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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.

Wilson III, George R. (Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin (United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)); Freerks, Robert L. (Rentech, Incorporated, 1331 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States))

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

BLENDING PROBLEM A refinery blends four petroleum components into three grades of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BLENDING PROBLEM A refinery blends four petroleum components into three grades of gasoline/day $/barrel #1 5,000 $9.00 #2 2,400 7.00 #3 4,000 12.00 #4 1,500 6.00 Blending formulas and selling price 4,000 x4R + x4P + x4L 1,500 #12;blending: (1) x1R / (x1R + x2R + x3R + x4R) .40 or x1R .40(x1R

Shier, Douglas R.

4

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

5

Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for biodiesel components methyl stearate and methyl oleate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for biodiesel components methyl stearate and methyl are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate renewable sources, can reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases. An important class of biodiesel fuels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

7

In-cylinder pressure characteristics of a CI engine using blends of diesel fuel and methyl esters of beef tallow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Cummins N14-410 diesel engine was operated on 12 fuels produced by blending methyl tallowate, methyl soyate, and ethanol with no. 2 diesel fuel. Engine in-cylinder pressure data were used to evaluate engine performance. Peak cylinder pressures for each fuel blend at all engine speeds were lower than peak pressure for diesel fuel with the exception of the 80% diesel, 13% methyl tallowate, and 7% ethanol; and the 80% diesel, 6.5% methyl tallowate, 6.5% methyl soyate and 7% ethanol blends. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) values for all fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. The differences in IMEP values correlated with differences in power output of the engine. Similarly, maximum rates of pressure rise for most fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. It was concluded that the fuel blends used in this study would have no detrimental long-term effects on engine performance, wear, and knock. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A.; Borg, J.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB {number_sign}2 diesel in a DCC 6V92TA MUI engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Detroit Diesel 6V92TA MUI engine was operated on several blends of EPA No. 2 diesel, California ARB No. 2 diesel, soya methyl ester (SME) and canola methyl ester (CME). Various fuels and fuel blend characteristics were determined and engine emissions from these fuels and blends were compared. Increasing percentages of SME and CME blended with either ARB or EPA diesels led to increased emissions of NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and soluble particulate matter. Also noted were reductions in total hydrocarbons, CO and insoluble particulate matter. Chassis dynamometer tests conducted on a 20/80 SME/ARB blend showed similar emissions trends. The data suggest that certain methyl ester/No. 2 diesel blends in conjunction with delays in engine timing and technologies that reduce the soluble fraction of particulate emissions merit further exploration as emissions reducing fuel options for North American mass transits (except in California, which mandates ARB diesel).

Spataru, A.; Romig, C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB No. 2 diesel in a DDC 6V92TA MUI engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Detroit Diesel 6V92TA MUI engine was operated on several blends of EPA No. 2 diesel, soya methyl ester (SME) and canola methyl ester (CME). Various fuels and fuel blend characteristics were determined and engine emissions from these fuels and blends were compared. Increasing percentages of SME and CME blended with either ARB or EPA diesels led to increased emissions of NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and soluble particulate matter. Also noted were reductions in total hydrocarbons, CO and insoluble particulate matter. Chassis dynamometer tests conducted on a 20/80 SME/ARB blend showed similar emission trends. The data suggest that certain methyl ester/No. 2 diesel blends in conjunction with technologies that reduce the soluble fraction of particulate emissions merit further exploration as emissions reducing fuel options for North American mass transit sectors (except California, which mandates ARB diesel).

Spataru, A.; Romig, C. [ADEPT Group, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

The relationship between the thermoplastic behavior of blends and their component coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermoplastic behaviors of a number of coking coal blends were measured using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) to determine to what extent they were affected by interactions between the component coals. Most blends showed evidence that at temperatures near their temperatures of maximum fluidity the extent to which they fused was different to that expected if the coals did not interact. Only blends of coking coals of different rank fused to a greater extent than expected in the absence of interactions. Semi-anthracite, low rank coals and charcoal reduced the extent of fusion of coking coals to values below those expected if they were acting as inert diluents. These interactions are interpreted as being mediated by transfer of volatile material between the coals on heating.

Sakurovs, R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

ETBE as a gasoline blending component. The experience of Elf Aquitaine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study, led by Elf Aquitaine for several years, shows the possibility to use ETBE instead of MTBE as a gasoline component and compares properties of these two ethers regarding different parameters like octanes, volatility, engine cleanliness, stability of the ethers themselves and of gasoline blends, lubricant compatibility and toxicological data. ETBE appears at least as good as MTBE and sometimes better, as ETBE is chemically more similar to hydrocarbons than MTBE and can be used advantageously as a gasoline oxygenated component. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Chatin, L.; Fombarlet, C.; Bernasconi, C.; Gauthier, A.; Schmelzle, P.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Effect of thermal history on the molecular orientation in polystyrene/poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ether) (PS/PVME) has been studied using polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism (PM to an increased orientation if the heating time at 51 8C is kept short. Moreover, PS and PVME develop a larger) blends; Thermal history; Polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism 1. Introduction The influence

Pezolet, Michel

13

Powertrain Component Inspection from Mid-Level Blends Vehicle Aging Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls on the nation to significantly increase its use of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law expands the renewable fuel standard to require use of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Given that ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the U.S. market, ethanol will likely make up a significant portion of the 36-billion-gallon requirement. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10-gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85 - a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). Consumption of E85 is at present limited by both the size of the FFV fleet and the number of E85 fueling stations. Gasoline consumption in the United States is currently about 140 billion gallons per year; thus the maximum use of ethanol as E10 is only about 14 billion gallons. While the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market represented less than 1% of the ethanol consumed in 2010 and will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Because of these factors, DOE and others have been assessing the viability of using mid-level ethanol blends (E15 or E20) as a way to accommodate growing volumes of ethanol. The DOE Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program has been under way since 2007, supported jointly by the Office of the Biomass Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program. One of the larger projects, the Catalyst Durability Study, or Vehicle Aging Study, will be completed early in calendar year 2011. The following report describes a subproject of the Vehicle Aging Study in which powertrain components from 18 of the vehicles were examined at Southwest Research Institute under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

Shoffner, Brent [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Johnson, Ryan [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Heimrich, Martin J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Lochte, Michael [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Pilot plant assessment of blend properties and their impact on critical power plant components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of blending eastern bituminous coals with western subbituminous coals on utility boiler operation. Relative to the baseline bituminous coal, the testing reported here indicated that there were significant impacts to boiler performance due to the blending of the eastern and western coals. Results indicated that fuel blending can be used to adequately control flue gas emissions of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} at the expense of reduced milling efficiency, increased sootblowing in the high-temperature and low-temperature regions of the boiler and, to a lesser extent, decreased collection efficiency for an electrostatic precipitator. The higher reactivity of the subbituminous coal increased the overall combustion efficiency, which may tend to decrease the impact of milling efficiency losses. The extent of these impacts was directly related to the percentage of subbituminous coal in the blends. At the lowest blend ratios of subbituminous coal, the impacts were greatly reduced.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Polystyrene/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends in the Presence of Cyclohexane: Selective Solvent Washing or Equilibrium Adsorption?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-cyclohexane (PS:CH), poly(methyl methacrylate)-carbon tetrachloride (PMMA:CCl4), and PS:CCl4 adsorbing

16

Ethers have good gasoline-blending attributes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of their compatibility with hydrocarbon gasoline-blending components, their high octane blending values, and their low volatility blending values, ethers will grow in use as gasoline blending components. This article discusses the properties of ethers as blending components, and environmental questions.

Unzelman, G.H.

1989-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

17

Biodiesel Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2-page fact sheet discussing general biodiesel blends and the improvement in engine performance and emissions.

Not Available

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Oxidation Kinetics of Pure and Blended Methyl Octanoate/n-Nonane/Methylcyclohexane: Measurements and Modeling of OH*/CH* Chemiluminescence, Ignition Delay Times and Laminar Flame Speeds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuels at 1.5 atm indicated the following ignition delay time order, from shortest to longest: methyl octanoate atm (nominal) the order remained, in general, consistent. Under fuel-lean conditions, ignition...

Rotavera, Brandon Michael

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

19

Hardgrove grindability study of Powder River Basin and Appalachian coal components in the blend to a midwestern power station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Five coals representing four distinct coal sources blended at a midwestern power station were subjected to detailed analysis of their Hardgrove grindability. The coals are: a low-sulfur, high volatile A bituminous Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal (Pike County, KY); a medium-sulfur, high volatile A bituminous Pittsburgh coal (southwestern PA); a low-sulfur, subbituminous Wyodak coal from two mines in the eastern Powder River Basin (Campbell County, WY). The feed and all samples processed in the Hardgrove grindability test procedure were analyzed for their maceral and microlithotype content. The high-vitrinite Pittsburgh coal and the relatively more petrographically complex Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal exhibit differing behavior in grindability. The Pittsburgh raw feed, 16x30 mesh fraction (HGI test fraction), and the {minus}30 mesh fraction (HGI reject) are relatively similar petrographically, suggesting that the HGI test fraction is reasonably representative of the whole feed. The eastern Kentucky coal is not as representative of the whole feed, the HGI test fraction having lower vitrinite than the rejected {minus}30 mesh fraction. The Powder River Basin coals are high vitrinite and show behavior similar to the Pittsburgh coal.

Padgett, P.L.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Keywords: Methyl decanoate; Methyl decenoate; Surrogate; Oxidation; Biodiesel fuels; Kinetic modeling; Engine; Low

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Optimal Blending Quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses a functional program developed for product blending. The program is installed at a Savannah River Plant production site on their VAX computer. A wide range of blending choices is available. The program can be easily changed or expanded. The technology can be applied at other areas where mixing or blending is done.

Harris, S.P.

2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

22

Modeling the Auto-Ignition of Biodiesel Blends with a Multi-Step Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is growing interest in using biodiesel in place of or in blends with petrodiesel in diesel engines; however, biodiesel oxidation chemistry is complicated to directly model and existing surrogate kinetic models are very large, making them computationally expensive. The present study describes a method for predicting the ignition behavior of blends of n-heptane and methyl butanoate, fuels whose blends have been used in the past as a surrogate for biodiesel. The autoignition is predicted using a multistep (8-step) model in order to reduce computational time and make this a viable tool for implementation into engine simulation codes. A detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends was used as a basis for validating the multistep model results. The ignition delay trends predicted by the multistep model for the n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends matched well with that of the detailed CHEMKIN model for the majority of conditions tested.

Toulson, Dr. Elisa [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Allen, Casey M [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, Dennis J [Michigan State University, East Lansing; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Schock, Harold [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Photo-response of a P3HT:PCBM blend in metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are investigated, in which the insulator is cross-linked polyvinylphenol and the active layer a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and the electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Admittance spectra and capacitance-voltage measurements obtained in the dark both display similar behaviour to those previously observed in P3HT-only devices. However, the photo-capacitance response is significantly enhanced in the P3HT:PCBM case, where exciton dissociation leads to electron transfer into the PCBM component. The results are consistent with a network of PCBM aggregates that is continuous through the film but with no lateral interconnection between the aggregates at or near the blend/insulator interface.

Devynck, M.; Rostirolla, B.; Watson, C. P.; Taylor, D. M., E-mail: d.m.taylor@bangor.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

24

HIGH PERFORMANCE BLENDS AND COMPOSITES: PART (I) CLAY AEROGEL/POLYMER COMPOSITES PART (II) MECHANISTIC INVESTIGATION OF COLOR GENERATION IN PET/MXD6 BARRIER BLENDS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??High performance in polymer blends and composites can be achieved through the addition of a strong filler component into a polymer matrix. The overall physical (more)

Bandi, Suneel A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Impact of Biodiesel on Fuel System Component Durability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the effects of biodiesel blends on fuel system components and the physical characteristics of elastomer materials.

Terry, B.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Mode-of-Action of Self-Extinguishing Polymer Blends Containing Organoclays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have shown that the addition of nanoclays is an effective means for enhancing the flame retardant properties of polymer blends. Polymer blends are difficult to render flame retardant even with the addition of flame retardant agents due to dispersion and phase segregation during the heating process. We show that the addition of 5% functionalized Cloisite 20A clays in combination with 15% decabromodiphenyl ether and 4% antimony trioxide to a polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) blend can render the compound flame resistant within the UL-94-V0 standard. Using a variety of micro-characterization methods, we show that the clays are concentrated at the interfaces between the polymers in this blend and completely suppress phase segregation. The flame retardant (FR) is absorbed onto the clay surfaces, and the exfoliation of the clays also distributes the FR agent uniformly within the matrix. TGA of the nanocomposite indicates that prior to the addition of clay, the dissociation times of the individual components varied by more than 20 C, which complicated the gas-phase kinetics. Addition of the clays causes all the components to have a single dissociation temperature, which enhanced the efficacy of the FR formula in the gas phase. Cone calorimetry also indicated that the clays decreased the heat release rate (HRR) and the mass loss rate (MLR), due to the formation of a robust char. In contrast, minimal charring occurred in blends containing just the FR. SEM examination of the chars showed that the clay platelets were curved and in some cases tightly folded into nanotube-like structures. These features were only apparent in blends, indicating that they might be associated with thermal gradients across the polymer phase interface. SEM and SAXS examinations of the nanocomposites after partial exposure to the flame indicated that the clays aggregated into ribbon-like structures, approximately microns in length, after the surfactant thermally decomposed. Thermal modeling indicated that these ribbons might partially explain the synergy due to better distribution of the heat and improve the mechanical properties of the melt at high temperatures, in a manner similar to the one reported for carbon nanotubes.

Pack, S.; Si, M; Koo, J; Sokolov, J; Koga, T; Kashiwagi, T; Rafailovich, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Decomposition method for the Multiperiod Blending Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Flows between which tanks in which time periods · Inventories/concentrations for tanks in each period for many applications 4 · Gasoline and crude oil blending · Raw material feed scheduling · Storage. "no bounds" on concentration total inventory mass balance in tanks inventory mass balance by component

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

28

Decomposition method for the Multiperiod Blending Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

problem is a general model for many applications, and it is difficult to solve · Gasoline and crude oil tanks in which time periods · Inventories/concentrations for tanks in each period · Maximum total profit total inventory mass balance in tanks inventory mass balance by component in blending tanks

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

29

Stocks of Motor Gasoline Blending Components  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael Schaal Director, Oil and10:InformationSteam Weekly

30

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

31

Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

32

HIGH-TEMPERATURE STEAM-TREATMENT OF PEEK, PEKK, PBI, AND THEIR BLENDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 HIGH-TEMPERATURE STEAM-TREATMENT OF PEEK, PEKK, PBI, AND THEIR BLENDS: A SOLID-STATE NMR AND IR and their pure components after treating them with liquid water and steam at elevated temperatures and pressures. The pure polymer components and the PAEK-PBI (50 : 50 wt%) blends are steam-treated at 150 °C (302 °F

Bluemel, Janet

33

A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

Pauls, R. E. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

diethyl ether (DEE) in ethanol fuel blends for a range ofbio-derived fuel components (ethanol) in emission productsHCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends Aaron Williams, Bob McCormick, Bob Hayes, John Ireland National Renewable Energy Laboratory Howard L. Fang Cummins, Inc. Diesel Engine...

36

Ethanol-blended Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 ton StanatAccepted forEstimationEthanol-Blended

37

Using blends of cerambycid beetle pheromones and host plant volatiles to simultaneously attract a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ethanol and a-pinene to determine whether such blends could be effective lures for detecting and moni-(undecyloxy)-ethanol, and race- mic 2-methyl-1-butanol. Bioassays in east-central Illinois captured 3070 to ethanol, with a-pinene enhancing attraction only for the pine specialist M. carolinensis. The optimal

Hanks, Lawrence M.

38

Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Blend Plan documents the feed material items that are stored in 2736-2 vaults, the 2736-ZB 638 cage, the 192C vault, and the 225 vault that will be processed through the thermal stabilization furnaces. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all water and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI) or percent water. The stabilized material must meet water content or LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the water or LOI limits are met.

RISENMAY, H.R.

2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

39

Comparison of Simulated and Experimental Combustion of Biodiesel Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel HCCI Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of biodiesel content on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine performance has been investigated both experimentally and by computer simulation. Combustion experiments were performed in a single cylinder HCCI engine using blends of soy biodiesel in ultra low sulfur diesel, with concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 vol% and equivalence ratios ( ) from 0.38 to 0.48. Data from the engine tests included combustion analysis and exhaust composition analysis with standard gaseous emissions equipment. The engine utilized a custom port fuel injection strategy to provide highly premixed charges of fuel and air, making it possible to compare the results with single zone chemical kinetics simulations that were performed using CHEMKIN III, with a reaction set including 670 species and over 3000 reactions. The reaction mechanism incorporated equations for the combustion of a paraffinic fuel, n-heptane, and an oxygenated component, methyl butanoate, as well as reactions for the formation of NOx. The zero-dimensional model did a reasonably good job of predicting the HCCI combustion event, correctly predicting intake temperature effects on the phasing of both low temperature heat release (LTHR) and the main combustion event. It also did a good job of predicting the magnitude of LTHR. Differences between the simulation and experimental data included the dependence on biodiesel concentration and the duration of both LTHR and the main combustion event. The probable reasons for these differences are the changing derived cetane number (DCN) of the model fuel blend with biodiesel concentration, and the inability of the model to account for stratification of temperature and . The simulation also showed that concentrations of intermediate species produced during LTHR are dependent on the magnitude of LTHR, but otherwise the addition of biodiesel has no discernable effect.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Evaluation of bitumen by realization of bitumen/polymer blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Today, if we want to guarantee the durability of bitumen/polymer blends and membranes, characterization of bitumen by penetration hardness and softening point is not enough. Bitumen which is a {open_quotes}residue{close_quotes} of distillation is a poor relation of the petrochemistry. It will tend to become more so in view of the more sophisticated treatment units of the heavy components coming from refining. This paper will present the correlation existing between generic composition of bitumen and the characteristics of the bitumen/polymers (atatic polypropylene) blends. The generic composition of the bitumen is determined by thin layer chromatography associated with a detection flame ionization (Iatroscan method). More than 20 bitumens of different origins have been studied. The quality of the blends done with an EPP batch for each of these bitumens is acquired by using determination trials of viscosity, cold bending (new state and after aging), segregation, and morphological analyses.

Cogneau, P.; Goosse, S. [Parc Industriel, Perwez (Belgium)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Sandia National Laboratories: Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends...

42

Interaction blending equations enhance reformulated gasoline profitability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction approach to gasoline blending gives refiners an accurate, simple means of re-evaluating blending equations and increasing profitability. With reformulated gasoline specifications drawing near, a detailed description of this approach, in the context of reformulated gasoline is in order. Simple mathematics compute blending values from interaction equations and interaction coefficients between mixtures. A timely example of such interactions is: blending a mixture of catalytically cracked gasoline plus light straight run (LSR) from one tank with alkylate plus reformate from another. This paper discusses blending equations, using interactions, mixture interactions, other blending problems, and obtaining equations.

Snee, R.D. (Joiner Associates, Madison, WI (United States)); Morris, W.E.; Smith, W.E.

1994-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

43

Intrinsically safe moisture blending system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

44

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Water Research 37 (2003) 37563766 Seasonal and daily variations in concentrations of methyl-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by volume to gasoline from November to February, and blending 11% MTBE by volume during the rest of the year; accepted 24 March 2003 Abstract Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an additive used to oxygenate gasoline of gasoline-powered watercraft. This paper documents and explains both seasonal and daily variations in MTBE

Toran, Laura

46

Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels ? Implementation Perspectives  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives William Woebkenberg - US Fuels Technical and Regulatory Affairs Mercedes-Benz Research & Development North America July 25, 2013...

47

Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chemically segregated PSPLA surface. Acknowledgment. ThisPS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized andthe continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains

Leung, Bonnie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Regulation of yeast development by mRNA methylation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The internal methylation of mRNA post-transcriptionally is an essential component of the mRNA editing machinery in virtually every eukaryotic system. Despite this ubiquity, little is known about the relevance, consequences ...

Agarwala, Sudeep D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

50

Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

Not Available

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Supercritical dieseline could be...

52

PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

CERTA, P.J.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

53

Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Siclovan, Oltea Puica (Rexford, NY); Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar (Bangalore, IN); Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao (Bangalore, IN); Porob, Digamber G. (Goa, IN); Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi (Bangalore, IN); Heward, William Jordan (Saratoga Springs, NY); Radkov, Emil Vergilov (Euclid, OH); Briel, Linda Jane Valyou (Niskayuna, NY)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

54

TENSILE PROPERTIES OF PLA AND PHBV BLENDS: ANOMALOUS ELONGATION AND AGING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TENSILE PROPERTIES OF PLA AND PHBV BLENDS: ANOMALOUS ELONGATION AND AGING T. Gérard, T. Noto and T, France tatiana.budtova@mines-paristech.fr INTRODUCTION Polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA the drawbacks of the pure components. In this work, PLA and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

55

A Blended Space for Tourism: Genesee Village Country & Museum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Blended Space for Tourism: Genesee Village Country & Museum Abstract Blended spaces are spaces on this enables us to provide general guidance and framework on the design of blended spaces for digital tourism. Author Keywords Design, Tourism, Blended Spaces, User Experience ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2 User

Deussen, Oliver

56

Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

Pernenkil, Lakshman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

58

Imaginative play with blended reality characters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The idea and formative design of a blended reality character, a new class of character able to maintain visual and kinetic continuity between the fully physical and fully virtual; the technical underpinnings of its unique ...

Robert, David Yann

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against the corporation income tax imposed under KRS 141.040 and/or the limited liability entity tax (LLET) imposed under KRS...

60

Viscoelastic properties of bidisperse homopolymer blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF BIDISPKRSE HOMOPOLYMER BLENDS A Thesis by JULIANI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2000... Major Subject. Chemical Engineering VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF BIDISPERSE HOMOPOLYMER BLENDS A Thesis by JULIANI Submitted to Texas A&M University m partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style...

Juliani

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Wisconsin State Energy Office?¢????s (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost?¢???effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally?¢???friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Concentration fluctuations in miscible polymer blends: Influence of temperature and chain rigidity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In contrast to binary mixtures of small molecule fluids, homogeneous polymer blends exhibit relatively large concentration fluctuations that can strongly affect the transport properties of these complex fluids over wide ranges of temperatures and compositions. The spatial scale and intensity of these compositional fluctuations are studied by applying Kirkwood-Buff theory to model blends of linear semiflexible polymer chains with upper critical solution temperatures. The requisite quantities for determining the Kirkwood-Buff integrals are generated from the lattice cluster theory for the thermodynamics of the blend and from the generalization of the random phase approximation to compressible polymer mixtures. We explore how the scale and intensity of composition fluctuations in binary blends vary with the reduced temperature ? ? (T ? T{sub c})/T (where T{sub c} is the critical temperature) and with the asymmetry in the rigidities of the components. Knowledge of these variations is crucial for understanding the dynamics of materials fabricated from polymer blends, and evidence supporting these expectations is briefly discussed.

Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Douglas, Jack F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States) [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

63

INVESTIGATION ON THE FLAME EXTINCTION LIMIT OF FUEL BLENDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean flame extinction limits of binary fuel mixtures of methane (CH{sub 4}), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were measured using a twin-flame counter-flow burner. Experiments were conducted to generate an extinction equivalence ratio vs. global stretch rate plot and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the equivalence ratio corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The foregoing gases were selected because they are the primary constitutes of natural gas, which is the primary focus of the present study. To validate the experimental setup and methodology, the flame extinction limit of pure fuels at zero stretch conditions were also estimated and compared with published values. The lean flame extinction limits of methane (f{sub ext} = 4.6%) and propane (f{sub ext} = 2.25%) flames measured in the present study agreed with the values reported in the literature. It was observed that the flame extinction limit of fuel blends have a polynomial relation with the concentration of component fuels in the mixture. This behavior contradicts with the commonly used linear Le Chatelier's approximation. The experimentally determined polynomial relations between the flame extinction limits of fuel blends (i.e. methane-propane and methane-ethane) and methane concentration are as follows: (1) Methane-Propane--%f{sub ext} = (1.05 x 10{sup -9}) f{sup 5}-(1.3644 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(6.40299 x 10{sup -6}) f{sup 3}-(1.2108459 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2}+(2.87305329 x 10{sup -3}) f+2.2483; (2) Methane-Ethane--%f{sub ext} = (2.1 x 10{sup -9})f{sup 5}-(3.5752 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(2.095425 x 10{sup -5}) f{sup 3}-(5.037353 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2} + 6.08980409 f + 2.8923. Where f{sub ext} is the extinction limits of methane-propane and methane-ethane fuel blends, and f is the concentration (% volume) of methane in the fuel mixture. The relations were obtained by fitting fifth order curve (polynomial regression) to experimentally measured extinction limits at different mixture conditions. To extend the study to a commercial fuel, the flame extinction limit for Birmingham natural gas (a blend of 95% methane, 5% ethane and 5% nitrogen) was experimentally determined and was found to be 3.62% fuel in the air-fuel mixture.

Ahsan R. Choudhuri

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Development of By-Pass Blending Station System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new building blending station system named by-pass blending station (BBS) has been developed to reduce building pump energy consumption in both district heating and cooling systems. Theoretical investigation demonstrated that the BBS can...

Liu, M.; Barnes, D.; Bunz, K.; Rosenberry, N.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Exploration of parameters for the continuous blending of pharmaceutical powders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transition from traditional batch blending to continuous blending is an opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry to reduce costs and improve quality control. This operational shift necessitates a deeper understanding ...

Lin, Ben Chien Pang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues The United States has 11...

67

The viscoelastic properties of linear-star blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to understand the nature of polydispersity and characterize the effect of branching architecture, the model blend of linear and star polymer, which is the simplest branched polymer, is contrived. In this blend system, chain dynamics...

Lee, Jung Hun

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Isotopic Tracing of Fuel Carbon in the Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental tests were conducted on a Cummins 85.9 direct-injected diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. 20% and 50% blend levels were tested, as was 100% (neat) biodiesel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), hydrocarbons (HC) and CO were measured under steady-state operating conditions. The effect of biodiesel on PM emissions was mixed; however, the contribution of the volatile organic fraction to total PM was greater for the higher biodiesel blend levels. When only non-volatile PM mass was considered, reductions were observed for the biodiesel blends as well as for neat biodiesel. The biodiesel test fuels increased NO{sub x}, while HC and CO emissions were reduced. PM collected on quartz filters during the experimental runs were analyzed for carbon-14 content using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMs). These measurements revealed that carbon from the biodiesel portion of the blended fuel was marginally less likely to contribute to PM, compared to the carbon from the diesel portion of the fuel. The results are different than those obtained in previous tests with the oxygenate ethanol, which was observed to be far less likely contribute to PM than the diesel component of the blended fuel. The data suggests that chemical structure of the oxygen- carbon bonds in an oxygenate affects the PM formation process.

Buchholz, B A; Cheng, A S; Dibble, R W

2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

69

Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. I. INTRODUCTION Blending processes arise in a wide range of industries, for example gasoline1 Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Process Tor A. Johansen£ , Daniel Sb. ££ Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Concepci´on, Concepci´on, Chile. Abstract Blending

Johansen, Tor Arne

70

Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes arise in a wide range of industries, for example gasoline blending [1], [2], [3], [4], food1 Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Processes Tor A. Johansen , Daniel Sb. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Concepci´on, Concepci´on, Chile. Abstract Blending

Johansen, Tor Arne

71

Phase Segregation in Polystyrene-Polylactide Blends Bonnie O. Leung,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ReceiVed January 13, 2009 ABSTRACT: Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt % loading) were annealed

Hitchcock, Adam P.

72

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Exciting careers blending engineering, science, and ecology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exciting careers blending engineering, science, and ecology New Opportunities Making the world://bee.oregonstate.edu/ecoe Ecological Engineering is: · Ecosystem restoration and habitat design at multiple scales · Watershed · Phytoremediation and bioremediation · Industrial ecology · Constructed wetlands and tidal marshlands · Mitigation

Tullos, Desiree

74

BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

KRISHNA,C.R.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Table S1. Fuel Properties. JP-8 Blend-1 FT-1 Blend-2 FT-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

58 45 51 H Content (% mass) 13.6 14.5 15.5 14.3 15.1 Heat of Combust. (MJ/kg) 43.3 43.8 44.4 43.8 441 Table S1. Fuel Properties. JP-8 Blend-1 FT-1 Blend-2 FT-2 Feedstock Petroleum Petroleum & Natural Gas Natural Gas Petroleum & Coal Coal Sulfur (ppm by mass) 1148 699 19 658 22 Alkanes (% vol.) 50

Meskhidze, Nicholas

76

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than is the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This report provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate blending option to produce oxide for disposal. This the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) alternative will have two missions (1) convert HEU materials into HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend the HEU uranyl nitrate with depleted and natural assay uranyl nitrate to produce an oxide that can be stored until an acceptable disposal approach is available. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Amon Millner draft short paper submitted to the Interaction Design and Children 2011 conference Modkit: Blending and Extending Approachable Platforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

programming environment and the Arduino platform. The demonstration will feature the current Modkit components, activities, and projects that illustrate how the toolkit blends Scratch and Arduino platforms to extend what). General Terms Design, Human Factors, Languages. Keywords Modkit, Scratch, Arduino, informal learning

79

Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

80

High-Temperature Steam-Treatment of PBI, PEKK, and a PEKK-PBI Blend: A Solid-State NMR and IR Spectroscopic Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and PAEK components in a melt or dry blend systems. In this initial investigation, focus is placed or morphological transformations of the polymers. All changes detectable by 13 C cross-polarization with magic with the PBI component. In this study, the traditional Celazole-type PBI (poly[2,20 -(

Bluemel, Janet

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onAlternativeConnecticut InformationEthanol Blends to

82

Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

83

Feed specification for the double-shell tank/single shell tank waste blend for high-level waste vitrification process and melter testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High-Level Waste (HLW) Vitrification Program is developing technology for the Department of Energy to immobilize high-level and transuranic waste as glass for permanent disposal. In support of the program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting laboratory-scale melter feed preparation studies and HLW melter testing which require a simulated HLW feed. The simulant HLW feed represents a blend of the waste from 177 single shell and double shell tanks. The waste blend composition is based on normalized track radionuclide components (TRAC), historical tank data, and assumptions on the pretreatment of the waste. The HLW simulant feed specification for the waste blend composition provides direction for the preparation of laboratory-scale and large-scale HLW blend simulant to be used in melter feed preparation studies and melter testing.

Tracey, E.M.; Merz, M.D.; Patello, G.K.; Wiemers, K.D.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Meet changing fuel requirements with online blend optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compania Espanola de Petroleos (CEPSA) embarked on an overall refinery automation program, with state-of-the-art gasoline blending being one of the highest priorities. The result of this effort is a sophisticated computerized gasoline blending system using offline LPs for initial optimal recipe calculation, an online LP for real-time blend recipe reformulation using online analyzers for blending model adjustment, complete automation of blending sequence startup and shutdown, generation of end of blend quality performance reports, and real-time integration between lab, tank gauging, plant information, and blending systems. The entry of Spain in the EEC brought with it the need to quickly adapt to the requirements of an openly competitive marketplace emphasizing no lead, oxygenated, high performance gasolines and ISO 9000 quality standards. The blending system allowed CEPSA to produce lowest cost, minimum giveaway gasolines, while having the flexibility to produce a wide variety of modern gasolines serving the Western European market. The paper describes the blender architecture, optimizer linear programming, man machine interface, and results from the blending system.

Diaz, A. [Compania Espanola de Petroleos, S.A., Cadiz (Spain). Algeciras Refinery; Barsamian, J.A. [ABB Simcon Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understanding (more)

Eslami, Farshad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Applications Blends of Phytol and diesel (by volume) were compared against baseline diesel experiments and simulations p-21ramirez.pdf More Documents & Publications HD...

87

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATEREPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATEREPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice The 13th Haskell & White Corporate Reporting & Governance conference is intended to provide opportunities

de Lijser, Peter

88

Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

Heavin, Leonard J. (Olympia, WA); King, Edward E. (Gig Harbor, WA); Milliron, Dennis L. (Lacey, WA)

1982-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

89

Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased. (author)

Boehm, H. [Physikalische Chemie I, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Braun-Unkhoff, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Interface modification in an immiscible rod-coil polymer blend using functionalized copolymers and polyelectrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-polymer specific interactions on interfacial properties and mechanical performance of the blend. Specifi cally, in uncompatibilized blends, the effect of vectra concentration and domain size on shear modulus is studied. While, in blends compatibilized with small...

Passinault, Robbie J

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Synthesis of grafted polyamide/polyglutarimide blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyglutarimides are high Tg thermoplastics, prepared by a reactive extrusion process involving polymethylmethacrylate and primary amines in a plasticating extruder at high pressures and temperatures. The resulting polymers can be synthesized with various levels of carboxylic acid and/or anhydride functionality as part of the polyglutarimide polymer. In a recent discovery, these polymers can be grafted to polyamides in a highly efficient manner by means of a reactive extrusion process. This talk will discuss the synthesis of these blends and techniques for their analysis. Partial fractionation, and spectroscopic analysis of these materials was used to monitor the reaction. The effects of extrusion temperature and catalyst level will be presented.

Hallden-Abberton, M. [Rohm and Haas Corp., Bristol, PA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

Delnick, Frank M.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

94

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminate cement blended Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

predicting the setting times of Type I cement concrete and blended... -29, 1980. 20. Tay, J. .H., Properties of Pulverized Sludge Ash Blended Cement. ACI Materials Journals... OF...

95

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminate blend phosphate Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Space Sciences Collection: Physics 42 Formation of Biomimetic Porous Calcium Phosphate Coatings on Surfaces of PolyethyleneZinc Stearate Blends Summary: -zinc stearate blends...

96

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization...

97

Anomalous Phase Inversion in Polymer Blends Prepared by Cryogenic Mechanical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, as well as interpenetrating and bicontinu- ous networks.7,8 Phase inversion occurs when the mi- norityAnomalous Phase Inversion in Polymer Blends Prepared by Cryogenic Mechanical Alloying Archie P strategies for producing highly dis- persed multicomponent polymer blends. By their very nature

98

CASIMIR EFFECT IN CROSSLINKED POLYMER BLENDS M. Benhamou  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-potential. I. INTRODUCTION Interpenetrated polymer networks (IPNs) or crosslinked polymer blends constitute new interpenetrating networks used as electronic device encapsulants [3]. For certain practical realizations, the IPNsCASIMIR EFFECT IN CROSSLINKED POLYMER BLENDS M. Benhamou , M. Boughou, H. Kaidi M. El Yaznasni, H

Boyer, Edmond

99

Achieving High Chilled Water Delta T Without Blending Station  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the blending station performance. The results show that the blending station is not necessary in the building chilled water systems with 2-way modulation valves at end users. Actually the end user valve configuration and control mainly impacts building chilled...

Wang, Z.; Wang, G.; Xu, K.; Yu, Y.; Liu, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

First International Conference on E-Learning and Blended Education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the conference will appear in its proceedings. The Conference's academic committee will also select some highFirst International Conference on E-Learning and Blended Education as a Strategic Choice for Arab Universities ICELBE 2012 : 13­11 ()2112 #12;First International Conference on E-Learning and Blended

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Composition of the wax fraction of bitumen from methylated brown coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changes in the group and individual compositions of the wax fractions of bitumen in the course of brown coal methylation were studied. With the use of IR and NMR spectroscopy and chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was found that the esters of methylated coal waxes consisted of the native esters of fatty acids and the methyl esters of these acids formed as a result of an alkylation treatment. Esterification and transesterification were predominant among the reactions of aliphatic fraction components. A positive effect of methanol alkylation on an increase in the yield of the aliphatic fractions was found.

S.I. Zherebtsov; A.I. Moiseev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT MISSION ANALYSIS WASTE BLENDING STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary evaluation for blending Hanford site waste with the objective of minimizing the amount of high-level waste (HLW) glass volumes without major changes to the overall waste retrieval and processing sequences currently planned. The evaluation utilizes simplified spreadsheet models developed to allow screening type comparisons of blending options without the need to use the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model. The blending scenarios evaluated are expected to increase tank farm operation costs due to increased waste transfers. Benefit would be derived from shorter operating time period for tank waste processing facilities, reduced onsite storage of immobilized HLW, and reduced offsite transportation and disposal costs for the immobilized HLW.

SHUFORD DH; STEGEN G

2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

103

Phosphor blends for high-CRI fluorescent lamps  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A phosphor blend comprises at least two phosphors each selected from one of the groups of phosphors that absorb UV electromagnetic radiation and emit in a region of visible light. The phosphor blend can be applied to a discharge gas radiation source to produce light sources having high color rendering index. A phosphor blend is advantageously includes the phosphor (Tb,Y,LuLa,Gd).sub.x(Al,Ga).sub.yO.sub.12:Ce.sup.3+, wherein x is in the range from about 2.8 to and including 3 and y is in the range from about 4 to and including 5.

Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Manivannan, Venkatesan (Clifton Park, NY); Beers, William Winder (Chesterland, OH); Toth, Katalin (Pomaz, HU); Balazs, Laszlo D. (Budapest, HU)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

104

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

105

Time phased alternate blending of feed coals for liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method for reducing process performance excursions during feed coal or process solvent changeover in a coal hydroliquefaction process by blending of feedstocks or solvents over time. ,

Schweigharett, Frank (Allentown, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Garg, Diwaker (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Bob McCormick (PI) With Teresa Alleman, Wendy Clark, Lisa Fouts, John Ireland, Mike Lammert, Jon Luecke, Dan Pedersen, Ken Proc, Matt Ratcliff, Matt...

107

Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut fr Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2-containing complex involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At least three pathways control maintenance of DNA cytosine methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway is solely responsible for establishment of this silencing mark. We previously described INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2 (IDN2) as being an RNA-binding RdDM component that is required for DNA methylation establishment. In this study, we describe the discovery of two partially redundant proteins that are paralogous to IDN2 and that form a stable complex with IDN2 in vivo. Null mutations in both genes, termed IDN2-LIKE 1 and IDN2-LIKE 2 (IDNL1 and IDNL2), result in a phenotype that mirrors, but does not further enhance, the idn2 mutant phenotype. Genetic analysis suggests that this complex acts in a step in the downstream portion of the RdDM pathway. We also have performed structural analysis showing that the IDN2 XS domain adopts an RNA recognition motif (RRM) fold. Finally, genome-wide DNA methylation and expression analysis confirms the placement of the IDN proteins in an RdDM pathway that affects DNA methylation and transcriptional control at many sites in the genome. Results from this study identify and describe two unique components of the RdDM machinery, adding to our understanding of DNA methylation control in the Arabidopsis genome.

Ausin, Israel; Greenberg, Maxim V.C.; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Hale, Christopher J.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Simon, Stacey A.; Lee, Tzuu-fen; Feng, Suhua; Espaola, Sophia D.; Meyers, Blake C.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Jacobsen, Steven E. (UCLA); (MSKCC); (Delaware)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

109

Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

111

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Theoretical and experimental investigation of particle interactions in pharmaceutical powder blending  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In pharmaceutical manufacturing practices, blending of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with excipients is a crucial step in that homogeneity of active ingredient after blending is a key issue for the quality assurance ...

Pu, Yu, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Blended learning through the eyes of Malagasy students Hoby ANDRIANIRINA Anne-Laure FOUCHER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clermont-Ferrand, France Keywords: blended learning ; experience of students ; didactics French in a blended learning environment. This is part of a wider action research study in the Didactics of Languages

Boyer, Edmond

114

On-line RVP analysis improves gas blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New government regulations on gasoline quality are making gasoline blending an increasingly important aspect of refining. The Environmental Protection Agency volatility regulations that establish maximum summertime commercial gasoline volatility levels provide that gasoline Reid Vapor Pressor starting in 1989 may not exceed 10.5, or 9.0 psi. Additionally, beginning in 1992, it may not exceed either 9.0 or 7.8 psi, depending on the area of the country and the month. This article discusses the on-line analysis of gas blending to minimize the volatile organic compounds released to the air.

Lo, P.T. [BP Oil Alliance Refinery, Belle Chasse, LA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF SINGLE CYLINDER FOUR STROKE DI DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON NEEM OIL BIODIESEL AND ITS BLENDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasing oil prices, and global warming activates the research and development of substitute energy resources to maintain economic development. The methyl esters of vegetable oil, known as biodiesel are becoming popular because of their low ecological effect and potential as a green substitute for compression ignition engine. The main objective of this study is to investigate the performance of neem oil methyl ester on a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, and 8 HP capacity diesel engine. The Experimental research has been performed to analyze the performance of different blends 20 % (BD20), 50 % (BD50), and 100 % (BD100) of neem oil biodiesel. Biodiesel, when compared to conventional diesel fuel, results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption and brake specific energy consumption are higher and brake thermal efficiency less during testing of engine. The brake specific energy consumption is increased by 0.60 % to 8.25 % and brake thermal efficiency decreased by 0.57 % to 7.62 % at 12 kg engine brake load as compared to diesel fuel. When the fuel consumption of biodiesel is compared to diesel fuel it observed that the fuel consumption was increased by 2.5 % to 19.5 % than that of diesel fuel for B20, B50 and B100 bends at 12 kg engine brake load. It is observed that the performance of biodiesel blends is less as compared to plain diesel and during testing of diesel engine run normally for all engine loads. It is investigated that the neem oil biodiesel 20 % blend showed very close performance when compared to plain diesel and hence can be used as an alternative fuel for conventional diesel in the future.

Rob Res; Dharmendra Yadav; Nitin Shrivastava; Vipin Shrivastava

116

Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

117

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up to 85% ethanol for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

118

Designing Polymer Blends Using Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, and Markov Chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Designing Polymer Blends Using Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, and Markov Chains N. K. Roy1 potential candidates for blending using Neural Networks. Generally the parent polymers of the blend need systems like branched polymers, high molecular weight polymer mixtures, block copolymers, interpenetrating

Potter, Don

119

Solid State Blending of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) with Polystyrene: Extent of PET Amorphization and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid State Blending of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) with Polystyrene: Extent of PET Amorphization.interscience.wiley.com). ABSTRACT: Polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were blended to- gether in the solid. CMA PS/PET blend morphologies were characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively through

Mitchell, Brian S.

120

Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters): Experiments and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters transportation fuel dedicated to the diesel engine, biodiesel, with an emphasis on ethyl esters because of biodiesel and related components, the main gaps in the field are highlighted to facilitate the convergence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU UNH for commercial use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form that is more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UNH blending HEU disposition option. Process requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste/emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Blending world map projections with Flex Projector Bernhard Jennya  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Projector and then documents the new approaches to projection blending. The integration of the three methods into Flex Projector makes creating new projections simple and easy to control and allows the user.flexprojector.com) is a free, open- source, cross-platform application with a graphical user interface for designing world map

Jenny, Bernhard

123

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Oxide blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for commercial use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the oxide blending HEU disposition option. This option provides for a yearly HEU throughput of 1 0 metric tons (MT) of uranium metal with an average U235 assay of 50% blended with 165 MT of natural assay triuranium octoxide (U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) per year to produce 177 MT of 4% U235 assay U{sub 3} O{sub 8}, for LWR fuel. Since HEU exists in a variety of forms and not necessarily in the form to be blended, worst case scenarios for preprocessing prior to blending will be assumed for HEU feed streams.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its extensive use and a related concern involving the potential influence of MTBE blending on exposures to other constituents of gasoline (particularly benzene), an evaluation of exposures among service station attendants and operators was undertaken at the request, and in cooperation with, the American Petroleum Institute during the latter part of 1990. For application of the survey results to a broad audience, three categories or types of service stations were identified with regard to MTBE use and exposure potential: (a) service stations that do not use MTBE or use it only as an octane enhancer, (b) service stations with seasonal requirements to use 12-15% MTBE (the Denver, Colorado, and Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan areas), and (c) service stations equipped with stage II (active) vapor recovery systems (several coastal areas, most notably Southern California). 4 refs., 4 tabs.

Hartle, R. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

127

Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 ?m diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 ?m in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations; Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction; Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign; o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks; o Blends from the qualification tanks; Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation experience). As experience is ga

Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

128

Sulfur meter for blending coal at Plant Monroe: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An on-line sulfur analyzer, installed at the Detroit Edison, Monroe Power station, was placed into service and evaluated for coal blending optimization to minimize the cost of complying with changing stack gas sulfur dioxide regulations. The project involved debugging the system which consisted of an /open quotes/as-fired/close quotes/ sampler and nuclear source sulfur analyzer. The system was initially plagued with mechanical and electronic problems ranging from coal flow pluggages to calibration drifts in the analyzer. Considerable efforts were successfully made to make the system reliable and accurate. On-line testing showed a major improvement in control of sulfur dioxide emission rates and fuel blending optimization equivalent to as much as $6 million in fuel costs at the time of the evaluation. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

Trentacosta, S.D.; Yurko, J.O.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for 2-methyl-2-butanol + 2-methyl-1-butanol + 1-pentanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) for 2-methyl-2-butanol + 2-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-2-butanol + 2-methyl-1-butanol + 1-pentanol have been measured at 373.15 K. The binary VLE results have been correlated by different liquid-phase activity coefficient models. The binary interaction parameters obtained from Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models in this and a previously study are used to predict the VLE data for the ternary system. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data are necessary for the design of distillation processes.

Aucejo, A.; Burguet, M.C.; Monton, J.B.; Munoz, R.; Sanchotello, M.; Vazquez, M.I. (Univ. of Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

131

A new blending agent and its effects on methanol-gasoline fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major difficulty encountered with the use of methanol-gasoline blends as SI engine fuel is their tendency to phase separation due to the hydrophilic properties of methanol. Phase separation can lead to some utilization problems. Using a blending agent for the methanol-gasoline system is the common approach taken towards solving the phase separation problem. In this study introduces fraction of molasses fuel oil as an effective new blending agent for methanol-gasoline fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Effects of bio-diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of diesel engine.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study presents an experimental investigation into the effects of running biodiesel fuel blends on conventional diesel engines. Bio fuels provide a way to produce (more)

Bastiani, Sergio.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Multi-scale analysis and simulation of powder blending in pharmaceutical manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Multi-Scale Analysis methodology was developed and carried out for gaining fundamental understanding of the pharmaceutical powder blending process. Through experiment, analysis and computer simulations, microscopic ...

Ngai, Samuel S. H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternatives blending private Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for mixing as polymer feedstock. This feedstock was melt-blended with high- density polyethylene... mechanical properties and thermal properties of paintHDPE and paintPMMA...

135

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-d rh1 blend Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Metallocene Summary: -Natta and Metallocene Hexene Linear Low-Density Polyethylene Blends with Low-Density Polyethylene Ibnelwaleed A. Hussein... and mechanical...

