a first agent within the member to obtain a predetermined concentration of the agent at said surface of the member, annealing the member, and removing the sacrificial layer to expose said surface of the member, wherein said surface has a post-process effective work function that is different from the initial value.

  14. Sandia Energy - Energy Storage Components and Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press ReleasesInAppliedEnergy Storage Components and Systems

  15. Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomyDr. ErnestMID-CAREERofBacterium |Magna10Components

  16. Advanced Components and Materials | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP7-0973 1BP-14 Power andAdvanced Components and Materials SHARE

  17. Building Component Library | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in CarbonofBiotinsBostonBridgerBuckeye Power, IncBuffaloComponent

  18. Magnetic Component of Quark-Gluon Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jinfeng Liao; Edward Shuryak

    2008-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe recent developments of the "magnetic scenario" of sQGP. We show that at $T=(0.8-1.3)T_c$ there is a dense plasma of monopoles, capable of supporting metastable flux tubes. Their existence allows to quantitatively explained the non-trivial $T$-dependence of the static $\\bar Q Q$ potential energy calculated on the lattice. By molecular dynamics simulation we derived transport properties (shear viscosity and diffusion constant) and showed that the best liquid is given by most symmetric plasma, with 50%-50% of electric and magnetic charges. The results are close to those of the ``perfect liquid'' observed at RHIC.

  19. Communication adapter for use with a drilling component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Hall; Jr.; H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Rawle, Michael (Springville, UT)

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A communication adapter is disclosed that provides for removable attachment to a drilling component when the drilling component is not actively drilling and for communication with an integrated transmission system in the drilling component. The communication adapter comprises a data transmission coupler that facilitates communication between the drilling component and the adapter, a mechanical coupler that facilitates removable attachment of the adapter to the drilling component, and a data interface.

  20. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  1. Determination of photocarrier density under continuous photoirradiation using spectroscopic techniques as applied to polymer: Fullerene blend films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanemoto, Katsuichi, E-mail: kkane@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Hitomi; Domoto, Shinya [Department of Physics, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method to determine the density of photocarrier under continuous photoirradiation in conjugated polymers using spectroscopic signals obtained by photoinduced absorption (PIA) measurements. The bleaching signals in the PIA measurements of polymer films and the steady-state absorption signals of oxidized polymer solution are employed to determine the photocarrier density. The method is applied to photocarriers of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in a blended film consisting of P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The photocarrier density under continuous photoirradiation of 580 mW/cm{sup 2} is determined to be 3.5?×?10{sup 16?}cm{sup ?3}. Using a trend of the carrier density increasing in proportion to the square root of photo-excitation intensity, we provide a general formula to estimate the photocarrier density under simulated 1 sun solar irradiation for the P3HT: PCBM film of an arbitrary thickness. We emphasize that the method proposed in this study enables an estimate of carrier density without measuring a current and can be applied to films with no electrodes as well as to devices.

  2. Evaluation of Sialon internal combustion engine components and fabrication of several ceramic components for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurtry, C.H.; Ten Eyck, M.O.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication development work was carried out on a push-rod tip having a stepped OD design and a 90[degree] shoulder in the transition area. Spray-dried Sialon premix was used in dry press tooling, and components were densified to about 98% of theoretical density using pressureless sintering conditions. Upon evaluation of the sintered components, it was found that afl components showed defects in the transition area. Modifications of the pressing parameters, incorporation of a 45[degree] angle in the shoulder area, and the use of tailored premix did not lead to the fabrication of defect-free parts. From these observations, it was concluded that the original part design could not easily be adapted to high-volume ceramic manufacturing methods. Subsequently, a modification to the desip was implemented. An SiC material with improved toughness (Hexoloy SX) was used for fabricating several test components with a closely machined, straight OD design. Pressureless-sintered and post-hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) Hexoloy SX components were supplied to The American Ceramic Engine Company (ACE) for assembly and testing. Fuel pump push-rod assemblies with Hemoloy SX tips were prepared by ACE, but no testing has been carried out to date.

  3. Evaluation of Sialon internal combustion engine components and fabrication of several ceramic components for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurtry, C.H.; Ten Eyck, M.O.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication development work was carried out on a push-rod tip having a stepped OD design and a 90{degree} shoulder in the transition area. Spray-dried Sialon premix was used in dry press tooling, and components were densified to about 98% of theoretical density using pressureless sintering conditions. Upon evaluation of the sintered components, it was found that afl components showed defects in the transition area. Modifications of the pressing parameters, incorporation of a 45{degree} angle in the shoulder area, and the use of tailored premix did not lead to the fabrication of defect-free parts. From these observations, it was concluded that the original part design could not easily be adapted to high-volume ceramic manufacturing methods. Subsequently, a modification to the desip was implemented. An SiC material with improved toughness (Hexoloy SX) was used for fabricating several test components with a closely machined, straight OD design. Pressureless-sintered and post-hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) Hexoloy SX components were supplied to The American Ceramic Engine Company (ACE) for assembly and testing. Fuel pump push-rod assemblies with Hemoloy SX tips were prepared by ACE, but no testing has been carried out to date.