136

E-Print Network 3.0 - administration blending initiative Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for mixing as polymer feedstock. This feedstock was melt-blended with high- density polyethylene... mechanical properties and thermal properties of paintHDPE and paintPMMA...

137

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydride ternary blend Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

13 Phase Structure and Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)High-Density Polyethylene Based on Summary: 1 (NCO stretching) disappeared in the blends,...

138

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATE REPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATE REPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice Pinnell, Managing Partner of Haskell & White. GUIDELINES FOR PAPER SUBMISSION Papers are invited from

de Lijser, Peter

139

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

IMPACT OF LOW OCTANE HYDROCARBON BLENDING STREAMS ON "E85" ENGINE OPTIMIZATION Jim Szybist and Brian West Oak Ridge National Laboratory October 19, 2012 Acknowledgement This...

140

BLENDING STUDY FOR SRR SALT DISPOSITION INTEGRATION: TANK 50H SCALE-MODELING AND COMPUTER-MODELING FOR BLENDING PUMP DESIGN, PHASE 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. Blending requires the miscible salt solutions from potentially multiple source tanks per batch to be well mixed without disturbing settled sludge solids that may be present in a Blend Tank. Disturbing solids may be problematic both from a feed quality perspective as well as from a process safety perspective where hydrogen release from the sludge is a potential flammability concern. To develop the necessary technical basis for the design and operation of blending equipment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) completed scaled blending and transfer pump tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A 94 inch diameter pilot-scale blending tank, including tank internals such as the blending pump, transfer pump, removable cooling coils, and center column, were used in this research. The test tank represents a 1/10.85 scaled version of an 85 foot diameter, Type IIIA, nuclear waste tank that may be typical of Blend Tanks used in SDI. Specifically, Tank 50 was selected as the tank to be modeled per the SRR, Project Engineering Manager. SRNL blending tests investigated various fixed position, non-rotating, dual nozzle pump designs, including a blending pump model provided by the blend pump vendor, Curtiss Wright (CW). Primary research goals were to assess blending times and to evaluate incipient sludge disturbance for waste tanks. Incipient sludge disturbance was defined by SRR and SRNL as minor blending of settled sludge from the tank bottom into suspension due to blending pump operation, where the sludge level was shown to remain constant. To experimentally model the sludge layer, a very thin, pourable, sludge simulant was conservatively used for all testing. To experimentally model the liquid, supernate layer above the sludge in waste tanks, two salt solution simulants were used, which provided a bounding range of supernate properties. One solution was water (H{sub 2}O + NaOH), and the other was an inhibited, more viscous salt solution. The research performed and data obtained significantly advances the understanding of fluid mechanics, mixing theory and CFD modeling for nuclear waste tanks by benchmarking CFD results to actual experimental data. This research significantly bridges the gap between previous CFD models and actual field experiences in real waste tanks. A finding of the 2009, DOE, Slurry Retrieval, Pipeline Transport and Plugging, and Mixing Workshop was that CFD models were inadequate to assess blending processes in nuclear waste tanks. One recommendation from that Workshop was that a validation, or bench marking program be performed for CFD modeling versus experiment. This research provided experimental data to validate and correct CFD models as they apply to mixing and blending in nuclear waste tanks. Extensive SDI research was a significant step toward bench marking and applying CFD modeling. This research showed that CFD models not only agreed with experiment, but demonstrated that the large variance in actual experimental data accounts for misunderstood discrepancies between CFD models and experiments. Having documented this finding, SRNL was able to provide correction factors to be used with CFD models to statistically bound full scale CFD results. Through the use of pilot scale tests performed for both types of pumps and available engineering literature, SRNL demonstrated how to effectively apply CFD results to salt batch mixing in full scale waste tanks. In other words, CFD models were in error prior to development of experimental correction factors determined during this research, which provided a technique to use CFD models fo

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

ALMA imaging study of methyl formate (HCOOCH$_{3}$) in the torsionally excited states towards Orion KL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We recently reported the first identification of rotational transitions of methyl formate (HCOOCH$_{3}$) in the second torsionally excited state toward Orion Kleinmann-Low (KL) observed with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. In combination with the identified transitions of methyl formate in the ground state and the first torsional excited state, it was found that there is a difference in rotational temperature and vibrational temperature, where the latter is higher. In this study, high spatial resolution analysis by using Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) science verification data was carried out to verify and understand this difference. Toward the Compact Ridge, two different velocity components at 7.3 and 9.1 km s$^{-1}$ were confirmed, while a single component at 7.3 km s$^{-1}$ was identified towards the Hot Core. The intensity maps in the ground, first, and second torsional excited states have quite similar distributions. Using extensive ALMA data, we determined the rotational and vibration...

Sakai, Yusuke; Hirota, Tomoya

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Use modeling, simulation and component-in-the-loop techniques to provide system optimization for advanced powertrain components Use of alternative fuels to decrease U.S....

143

Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

144

Hydrogen effects on materials for CNG/H2 blends.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

No concerns for Hydrogen-Enriched Compressed Natural gas (HCNG) in steel storage tanks if material strength is < 950 MPa. Recommend evaluating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in higher strength steels at H{sub 2} partial pressure in blend. Limited fatigue testing on higher strength steel cylinders in H{sub 2} shows promising results. Impurities in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (e.g., CO) may provide extrinsic mechanism for mitigating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in steel tanks.

Farese, David (Air Products, USA); Keller, Jay O.; Somerday, Brian P.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Emissions mitigation of blended coals through systems optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For coal fired power stations, such as those located in the US, that have installed NOx and SOx emissions abatement equipment substantial carbon dioxide reduction could be achieved by shifting from pure PRB coal to blended coals with local bituminous coal. Don Labbe explains how. The article is based on a presentation at Power-Gen Asia 2009, which takes place 7-9 October in Bangkok, Thailand and an ISA POWID 2009 paper (19th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controlls and Instrumentation Conference, Chicago, Illinois, May 2009). 4 refs., 3 figs.

Don Labbe [IOM Invensys Operations Management (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non?Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In summer 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20--gasoline blended with 15 and 20% ethanol--on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This first report provides the results available to date from the first stages of a much larger overall test program. Results from additional projects that are currently underway or in the planning stages are not included in this first report. The purpose of this initial study was to quickly investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the following: (1) Regulated tailpipe emissions for 13 popular late model vehicles on a drive cycle similar to real-world driving and 28 small non-road engines (SNREs) under certification or typical in use procedures. (2) Exhaust and catalyst temperatures of the same vehicles under more severe conditions. (3) Temperature of key engine components of the same SNREs under certification or typical in-use conditions. (4) Observable operational issues with either the vehicles or SNREs during the course of testing. As discussed in the concluding section of this report, a wide range of additional studies are underway or planned to consider the effects of intermediate ethanol blends on materials, emissions, durability, and driveability of vehicles, as well as impacts on a wider range of nonautomotive engines, including marine applications, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Section 1 (Introduction) gives background on the test program and describes collaborations with industry and agencies to date. Section 2 (Experimental Setup) provides details concerning test fuels, vehicle and SNRE selection, and test methods used to conduct the studies presented in this report. Section 3 (Results and Discussion) summarizes the vehicle and SNRE studies and presents data from testing completed to date. Section 4 (Next Steps) describes planned future activities. The appendixes provide test procedure details, vehicle and SNRE emissions standards, analysis details, and additional data and tables from vehicle and SNRE tests.

Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); West, Brian H [ORNL; Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Orban, John [Battelle, Columbus; Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Aerodynamically Optimal Regional Aircraft Concepts: Conventional and Blended Wing-Body Designs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aerodynamically Optimal Regional Aircraft Concepts: Conventional and Blended Wing-Body Designs aircraft such as those that serve regional routes. We thus explore the optimal aerodynamic shape of both a blended wing-body and conventional tube-and-wing regional aircraft through high-fidelity aerodynamic shape

Zingg, David W.

150

PLA-PHA BLENDS: MORPHOLOGY, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL T. Grard, T. Budtova  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PLA-PHA BLENDS: MORPHOLOGY, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES T. Gérard, T. Budtova Mines Paris such as polylactides (PLA) and polyhydoxyalkanoates (PHA) are alternatives to petroleum-based polymers and represent polymers, varying the composition of the blend and preparation conditions. Most of the studies on PLA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

Moriarty, K.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

"Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Xibin Wang "Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends" Abstract : Combustion, performance and emission were studied for DI diesel engine fuelled with DMM/diesel fuel blends for DMM content from 0 to 50%. Results showed that, for diesel engine with fuel

153

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being

154

Critical pulse power components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Critical components for pulsed power conditioning systems will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on those components requiring significant development efforts. Capacitors, for example, are one of the weakest elements in high-power pulsed systems, especially when operation at high-repetition frequencies for extended periods of time are necessary. Switches are by far the weakest active components of pulse power systems. In particular, opening switches are essentially nonexistent for most applications. Insulaton in all systems and components requires development and improvement. Efforts under way in technology base development of pulse power components will be discussed.

Sarjeant, W.J.; Rohwein, G.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Determination of photocarrier density under continuous photoirradiation using spectroscopic techniques as applied to polymer: Fullerene blend films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a method to determine the density of photocarrier under continuous photoirradiation in conjugated polymers using spectroscopic signals obtained by photoinduced absorption (PIA) measurements. The bleaching signals in the PIA measurements of polymer films and the steady-state absorption signals of oxidized polymer solution are employed to determine the photocarrier density. The method is applied to photocarriers of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in a blended film consisting of P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The photocarrier density under continuous photoirradiation of 580 mW/cm{sup 2} is determined to be 3.5??10{sup 16?}cm{sup ?3}. Using a trend of the carrier density increasing in proportion to the square root of photo-excitation intensity, we provide a general formula to estimate the photocarrier density under simulated 1 sun solar irradiation for the P3HT: PCBM film of an arbitrary thickness. We emphasize that the method proposed in this study enables an estimate of carrier density without measuring a current and can be applied to films with no electrodes as well as to devices.

Kanemoto, Katsuichi, E-mail: kkane@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Hitomi; Domoto, Shinya [Department of Physics, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

156

JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

will be replaced by an ester bond between the fatty acid and a methyl group, producing methyl esters of the fatty acids (FAME) and free glycerol. 1.4 The FAME are then...

158

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COORDINATOR'S REPORT FOR LIFETIME CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED AT THE CANCER

Baker, Chris I.

159

Comparative Dynamics of Leucine Methyl Groups in FMOC-Leucine...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dynamics of Leucine Methyl Groups in FMOC-Leucine and in a ProteinHydrophobic Core Probed by Solid-State Deuteron Comparative Dynamics of Leucine Methyl Groups in FMOC-Leucine and...

160

Sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dependent, sphero-symmetric droplet combustion simulation that includes detailed gas phase chemical kineticsSub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments and detailed 2012 Abstract Combustion characteristics of isolated sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate (MB

Walter, M.Todd

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Vapor-liquid equilibria for systems of 1-butanol with 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, and 3-methyl-2-butanol at 30 and 100 kPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data were measured for binary systems of 1-butanol with 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, and 3-methyl-2-butanol at 30 and 100 kPa. The experimental data obtained in this work are thermodynamically consistent according to a point-to-point consistency test, and deviation from ideal behavior is small in all cases. They can be equally well correlated with the Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations.

Aucejo, A.; Burguet, M.C.; Monton, J.B.; Munoz, R.; Sanchotello, M.; Vazquez, M.I. (Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Insight into the Molecular Arrangement of High-Density Polyethylene Polymer Chains in Blends of Polystyrene/High-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Insight into the Molecular Arrangement of High-Density Polyethylene Polymer Chains in Blends of Polystyrene/High- Density Polyethylene from Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Raman Techniques JAYANT/high-density polyethylene (PS/HDPE) blends were synthe- sized by melt blending in a single screw extruder. Co

163

E-Print Network 3.0 - amplified methylation polymorphism Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 2 Infraspecific DNA Methylation Polymorphism in Cotton (Gossypium Summary: Infraspecific DNA Methylation Polymorphism in Cotton (Gossypium...

164

The radiation crosslinking of poly(vinyl chloride) with trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate. III. Effect of diundecyl phthalate: chemical kinetics of a three-component system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiation chemistry of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) blended with trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and diundecyl phthalate (DUP) has been examined. This three-component mixture contains a base resin (PVC), a crosslinking sensitizer (TMPTMA), and a physical modifier (DUP). These are the basic components in any radiation-curable coating. The kinetics and mechanism of the crosslinking reactions were studied with reference to the dependence on radiation dose and blend composition. The polyfunctional TMPTMA underwent polymerization incorporating the PVC into a 3-dimensional network. DUP remained chemically inert during the irradiation, not being bound to the network. However, DUP by plasticizing the macromolecules and diluting the monomer, changed the kinetics extensively. DUP enhanced TMPTMA homopolymerization, TMPTMA grafting, and PVC crosslinking reaction rates. The effect of the competition between polymerization, grafting, and degradation reactions was examined in terms of enhanced mobility of the reacting species. The influence of these kinetics considerations in selecting a blend composition for a coating application was discussed.

Bowmer, T.N.; Vroom, W.I.; Hellman, M.Y.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

Andile B. Mzinyati [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Removing the Microlensing Blending-Parallax Degeneracy Using Source Variability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microlensing event MACHO 97-SMC-1 is one of the rare microlensing events for which the source is a variable star, simply because most variable stars are systematically eliminated from microlensing studies. Using observational data for this event, we show that the intrinsic variability of a microlensed star is a powerful tool to constrain the nature of the lens by breaking the degeneracy between the microlens parallax and the blended light. We also present a statistical test for discriminating the location of the lens based on the \\chi^2 contours of the vector \\Lambda, the inverse of the projected velocity. We find that while SMC self lensing is somewhat favored, neither location can be ruled out with good confidence.

Assef, R J; Afonso, C; Albert, J N; Andersen, J; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Bareyre, P; Beaulieu, J P; Charlot, X; Coutures, C; Ferlet, R; Fouqu, P; Glicenstein, J F; Goldman, B; Graff, D; Gros, M; Hassinski, J; Hamadache, C; De Kat, J; Le Guillou, Laurent; Lesquoy, E; Loup, C; Magneville, C; Marquette, J B; Maurice, E; Maury, A; Milsztajn, A; Moniez, M; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perdereau, O; Rahal, Y R; Rich, J; Spiro, M; Tisserand, P; Vidal-Madjar, A; Vigroux, L; Zylberajch, S; Bennett, D P; Becker, A C; Griest, K; Vandehei, T; Welch, D L; Udalski, A; Szymanski, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Wyrzykowski, L

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

170

Production of methyl tert-alkyl ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transition to the use of unleaded gasolines has required the replacement of tetraethyl lead by oxygen-containing compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and ethers, which are termed {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} in the technical literature. These may be used in commercial gasolines in amounts of 10-15% by volume, equivalent to 2% oxygen by weight. When methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used, the oxygen content may amount to 2.7% by weight. This oxygenate gives a significant improvement of knock resistance of naphtha fractions, the greatest effects being observed for straight-run naphthas and reformer naphthas produced under normal conditions; the MTBE also improves the engine power and economy characteristics and lowers the carbon monoxide content in the exhaust by 15-30% and the hydrocarbon content by 7-8%. This paper describes methods for the production of MTBE and also methyl tert-alkyl ethers.

Trofimov, V.A.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Transverse Component Acknowledgements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 232-237. Raw Data Radial Component Analysis of Treasure Island earthquake data using seismic by Treasure Island Geotechnical Array near San Francisco, California on 06/26/94. It was a magnitude 4

172

LMFBR fuel component costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A significant portion of the cost of fabricating LMFBR fuels is in the non-fuel components such as fuel pin cladding, fuel assembly ducts and end fittings. The contribution of these to fuel fabrication costs, based on FFTF experience and extrapolated to large LMFBR fuel loadings, is discussed. The extrapolation considers the expected effects of LMFBR development programs in progress on non-fuel component costs.

Epperson, E.M.; Borisch, R.R.; Rice, L.H.

1981-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

173

HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UF{sub 6} blending alternative to produce LEU UF{sub 6} for commercial use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials; the nuclear material will be converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed; blending as UF{sub 6} to produce a UF{sub 6} product for commercial use is one of them. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UF{sub 6} blending HEU disposition option. Resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

A Design Experiment for Blending Knowledge Community And Inquiry in Secondary School Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Design Experiment for Blending Knowledge Community And Inquiry:00-1:15 Education Building 2010 Abstract. This presentation describes a design experiment objectives. Drawing on data from two design cycles, I examine the validity

Stanford, Kyle

175

Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation andEngine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Engine-in-the-Loop Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies...

176

Optimal handling of Highly Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients during milling and blending operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis investigates best practices for Highly Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (HAPI) milling and blending. We utilize a qualitative analysis centering on a benchmarking study and quantitative analyses using a ...

Setty, Prashant (Prashant Neelappanavara)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Influence of branch content on the microstructure of blends of linear and octene-branched polyethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

experimental densities of the two polymer melts. Initially, chains of LLDPE and HDPE were completely mixed POLYMER JOURNAL #12;short chain branching (SCB) [26]. Few studies have made use of m-LLDPE in blend

Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.

178

Process simulation, integration and optimization of blending of petrodiesel with biodiesel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

strategies to meet these requirements. The primary objective of this work is to analyze alternatives for producing ULSD. In addition to the conventional approach of revamping existing hydrotreating facilities, the option of blending petrodiesel with biodiesel...

Wang, Ting

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Knock limits in spark ignited direct injected engines using gasoline/ethanol blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Fuel Injection (DI) extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in DI is therefore ...

Kasseris, Emmanuel P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Solvent Blending Strategy to Upgrade MCU CSSX Solvent to Equivalent Next-Generation CSSX Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of the present study have validated an equal-volume blending strategy for upgrading freshly prepared CSSX solvent to a blended solvent functionally equivalent to NG-CSSX solvent. It is shown that blending fresh CSSX solvent as currently used in MCU with an equal volume of an NG-CSSX solvent concentrate of appropriate composition yields a blended solvent composition (46.5 mM of MaxCalix, 3.5 mM of BOBCalixC6, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, 3 mM of guanidine suppressor, and 1.5 mM of TOA in Isopar L) that exhibits equivalent batch ESS performance to that of the NG-CSSX solvent containing 50 mM of MaxCalix, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, and 3 mM of guanidine suppressor in Isopar L. The solvent blend composition is robust to third-phase formation. Results also show that a blend containing up to 60% v/v of CSSX solvent could be accommodated with minimal risk. Extraction and density data for the effect of solvent concentration mimicking diluent evaporation or over-dilution of the equal-volume blended solvent are also given, providing input for setting operational limits. Given that the experiments employed all pristine chemicals, the results do not qualify a blended solvent starting with actual used MCU solvent, which can be expected to have undergone some degree of degradation. Consequently, further work should be considered to evaluate this risk and implement appropriate remediation if needed.

Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

184

Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 2 and 72 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

Garca-Mat, M.; De la Torre, A.G. [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Cristalografa y Mineraloga, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain)] [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Cristalografa y Mineraloga, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain); Len-Reina, L. [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigacin, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain)] [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigacin, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain); Aranda, M.A.G. [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Cristalografa y Mineraloga, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain) [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Cristalografa y Mineraloga, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain); CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); Santacruz, I., E-mail: isantacruz@uma.es [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Cristalografa y Mineraloga, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Hybrid Dynamic Density Functional Theory for Polymer Melts and Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a high-speed and accurate hybrid dynamic density functional theory for the computer simulations of the phase separation processes of polymer melts and blends. The proposed theory is a combination of the dynamic self-consistent field (SCF) theory and a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau type theory with the random phase approximation (GRPA). The SCF theory is known to be accurate in evaluating the free energy of the polymer systems in both weak and strong segregation regions although it has a disadvantage of the requirement of a considerable amount of computational cost. On the other hand, the GRPA theory has an advantage of much smaller amount of required computational cost than the SCF theory while its applicability is limited to the weak segregation region. To make the accuracy of the SCF theory and the high-performance of the GRPA theory compatible, we adjust the chemical potential of the GRPA theory by using the SCF theory every constant time steps in the dynamic simulations. The performance of the GRPA and the hybrid theories is tested by using several systems composed of an A/B homopolymer, an AB diblock copolymer, or an ABC triblock copolymer. Using the hybrid theory, we succeeded in reproducing the metastable complex phase-separated domain structures of an ABC triblock copolymer observed by experiments.

Takashi Honda; Toshihiro Kawakatsu

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

186

Methyl viologen radical reactions with several oxidizing agents. [Gamma Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rates of oxidation of the methyl viologen radical by peroxodisulfate and hydrogen peroxide has been investigated. The methyl viologen free radical was produced by pulse radiolysis. The reaction of the peroxodisulfate radical with the methyl viologen radical was first order in both species, and the reaction rate constant is reported. A el-radiation study revealed a chain decomposition of the peroxodisulfate radical involving the methyl viologen radical when methanol, ethanol, or 2-propanol was present. Loss of the methyl viologen radical was then no longer observed to be a simple first-order reaction. The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with the methyl viologen radical was very slow in the presence of 1 M methanol. A much faster reaction in the absence of methanol was interpreted to be a reaction of the methyl viologen radical with the peroxy radicals. Hydrogen peroxide, in contrast to the chain decomposition of peroxodisulfate radicals, does not participate in a chain reaction involving the methyl viologen radical and methanol. Rate constants for the reaction of methyl viologen radical with dichromate radical, iodate radical, and ferricyanide radical are reported.

Levey, G.; Ebbesen, T.W.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Vaporization modeling of petroleum-biofuel drops using a hybrid multi-component approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical modeling of the vaporization characteristics of multi-component fuel mixtures is performed in this study. The fuel mixtures studied include those of binary components, biodiesel, diesel-biodiesel, and gasoline-ethanol. The use of biofuels has become increasingly important for reasons of environmental sustainability. Biofuels are often blended with petroleum fuels, and the detailed understanding of the vaporization process is essential to designing a clean and efficient combustion system. In this study, a hybrid vaporization model is developed that uses continuous thermodynamics to describe petroleum fuels and discrete components to represent biofuels. The model is validated using the experimental data of n-heptane, n-heptane-n-decane mixture, and biodiesel. Since biodiesel properties are not universal due to the variation in feedstock, methods for predicting biodiesel properties based on the five dominant fatty acid components are introduced. Good levels of agreement in the predicted and measured drop size histories are obtained. Furthermore, in modeling the diesel-biodiesel drop, results show that the drop lifetime increases with the biodiesel concentration in the blend. During vaporization, only the lighter components of diesel fuel vaporize at the beginning. Biodiesel components do not vaporize until some time during the vaporization process. On the other hand, results of gasoline-ethanol drops indicate that both fuels start to vaporize once the process begins. At the beginning, the lighter components of gasoline have a slightly higher vaporization rate than ethanol. After a certain time, ethanol vaporizes faster than the remaining gasoline components. At the end, the drop reduces to a regular gasoline drop with heavier components. Overall, the drop lifetime increases as the concentration of ethanol increases in the drop due to the higher latent heat. (author)

Zhang, Lei; Kong, Song-Charng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering Building, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

Krishna, C.R.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

ORTH/VIM proteins that regulate DNA methylation are functional ubiquitin E3 ligases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORTH/VIM proteins that regulate DNA methylation are functional ubiquitin E3 ligases Edward Kraft1 methylation status in vivo. Keywords: RING, E3 ligase, DNA methylation, ubiquitylation, ORTH/VIM, SRA

Jacobsen, Steve

190

Solid state lighting component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

191

Solid state lighting component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald; Yuan, Thomas

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

192

Injection molded component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An intermediate component includes a first wall member, a leachable material layer, and a precursor wall member. The first wall member has an outer surface and first connecting structure. The leachable material layer is provided on the first wall member outer surface. The precursor wall member is formed adjacent to the leachable material layer from a metal powder mixed with a binder material, and includes second connecting structure.

James, Allister W; Arrell, Douglas J

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

194

Host cells and methods for producing 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-butan-1-ol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides for a method for producing a 5-carbon alcohol in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses a first enzyme capable of catalyzing the dephosphorylation of an isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), such as a Bacillus subtilis phosphatase (YhfR), under a suitable condition so that 5-carbon alcohol is 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and/or 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol is produced. Optionally, the host cell may further comprise a second enzyme capable of reducing a 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol to 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, such as a reductase.

Chou, Howard H. (Berkeley, CA); Keasling, Jay D. (Berkeley, CA)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

195

Analysis Of Exhaust Emission Of Internal Combustion Engine Using Biodiesel Blend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract-The main purpose of this research is to study the effect of various blends of an environmental friendly alternative fuel such as biodiesel on the performance of diesel engine. In the Present investigation experimental work has been carried out to analyze the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a single cylinder internal combustion engine fuelled with biodiesel blend at the different load. In this experiment the biodiesel which is use as a waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel.To investigation of the emission characteristics of the engine loads, which is supplied from the alternator. The experiment was carried out different load i.e. (NO LOAD, 100W 200W, 500W, 1000W, 1500W, 2000W, 2500W & 3000Watt) at engine speed 1500 rpm/min. A test was applied in which an engine was fuel with diesel and seven different blends of diesel. Biodiesel (B5, B10, B20, B40, B60, B80, B100) made from waste cooking oil and the results were analyzed.The emission of were measured carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon carbon(HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and oxygen ().The experimental results will be compared with biodiesel blends and diesel. The biodiesel results of (WCO) in lower emission of hydro carbon (HC) and (CO) and increase emission of (NO2). This study showed that the results of exhaust emission of biodiesel blends were lower than the diesel fuel. Keyword- Biodiesel (WCO), diesel engine, gas analyzer, Exhaust emission. I.

Suvendu Mohanty; Dr. Om Prakash; Reasearch Scholar

196

Chain ordering of regioregular polythiophene films through blending with a nickel bisdithiolene complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An annealing-free strategy consisting of using a planar nickel bisdithiolene complex nickel bis[1,2-di(3?,4?-di-n-decyloxyphenyl)ethene-1,2-dithiolene] ([Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}]) is proposed for structuring poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT). Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopies, in conjunction with electronic absorption, have been used for evidencing P3HT changes due to blending. PL and absorption observations are consistent and show a correlation between polymer chain organization and increasing amounts of [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}]. Blending with [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}] do not modify the Raman ring-breathing modes energies indicating that blending does not induce strongly disorder in P3HT chains. Atomic force microscopic measurements show that blends nanoscale morphology presents a homogeneous matrix and small fibrils related to [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}] concentration, especially for blends with a [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}] weight ratio lower than 50%.

Hernandez-Maldonado, D. [CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France) [CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LCC, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Ramos, B.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Sguy, I. [LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France) [LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LCC, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Villeneuve-Faure, C. [LAPLACE, Universit Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France)] [LAPLACE, Universit Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); Sournia-Saquet, A.; Moineau-Chane Ching, K. I., E-mail: kathleen.chane@lcc-toulouse.fr [CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Alary, F.; Heully, J. L. [LCPQ-IRSAMC, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)] [LCPQ-IRSAMC, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Effects of Trans-Esterification of Castor Seed Oil Using Ethanol, Methanol and their Blends on the Properties and Yields of Biodiesel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of ethanol, methanol and their blends at different percentage mixtures on the properties and yields of biodiesel at varied trans-esterification times and temperatures using sodium hydroxide as a base catalyst have been investigated. At 70 o C, the optimum yields were: for ethanol 88.4%, 94.2%, 94.8%, and 95.2 % and for methanol, 90.6%, 95.6%, 96.0%, and 96.4% at 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and 4 hours respectively. The biodiesel yields increased as time of reaction progressed for both solvents but the yields obtained from methanol were generally higher than those from ethanol. A mixture of both solvents at 50 % each produced the overall highest of biodiesel yield of 98.6 % at 70 o C and in 4 hours compared to either solvent used alone at the same time and temperature. The properties such as densities, viscosities, flash points and pour points of the biodiesels tested were found to conform to ASTM standards. The average values were as follows: densities at 15 o C, were 0.8951, 0.8876 and 0.8832g/cm 3; viscosities (at 40 o C) were 4.7160cSt, 4.7380cSt and 4.5055cSt; flash points were 140.9 o C, 147.4 o C and 161.6 o C while for pour points they were-2.4375 o C,-1.6875 o C and-6 o C for ethyl, methyl and ethyl/methyl biodiesel respectively.

Vincent Enontiemonria; Ayoola Ayodeji; Anawe Paul; Apeye Lucky; Oteri Ogheneofego

198

Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic methylation profiles Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , urinary arsenic methylation profiles, and urothelial carcinoma susceptibility. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46, 929... and in vitro studies suggest that methylated arsenic...

200

Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Study of Performance Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel, Yellow Grease Biodiesel and its Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract The feedstock used in our experiment for the production of biodiesel was Yellow Grease. The whole experiment was divided into two parts: Production and Testing. Production involves Transesterification of free fatty acids in yellow grease to form yellow grease alkyl esters. The process of testing involved calculation of the physio chemical properties, acid value, density, kinematics viscosity and various performance characteristics. The properties obtained were similar to the standards of biodiesel set by ASTM D6751. The conclusions derived from the experiments conducted were that the break thermal efficiency with biodiesel blends was little lower than that of diesel. The break specific energy consumption for B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 is slightly higher than neat diesel. At all loads, diesel was found to have the lowet exhaust tempearture and the temperature for the different blends showed the upward trend with increasing concentration of biodiesel in the blends.

Virender Singh; Shubham Saxena; Shibayan Ghosh; Ankit Agrawal

202

Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

203

A novel reactive processing technique: using telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize polymer blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Difunctional reactive polymers, telechelics, were used to reactively form multiblock copolymers in situ when melt-blended with a blend of polystyrene and polyisoprene. To quantify the ability of the copolymer to compatibilize the blends, the time evolution of the domain size upon annealing was analyzed by SEM. It was found that the most effective parameter to quantify the ability of the copolymer to inhibit droplet coalescence is Kreltstable, the relative coarsening constant multiplied by the stabilization time. These results indicate that intermediate-molecular-weight telechelic pairs of both highly reactive Anhydride-PS-Anhydride/NH2-PI-NH2 and slower reacting Epoxy-PS-Epoxy/COOH-PI-COOH both effectively suppress coalescence, with the optimal molecular weight being slightly above the critical molecular weight of the homopolymer,Mc. The effects of telechelic loading were also investigated, where the optimal loading concentration for this system was 0.5 wt %, as higher concentrations exhibited a plasticizing effect due to the presence of unreacted low-molecular-weight telechelics present in the blend. A determination of the interfacial coverage of the copolymer shows that a conversion of 1.5-3.0% was required for 20% surface coverage at 5.0 wt % telechelic loading, indicating a large excess of telechelics in this system. At the optimal loading level of 0.5 wt %, a conversion of 15% was required for 20% surface coverage. The results of these experiments provide a clear understanding of the role of telechelic loading and molecular weight on its ability to reactively form interfacial modifiers in phase-separated polymer blends and provide guidelines for the development of similar reactive processing schemes that can use telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize a broad range of polymer blends.

Ashcraft, Earl C [ORNL; Ji, Haining [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Numerical Model Investigation for Potential Methane Explosion and Benzene Vapor Intrusion Associated with High-Ethanol Blend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Associated with High-Ethanol Blend Releases Jie Ma, Hong Luo, George E. DeVaull,§ William G. Rixey, and Pedro ABSTRACT: Ethanol-blended fuel releases usually stimulate methanogenesis in the subsurface, which could conditions exist. Ethanol- derived methane may also increase the vapor intrusion potential of toxic fuel

Alvarez, Pedro J.

205

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

APSEC Keynote, Dec 2012, BG Ryder Blended Program Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, without running the program § Allows checking of specific program properties § Dynamic program analysis, property validation, program understanding, test case generation... § Dynamic Analysis § Input: trace/ components § E.g., personal financial managers, e-commerce applications, information records managers

Ryder, Barbara G.

207

Sprayed skin turbine component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

Allen, David B

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

208

Component failure data handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data.

Gentillon, C.D.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Methyl bromide emissions to the atmosphere from temperate woodland ecosystems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The environmental importance of methyl bromide (CH3Br) arises from its contribution to stratospheric ozone loss processes and, as a consequence, its emissions from anthropogenic sources are subject to the Montreal Protocol. A better understanding...

Drewer, Julia; Heal, Kate V; Smith, Keith A; Heal, Mathew R

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

The Genetics of de novo Methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

domains akin to UHRF1 and the VIM proteins. These proteinsthe VARIANT IN METHYLATION (VIM) family. In higher orderUHRF1 in mammal or the VIM proteins in plants. UHRF1/VIM

Greenberg, Maxim Van Cleef

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

akap12 promoter methylation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(MEK) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), is widely used in industry as a radicalThermal Hazard Analysis of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide Ron-Hsin Chang, Chi-Min Shu and Po-Yin Yeh...

212

Control of mercury methylation in wetlands through iron addition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mason, R. P. ; Flegal, A. R. , Mercury speciation in the SanP. ; Flegal, A. R. , Decadal mercury trends in San FranciscoP. G. ; Nelson, D. C. , Mercury methylation from unexpected

Sedlak, David L; Ulrich, Patrick D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Optimization of Crude-Oil Blending Operations Sylvain Mouret Ignacio E. Grossmann Pierre Pestiaux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

refinery Crude-oil blending scheduling Scheduling formulations 2 Proposed approach Basic idea MINLP model Proposed approach Results and comparisons Conclusion Oil refinery A typical oil refinery Refining crude definition Given Refinery configuration Logistics constraints Initial tank inventory and composition Vessel

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

214

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1 Department; accepted 6 June 2000 Abstract This paper reviews literature on co-firing of coal with biomass fuels. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal

Wooldridge, Margaret S.

215

Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene January 2010 Keywords: Wood plastic composites Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Polyethylene Extrusion a b into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre

216

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, T.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stabilization/solidification technology is one of the most widely used techniques for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Cement-based products, commonly referred to as grouts, are the predominant materials of choice because of their low associated processing costs, compatibility with a wide variety of disposal scenarios, and ability to meet stringent processing and performance requirements. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. This blend is mixed with 106-AN at a mix ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents the final results of efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Trotter, D.R.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Molecular Packing and Solar Cell Performance in Blends of Polymers with a Bisadduct Fullerene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the electron acceptor in some BHJ solar cells but not in others. We first determine the solar cell performanceMolecular Packing and Solar Cell Performance in Blends of Polymers with a Bisadduct Fullerene States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We compare the solar cell performance of several polymers

McGehee, Michael

219

Kinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analyses of kinetic path ways and species transport on flame extinction were also conducted. The results and emission properties, such as the ignition delay times, extinction limits, flame speeds, species profilesKinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames Sang Hee

Ju, Yiguang

220

Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases biodegradation potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases 2013 Accepted 28 March 2013 Keywords: Pyrosequencing Ethanol Microbial diversity Temperature a b s t r a pilot- scale continuous release (10 months) of a 10% v:v ethanol solution mixed with benzene and toluene

Alvarez, Pedro J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relationship between MBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100 C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio ({lambda}) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated. The results indicate that the new DI worsen when heavy reformate containing large amounts of aromatics or MTBE, an oxygen-containing compound, is used for the octane improver, leaving the balance of the volatility out of consideration.

Suzawa, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kashiwabara, Kimito [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujisawa, Norihiro; Matsubara, Michiro

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

223

Methyl arsenic adsorption and desorption behavior on iron oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METHYL ARSENIC ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIOR ON IRON OXIDES A Thesis by BRANDON JAMES LAFFERTY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2004 Major Subject: Soil Science METHYL ARSENIC ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIOR ON IRON OXIDES A Thesis by BRANDON JAMES LAFFERTY Submitted to Texas A&M University...

Lafferty, Brandon James

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

224

The synthesis of some N-methylated aminoalkylphosphonic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(XLIII) were o heated with diethyl hydrogenphosphonate (XVI) at approximately 100 until the evolution of dimethylarnine (XXX) ceased. The 1-dimethyl- amino 1-alkenes (XLIV) reacted exothermically with diethyl hydro- genphosphonate (XVI) once... exothermically with methyl iodide at room temperature whereas the other eaters, which contained more bulky (R) substituents, did not. Secondly, the betaine obtained m the highest yield, N, N, N-trimethyl-N-(phosphono- methyl)ammonium hydroxide, mner salt...

Eikenberry, Jon Nathan

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Automotive Component Product Development Enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automotive Component Product Development Enhancement Through Multi-Attribute System Design Engineering Systems Division #12;Automotive Component Product Development Enhancement Through Multi of Science in Engineering and Management February 2005 ABSTRACT Automotive industry is facing a tough period

226

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide, UO{sub 3}, was used in the testing. Next, NU made up of UO{sub 3} and DU made up of UO{sub 2} was used in the test work. In every test, the blend achieved was characterized by spatial sampling of the ground product and analyzing for {sup 235}U concentration. The test work proved that these uranium oxide materials can be blended successfully. The spatial concentration was found to be uniform. Next, sintered thorium oxide pellets were used as surrogate for light water breeder reactor pellets (LWBR). To simulate LWBR pellet dispositioning, the thorium oxide pellets were first ground to a powder form and then the powder was blended with NU. In these tests also the concentration of {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th in blended products fell within established limits proving the success of RM-2 milling technology. RM-2 milling technology is applicable to any dry radioactive waste, especially brittle solids that can be ground up and mixed with the non-radioactive stock.

Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Formulation of substrate removal kinetics in multi-component aqueous systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are refractory to the biological culture, A refractory compound ls a chemical compound possessing a structure incapable of being broken by ensymes secreted by microorganisms. Additionally? knowledge of the kinetics of tha individual components could be used...-butanol, a refractory compound, was 0. 0322 as shown in Table 3. The exponential constant for the removal of 1-pentanol was 0, 0330 during the first ten hours, essentially the same as that for 2-methyl-2-butanol. however, the constant increased to 0...

Chaney, Ernest William

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis of their pyrolyses by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis 1999; accepted 20 July 1999 Abstract The pyrolysis products of neutral methyl-d3 t-butyl ether (MTBE-d3 from thermal cracking patterns. MTBE and TOME both exhibit base peaks at m/z 73 (which shifts to m/z 76

Morton, Thomas Hellman

230

METHYL CYANIDE OBSERVATIONS TOWARD MASSIVE PROTOSTARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the results of a survey in the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition toward a sample of massive proto-stellar candidates. The observations were carried out with the 10 m Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham, AZ. We detected this molecular line in 9 out of 21 observed sources. In six cases this is the first detection of this transition. We also obtained full beam sampled cross-scans for five sources which show that the lower K-components can be extended on the arcminute angular scale. The higher K-components, however, are always found to be compact with respect to our 36'' beam. A Boltzmann population diagram analysis of the central spectra indicates CH{sub 3}CN column densities of about 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}, and rotational temperatures above 50 K, which confirms these sources as hot molecular cores. Independent fits to line velocity and width for the individual K-components resulted in the detection of an increasing blueshift with increasing line excitation for four sources. Comparison with mid-infrared (mid-IR) images from the SPITZER GLIMPSE/IRAC archive for six sources show that the CH{sub 3}CN emission is generally coincident with a bright mid-IR source. Our data clearly show that the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition is a good probe of the hot molecular gas near massive protostars, and provide the basis for future interferometric studies.

Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58090 (Mexico); Bieging, J. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Kinetics and modeling of mixture effects during complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of a catalytic incinerator depends on the nature of the compounds being oxidized and cannot be predicted simply by knowing the performance of the incinerator with pure-component model compounds. Considering the importance of mixture effects, an attempt was made to develop a combined model to predict the conversion when benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are simultaneously oxidized. Complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and MTBE, singly and in mixtures, was investigated over a platinum catalyst. No inhibition effects were seen with benzene, but MTBE conversion was distinctly inhibited by benzene. A Mars-van Krevelen rate model was used to explain the results. Model parameters were obtained from pure-component experiments and then incorporated into a multicomponent model without any adjustment or additional rate parameters. The multicomponent model was able to predict the conversion of benzene and MTBE oxidation in the binary mixture using the pure-component data without adjustable parameters.

Dangi, S.; Abraham, M.A. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more components of the elastomers (by the solvent). This extraction of additives can negatively change the properties of the elastomer, leading to reduced performance and durability. For a seal application, some level of volume swell is acceptable, since the expansion will serve to maintain a seal. However, the acceptable level of swell is dependent on the particular application of the elastomer product. It is known that excessive swell can lead to unacceptable extrusion of the elastomer beyond the sealed interface, where it becomes susceptible to damage. Also, since high swell is indicative of high solubility, there is a heightened potential for fluid to seep through the seal and into the environment. Plastics, on the other hand, are used primarily in structural applications, such as solid components, including piping and fluid containment. Volume change, especially in a rigid system, will create internal stresses that may negatively affect performance. In order to better understand and predict the compatibility for a given polymer type and fuel composition, an analysis based on Hansen solubility theory was performed for each plastic and elastomer material. From this study, the solubility distance was calculated for each polymer material and test fuel combination. Using the calculated solubility distance, the ethanol concentration associated with peak swell and overall extent of swell can be predicted for each polymer. The bulk of the material discussion centers on the plastic materials, and their compatibility with Fuel C, CE25a, CE50a, and CE85a. The next section of this paper focuses on the elastomer compatibility with the higher ethanol concentrations with comparison to results obtained previously for the lower ethanol levels. The elastomers were identical to those used in the earlier study. Hansen solubility theory is also applied to the elastomers to provide added interpretation of the results. The final section summarizes the performance of the metal coupons.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Ceramic Component Development Process Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of ceramic components and coatings is critical to the demonstration of advanced fossil energy systems. Ceramic components and coating will play critical role in hot-gas filtration, high- temperature heat exchangers, thermal barrier coatings, and the hot- section of turbines. Continuous-fiber composites (CFCC) are expected to play an increasing role in these applications. This program encompassed five technical areas related to ceramic component development for fossil energy systems.

Boss, D.; Sambasivan, S.; Kuehmann, C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Basic Industrial Research Lab.; Faber, K. [Northwestern University, MEAS Materials Science & Engineering, Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

234

Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

235

Modeling The NOx Emissions In A Low NOx Burner While Fired With Pulverized Coal And Dairy Biomass Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by themselves already require cleanup technology; newer regulations will require development of new and economical technologies. Using a blend of traditional fuels & biomass is a promising technology to reduce NOX emissions. Experiments conducted previously...

Uggini, Hari

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

236

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intended for policymakers and others who make decisions about, and set guidelines for, the proper use of intermediate ethanol blends such as E20 in both vehicle engines and other engine types.

Knoll, K.; West, B.; Clark, W.; Graves, R.; Orban, J.; Przesmitzki, S.; Theiss, T.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Application and modeling of near-infrared frequency domain photon migration for monitoring pharmaceutical powder blending operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of blending. A simulation method was developed which consisted of (i) dynamic simulation for generating the powder structure; (ii) the completely-randommixture model for predicting the spatial distribution of API particles within the powder bed; and (iii...

Pan, Tianshu

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

238

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0 C to 40 C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under ...

Dimou, Iason

239

On the spherically symmetrical combustion of methyl decanoate droplets and comparisons with detailed numerical modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.e., 40­50% for CI compared to 25­30% for SI). As such, diesel power has the potential for an immediate impact on petroleum consumption, especially when conventional diesel is blended with bio-diesel fuels [3­5]. Blending diesel fuel with a fuel derived from sustainable sources will have an immediate impact

Walter, M.Todd

240

Durability of ACERT Engine Components  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

strength data from with FE model "load factors" and stress field to estimate fast fracture strength and fatigue resistance of design component Determination of FE model "load...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Durability of ACERT Engine Components  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Accomplishments (continued) * Determine the mechanical properties of airfoils from TiAl turbo wheel. * Provide "real" component database for verification of design and life...

242

Solution medium control of the photoredox yield in the Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +//methyl viologen/EDTA system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The observed quantum yield of formation of the methyl viologen radical cation, phi(MV/sup +/-), upon 450-nm irradiation of the Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +//methyl viologen dication/EDTA system at pH 11.0 is dependent on the concentrations of all three components. Under the conditions of the experiments, phi(MV/sup +/-)approx. =2eta/sub cr/ where eta/sub cr/ is the efficiency of release of redox products from the solvent cage. The maximum value of eta/sub cr/ is approx. =0.17 at high concentrations of all components where the photosensitizer, electron relay, and sacrificial electron donor exist as ion-paired aggregates within a single solvent-caged unit. 3 figures.

Mandal, K.; Hoffman, M.Z.

1984-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

243

An Experimental Study into the Ignition of Methane and Ethane Blends in a New Shock-tube Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY INTO THE IGNITION OF METHANE AND ETHANE BLENDS IN A NEW SHOCK-TUBE FACILITY A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH ERIK AUL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY INTO THE IGNITION OF METHANE AND ETHANE BLENDS IN A NEW SHOCK-TUBE FACILITY A Thesis...

Aul, Christopher Joseph Erik

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

244

Effects of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends on Conventional Vehicle Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were conducted in 2008 on 16 late-model conventional vehicles (1999-2007) to determine short-term effects of mid-level ethanol blends on performance and emissions. Vehicle odometer readings ranged from 10,000 to 100,000 miles, and all vehicles conformed to federal emissions requirements for their federal certification level. The LA92 drive cycle, also known as the Unified Cycle, was used for testing because it more accurately represents real-world acceleration rates and speeds than the Federal Test Procedure. Test fuels were splash-blends of up to 20 volume percent ethanol with federal certification gasoline. Both regulated and unregulated air-toxic emissions were measured. For the 16-vehicle fleet, increasing ethanol content resulted in reductions in average composite emissions of both nonmethane hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and increases in average emissions of ethanol and aldehydes.

Knoll, K.; West, B.; Huff, S.; Thomas, J.; Orban, J.; Cooper, C.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Tailor-Made Onion-Like Stereocomplex Crystals in Incompatible Enantiomeric Polylactide Containing Block Copolymer Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stereocomplexes formed by blending enantiomeric PLA block copolymers have demonstrated great potential for applications in biomedical devices. Here, we successfully synthesized well-defined enantiomeric PLA containing block copolymers by living ring-opening polymerization of L- and D-lactides from hydroxyl-terminated hydrophilic [poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO] and hydrophobic [poly(ethylene-co-1,2-butylene) or PEB] oligomers. Quantitative stereocomplex formation was achieved by equimolar mixing of the incompatible PEO-b-PLLA and PEB-b-PDLA. Intriguingly, in the blend of PEB-b-PDLA and PEO-b-PLLA with different PEB and PEO molecular weights, onion-like stereocomplex crystals were observed because of unbalanced surface stresses caused by different PEO and PEB molecular weights.