  4. Non-destructive component separation using infrared radiant energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Russell, Steven W. (Knoxville, TN); Holt, Jerrid S. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating a first component and a second component from one another at an adhesive bond interface between the first component and second component. Typically the method involves irradiating the first component with infrared radiation from a source that radiates substantially only short wavelengths until the adhesive bond is destabilized, and then separating the first component and the second component from one another. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is placed inside an enclosure and the assembly is illuminated from an IR source that is external to the enclosure. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is simultaneously irradiated by a multi-planar array of IR sources. Often the IR radiation is unidirectional. In some embodiments the IR radiation is narrow-band short wavelength infrared radiation.

  5. Temperature dependence of the vapour tension of methyl-substituted phenol derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.G. Gagarin [Institute of Mineral Fuels (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Notable among the coking products of coal are phenol and its derivatives, derived for the coal tar and water layer above ht tar. Given that phenol an its derivatives are mainly extracted from coal tar fractions by rectification, information on how the vapor tension of the individual components depends on the temperature is of great importance. For phenol and various substituted alkylphenols there are tabular data. In the pre-computer era these data were sufficient for the separation of phenol mixtures. However, the development and introduction of information technology in the coal industry and in the design process demands the mathematical description of the physicochemical processes of coking products. The temperature dependence of the saturated vapor pressure for organic compounds is commonly described by the Antoine equation.

  6. Thermal barrier coatings for turbine components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Bethesda, MD); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine component, such as a turbine blade having a metal substrate (22) is coated with a metal MCrAlY alloy layer (24) and then a thermal barrier layer (20) selected from LaAlO.sub.3, NdAlO.sub.3, La.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7, Dy.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12, HO.sub.3 Al.sub.3 O.sub.12, ErAlO.sub.3, GdAlO.sub.3, Yb.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 O.sub.7, LaYbO.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7 or Y.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12.

  7. Rapid Spontaneous Assembly of Single Component Liposomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Sunthar; Sopan M. Phapal

    2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Can single component bilayer forming surfactants spontaneously assemble to form unilamellar vesicles of a definite size ? Although possible by Helfrich's theory, this has not been observed without external forcing. We show two variants of a method where this is possible without any input of external energy, with the time of synthesis reduced to as less as 15 minutes. It is shown that the average diameter of the liposomes formed is intrinsic and depends only on the temperature and the lipid type, eliminating kinetic effects normally observed. This thus can be a candidate mechanism for vesicle size selection in pre-biotic conditions. The method may also be suitable to study time-resolved studies of micelle to vesicle transition.

  8. Two Component Signal Transduction in Desulfovibrio Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luning, Eric; Rajeev, Lara; Ray, Jayashree; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmentally relevant Desulfovibrio species are sulfate-reducing bacteria that are of interest in the bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated water. Among these, the genome of D. vulgaris Hildenborough encodes a large number of two component systems consisting of 72 putative response regulators (RR) and 64 putative histidinekinases (HK), the majority of which are uncharacterized. We classified the D. vulgaris Hildenborough RRs based on their output domains and compared the distribution of RRs in other sequenced Desulfovibrio species. We have successfully purified most RRs and several HKs as His-tagged proteins. We performed phospho-transfer experiments to verify relationships between cognate pairs of HK and RR, and we have also mapped a few non-cognate HK-RR pairs. Presented here are our discoveries from the Desulfovibrio RR categorization and results from the in vitro studies using purified His tagged D. vulgaris HKs and RRs.

  9. Compound cooling flow turbulator for turbine component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-scale turbulation features, including first turbulators (46, 48) on a cooling surface (44), and smaller turbulators (52, 54, 58, 62) on the first turbulators. The first turbulators may be formed between larger turbulators (50). The first turbulators may be alternating ridges (46) and valleys (48). The smaller turbulators may be concave surface features such as dimples (62) and grooves (54), and/or convex surface features such as bumps (58) and smaller ridges (52). An embodiment with convex turbulators (52, 58) in the valleys (48) and concave turbulators (54, 62) on the ridges (46) increases the cooling surface area, reduces boundary layer separation, avoids coolant shadowing and stagnation, and reduces component mass.

  10. Moment Methods for Exotic Volatility Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albanese, Claudio

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The latest generation of volatility derivatives goes beyond variance and volatility swaps and probes our ability to price realized variance and sojourn times along bridges for the underlying stock price process. In this paper, we give an operator algebraic treatment of this problem based on Dyson expansions and moment methods and discuss applications to exotic volatility derivatives. The methods are quite flexible and allow for a specification of the underlying process which is semi-parametric or even non-parametric, including state-dependent local volatility, jumps, stochastic volatility and regime switching. We find that volatility derivatives are particularly well suited to be treated with moment methods, whereby one extrapolates the distribution of the relevant path functionals on the basis of a few moments. We consider a number of exotics such as variance knockouts, conditional corridor variance swaps, gamma swaps and variance swaptions and give valuation formulas in detail.