Sun,L.; Zhu, L.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Disk-cylinder and disk-sphere nanoparticles from block copolymer blend solution construction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers strive to produce nanoparticles with complexity in composition and structure. Although traditional spherical, cylindrical and membranous, or planar, nanostructures are ubiquitous, scientists seek more complicated geometries for potential functionality. Here we report the simple solution construction of multigeometry nanoparticles, disk-sphere and diskcylinder, through a straightforward, molecular-level, blending strategy with binary mixtures of block copolymers. The multigeometry nanoparticles contain disk geometry in the core with either spherical patches along the disk periphery in the case of disk-sphere particles or cylindrical edges and handles in the case of the disk-cylinder particles. The portions of different geometry in the same nanoparticles contain different core block chemistry, thus also defining multicompartments in the nanoparticles. Although the block copolymers chosen for the blends are important for the definition of the final hybrid particles, the control of the kinetic pathway of assembly is critical for successful multigeometry particle construction.

Zhu, Jiahua [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Shiyi [Texas A& M University] [Texas A& M University; Zhang, Ke [Northeastern University] [Northeastern University; Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL] [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL] [ORNL; Wooley, Karen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Pochan, Darrin [University of Delaware] [University of Delaware

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

Belinsky, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmisano, William A. (Edgewood, NM)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

248

Ab initio study of phase transition of boron nitride between zinc-blende and rhombohedral structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boron nitride has polymorphs such as zinc-blende (c-BN), wurtzite (w-BN), rhombohedral (r-BN), and graphite-like (h-BN) forms. We simulate the direct conversion of r-BN to c-BN through electronic excitation. In our calculation, the conversion is made possible by increasing the hole concentration to over 0.06/atom. This conversion should be experimentally possible by hole-doping via an electric double layer transistor (EDLT) or capacitor.

Nishida, S.; Funashima, H.; Sato, K.; Katayama-Yoshida, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

249

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Standards for Power Electronic Components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standards for Power Electronic Components and Systems EPE 14 ECCE Europe Dr Peter R. Wilson #12;Session Outline "Standards for Power Electronic Components and Systems" Peter Wilson, IEEE PELS Electronics where next? Wide Band Gap Devices SiC, GaN etc... Transformers (ETTT) Power Modules

251

Heat treating of manufactured components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material is disclosed. The system typically includes an insulating vessel placed within a microwave applicator chamber. A moderating material is positioned inside the insulating vessel so that a substantial portion of the exterior surface of each component for heat treating is in contact with the moderating material.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

252

Low-temperature pyrolysis of coal to produce diesel-fuel blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-temperature (623 to 773/sup 0/K) coal pyrolysis was investigated in a bench-scale retort. Factorially designed experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature, coal-particle size, and nitrogen flow rate on the yield of liquid products. Yield of condensable organic products relative to the proximate coal volatile matter increased by 3.1 and 6.4 wt % after increasing nitrogen purge flow rate from 0.465 to 1.68 L/min and retort temperature from 623 to 723/sup 0/K, respectively. The liquid product may be suitable for blending with diesel fuel. The viscosity and density of coal liquids produced at 723/sup 0/K were compared with those of diesel fuel. The coal liquids had a higher carbon-to-hydrogen ratio and a lower aliphatic-to-aromatic ratio than premium quality No. 2 diesel fuel. It was recommended that liquids from coal pyrolysis be blended with diesel fuel to determine stability of the mixture and performance of the blend in internal combustion engines.

Shafer, T.B.; Jett, O.J.; Wu, J.S.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: RECOVERY AND DOWN BLEND URANIUM FOR BENEFICIAL USE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For over fifty years, the H Canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has performed remotely operated radiochemical separations of irradiated targets to produce materials for national defense. Although the materials production mission has ended, the facility continues to play an important role in the stabilization and safe disposition of proliferable nuclear materials. As part of the US HEU Disposition Program, SRS has been down blending off-specification (off-spec) HEU to produce LEU since 2003. Off-spec HEU contains fission products not amenable to meeting the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) commercial fuel standards prior to purification. This down blended HEU material produced 301 MT of ~5% enriched LEU which has been fabricated into light water reactor fuel being utilized in Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) reactors in Tennessee and Alabama producing economic power. There is still in excess of ~10 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for beneficial use as either ~5% enriched LEU, or for use in subsequent LEU reactors requiring ~19.75% enriched LEU fuel.

Magoulas, V.

2013-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

254

Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Recovery and Blend-Down Uranium for Beneficial use in Commercial Reactors - 13373  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 2001 the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) signed an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 33 MT of off-specification (off-spec) highly enriched uranium (HEU) from DOE to TVA for conversion to commercial reactor fuel. Since that time additional surplus off-spec HEU material has been added to the program, making the total approximately 46 MT off-spec HEU. The disposition path for approximately half (23 MT) of this 46 MT of surplus HEU material, was down blending through the H-canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HEU is purified through the H-canyon processes, and then blended with natural uranium (NU) to form low enriched uranium (LEU) solution with a 4.95% U-235 isotopic content. This material was then transported to a TVA subcontractor who converted the solution to uranium oxide and then fabricated into commercial light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This fuel is now powering TVA reactors and supplying electricity to approximately 1 million households in the TVA region. There is still in excess of approximately 10 to 14 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for use in either currently designed light water reactors, ?5% enriched LEU, or be made available for use in subsequent advanced 'fast' reactor fuel designs, ?19% LEU. (authors)

Magoulas, Virginia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

257

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

258

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

259

Effects of hydration water on protein methyl group dynamics insolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering experiments have been used to investigate the dynamics of methyl groups in a protein-model hydrophobic peptide in solution. The results suggest that, when the hydrophobic side chains are hydrated by a single hydration water layer, the only allowed motions are confined and attributed to librational and rotational movement associated with the methyl groups. They provide unique experimental evidence that the structural and dynamical properties of the interfacial water strongly influence the side-chain dynamics and the activation of diffusive motion.

Russo D; Hura GL; Copley JRD

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

NMOG Emissions Characterizations and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

Not Available

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydride-vinyl methyl ether Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4-Methyl-2-pentanol Other secondary alcohols... - quire handling with precautions. Acrolein tert-Butyl methyl ether Di(1-propynl) ether n... Methoxy-1,3,5,7- cyclooctatetraene...

264

Freezing of Dynamics of a Methyl Group in a Protein Hydrophobic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freezing of Dynamics of a Methyl Group in a Protein Hydrophobic Core at Cryogenic Temperatures by Deuteron NMR Spectroscopy. Freezing of Dynamics of a Methyl Group in a Protein...

265

Environmental and age effects on methylation changes in human brain and blood cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous studies have shown that DNA methylation may 1 e associated with disease, aging, the rate of aging and genetics. In this thesis, age is accurately predicted from DNA methylation in brain and blood tissues using two ...

Giguzinsky, Orit

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

High Heat Flux Components Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose is the development of the technologies necessary to design, build and operate high heat flux components such as actively cooled limiters, divertor collector plates, R.F. antennas, mirror end cells, mirror halo collectors, direct convertor collectors, and neutral beam dumps. These components require an integrated design that considers the plasma-materials interaction (PMI) issues, heat removal problems and materials issues (including possible low Z coatings and claddings). As a general definition, high heat flux components see heat fluxes ranging from 1 to 100 MW/m/sup 2/. Suitable materials include copper and copper alloys.

Whitley, J.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Ultrafast photochemistry of methyl hydroperoxide on ice particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrafast photochemistry of methyl hydroperoxide on ice particles M. A. Kambouresa , S. AOOH, on water clusters produces a surprisingly wide range of products on a subpicosecond time scale | photodissociation Photoinduced processes at surfaces of water or ice are of interest in atmospheric chemistry

Nizkorodov, Sergey

268

Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that are soluble in NaOH scrubbing solution for iodine analysis. But when NOx and H2O are not present, then the majority of the uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent is in the form of methyl iodide. Methyl iodide adsorption efficiencies have been high enough so that initial DFs exceed 1,000 to 10,000. The methyl iodide mass transfer zone depths are estimated at 4-8 inches, possibly deeper than mass transfer zone depths estimated for I2 adsorption on AgZ. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Durability of ACERT Engine Components  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* Tensile creep database of commercial TiAl alloys was generated for probabilistic turbo rotor component design and life prediction Daido HIP TiAl Howmet TiAl 16 Managed by...

270

Technical Issues Associated With the Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends (>E10) in the U.S. Legacy Fleet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in assessing the impact of using intermediate ethanol blends (E10 to E30) in the legacy fleet of vehicles in the U.S. fleet. The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify the issues associated with intermediate ethanol blends with an emphasis on the end-use or vehicle impacts of increased ethanol levels; (2) assess the likely severity of the issues and whether they will become more severe with higher ethanol blend levels, or identify where the issue is most severe; (3) identify where gaps in knowledge exist and what might be required to fill those knowledge gaps; and (4) compile a current and complete bibliography of key references on intermediate ethanol blends. This effort is chiefly a critical review and assessment of available studies. Subject matter experts (authors and selected expert contacts) were consulted to help with interpretation and assessment. The scope of this report is limited to technical issues. Additional issues associated with consumer, vehicle manufacturer, and regulatory acceptance of ethanol blends greater than E10 are not considered. The key findings from this study are given.

Rich, Bechtold [Alliance Technical Services; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Timbario, Tom [Alliance Technical Services; Goodman, Marc [Alliance Technical Services

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Preliminary report on blending strategies for inert-matrix fuel recycling in LWRs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various recycle strategies have been proposed to manage the inventory of transuranics in commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), with a particular goal of increasing the loading capacity of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes in the Yucca Mountain repository. Transuranic recycling in commercial LWRs can be seen as a viable means of slowing the accumulation of transuranics in the nationwide CSNF stockpile. Furthermore, this type of approach is an important first step in demonstrating the benefits of a nuclear fuel cycle which incorporates recycling, such as envisioned for Generation-IV reactor systems under development. Recycling strategies of this sort are not proposed as an attempt to eliminate the need of a geologic nuclear waste repository, but as a means to enhance the usefulness of the repository currently under construction in the U.S., perhaps circumventing the need for a second facility. A US-DOE Secretarial recommendation on the need for the construction of a second geologic repository is required by 2010. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) has supported a breadth of work to evaluate the ideal transuranic separation and recycle strategy. Previous AFCI studies of LWR-based transmutation have considered the benefits of homogeneously recycling plutonium, plutonium and neptunium, and all transuranic (TRU) species. A study of a wide range of hypothetical separation schemes (Pu, Pu+Np, Pu+Np+Am, etc.) with multi-recycling has also been performed, focusing on the proliferation resistance of the various fuel cycles and fuel handling issues. The direct recycle of the recovered TRU from spent inert-matrix fuel (IMF) into new IMF was found to be quite limited due to the rapid burndown of the fissile plutonium. The IMF is very effective at destroying the fissile fraction of the TRU with destruction rates in excess of 80% of the fissile material without recycling the IMF. Blending strategies have been proposed to mitigate the rapid burndown of the fissile plutonium by mixing high fissile feed from new sources (e.g., spent UO{sub 2} pins) with the low fissile material recovered from the recycled transmutation fuel. The blending of the fuels is anticipated to aid the multi-recycle of the transuranics. A systematic study of blending strategies (for both IMF and MOX) has been initiated and is currently ongoing. This work extends the previous study that considered separation strategies for plutonium, neptunium, and americium recycling in MOX, CORAIL, and IMF{sub 6} by considering blending schemes and approach to continuous recycle. Plutonium and americium are recycled in order to reduce the intermediate term (100 to 1500 years after spent fuel irradiation) decay heat of the disposed waste which accounts for the bulk of the repository heating. Since the long-term released dose from the repository is dominated by neptunium, it is sensible to consume it by transmutation in a reactor, as well. Curium accounts for {approx}0.6% of the TRU mass in spent UO{sub 2} fuel ({approx}0.008% of the heavy metal), but does constitute significantly higher fractions in spent transmutation fuels. This initial evaluation will focus on blending strategies for the multirecycling of Pu+Np+Am. The impact of curium recycle will be investigated as part of the systematic study of blending strategies. The initial study focuses on understanding a simple strategy for IMF recycle and blending. More complex strategies (i.e., heterogeneous assemblies) will be evaluated later in the year, including enriched uranium support options. Currently, a preliminary study of a serial blending strategy has been performed in order to evaluate the impact of blending on the performance of the IMF recycle and to evaluate the potential for continuous or infinite recycle. The continuous recycle of Pu+Np+Am in IMF would allow for complete destruction of all heat contributing actinides in the same LWRs that originally produced them. The only transuranics sent to the repository would be those lost in reprocessing and curium if it is not eventually recycled.

Hoffman, E. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

272

The Use of Triangular-Shaped PV Arrays to Better Blend into Historical Structures  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

When considering the installation of a solar PV array on a designated historical structure, placement of each solar panel requires extra attention to aesthetic considerations. If the solar array cannot be installed behind the structure or hidden on a roof plane that is not visible from the public street or sidewalk, it can sometimes be installed as an architectural feature that blends into the historical structure. One way to do this is to utilize triangular-shaped PV panels that conform with the buildings roof lines.

273

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

An Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion in Emulsified Vegetable-Methanol Blend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high speed imaging. When large droplets microexploded, lower frequencies were detected in all the blends. v DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to my family, Mr. Ki-Woo Nam, Mrs. Jung-Hee Park, Mrs. Myung-Ok Won, Mrs. Ji-Hye Han, Mr... Boltzmann?s constant [1.3808 ?10-23 J/K] h Plank?s constant [6.6261?10-34 J?s] rcr Critical diameter of a vapor embryo [m] nT Number of potential nucleation sites per unit volume ellipseV Volume of ellipse [m 3] spherer Radius of sphere [m] u (x...

Nam, Hyungseok

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

275

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchTheMarketing,Energy andNews and updates from theBiomass inBlending Hydrogen

276

Transducer for downhole drilling components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

277

The design and management of system components for in situ methanotrophic bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The successful operation of an in situ bioremediation system is inherent within its design. Well-organized system components enable ease of maintenance, limited down time, and relatively rapid data acquisition. The design effort in this project focused on injection of a low-pressure air/methane mixture into a horizontal well below the water table, a methane-blending system that provided control of the injected mixture, redundant safety interlocks, vapor-phase extraction from a second horizontal well, and an off-gas treatment system that provided efficient thermal catalytic oxidation of the extracted contaminant vapors. The control instrumentation provided sufficient redundancies to allow the system to remain in operation in the event of a component failure, and equally important, the safe shut down of the system should any designed safety parameters be exceeded (i.e., high methane concentration). Final design approval took into consideration the reliability of the equipment and the components specified. Product knowledge and proper application limited the risk of a component or system failure while providing a safe, efficient, and cost-effective remediation system. Microprocessor data acquisition and system control were integrated with an autodialer to provide 24 hr emergency response and operation without on-site supervision. This integrated system also insured accurate data analysis and minimum downtime. Since operations commenced, the system has operated a total of 7,760 hours out of the possible 8,837 hours available. This equates to an operating efficiency of 87.8%.

Lombard, K.H. [Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Borthen, J.W. [ECOVA Corp., Aiken, SC (United States); Hazen, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Large Component Removal/Disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

Wheeler, D. M.

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

279

Primary Components of Binomial Ideals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for primary components of special binomial ideals. A feature of this work is that our results are independent of the characteristic of the field. First of all, we analyze the primary decomposition of a special class of binomial ideals, lattice ideals...

Eser, Zekiye

2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

280

Measurement of Turbulent Flame Speeds of Hydrogen and Natural Gas Blends (C1-C5 Alkanes) using a Newly Developed Fan-Stirred Vessel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in displacement speeds were observed for blends of NG2/H_(2) and CH_(4)/H_(2), thus validating the newly established experimental technique. Additionally, turbulent flame speeds of hydrogen and a generic, high-hydrogen-content syngas blend (50:50 H_(2):CO) were...

Ravi, Sankaranarayana

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Morphological origin for the stratification of P3HT:PCBM blend film studied by neutron reflectometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the origin for the film stratification of electron donor/acceptor blend is crucial for high efficiency organic photovoltaic cell. In this study, P3HT:PCBM blend is deposited onto hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrate to examine the film stratifications. The neutron reflectivity results show that, on the different surfaces, PCBM diffuses toward the two interfacial regions in an identical fashion during thermal annealing. This evidences that the film stratification is not affected by the substrates. Instead, since P3HT remains more amorphous in the interfacial regions and PCBM is miscible with amorphous P3HT, PCBM preferentially diffuses to the interfacial regions, resulting in the stratification.

Keum, Jong Kahk [Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States) [Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Browning, James F.; Halbert, Candice E. [Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Xiao, Kai; Shao, Ming; Hong, Kunlun [Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

282

Miscibility and degradability of poly(lactic acid)poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(ethylene glycol) blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Poly(lactic acid) [PLA] was melt blended with polyethylene(oxide) [PEG] and poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] in different compositions to form blown films. It was determined that PLA was miscible with PEO in all compositions. Based on Gordon-Taylor equation, it was determined that the interactions between PLA and PEO is stronger than PEG. The addition of low molecular weight PEG improved the elongation and tear strength of the blends. Enzymatic degradation results shows that the weight loss of all the samples was more than 80% of the initial weight in 48 hours.

Yue, C.L.; Dave, V.; Gross, R.A.; McCarthy, S.P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

95 Production and Testing of Coconut Oil Biodiesel Fuel and its Blend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many researchers have successfully worked on generating energy from different alternative sources including solar and biological sources such as the conversion of trapped energy from sunlight to electricity and conversion of some renewable agricultural products to fuel. This work considers the use of coconut oil for the production of alternative renewable and environmental friendly biodiesel fuel as an alternative to conventional diesel fuel. Test quantities of coconut oil biodiesel were produced through transesterification reaction using 100g coconut oil, 20.0 % ethanol (wt % coconut oil), 0.8% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 65C reaction temperature and 120 min. reaction time. The experiment was carried out three times and average results evaluated. Low yield of the biodiesel (10.4%) was obtained. The coconut oil biodiesel produced was subsequently blended with petroleum diesel and characterized as alternative diesel fuel through some ASTM standard fuel tests. The products were further evaluated by comparing specific gravity and viscosity of the biodiesel blend, the raw coconut oil and conventional petroleum diesel.

Oguntola J Alamu; Opeoluwa Dehinbo; Adedoyin M Sulaiman; Oguntola J. Alamu; Opeoluwa Dehinbo; Adedoyin M. Sulaiman

284

Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the CSH and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the CSH. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the CSH and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: The reaction of quartz powder at 80 C strongly enhances the compressive strength. Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 C was found after 2 days. Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 C correlates with sulphate content of CSH.

Deschner, Florian, E-mail: florian.deschner@gmail.com [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, berlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dbendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, berlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dbendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, berlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dbendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, berlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dbendorf (Switzerland); Neubauer, Jrgen [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)] [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Plan to complete the experiential component as a requirement for the concentration in Nanotechnology to complete the experiential component for the Nanotechnology Concentration by: Research Experience in Lab

Goldberg, Bennett

286

SOFA Component Revision Identification 1 Premysl Brada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOFA Component Revision Identification 1 Premysl Brada Department of Computer Science versions, component revision numbers and change indications are derived as a well- founded version called "component revisions" and the basic fine-grained "type revisions", can subsequently be used

287

The degradation of TPX components by oxygen, elevated temperature, and ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TPX is PMP or poly(4-methyl-1-pentene). It has several commercially important characteristics such as high optical transparency, high crystalline melting point, etc., leading to numerous applications including infrared windows, lenses, membranes, food packaging. The life components fabricated from this material may be limited by thermal oxidative and radiation-induced degradation. A preliminary review of the scientific literature was conducted to obtain relevant information on the effects of oxygen, moisture elevated temperature, and radiation on the chemical, thermodynamic, mechanical, and electrical properties of this material. Refs, figs, tabs.

Farmer, J.C.

1996-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Mercury Methylation in Mine Wastes Collected from Abandoned Mercury Mines in the USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury mines contain highly elevated Hg contents, but more problematic environmentally are elemental Hg and soluble Hg salts produced during ore retorting that remain in wastes at mine sites. Under certain conditions, these inorganic Hg compounds convert to bioavailable, highly toxic organic Hg forms. Speciation and transformation of Hg was studied in wastes collected from abandoned Hg mines at McDermitt, NV, and Terlingua, TX, which are moderate size on an international scale and produced about 10,000 and 5,000 t of elemental Hg, respectively. In waste samples, we measured total Hg and methyl-Hg contents, identified various Hg compounds using Hg-thermo-desorption pyrolysis, and determined rates of Hg methylation and methyl-Hg demethylation using isotopic-tracer methods. Pyrolysis analysis of mine wastes showed variable amounts of cinnabar, metacinnabar, Hg salts, elemental Hg, and elemental Hg sorbed onto particulates such as clay and Fe-oxides. Mine wastes with the highest methyl-Hg contents correspond to those with elemental Hg and particulate-sorbed elemental Hg, and also produced the highest laboratory-estimated potential Hg methylation rates, as much as 4.8%/day. Samples containing dominantly cinnabar showed little or no Hg methylation. Mine wastes with high methyl-Hg contents generally showed low methyl-Hg demethylation, suggesting that Hg methylation was dominant. Both mines are located in semiarid climates, and during this study, streambeds below the mines were dry. Total Hg contents in stream sediment collected below the mines show significant dilution, and methyl-Hg contents were typically below the limit of determination. Methylation of Hg downstream from Hg mines is probably lower in arid climates due to lack of mine-water runoff and lower microbial activity. The correspondence of mine wastes containing elemental Hg and high methyl-Hg contents suggests that Hg0 oxidizes to Hg2+, which is subsequently bioavailable for microbial Hg methylation.

Gray, John E. (U.S. Geological Survey); Hines, Mark E. (Massachusetts, Univ Of); Biester, Harald (Heidelberg College); Lasorsa, Brenda K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

Snyder, Glenn J. (Lynchburg, VA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Processing of Activated Core Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Used activated components from the core of a NPP like control elements, water channels from a BWR, and others like in-core measurement devices need to be processed into waste forms suitable for interim storage, and for the final waste repository. Processing of the activated materials can be undertaken by underwater cutting and packaging or by cutting and high-pressure compaction in a hot cell. A hot cell is available in Germany as a joint investment between GNS and the Karlsruhe Research Center at the latter's site. Special transport equipment is available to transport the components ''as-is'' to the hot cell. Newly designed underwater processing equipment has been designed, constructed, and operated for the special application of NPP decommissioning. This equipment integrates an underwater cutting device with an 80 ton force underwater in-drum compactor.

Friske, A.; Gestermann, G.; Finkbeiner, R.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

291

Properties, Behavior and Material Compatibility of Hydrogen, Natural Gas and Blends Materials Testing and Design Requirements for Hydrogen Components and Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

292

By Earle B. Amey Tungsten's unique high-temperature in Metal Bulletin (London). ferrotungsten, carbide powder blends, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). ferrotungsten, carbide powder blends, and properties can be utilized advantageously in the As a result properties of its carbide continue to scrap, and sodium tungstate and away from the provide important items increased in all imported tungsten materials. the cemented carbide end-use sectors that A summary

293

Key Aspects Blended Library draw strength by building on users'pre-existing knowledge of the everyday, non-digital  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Key Aspects » Blended Library draw strength by building on users'pre-existing knowledge University of Konstanz http://hci.uni-konstanz.de/blendedlibrary Contact: Roman Rädle Tel. +49 7531 88-2868 Fax +49 7531 88-4772 roman.raedle@uni-konstanz.de Caused by the proceeding digitalization, real

Reiterer, Harald

294

Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

Alvarez, Pedro J.

297

Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

Melaina, M. W.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

AFM/LFM surface studies of a ternary polymer blend cast on substrates covered by a self-assembled monolayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AFM/LFM surface studies of a ternary polymer blend cast on substrates covered by a self force microscopy; Friction; Self-assembly; Surface thermodynamics (including phase transitions); Growth are of utmost current interest. In many practical appli- cations films of incompatible mixtures are pre- pared

Zbigniew, Postawa

299

Physical and chemical characteristics of an interesterified blend of butterfat and cottonseed oil with possible industrial applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interest in milkfat research in other parts of the world. In 1984, a symposium was held in Sweden that dealt exclusively with milkfat and its modification. Emphasis was placed on milkfat-vegetable oil blends. These products are legally sold now in some...

Rashidi, Nabil

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the reporting period, work continued on development of formulations using the materials down-selected from the initially identified contenders for the fibrous monolith wear resistant components. In the previous reporting period, a two-stage binder removal process was developed that resulted in prototype parts free of voids and other internal defects. During the current reporting period, work was performed to characterize the two-stage binder removal process for WC-Co based FM material systems. Use of this process has resulted in the fabrication of defect free sintered WC-Co FM bodies, with minimal free carbon porosity and densities approaching 100% theoretical. With the elimination of free carbon porosity and other binder removal process related defects, development work focused on optimizing the densification and eliminating defects observed in WC-Co based FM consolidated by pressureless sintering. Shrinkage of the monolithic core and shell materials used in the WC-Co based FM system was measured, and differences in material shrinkage were identified as a potential cause of cell boundary cracking observed in sintered parts. Re-formulation of material blends for this system was begun, with the goal of eliminating mechanical stresses during sintering by matching the volumetric shrinkage of the core and shell materials. Thirty-three 7/8 inch drill bit inserts (WC-Co(6%)/WC-Co(16%) FM) were hot pressed during the reporting period. Six of these inserts were delivered for field-testing by Superior Rock Bit during the upcoming reporting period. In addition, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiCN FM cutting tool inserts were fabricated, and cutting tests performed.

Mark J. Rigali; Mike L. Fulcher

2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

E-Print Network 3.0 - acibenzolar-s-methyl para controle Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a coffee-leaf extract formulation in tomato Summary: ), acibenzolar-S-methyl (Bion) or water (control) and three days subsequently infected with the tomato pathogen... in the...

302

Durability of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation reports the findings of NREL's screen test to characterize the durability of poly (methyl methacrylate) lenses used in concentrated photovoltaics.

Miller, D.; Gedvilas, L.; To, B.; Kennedy, C.; Kurtz, S.

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

303

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydroecgonine methyl ester Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Idaho Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 9 A Novel Post-translational Modification of Yeast Elongation Factor 1A Summary: that is released as volatile methyl groups...

304

Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

PUBLIC AND REGULATORY ACCEPTANCE OF BLENDING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE VS DILUTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On April 21, 2009, the Energy Facilities Contractors Group (EFCOG) Waste Management Working Group (WMWG) provided a recommendation to the Department of Energy's Environmental Management program (DOE-EM) concerning supplemental guidance on blending methodologies to use to classify waste forms to determine if the waste form meets the definition of Transuranic (TRU) Waste or can be classified as Low-Level Waste (LLW). The guidance provides specific examples and methods to allow DOE and its Contractors to properly classify waste forms while reducing the generation of TRU wastes. TRU wastes are much more expensive to characterize at the generator's facilities, ship, and then dispose at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) than Low-Level Radioactive Waste's disposal. Also the reduction of handling and packaging of LLW is inherently less hazardous to the nuclear workforce. Therefore, it is important to perform the characterization properly, but in a manner that minimizes the generation of TRU wastes if at all possible. In fact, the generation of additional volumes of radioactive wastes under the ARRA programs, this recommendation should improve the cost effective implementation of DOE requirements while properly protecting human health and the environment. This paper will describe how the message of appropriate, less expensive, less hazardous blending of radioactive waste is the 'right' thing to do in many cases, but can be confused with inappropriate 'dilution' that is frowned upon by regulators and stakeholders in the public. A proposal will be made in this paper on how to communicate this very complex and confusing technical issue to regulatory bodies and interested stakeholders to gain understanding and approval of the concept. The results of application of the proposed communication method and attempt to change the regulatory requirements in this area will be discussed including efforts by DOE and the NRC on this very complex subject.

Goldston, W.

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

306

Methyl viologen mediated oxidation-reduction across dihexadecylphosphate vesicles involves transmembrane diffusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerous reports have appeared describing oxidation-reduction across bilayer membranes. Mechanisms proposed for specific systems include the following: (i) electron tunneling across the hydrocarbon barrier between interfacially bound redox partners, (ii) molecular diffusion of bound redox components across the barrier, and (iii) formation of barrier-penetrating aggregates, or electron-conducting channels, across the bilayer. Nonetheless, the actual reaction mechanisms remain obscure due to the general unavailability of transverse diffusion rates, possible loss of compartmentation of reactants, particularly in photochemical systems, and the ambiguities inherent in deducing reaction mechanisms from rate data, which form the primary evidence in most systems studied. The reactions of dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) vesicle-bound methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) describes in this report are unique in allowing deduction of molecular details of a transmembrane redox event from the product composition and microphase distribution. Specifically, they have found that MV/sup 2 +/ bound at the outer vesicle interface mediates reduction of inner-localized MV/sup 2 +/ by dithionite ion in bulk solution in a manner that requires comigration of MV/sup +/ with the electron transferred across the membrane barrier.

Patterson, B.C.; Thompson, D.H.; Hurst, J.K.

1988-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

307

Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

LIDEM unit for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from butanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the basic problems in the production of motor fuels is how to obtain high-octane unleaded gasolines that will meet today`s ecological requirements. The term {open_quotes}reformulated gasolines{close_quotes} has come into general use throughout the world to denote fuels with a certain chemical composition. These gasolines consist of preselected components; as shown by worldwide experience, they must include oxygen-containing compounds that are distinguished by high octane numbers and low reactivities. Standards in effect in the United States, Japan, and certain Western European countries require that automotive gasolines must contain at least 2-4% by weight of oxygen-containing compounds (calculated as oxygen). In the last 15 years, in order to meet these requirements, production has been set up in various countries for the manufacture of high-octane oxygen-containing components known as oxygenates. The most common of these is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), obtained by etherification of isobutene by methanol. Process technology developed by this last organization was used as the basis for constructing a unit in the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Production Association and at the Mazheikyai Petroleum Refinery in Lithuania. MTBE production has been held back mainly by a shortage of isobutene, which is obtained mainly from butane-butene cuts produced in cat crackers. In order to alleviate this shortage, it has been proposed that MTBE should be obtained from saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons that are recovered in processing oilfield associated gas, and also in the refinery from primary distillation units, catalytic reformers, and hydrocrackers. A working design was developed in 1991-1992 by Lengiproneftekhim for a basically new combination unit designed for the processing of saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, which has been termed the LIDEM unit (Leningrad - isomerization - dehydrogenation - MTBE).

Rudin, M.G.; Zadvornov, M.A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility (Figure 1) was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR facility is on high, well-drained ground, about 30 meters above the water table. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. It was not a defense-related facility like the materials production reactors at SRS. The reactor was moderated with heavy water and was rated at 50 megawatts thermal power. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In 1965, fuel assemblies were removed, systems that contained heavy water were drained, fluid piping systems were drained, deenergized and disconnected and the spent fuel basin was drained and dried. The doors of the reactor facility were shut and it wasn't until 10 years later that decommissioning plans were considered and ultimately postponed due to budget constraints. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR again. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. The $1.6 billion allocation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to SRS for site clean up at SRS has opened the doors to the HWCTR again - this time for final decommissioning. During the lifetime of HWCTR, 36 different fuel assemblies were tested in the facility. Ten of these experienced cladding failures as operational capabilities of the different designs were being established. In addition, numerous spills of heavy water occurred within the facility. Currently, radiation and radioactive contamination levels are low within HWCTR with most of the radioactivity contained within the reactor vessel. There are no known insults to the environment, however with the increasing deterioration of the facility, the possibility exists that contamination could spread outside the facility if it is not decommissioned. An interior panoramic view of the ground floor elevation taken in August 2009 is shown in Figure 2. The foreground shows the transfer coffin followed by the reactor vessel and control rod drive platform in the center. Behind the reactor vessel is the fuel pool. Above the ground level are the polar crane and the emergency deluge tank at the top of the dome. Note the considerable rust and degradation of the components and the interior of the containment building. Alternative studies have concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning is to remove the reactor vessel, steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. Characterization studies along with transport models have concluded that the remaining below grade equipment that is left in place including the transfer coffin will not contribute any significant contamination to the environment in the future. The below grade space will be grouted in place. A concrete cover will be placed over the remaining footprint and the groundwater will be monitored for an indefinite period to ensure compliance with environmental regulations. The schedule for completion of decommissioning is late FY2011. This paper describes the concepts planned in order to remove the major components including the dome, the reactor vessel (RV), the two steam generators (SG), and relocating the transfer coffin (TC).

Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

310

Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 1: Refrigerant Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of measuring thermodynamic properties R125, R410A and R507A, measuring viscosity and thermal conductivity of R410A and R507A and comparing data to mixture models in NIST REFPROP database. For R125, isochoric (constant volume) heat capacity was measured over a temperature range of 305 to 397 K (32 to 124 C) at pressures up to 20 MPa. For R410A, isochoric heat capacity was measured along 8 isochores with a temperature range of 303 to 397 K (30 to 124 C) at pressures up to 18 MPa. Pressure-density-temperature was also measured along 14 isochores over a temperature range of 200 to 400 K (-73 to 127 C) at pressures up to 35 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. For R507A, viscosity was measured along 5 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 421 K (28 to 148 C) at pressures up to 83 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. Mixture models were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures containing R32, R125, R134a and/or R125. The form of the model is the same for all the blends considered, but blend-specific mixing functions are required for the blends R32/125 (R410 blends) and R32/134a (a constituent binary of R407 blends). The systems R125/134a, R125/143a, R134a/143a, and R134a/152a share a common, generalized mixing function. The new equation of state for R125 is believed to be the most accurate and comprehensive formulation of the properties for that fluid. Likewise, the mixture model developed in this work is the latest state-of-the-art for thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant blends. These models were incorporated into version 7 of NIST REFPROP database.

Mark O. McLinden; Arno Laesecke; Eric W. Lemmon; Joseph W. Magee; Richard A. Perkins

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

311

Characterization of the Deltaproteobacteria in contaminated and uncontaminated stream sediments and identification of potential mercury methylators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbial communities were examined in surface stream sediments at 5 contaminated sites and 1 control site near Oak Ridge, TN, USA, to identify bacteria that could be contributing to mercury (Hg) methylation. The phylogenetic composition of the sediment bacterial community was examined over 3 quarterly sampling periods (36 samples) using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Only 3064 sequences (0.85% of the total community) were identified as Deltaproteobacteria, the only group known to methylate Hg, using the Ribosomal Database Project classifier at the 99% confidence threshold. Constrained ordination techniques indicated statistically significant positive linear correlations between Desulfobulbus spp., Desulfonema spp. and Desulfobacca spp. and methyl-Hg concentrations at the Hg-contaminated sites. In contrast, the distribution of organisms related to Byssovorax spp. was significantly correlated to inorganic carbon, nitrate and uranium concentrations but not to Hg or methyl-Hg. Overall, the abundance and richness of Deltaproteobacteria sequences were higher in uncontaminated sediments, while the majority of the members present at the contaminated sites were either known potential metal-reducers/methylators or metal tolerant species. Given the abundance relative to other known Hg methylators and the association with methyl-Hg, Desulfobulbus spp. is considered a prime candidate for involvement in Hg methylation in these streams.

Mosher, Jennifer [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Arsenic Methylation and Bladder Cancer Risk in CaseControl Studies in Argentina and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arsenic Methylation and Bladder Cancer Risk in Case­Control Studies in Argentina and the United's susceptibility to bladder cancer. Methods: Urinary methylation products were measured in subjects from Argentina (114 cases and 114 controls) and the United States (23 cases and 49 controls). Results: In Argentina

California at Berkeley, University of

313

et al. (2008) identified several additional methylation sites on FOXO1 that ap-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, it remains to be deter- mined how methylation alters the activity and posttranslational regulation. In this light, methylation could, therefore, play a very general role in the regulation of FOXO1 activity serve as a link between aging and age-related diseases such as diabe- tes and cancer. FOXO dysregulation

Hertel, Klemens J.

314

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern MTBE treatment are discussed. Introduction The rapidly rising number of reports of groundwater con- taminated with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has raised concerns about its

315

Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California Gunnar W. Schade,* Gabrielle B. Dreyfus, and Allen H. Goldstein ABSTRACT (CARB) measured MTBE in urban regions in 1995­ 1996, reporting a range of 0.4 to 13.2 ppbv in the LosMethyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE

Cohen, Ronald C.

316

Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407±416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Summary The widespread use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE is often proposed as the most promising alter- native after treatment. However, MTBE biodegradation appears

317

Mercury methylation in oxygen deficient zones of the oceans: No evidence for the predominance of anaerobes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury methylation in oxygen deficient zones of the oceans: No evidence for the predominance Keywords: Methylmercury Oxygen minimum zone Arabian Sea Equatorial Eastern Pacific Mercury methylation Although a large fraction of the world's population is exposed to mercury through consumption of marine

Morel, François M. M.

318

Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses: October 15, 2002--September 30, 2004  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report covers literature and laboratory analyses to identify modification requirements of a Cummins Westport B Gas Plus engine for transit buses using a hydrogen/compressed natural fuel blend.

Del Toro, A.; Frailey, M.; Lynch, F.; Munshi, S.; Wayne, S.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production **" means "**% octane".) Once crude oil enters the system, it goes fully through the process. The refinery

Galvin, David

320

Use of SEBS/EPR and SBR/EPR as binary compatibilizers for PE/PP/PS/HIPS blends: A work oriented to the recycling of thermoplastic wastes .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Recycling of thermoplastic wastes consisting using SEBS/EPR and SBR/EPR as compatibilizers. The effect of PE/PP/PS/HIPS blends was investigated by The effect of the binary compatibilizer (more)

Equiza, Nilton

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

IEA Task 27 BUILDING ENVELOPE COMPONENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEA Task 27 BUILDING ENVELOPE COMPONENTS Performance, durability and sustainability of advanced windows and solar components for building envelopes Energy Performance Assessment Methodology Starting................................................................................................................................................. 3 2 Concepts of Energy Performance Assessment of Building Envelopes

322

Advanced filters and components for power applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this thesis is to improve the high frequency performance of components and filters by better compensating the parasitic effects of practical components. The main application for this improvement is in ...

Neugebauer, Timothy Carl, 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Battery components employing a silicate binder  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM); Odinek, Judy G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

324

POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of sludge and the level of dilution for the mixture. (5) Blending the size-reduced zeolite into larger quantities of sludge can reduce the amount of preferential settling. (6) Periodic dilution or resuspension due to sludge washing or other mixing requirements will increase the chances of preferential settling of the zeolite solids. (7) Mixtures of Purex sludge and size-reduced zeolite did not produce yield stresses greater than 200 Pascals for settling times less than thirty days. Most of the sludge-zeolite blends did not exceed 50 Pascals. These mixtures should be removable by current pump technology if sufficient velocities can be obtained. (8) The settling rate of the sludge-zeolite mixtures is a function of the ionic strength (or supernate density) and the zeolite- sludge mixing ratio. (9) Simulant tests indicate that leaching of Si may be an issue for the processed Tank 19 mound material. (10) Floating zeolite fines observed in water for the jet-eductor system and size-reduced zeolite were not observed when the size-reduced zeolite was blended with caustic solutions, indicating that the caustic solutions cause the fines to agglomerate. Based on the test programs described in this report, the potential for successfully removing Tank 18/19 mound material from Tank 7 with the current slurry pump technology requires the reduction of the particle size of the Tank 18/19 mound material.

Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

325

Tools to Implement MPDV Component Characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This slide show presents work on photonic Doppler velocimetry multiplexing techniques, particularly as regards measurements on components.

Pena, M; Daykin, E; Emmit, R; Garza, A; Gibo, M; Hutchins, M; Perez, C; Teel, M

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

326

Tensor Principal Component Analysis via Convex Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dec 11, 2012 ... Keywords: Tensor; Principal Component Analysis; Low Rank; Nuclear Norm; Semidefinite Programming Relaxation. Category 1: Convex and...

Bo Jiang

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

327

Outsourcing the Design of Structural Building Components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

component design work stateside. vi 1 Introduction The outsourcing of structural building component design has recently become available to component manufacturers in the United States. These manufacturers of metal plate connected (MPC) wood roof... of the effectiveness of outsourcing as a means of fulfilling the design requirements of MPC wood trusses. Although 1 this report does not evaluate other structural building components (i.e., i- joists, engineered wood beams and wall panels), the analysis provided...

Swearingin, Adam V.

2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

328

Methyl-CpG island-associated genome signature tags  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for analyzing the organismic complexity of a sample through analysis of the nucleic acid in the sample. In the disclosed method, through a series of steps, including digestion with a type II restriction enzyme, ligation of capture adapters and linkers and digestion with a type IIS restriction enzyme, genome signature tags are produced. The sequences of a statistically significant number of the signature tags are determined and the sequences are used to identify and quantify the organisms in the sample. Various embodiments of the invention described herein include methods for using single point genome signature tags to analyze the related families present in a sample, methods for analyzing sequences associated with hyper- and hypo-methylated CpG islands, methods for visualizing organismic complexity change in a sampling location over time and methods for generating the genome signature tag profile of a sample of fragmented DNA.

Dunn, John J

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

329

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 138, 054301 (2013) Photodissociation dynamics of the methyl perthiyl radical at 248 nm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the photodissociation of the methyl perthiyl radical CH3SS at 248 nm. The radical was produced by flash pyrolysis

Neumark, Daniel M.

330

Optical measurements of methyl group tunneling in molecular crystals: Temperature dependence of the nuclear spin conversion rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) The tunneling methyl groups in dimethyl-s-tetrazine (DMST) doped single crystals of durene were investigated

331

Manufacturing complex silica aerogel target components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerogel is a material used in numerous components in High Energy Density Physics targets. In the past these components were molded into the proper shapes. Artifacts left in the parts from the molding process, such as contour irregularities from shrinkage and density gradients caused by the skin, have caused LANL to pursue machining as a way to make the components.

Defriend Obrey, Kimberly Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Day, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Espinoza, Brent F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hatch, Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patterson, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feng, Shihai [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

LIRMM UM II Component based Software Architecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 LIRMM UM II Component based Software Architecture of Robot Controllers R. Passama, D. Andreu, C component approaches and robot control architectures. This methodology defines a process that guides architecture, useful for analysis and integration, and a dedicated component-based language, focusing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

333

Principal Components Analysis for Binary Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Formulations of Principal Components Analysis . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Generalization of Sparse Principal Components Analysis to Binary Variables... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3 Review of Estimation Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4 Overview of Dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 II SPARSE PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS FOR BI- NARY DATA...

Lee, Seokho

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

334

Method of using infrared radiation for assembling a first component with a second component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of assembling a first component for assembly with a second component involves a heating device which includes an enclosure having a cavity for inserting a first component. An array of infrared energy generators is disposed within the enclosure. At least a portion of the first component is inserted into the cavity, exposed to infrared energy and thereby heated to a temperature wherein the portion of the first component is sufficiently softened and/or expanded for assembly with a second component.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Whitson, Barry G. (Corryton, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Modelling Study of the Low-Temperature Oxidation of Large Methyl Esters J. Biet, V. Warth, O. Herbinet*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-decane / methyl palmitate mixture in a jet-stirred reactor. This paper also presents the construction and a comparison of models for methyl esters from C7 up to C17 in terms of conversion in a jet-stirred reactor, the development of renewable energy is more vital than ever [1,2]. The production of biofuels such as methyl

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

A field test using coal:DRDF blends in spreader stoker-fired boilers. Final report, June 1976-July 1978  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was conducted to characterize and demonstrate the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of combustion densified forms of refuse derived fuel (dRDF) blended with coal in spreader stoker-fired boilers. A total of 258.5 Mg (285 tons) of pelletized 1/2-inch-diameter x 3/4-inch-long dRDF was co-fired with coal in 2.7 x 7.5 kg/sec (60,000 lb/hr) and 3.6 x 10 kg/sec (75,000 lb/hr) of 1.03 MPa (150 psig) saturated steam. The results indicate that coal:dRDF blends up to 1:2 can be handled and burned in conventional spreader stoker-fired boilers without major equipment modification. As more dRDF was substituted for coal, the flame volume increased, the opacity decreased, the fly ash carbon burnout improved, and the turndown ratio of boiler operation increased. The emissions from the blend firing decreased slightly in mass flux, dropped significantly in particulate size and stack opacity, and had satisfactory particulate resistivities.

Degler, G.H.; Rigo, H.G.; Riley, B.T. Jr.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

338

Expandable Metal Liner For Downhole Components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liner for an annular downhole component is comprised of an expandable metal tube having indentations along its surface. The indentations are formed in the wall of the tube either by drawing the tube through a die, by hydroforming, by stamping, or roll forming and may extend axially, radially, or spirally along its wall. The indentations accommodate radial and axial expansion of the tube within the downhole component. The tube is inserted into the annular component and deformed to match an inside surface of the component. The tube may be expanded using a hydroforming process or by drawing a mandrel through the tube. The tube may be expanded in such a manner so as to place it in compression against the inside wall of the component. The tube is useful for improving component hydraulics, shielding components from contamination, inhibiting corrosion, and preventing wear to the downhole component during use. It may also be useful for positioning conduit and insulated conductors within the component. An insulating material may be disposed between the tube and the component in order to prevent galvanic corrosion of the downhole component.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe R. (Provo, UT)

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

339

Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

340

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach to that used to develop the reduced PRF mechanism, reduced mechanisms for the oxidation of n-tetradecane, toluene, cyclohexane, dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and methyl butanoate (MB) were built and combined with the PRF mechanism to form a multi-surrogate fuel chemistry (MultiChem) mechanism. The final version of the MultiChem mechanism consists of 113 species and 487 reactions. Validation of the present MultiChem mechanism was performed with ignition delay time measurements from shock tube tests and predictions by comprehensive mechanisms available in the literature. A combustion model was developed to simulate engine combustion with multi-component fuels using the present MultiChem mechanism, and the model was applied to simulate HCCI and DI engine combustion. The results show that the present multi-component combustion model gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements through the use of reduced mechanism for multi-dimensional CFD simulations. (author)

Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D. [Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

because of its low cost and blending characteristics. Depending on the season, reformulated gasoline of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could enhancer in gasoline. The use of MTBE increased rapidly after the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required

344

Genomic DNA methylation in various developmental stages of two plant pathogenic fungi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blotting procedure. The blots were then hybridized with DNA probes from the highly repeated Neurospora crassa rDNA repeat unit labeled with [a. P] dCTP in a random-primed oligolabeling reaction. Results of the hybridizations were visualized... shows s. high degree of methylation at the inner (3') C in both stages (mycelia and sclerotia) at the genomic level. The rRNA genes exhibit the same high level of methylation at the 3' C with the addition of some stage specific methylation...