  11. Method and apparatus for component separation using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN); Schechter, Donald E. (Ten Mile, TN); Calhoun, Jr., Clyde L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating and recovering components includes the steps of providing at least a first component bonded to a second component by a microwave absorbent adhesive bonding material at a bonding area to form an assembly, the bonding material disposed between the components. Microwave energy is directly and selectively applied to the assembly so that substantially only the bonding material absorbs the microwave energy until the bonding material is at a debonding state. A separation force is applied while the bonding material is at the debonding state to permit disengaging and recovering the components. In addition, an apparatus for practicing the method includes holders for the components.

  12. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  13. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  14. RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS OF ELECTRONICS COMPONENTS FOR THE DEEP UNDERWATER MUON AND NEUTRINO DETECTION SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leskovar, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1980 RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS OF ELECTRONICS COMPONENTS10548 RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS OF ELECTRONICS COMPONENTS™**"* ' Reliability Considerations of Electronics Components

  15. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morman, James A. (Woodridge, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

  16. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morman, J.A.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Reifman, J.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced. 5 figs.

  17. Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Components and Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Minihan; Ed Schmidt; Greg Enserro; Melissa Thompson

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the project was to develop the processes for using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts for WR production and to put in place a system for implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. Much of the effort was devoted to determining if the use of COTS parts was possible. A basic question: How does the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) begin to use COTS in the weapon Stockpile Life Extension Programs with high reliability, affordability, while managing risk at acceptable levels? In FY00, it was determined that a certain weapon refurbishment program could not be accomplished without the use of COTS components. The elements driving the use of COTS components included decreased cost, greater availability, and shorter delivery time. Key factors that required implementation included identifying the best suppliers and components, defining life cycles and predictions of obsolescence, testing the feasibility of using COTS components with a test contractor to ensure capability, as well as quality and reliability, and implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. The primary effort of this project then was to concentrate on the risks involved in the use of COTS and address the issues of part and vendor selection, procurement and acceptance processes, and qualification of the parts via part and sample testing. The Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS) was used to manage the information generated by the COTS process. eCIS is a common interface for both the design and production of NWC components and systems integrating information between SNL National Laboratory (SNL) and the Kansas City Plant (KCP). The implementation of COTS components utilizes eCIS from part selection through qualification release. All part related data is linked across an unclassified network for access by both SNL and KCP personnel. The system includes not only NWC part information but also includes technical reference data for over 25 Million electronic and electromechanical commercial and military parts via a data subscription. With the capabilities added to the system through this project, eCIS provides decision support, parts list/BOM analysis, editing, tracking, workflows, reporting, and history/legacy information integrating manufacturer reference, company technical, company business, and design data.

  18. All-sky astrophysical component separation with Fast Independent Component Analysis (FastICA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Maino; A. Farusi; C. Baccigalupi; F. Perrotta; A. J. Banday; L. Bedini; C. Burigana; G. De Zotti; K. M. Gorski; E. Salerno

    2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new, fast, algorithm for the separation of astrophysical components superposed in maps of the sky, based on the fast Independent Component Analysis technique (FastICA). It allows to recover both the spatial pattern and the frequency scalings of the emissions from statistically independent astrophysical processes, present along the line-of-sight, from multi-frequency observations. We apply FastICA to simulated observations of the microwave sky with angular resolution and instrumental noise at the mean nominal levels for the Planck satellite, containing the most important known diffuse signals: the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), Galactic synchrotron, dust and free-free emissions. A method for calibrating the reconstructed maps of each component at each frequency has been devised. The spatial pattern of all the components have been recovered on all scales probed by the instrument. In particular, the CMB angular power spectra is recovered at the percent level up to $\\ell_{max}\\simeq 2000$. Frequency scalings and normalization have been recovered with better than percent precision for all the components at frequencies and in sky regions where their signal-to-noise ratio exceeds 1.5; the error increases at ten percent level for signal-to-noise ratios about 1. Runs have been performed on a Pentium III 600 MHz computer; FastICA typically took a time of the order of 10 minutes for all-sky simulations with 3.5 arcminutes pixel size. We conclude that FastICA is an extremly promising technique for analyzing the maps that will be obtained by the forthcoming high resolution CMB experiments.

  19. MICROSCOPIC DERIVATION OF AN ISOTHERMAL THERMODYNAMIC TRANSFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    they are one of the components of the Carnot cycle. As often in thermodynam- ics, they represent idealized an initial equilibrium to a new equilibrium given by the final tension applied. Quasistatic reversible), satisfy the Clausius inequality F1 - F0 W, with equality satisfied for reversible quasistatic

  20. Carbide-derived carbons - From porous networks to nanotubes and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbide-derived carbons - From porous networks to nanotubes and graphene Re-direct Destination: Carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) are a large family of carbon materials derived from...