Schliesing, Laura Jo

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ignition Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends. Society ofRegulated emissions from biodiesel fuels from on/ off-roadEffects of Methyl Ester Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions.

Jayaram, Varalakshmi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-{alpha} and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-{kappa}B, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research Highlights: >Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. >It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. >The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Two Component Model of Dark Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the possibility that the dark energy is made up of two or more independent components, each having a different equation of state. We fit the model with supernova and gamma-ray burst (GRB) data from resent observations, and use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique to estimate the allowed parameter regions. We also use various model selection criteria to compare the two component model with the LCDM, one component dark energy model with static or variable w(XCDM), and with other multi-component models. We find that the two component models can give reasonably good fit to the current data. For some data sets, and depending somewhat on the model selection criteria, the two component model can give better fit to the data than XCDM with static w and XCDM with variable w parameterized by w = w_0 + w_az/(1+z).

Yan Gong; Xuelei Chen

2007-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

348

Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

Bunch, Wilbur L. (Richland, WA); Schenter, Robert E. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Uranium Weapons Components Successfully Dismantled | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Successfully Dismantled March 20, 2007 Uranium Weapons Components Successfully Dismantled Oak Ridge, TN Continuing its efforts to reduce the size of the U.S. nuclear weapons...

350

Developing Language Processing Components with GATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Developing Language Processing Components with GATE (a User Guide) For GATE version 3 beta 1 (July.3 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.4 [D] Get Started

Maynard, Diana

351

Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Reducing hazardous waste incinerator emissions through blending: A study of 1,1,1-trichloroethane injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate whether blending liquid hazardous wastes with hydrocarbons such as alkanes can improve the destruction efficiency and reduce the combustion byproduct levels in the post-flame region of a laboratory scale combustor. Outlet species concentrations are measured with an FTIR spectrometer for mixtures of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 25% (by volume) dodecane or heptane injected as a spray of droplets. We also inject sprays of liquid pure 1,1,1-trichloroethane, gaseous pure 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and gaseous 1,1,1-trichloroethane with 25% (by volume) heptane. Once vaporized, the 1,1,1-trichloroethane decomposes to form CO{sub 2} and HCl through the intermediates 1,1-dichloroethylene, phosgene, acetylene, and carbon monoxide. The 1,1,1-trichloroethane/alkane mixtures also form the intermediate ethylene. No significant differences are observed between injecting the compounds as a droplet spray or as a gaseous jet, not as unexpected result as the mixing time of the gas jet is longer than the vaporization time of the droplets. The addition of heptane or dodecane to 1,1,1-trichloroethane produces two principal effects: an increase in ethylene, acetylene and carbon monoxide levels for injection temperatures between 950 to 1040 K, and a decrease in 1,1-dichloroethylene, phosgene, acetylene, and carbon monoxide levels for injection temperatures greater than 1050 K. Reaction of the injected alkane causes the former effect, while the additional heat of combustion of the alkane additives causes the latter. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Thomson, M.; Koshland, C.P.; Sawyer, R.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

Bioremediation of the organophosphate methyl parathion using genetically engineered and native organisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to remediate hazardous substances at significantly higher rates than found with natural systems. Specifically, degradation of methyl parathion (MP) by hydrolysis with a genetically engineered Escherichia coli was investigated along with degradation of one...

Diaz Casas, Adriana Z.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Thermomechanical properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane- poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMA) containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles (d [approx.] 1.5 nm) were subjected to heological, mechanical, and morphological tests to determine the effects that ...

Kopesky, Edward Thomas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A unique regulatory phase of DNA methylation in the early mammalian embryo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DNA methylation is highly dynamic during mammalian embryogenesis. It is broadly accepted that the paternal genome is actively depleted of 5-methylcytosine at fertilization, followed by passive loss that reaches a minimum ...

Chan, Michelle M.

356

active methyl tert-butyl: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

357

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) in the Norwestern Atlantic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) are a distinctive class of marine organic compounds. They are naturally produced, they have a unique carbon structure, they are highly halogenated, and they bioaccumulate in ...

Pangallo, Kristin C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Temporal and spatial variation in methyl bromide emissions from a salt marsh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is a trace gas involved in stratospheric ozone depletion with both anthropogenic and natural sources. Estimates of natural source strengths are highly uncertain. In this study, >320 highly temporally ...

Drewer, Julia; Heal, Mathew R; Heal, Kate V; Smith, Keith A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. An exploded view of the monitor is illustrated in Figure 1. The theory of diffusive sampling considers a concentration gra- dient between the ambient air and the adsorbent to be the driving force for sampling. For the adsorption to be controlled by diffu...AN EVALUATION OF THE 3M ORGANIC VAPOR MONITOR 43500 AS A SHOR'I TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT SAMPLING DEVICE FOR ACETONE, METHYL ETHYL KETONE, AND METHYL ISO BUTYL KETONE A Thesis by LLOYD B. ANDREW III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM...

Andrew, Lloyd B.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

360

Chromosome-wide mapping of DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells reveals pervasive methylation of gene-associated and conserved intergenic sequences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

G island [13-15], chromosome-wide [15], or genome-wide [16] til- ing microarrays or to analyze by next generation sequen- cing [17,18]. Here, we describe the use of an MBD-chip approach (Figure 1A) to compare the chromosome-wide DNA methylation patterns... identified as differentially methylated in the LNCaP cells compared to the PrEC cells. We could then compare the distribution of CpG dinucleotide content and number of regions overlapping CpG islands in these simulated data sets with these parameters in our...

Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Wu, Zhijin; Haffner, Michael C; Esopi, David; Aryee, Martin J; Badrinath, Raghav; He, Tony L; Morgan, James D; Carvalho, Benilton S; Zheng, Qizhi; De Marzo, Angelo M; Irizarry, Rafael A; Nelson, William G

2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Radio-methyl vorozole and methods for making and using the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiotracer vorozole compounds for in vivo and in vitro assaying, studying and imaging cytochrome P450 aromatase enzymes in humans, animals, and tissues and methods for making and using the same are provided. [N-radio-methyl] vorozole substantially separated from an N-3 radio-methyl isomer of vorozole is provided. Separation is accomplished through use of chromatography resins providing multiple mechanisms of selectivity.

Kim, Sung Won; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

362

Radio-methyl vorozole and methods for making and using the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiotracer vorozole compounds for in vivo and in vitro assaying, studying and imaging cytochrome P450 aromatase enzymes in humans, animals, and tissues and methods for making and using the same are provided. [N-radio-methyl] vorozole substantially separated from an N-3 radio-methyl isomer of vorozole is provided. Separation is accomplished through use of chromatography resins providing multiple mechanisms of selectivity.

Kim, Sung Won; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

363

Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

364

Hybrid solar lighting systems and components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

365

Fuel Cell Stack Components BipolarPlate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Cell Stack Components Fuel Processor BipolarPlate Cathode+ Anode- Electrolyte H+ H+ HYDROGEN · Low-Platinum and Platinum-Free Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction at PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes · Low-Platinum-Loading Catalysts for Fuel Cells · Scale-Up of Carbon/Carbon Composite Bipolar Plates #12;Stack Component Projects

366

Hot gas path component cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

367

VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and biomass minerals.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

A near infrared regression model for octane measurements in gasolines which contain MTBE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has emerged as a superior technique for the on-line determination of octane during the blending of gasoline. This results from the numerous advantages that NIR spectroscopy has over conventional on-line instrumentation. Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently the oxygenated blending component of choice. MTBE is advantageous because it has a high blending octane, a low Reid vapor pressure, is relatively cheap, and does not form peroxides (1). The goal of this project was to develop a NIR regression model that could be used to predict pump octanes regardless of whether they contained MTBE.

Maggard, S.M. (Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Development and Characterization of Boehmite Component Simulant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to Bechtel National Inc.s (BNIs) Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0, Simulant Development to Support the Development and Demonstration of Leaching and Ultrafiltration Pretreatment Processes, simulants for boehmite, gibbsite, and filtration are to be developed that can be used in subsequent bench and integrated testing of the leaching/filtration processes. These simulants will then be used to demonstrate the leaching process and to help refine processing conditions that may impact safety basis considerations (Smith 2006). This report documents the results of the boehmite simulant development and blended simulant crossflow ultrafiltration leaching completed in accordance with the test plan TP-RPP-WTP-469 Rev 0 (WTP Doc. No. 24590- 101-TSA-W000-0004-182-00001 Rev 00A) prepared and approved in response to the cited test specification. This report also includes the results of the aluminate and anion effect on boehmite dissolution performed in accordance with the test plan TP-RPP-WTP-509, Rev 0 (WTP Doc. No. 24590-101-TSA-W000-0004-72-00019 Rev 00A) prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-07-004, Rev 0 (Sundar 2007).

Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Smith, Harry D.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Aker, Pamela M.; Buck, Edgar C.

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

370

The degradation of TPX components by oxygen, elevated temperature, and ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Poly(4-methyl-l-pentene), also known as PMP or TPX, has several commercially important characteristics such as high optical transparency, high crystalline melting point, low density, low electrical conductivity, and good heat resistance. Such characteristics have lead to numerous industrial applications including infrared windows, infrared lenses, membranes, and food packaging. The life components fabricated from this material may be limited bv thermal oxidative and radiation-induced degradation. A preliminary review of the scientific literature has been conducted to obtain relevant information on the effects of oxygen, moisture elevated temperature, and radiation on the chemical, thermodynamic, mechanical, and electrical properties of this important construction material. Key information from the literature has become especially important in light of decreased budgets for defense-related research and development, and the prolonged service life of existing systems.

Farmer, J.C.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Effect of Blending on High-Pressure Laminar Flame Speed Measurements, Markstein Lengths, and Flame Stability of Hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for pure fuels and their blends for laminar flame speed and high-temperature shock-tube and low-temperature RCM ignition target data (Lowry et al., 2010a; Petersen et al., 2007; Healy et al., 2008a, 2008b), for the laminar flame speed of pure DME... enthalpy (KJ/kg) Le Lewis Number g1865g4662 " Mass burning rate per unit area (kg/m2-s) g1839g3050 Molecular weight (kg/kmol) X Mole fraction (kmol/kmol) g1851 Mass fraction (kg/kg) Subscripts b Burned condition i For species i L Laminar flame u...

Lowry, William Baugh

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

372

Low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol and ethanol-PRF blends: An experimental and modeling study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this brief communication, we present new experimental species profile measurements for the low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol under knock-prone conditions. These experiments show that ethanol exhibits no global low temperature reactivity at these conditions, although we note the heterogeneous decomposition of ethanol to ethylene and water. Similar behavior is reported for an E85 blend in n-heptane. Kinetic modeling results are presented to complement these experiments and elucidate the interaction of ethanol and primary reference fuels undergoing cooxidation. (author)

Haas, Francis M.; Chaos, Marcos; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Resolute Marine Energy, Inc (TRL 1 2 3 Component) | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

(TRL 1 2 3 Component) Resolute Marine Energy, Inc (TRL 1 2 3 Component) Resolute Marine Energy, Inc (TRL 1 2 3 Component) 28devwaveactptoelectricgenrmeachertok1.ppt...

374

The Component-Based Application for GAMESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GAMESS, a quantum chetnistry program for electronic structure calculations, has been freely shared by high-performance application scientists for over twenty years. It provides a rich set of functionalities and can be run on a variety of parallel platforms through a distributed data interface. While a chemistry computation is sophisticated and hard to develop, the resource sharing among different chemistry packages will accelerate the development of new computations and encourage the cooperation of scientists from universities and laboratories. Common Component Architecture (CCA) offers an enviromnent that allows scientific packages to dynamically interact with each other through components, which enable dynamic coupling of GAMESS with other chetnistry packages, such as MPQC and NWChem. Conceptually, a cotnputation can be constructed with "plug-and-play" components from scientific packages and require more than componentizing functions/subroutines of interest, especially for large-scale scientific packages with a long development history. In this research, we present our efforts to construct cotnponents for GAMESS that conform to the CCA specification. The goal is to enable the fine-grained interoperability between three quantum chemistry programs, GAMESS, MPQC and NWChem, via components. We focus on one of the three packages, GAMESS; delineate the structure of GAMESS computations, followed by our approaches to its component development. Then we use GAMESS as the driver to interoperate integral components from the other tw"o packages, arid show the solutions for interoperability problems along with preliminary results. To justify the versatility of the design, the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) components have been coupled with GAMESS and its components, so that the performance of GAMESS and its components may be analyzed for a wide range of systetn parameters.

Fang Peng

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

376

Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturers documentation.

Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Thermochemical nanolithography components, systems, and methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improved nanolithography components, systems, and methods are described herein. The systems and methods generally employ a resistively heated atomic force microscope tip to thermally induce a chemical change in a surface. In addition, certain polymeric compositions are also disclosed.

Riedo, Elisa; Marder, Seth R.; de Heer, Walt A.; Szoskiewicz, Robert J.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Jones, Simon C.; Okada, Takashi; Wang, Debin; Curtis, Jennifer E.; Henderson, Clifford L.; Hua, Yueming

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

379

Big data : evolution, components, challenges and opportunities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work reviews the evolution and current state of the "Big Data" industry, and to understand the key components, challenges and opportunities of Big Data and analytics face in today business environment, this is analyzed ...

Zarate Santovena, Alejandro

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Symplectic Nonlinear Component Lucas C. Parra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Symplectic Nonlinear Component Analysis Lucas C. Parra Siemens Corporate Research 755 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540 lucas@scr.siemens.com Abstract Statistically independent features can feed-forward, information conserving, nonlinear map - the explicit symplectic transformations. It also

Parra, Lucas C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project (AMD 304)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

block, bore and journal strategies 2.2 Fasteners, gaskets, sealing 2.3 Coolant and corrosion 2.4 FEA design, integration and analysis 2.5 Component casting and casting analysis...

382

Stationary turbine component with laminated skin  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

James, Allister W. (Orlando, FL)

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

383

Data transmission element for downhole drilling components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

Thresholding Multivariate Regression and Generalized Principal Components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the high-dimensional data matrices have been extensively researched for uncorrelated and independent situations, they are much less so for the transposable data matrices. A generalization of principal component analysis and the related weighted least...

Sun, Ranye

2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

385

Component of variance estimation based on synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Component of Variance Estimation based on. Synthesis. (August lg (2) Jocelyn Anthea Tommerup, B. Sc. , B. Econ. , University of Queenslsnd Directed. by: Dr. H. 0. Hartley Analysis of variance, widely used in the study of statistical variation.... Essentially the problem is to find these coefficients so that, estimstes of the components may be computed. Hartley [1967] hss proposed a method which gives these coef'ficients directly for sry design, balanced of' unbalanced. It is the objective...

Tommerup, Jocelyn Anthea

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

386

RDCDS Meteorologoical Component Quick Installation Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This guide provides step-by-step instructions for the deployment of one of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) weather stations and central control system. Instructions for the deployment and operation of the Atmospheric Systems Corporation miniSODAR (SOnic Detection and Ranging) can be found in accompanying manuals developed by Atmospheric Systems Corporation. A detailed description of the system and its components can be found in the manual entitled Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component.

Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

387

Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

Dickens, Larry M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Clinton, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

389

Indigestible fiber components as possible internal markers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INDIGESTIBLE FIBER COMPONENTS AS POSSIBLE INZERNAL MARKERS A Thesis by BERNARD FREDERICK JACOBS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AQf University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1975 Major Subject: Animal Nutrition INDIGESTIBLE FIBER COMPONENTS AS POSSIBLE INTERNAL MARKERS A Thesis by BERNARD FREDERICK JACOBS Approved as to style and content by: !, /, (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Depar ent) (Member) (Member...

Jacobs, Bernard Frederick

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

391

Micro-fabrication Techniques for Target Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro-fabrication techniques, derived from the semi-conductor industry, can be used to make a variety of useful mechanical components for targets. A selection of these components including supporting cooling arms for prototype cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets, stepped and graded density targets for materials dynamics experiments are described. Micro-fabrication enables cost-effective, simultaneous fabrication of multiple high-precision components with complex geometries. Micro-fabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, photo-lithographic patterning and etch processes normally used in the semi-conductor manufacture industry, can be exploited to make useful mechanical target components. Micro-fabrication processes have in recent years been used to create a number of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) components such as pressure sensors, accelerometers, ink jet printer heads, microfluidics platforms and the like. These techniques consist primarily of deposition of thin films of material, photo-lithographic patterning and etching processes performed sequentially to produce three dimensional structures using essentially planar processes. While the planar technology can be limiting in terms of the possible geometries of the final product, advantages of using these techniques include the ability to make multiple complex structures simultaneously and cost-effectively. Target components fabricated using these techniques include the supporting cooling arms for cryogenic prototype fusion ignition targets, stepped targets for equation-of-state experiments, and graded density reservoirs for material strength experiments.

Miles, R; Hamilton, J; Crawford, J; Ratti, S; Trevino, J; Graff, T; Stockton, C; Harvey, C

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

392

Experimental and computational study of methane counterflow diffusion flames perturbed by trace amounts of either jet fuel or a 6-component surrogate under non-sooting conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical structure of a methane counterflow diffusion flame and of the same flame doped with 1000 ppm (molar) of either jet fuel or a 6-component jet fuel surrogate was analyzed experimentally, by gas sampling via quartz microprobes and subsequent GC/MS analysis, and computationally using a semi-detailed kinetic mechanism for the surrogate blend. Conditions were chosen to ensure that all three flames were non-sooting, with identical temperature profiles and stoichiometric mixture fraction, through a judicious selection of feed stream composition and strain rate. The experimental dataset provides a glimpse of the pyrolysis and oxidation behavior of jet fuel in a diffusion flame. The jet fuel initial oxidation is consistent with anticipated chemical kinetic behavior, based on thermal decomposition of large alkanes to smaller and smaller fragments and the survival of ring-stabilized aromatics at higher temperatures. The 6-component surrogate captures the same trend correctly, but the agreement is not quantitative with respect to some of the aromatics such as benzene and toluene. Various alkanes, alkenes and aromatics among the jet fuel components are either only qualitatively characterized or could not be identified, because of the presence of many isomers and overlapping spectra in the chromatogram, leaving 80% of the carbon from the jet fuel unaccounted for in the early pyrolysis history of the parent fuel. Computationally, the one-dimensional code adopted a semi-detailed kinetic mechanism for the surrogate blend that is based on an existing hierarchically constructed kinetic model for alkanes and simple aromatics, extended to account for the presence of tetralin and methylcyclohexane as reference fuels. The computational results are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental ones for the surrogate behavior, with the greatest discrepancy in the concentrations of aromatics and ethylene. (author)

Bufferand, H.; Tosatto, L.; La Mantia, B.; Smooke, M.D.; Gomez, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yale Center for Combustion Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8286 (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress reports for the first two years describe those year's achievements in detail. We discuss progress in the last project period in this document. Deployment of our work in CCA components, frameworks, and applications is an important metric of success. We also summarize the project's accomplishments in this regard at the end of the report. A list of project publications is also given.

Malony, Allen D.

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

394

(inverse kinematics) (inverse dynamics) (PCA : principle component analysis)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MA (n+1) K , MB (n+1) K (4) 3) 1) mean vector MA 1n- M, MB 1n- M (5) 4) 2) mean vector MA (n+1) K- M, MB (n+1) K- M (6) 5) MA, M B (7) 6) 5) mean vector MA - MA, MB - MB (8) (3 A ) +MB (n+1) K (10) MA 1n +(MB (n+1) K- M B ) =( MA 1n- M A ) +MB (n+1) K (11) (n : PC ) blending B

Lee, In-Kwon

395

Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel-based Na on Emissions Control Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of biodiesel-based Na on emissions control components using specially blended 20% biodiesel fuel (B20). The emissions control components investigated were a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a Cu-zeolite-based NH{sub 3}-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both light-duty vehicle, DOC-SCR-DPF, and heavy-duty vehicle, DOC-DPF-SCR, emissions control configurations were employed. The accelerated Na aging is achieved by introducing elevated Na levels in the fuel, to represent full useful life exposure, and periodically increasing the exhaust temperature to replicate DPF regeneration. To assess the validity of the implemented accelerated Na aging protocol, engine-aged lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs), DOCs and DPFs are also evaluated. To fully characterize the impact on the catalytic activity the LNT, DOC and SCR catalysts were evaluated using a bench flow reactor. The evaluation of the aged DOC samples and LNT show little to no deactivation as a result of Na contamination. However, the SCR in the light-duty configuration (DOC-SCR-DPF) was severely affected by Na contamination, especially when NO was the only fed NO{sub x} source. In the heavy-duty configuration (DOC-DPF-SCR), no impact is observed in the SCR NO{sub x} reduction activity. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) reveals that Na contamination on the LNT, DOC, and SCR samples is present throughout the length of the catalysts with a higher concentration on the washcoat surface. In both the long-term engine-aged DPF and the accelerated Na-aged DPFs, there is significant Na ash present in the upstream channels; however, in the engine-aged sample lube oil-based ash is the predominant constituent.

Brookshear, D. William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nguyen, Ke [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Howe, Janet E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Spectral Components Analysis of Diffuse Emission Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop a novel method to separate the components of a diffuse emission process based on an association with the energy spectra. Most of the existing methods use some information about the spatial distribution of components, e.g., closeness to an external template, independence of components etc., in order to separate them. In this paper we propose a method where one puts conditions on the spectra only. The advantages of our method are: 1) it is internal: the maps of the components are constructed as combinations of data in different energy bins, 2) the components may be correlated among each other, 3) the method is semi-blind: in many cases, it is sufficient to assume a functional form of the spectra and determine the parameters from a maximization of a likelihood function. As an example, we derive the CMB map and the foreground maps for seven yeas of WMAP data. In an Appendix, we present a generalization of the method, where one can also add a number of external templates.

Malyshev, Dmitry; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

397

Progress in photovoltaic system and component improvements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a partnership between the US government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and the PV industry. Part of its purpose is to conduct manufacturing technology research and development to address the issues and opportunities identified by industry to advance photovoltaic (PV) systems and components. The project was initiated in 1990 and has been conducted in several phases to support the evolution of PV industrial manufacturing technology. Early phases of the project stressed PV module manufacturing. Starting with Phase 4A and continuing in Phase 5A, the goals were broadened to include improvement of component efficiency, energy storage and manufacturing and system or component integration to bring together all elements for a PV product. This paper summarizes PV manufacturers` accomplishments in components, system integration, and alternative manufacturing methods. Their approaches have resulted in improved hardware and PV system performance, better system compatibility, and new system capabilities. Results include new products such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-listed AC PV modules, modular inverters, and advanced inverter designs that use readily available and standard components. Work planned in Phase 5A1 includes integrated residential and commercial roof-top systems, PV systems with energy storage, and 300-Wac to 4-kWac inverters.

Thomas, H.P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Witt, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bower, W.; Bonn, R.; Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Biogeochemistry of arsenic in natural waters: The importance of methylated species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water samples from a number of lakes and estuaries, mostly in California, showed measurable concentrations of methylated arsenic (equivalent to 1-59% of total As) with the exception of one highly alkaline lake. Neither depleted phosphate concentrations nor high dissolved salts correlated with the appearance of methylated forms of As. A temporal study of As speciation in Davis Creek Reservoir, a seasonally anoxic lake in northern California, demonstrated that dimethylarsinic acid increased sufficiently to become the dominant form of dissolved As within the surface photic zone during late summer and fall. Methylated forms decreased while arsenate increased when the lake over-turned in early December, which suggested a degradation of dimethylarsinic acid to arsenate.

Anderson, L.C.D.; Bruland, K.W. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Effect of Carbon Black and Silica Fillers in Elastomer Blends Yimin Zhang, S. Ge, B. Tang, T. Koga, M. H. Rafailovich,*, J. C. Sokolov,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the effect of carbon black is offset by silica fillers. Introduction Fillers exist in a variety of systemsEffect of Carbon Black and Silica Fillers in Elastomer Blends Yimin Zhang, S. Ge, B. Tang, T. Koga January 30, 2001 ABSTRACT: The effects of carbon black and pyrogeneous silica fillers on the interfacial

400

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

James E. Francfort

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Component evaluation testing and analysis algorithms.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ground-Based Monitoring R&E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. In order to guarantee consistency, traceability, and visibility into the results of the testing process, it is necessary to document the test and analysis procedures that are in place. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007). This document serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis and the algorithms that are applied to the Component Evaluation testing. A brief summary of each test is included to provide the context for the analysis that is to be performed.

Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Protection of lithographic components from particle contamination  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system that employs thermophoresis to protect lithographic surfaces from particle deposition and operates in an environment where the pressure is substantially constant and can be sub-atmospheric. The system (thermophoretic pellicle) comprises an enclosure that surrounds a lithographic component whose surface is being protected from particle deposition. The enclosure is provided with means for introducing a flow of gas into the chamber and at least one aperture that provides for access to the lithographic surface for the entry and exit of a beam of radiation, for example, and further controls gas flow into a surrounding low pressure environment such that a higher pressure is maintained within the enclosure and over the surface being protected. The lithographic component can be heated or, alternatively the walls of the enclosure can be cooled to establish a temperature gradient between the surface of the lithographic component and the walls of the enclosure, thereby enabling the thermophoretic force that resists particle deposition.

Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel J. (Lafayette, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Salt effect on the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium of the methyl acetate + methanol system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of sodium thiocyanate at constant salt mole fraction from 0.01 to 0.05 and at saturation on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of methyl acetate + methanol has been studied at 101.32 kPa using a modified Othmer equilibrium still. The salt exhibited both salting-in and salting-out effects on the methyl acetate, the azeotrope being eliminated at saturation. The results were correlated using the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. and the electrolytic NRTL model of Mock et al.

Iliuta, M.C.; Thyrion, F.C. [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.] [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.; Landauer, O.M. [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)] [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Kinetics of the reduction of methyl viologen with hydrogen on a colloidal Pt catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evolution of H/sub 2/ on a Pt catalyst under the influence of one-electron reductors is part of the photocatalytic process of decomposition of H/sub 2/O into H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. As a model reaction we selected the reduction of methyl viologen. The bonding constant for hydrogen on colloidal Pt, as well as the effective rate constant of the heterolytic splitting of H/sub 2/ on the same Pt catalyst are determined. A mathematical description of the reduction of methyl viologen with hydrogen is suggested.

Maier, V.E.; Shafirovich, V.Ya.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of methyl salicylate: A chemical agent simulant. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interactions of methyl salicylate with plant foliage and soils were assessed using aerosol/vapor exposure methods. Measurements of deposition velocity and residence times for soils and foliar surfaces are reported. Severe plant contact toxicity was observed at foliar mass-loading levels above 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} leaf; however, recovery was noted after four to fourteen days. Methyl salicylate has a short-term effect on soil dehydrogenase activity, but not phosphatase activity. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicated only minimal effects on survival.

Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, S.W.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force, urging them closer together."

Hall, David R.; Hall Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael A.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

408

Technique for Measuring Hybrid Electronic Component Reliability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Materials compatibility studies of aged, engineered materials and hardware are critical to understanding and predicting component reliability, particularly for systems with extended stockpile life requirements. Nondestructive testing capabilities for component reliability would significantly enhance lifetime predictions. For example, if the detection of crack propagation through a solder joint can be demonstrated, this technique could be used to develop baseline information to statistically determine solder joint lifelengths. This report will investigate high frequency signal response techniques for nondestructively evaluating the electrical behavior of thick film hybrid transmission lines.

Green, C.C.; Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Robinson, D.; Rutherford, B.; Uribe, F.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Loaded Transducer Fpr Downhole Drilling Component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force," urging them closer together.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

410

Effect of Amino Acid Subsititution in Set1 on Histone H3 Methylation and Gene Silencing in Saaccharomyces Cerevisiae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECT OF AMINO ACID SUBSITITUTION IN SET1 ON HISTONE H3 METHYLATION AND GENE SILENCING IN SAACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE A Senior Honors Thesis by MORGAN CHATEAU Submitted to the Office...3 Methylation and Gene Silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (April 2008) Morgan Chateau Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics Texas A&M University Fellows Advisor: Associate Professor Dr. Mary Bryk Department of Biochemistry...

Chateau, Morgan

2008-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

411

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

412

Biodiesel Production From Animal Fats And Its Impact On The Diesel Engine With Ethanol-Diesel Blends: A Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Mainly animal fats and vegetable oils are used for the production of biodiesel. Several types of fuels can be derived from triacylglycerol-containing feedstock. Biodiesel which is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterifying the oil or fat with an alcohol (methanol/ethanol) under mild conditions in the presence of a base catalyst. This paper discuses fuel production, fuel properties, environmental effects including exhaust emissions and co-products. This also describes the use of glycerol which is the by-product in esterification process along with biodiesel. The impact of blending of biodiesel with ethanol and diesel on the diesel engine has described.

Darunde Dhiraj S; Prof Deshmukh Mangesh M

413

Reliability Analysis of Microelectronic Components and Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Reliability Analysis of Microelectronic Components and Materials Increasing numbers of the degradation processes relevant to soldered joints is crucial for more reliable life-cycle predictions. Joining methods are critical for the reliable use of electronic packages. In particular, since the advent

Berlin,Technische Universität

414

James P. Mosquera Director, Reactor Plant Components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the application of nuclear reactor power to capital ships of the U.S. Navy, and other assigned projects. Mr for steam generator technology (within the Nuclear Components Division); and power plant systems engineer working for the U.S. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (a.k.a. Naval Reactors). This program is a joint

415

Ensemble Learning for Independent Component Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . James W. Miskin Selwyn College Cambridge December 20th, 2000 i #12; Abstract This thesis is concerned with the problem of Blind Source Separation. Speci#12;cally we consider the Independent Component Analysis (ICA the sources given only a set of observations. In chapter 1, the blind source separation problem is introduced

MacKay, David J.C.

416

Nonlinear principal component analysis by neural networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bottleneck, the NLPCA is able to extract periodic or wave modes. The Lorenz (1963) 3-component chaotic system nonlinear empirical modelling methods originating from the field of artificial intelligence, raises the hope that the linear restriction in our analysis of environmental datasets may finally be lifted (Hsieh and Tang, 1998

Hsieh, William

417

Nonlinear principal component analysis by neural networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bottleneck, the NLPCA is able to extract periodic or wave modes. The Lorenz (1963) 3­component chaotic system, a class of powerful nonlinear empirical modelling methods originating from the field of artificial be lifted (Hsieh and Tang, 1998). Various NN methods have been developed for performing PCA (Oja, 1982

Hsieh, William

418

Facilitating performance predictions using software components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reussner 1. Introduction Composing software systems of independent building blocks is the central vision based on the properties of its components. In civil and electrical engineering, the early assessment, performance is often mainly considered at the end of the development cycle when the complete system can

Becker, Steffen

419

Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater P.I. names,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a contaminant of concernsubsurface environments. MTBE appears to be degraded readily

Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Correlated Component Analysis for diffuse component separation with error estimation on simulated Planck polarization data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a data analysis pipeline for CMB polarization experiments, running from multi-frequency maps to the power spectra. We focus mainly on component separation and, for the first time, we work out the covariance matrix accounting for errors associated to the separation itself. This allows us to propagate such errors and evaluate their contributions to the uncertainties on the final products.The pipeline is optimized for intermediate and small scales, but could be easily extended to lower multipoles. We exploit realistic simulations of the sky, tailored for the Planck mission. The component separation is achieved by exploiting the Correlated Component Analysis in the harmonic domain, that we demonstrate to be superior to the real-space application (Bonaldi et al. 2006). We present two techniques to estimate the uncertainties on the spectral parameters of the separated components. The component separation errors are then propagated by means of Monte Carlo simulations to obtain the corresponding contributi...

Ricciardi, S; Natoli, P; Polenta, G; Baccigalupi, C; Salerno, E; Kayabol, K; Bedini, L; De Zotti, G; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16819.x

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China Received 14, the removal and recycling of the catalytic materials become important. It is expected that using ionic liquids as ATRP media. They performed the copper(I)-mediated ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in 1-butyl-3

Wan, Xin-hua

422

Electronic structure calculations of radical reactions for poly(methyl methacrylate) degradation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposed to UV light in low-Earth orbit (LEO) conditions experience degradation. Under LEO conditionsElectronic structure calculations of radical reactions for poly(methyl methacrylate) degradation to calculate the reaction energetics for decomposition reactions of radicals formed from UV radiation

423

Sequential 2 -O-Methylation of Archaeal Pre-tRNATrp Nucleotides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sequential 2 -O-Methylation of Archaeal Pre-tRNATrp Nucleotides Is Guided by the Intron -O-methyla- tion of nucleotides C34 and U39 followed by intron exci- sion. Positioning of the box C proteins. With both kinetic studies and single nucleotide substitutions of target and guide nucleotides, we

Maxwell, E. Stuart

424

Selective Methylation Changes on the Bacillus subtilis Chemotaxis Receptor McpB Promote Adaptation*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the same background, McpB(E630D,E637D) produced methanol only upon aspara- gine addition, whereas McpB(Q371D,E630D) produced methanol only upon asparagine removal. Thus methanol release from Mcp, from which methanol is released in response to all stimuli. McpB has four putative methylation sites

Ordal, George W.

425

Infrared Study of the Molecular Orientation in Ultrathin Films of Behenic Acid Methyl Ester: Comparison between  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared Study of the Molecular Orientation in Ultrathin Films of Behenic Acid Methyl Ester-Blodgett transfer. The presence in the infrared spectra of several bands due to the methylene wagging and twisting and infrared spectroscopy have been developed to study these films. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly

Pezolet, Michel

426

Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments.

Schasfer, Jeffra [Princeton University; Rocks, Sara [Princeton University; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Morel, Francois M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic in activated sludge from a standard activated sludge WWTP equipped with enhanced biological phosphorus removal) and anaerobic conditions rather low removal rates were determined. In a laboratory-scale activated sludge

Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

428

he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert- butyl, the September 15, 1999, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (1) states that between 5 with large releases (e.g., LUFTs). Unprecedented growth in use Use of MTBE as a gasoline additive began

429

Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame K Abstract Diamond growth in low pressure combustion flames was studied using a safer, more economical and chemical kinetic time scales in the combustion reactor. 1 Present Address: 3M Corporation, Bldg. 60-1N-01

Dandy, David

430

Methylation of Mercury by Bacteria Exposed to Dissolved, Nanoparticulate, and Microparticulate Mercuric Sulfides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methylation of Mercury by Bacteria Exposed to Dissolved, Nanoparticulate, and Microparticulate in the environment is partly controlled by the bioavailability of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) to anaerobic matter to form chemical species that include organic-coated mercury sulfide nanoparticles as reaction

431

Neutralization of Methyl Cation via Chemical Reactions in Low-Energy Ion-Surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Fluorocarbon and Hydrocarbon Self-Assembled Monolayer Films A´ rpa´d Somogyi, Darrin L. Smith, and Vicki H-surface collisions of methyl cation at hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon self- assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces produce with hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon SAMs occurs by concerted chemical reactions, i.e., that neutralization

Wysocki, Vicki H.

432

Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section components for gas turbine engines. Significant technical progress has been made towards maturation of the EBC and CMC technologies for incorporation into gas turbine engine hot-section. Promising EBC candidates for longer life and/or higher temperature applications relative to current state of the art BSAS-based EBCs have been identified. These next generation coating systems have been scaled-up from coupons to components and are currently being field tested in Solar Centaur 50S engine. CMC combustor liners were designed, fabricated and tested in a FT8 sector rig to demonstrate the benefits of a high temperature material system. Pretest predictions made through the use of perfectly stirred reactor models showed a 2-3x benefit in CO emissions for CMC versus metallic liners. The sector-rig test validated the pretest predictions with >2x benefit in CO at the same NOx levels at various load conditions. The CMC liners also survived several trip shut downs thereby validating the CMC design methodology. Significant technical progress has been made towards incorporation of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and environmental barrier coatings (EBC) technologies into gas turbine engine hot-section. The second phase of the program focused on the demonstration of a reverse flow annular CMC combustor. This has included overcoming the challenges of design and fabrication of CMCs into 'complex' shapes; developing processing to apply EBCs to 'engine hardware'; testing of an advanced combustor enabled by CMCs in a PW206 rig; and the validation of performance benefits against a metal baseline. The rig test validated many of the pretest predictions with a 40-50% reduction in pattern factor compared to the baseline and reductions in NOx levels at maximum power conditions. The next steps are to develop an understanding of the life limiting mechanisms in EBC and CMC materials, developing a design system for EBC coated CMCs and durability testing in an engine environment.

Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

RAMA Surveillance Capsule and Component Activation Analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the calculated-to-measured ratios associated with the application of the RAMA Fluence Methodology software to light water reactor surveillance capsule and reactor component activation evaluations. Comparisons to measurements are performed for pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor surveillance capsule activity specimens from seventeen operating light water reactors. Comparisons to measurements are also performed for samples removed from the core shroud, top guide, and jet pump brace pads from two reactors. In conclusion: The flexible geometry modeling capabilities provided by RAMA, combined with the detailed representation of operating reactor history and anisotropic scattering detail, produces accurate predictions of the fast neutron fluence and neutron activation for BWR and PWR surveillance capsule geometries. This allows best estimate RPV fluence to be determined without the need for multiplicative bias corrections. The three-dimensional modeling capability in RAMA provides an accurate estimate of the fast neutron fluence for regions far removed from the core mid-plane elevation. The comparisons to activation measurements for various core components indicate that the RAMA predictions are reasonable, and notably conservative (i.e., C/M ratios are consistently greater than unity). It should be noted that in the current evaluations, the top and bottom fuel regions are represented by six inch height nodes. As a result, the leakage-induced decrease in power near the upper and lower edges of the core are not well represented in the current models. More precise predictions of fluence for components that lie above and below the core boundaries could be obtained if the upper and lower fuel nodes were subdivided into multiple axial regions with assigned powers that reflect the neutron leakage at the top and bottom of the core. This use of additional axial sub-meshing at the top and bottom of the core is analogous to the use of pin-wise meshing in peripheral bundles to accurately represent radial leakage effects. The representation of thermal neutron fluence and activations are found to be reasonably accurate and consistently conservative, as demonstrated by comparison to the reactor component thermal neutron reaction activation measurements. Further improvement in the comparisons to measurements could be achieved by exploring the impact of enhanced sub-meshing of the geometry near the components of interest. The mesh densities utilized in the current evaluation are consistent with the mesh requirements for high energy neutron transport. The substantially shorter transport lengths for thermal neutrons relative to high energy neutrons suggests that localized regions of finer meshing are needed in the vicinity of those reactor components requiring thermal neutron fluence evaluations. (authors)

Watkins, Kenneth E.; Jones, Eric N. [TransWare Enterprises Inc., 1565 Mediterranean Dr., Sycamore, IL 60178 (United States); Carter, Robert G. [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West W. T. Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Automotive Component Measurements forAutomotive Component Measurements for Determining VehicleDetermining Vehicle--Level RadiatedLevel Radiated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Automotive Component Measurements forAutomotive Component Measurements for Determining VehicleDetermining Vehicle--Level RadiatedLevel Radiated Automotive Component Measurements forAutomotive Component automotiveWe need to characterize automotive components the way we characterize circuitcomponents the way we

Stuart, Steven J.

435

Methods for integrating a functional component into a microfluidic device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Injection molding is used to form microfluidic devices with integrated functional components. One or more functional components are placed in a mold cavity, which is then closed. Molten thermoplastic resin is injected into the mold and then cooled, thereby forming a solid substrate including the functional component(s). The solid substrate including the functional component(s) is then bonded to a second substrate, which may include microchannels or other features.

Simmons, Blake; Domeier, Linda; Woo, Noble; Shepodd, Timothy; Renzi, Ronald F.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

436

System for inspecting large size structural components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a system for inspecting large scale structural components such as concrete walls or the like. The system includes a mobile gamma radiation source and a mobile gamma radiation detector. The source and detector are constructed and arranged for simultaneous movement along parallel paths in alignment with one another on opposite sides of a structural component being inspected. A control system provides signals which coordinate the movements of the source and detector and receives and records the radiation level data developed by the detector as a function of source and detector positions. The radiation level data is then analyzed to identify areas containing defects corresponding to unexpected variations in the radiation levels detected.

Birks, Albert S. (Columbus, OH); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

FILTER COMPONENT ASSESSMENT--CERAMIC CANDLES--  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on development of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation applications. SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report summarizes the results of SWPC's filter component assessment efforts, identifying the performance and stability of porous monolithic, fiber reinforced, and filament wound ceramic hot gas candle filters, potentially for {ge}3 years of viable pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) service operating life.

M.A. Alvin

2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

438

Columbia River Component Data Evaluation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Columbia River Component Data Compilation and Evaluation task was to compile, review, and evaluate existing information for constituents that may have been released to the Columbia River due to Hanford Site operations. Through this effort an extensive compilation of information pertaining to Hanford Site-related contaminants released to the Columbia River has been completed for almost 965 km of the river.

C.S. Cearlock

2006-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

439

Sandia National Laboratories: understanding hydrogen components  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-activeNationalhydrogen components Energy Department Awards

440

Emission Control Systems and Components for Retrofit and First...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems and Components for Retrofit and First-Fit Applications Emission Control Systems and Components for Retrofit and First-Fit Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Components Responsible for the Health Effects of Inhaled Engine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Components Responsible for the Health Effects of Inhaled Engine Emissions Components Responsible for the Health Effects of Inhaled Engine Emissions Presentation given at the 2007...

442

Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

443

New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes multicomponent.pdf More...

444

Fuel Cell Subsystems and Components | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Subsystems and Components Fuel Cell Subsystems and Components As recommended by the 2004 National Research Council report, the program continues to increase its support...

445

Friction Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components Friction Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs...

446

DOE Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells DOE Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells This document describes test protocols...

447

Balance of Plant Needs and Integration of Stack Components for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Needs and Integration of Stack Components for Stationary Power and CHP Applications Balance of Plant Needs and Integration of Stack Components for Stationary Power and CHP...

448

Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6 Engine to Effect Cost-Effective Mass Reduction Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a...

449

HVAC component data modeling using industry foundation classes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HVAC Component Data Modeling Using Industry Foundationof a major extension of the HVAC part of the IFC data model.generic approach for handling HVAC components. This includes

Bazjanac, Vladimir; Forester, James; Haves, Philip; Sucic, Darko; Xu, Peng

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM...

451

Data Transmission System For A Downhole Component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. Each component has a first and second end, with a first communication element located at the first end and a second communication element located at the second end. Each communication element includes a first contact and a second contact. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second communication elements, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The system also includes a first and second connector for connecting the first and second communication elements respectively to the coaxial cable. Each connector includes a conductive sleeve, lying concentrically within the conductive tube, which fits around and makes electrical contact with the conductive core. The conductive sleeve is electrically isolated from the conductive tube. The conductive sleeve of the first connector is in electrical contact with the first contact of the first communication element, the conductive sleeve of the second connector is in electrical contact with the first contact of the second communication element, and the conductive tube is in electrical contact with both the second contact of the first communication element and the second contact of the second communication element.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

452

Estimate of the scatter component in SPECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical expressions that describe the dependence of slopes and amplitudes of the scatter distribution functions (SDF) on source depth and media density are used to estimate a scatter component in SPECT projection data. Since the ratio of detected scattered to total photons (S/T), SDF amplitude and slope depend strongly on line source length (SL) used to obtain SDFs, we compared estimated scattered components using SDFs, obtained for lengths of 2-21 cm. At 10 cm source depth, S/T changes from 0.19 to 0.36 when SL changes from 2 to 21 cm. Scatter amplitude`s dependence on source depth (d) in water was described by 6.38e{sup -0.186d} for a 2 cm and 16.15e{sup -0.129d} for a 21 cm SL. Slope was described by 0.292d{sup -0.601} for a cm SL and by 0.396d{sup -0.82} for a 21 cm SL. The estimated scatter components are compared with simulated SPECT projection data obtained with Monte Carlo modeling of six hot spheres placed in a cylindrical water filled phantom. The comparison of estimated with simulated total counts/projection shows very good agreement when approaching SDF for a point source (the % difference varied from 2 to 13% for 2 cm SL). Significant overestimate is seen when source length increases.

Ivanovic, M.; Weber, D.A. [Univ. of California, Sacramento, CA (United States); Loncaric, S. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

453

All-sky astrophysical component separation with Fast Independent Component Analysis (FastICA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new, fast, algorithm for the separation of astrophysical components superposed in maps of the sky, based on the fast Independent Component Analysis technique (FastICA). It allows to recover both the spatial pattern and the frequency scalings of the emissions from statistically independent astrophysical processes, present along the line-of-sight, from multi-frequency observations. We apply FastICA to simulated observations of the microwave sky with angular resolution and instrumental noise at the mean nominal levels for the Planck satellite, containing the most important known diffuse signals: the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), Galactic synchrotron, dust and free-free emissions. A method for calibrating the reconstructed maps of each component at each frequency has been devised. The spatial pattern of all the components have been recovered on all scales probed by the instrument. In particular, the CMB angular power spectra is recovered at the percent level up to $\\ell_{max}\\simeq 2000$. Freque...

Maino, D; Baccigalupi, C; Perrotta, F; Banday, A J; Bedini, L; Burigana, C; Zotti, G D; Grski, K M; Salerno, E

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Method of making low work function component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fabricating a component is disclosed. The method includes: providing a member having an effective work function of an initial value, disposing a sacrificial layer on a surface of the member, disposing a first agent within the member to obtain a predetermined concentration of the agent at said surface of the member, annealing the member, and removing the sacrificial layer to expose said surface of the member, wherein said surface has a post-process effective work function that is different from the initial value.

Robinson, Vance (Niskayuna, NY); Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Michael, Joseph Darryl (Delmar, NY)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Coplanar strip analysis and component development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

converge toward the same value, ABCI does so much more rapidly. 34 Characteristic Impedance vs. Side Wall Distance 90 18 80 0 70 a n 60 L m 50 ~ With ABC1 40 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 a (= b) (mm) Figure 14. Convergence Analysis of CPS...COPLANAR STRIP ANALYSIS AND COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT A Thesis by KEITH ANDREW TILLEY Submitted to Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Kai...

Tilley, Keith Andrew

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

457

Thermal Study of Inverter Components: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal histories of inverter components were collected from operating inverters from several manufacturers and three locations. The data were analyzed to determine thermal profiles, the dependence on local conditions, and to assess the effect on inverter reliability. Inverter temperatures were shown to increase with the power dissipation of the inverters, follow diurnal and annual cycles, and have a dependence on wind speed. An accumulated damage model was applied to the temperature profiles and an example of using these data to predict reliability was explored.

Sorensen, N. R.; Thomas, E. V.; Quintana, M. A.; Barkaszi, S.; Rosenthal, A.; Zhang, Z.; Kurtz, S.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Turbine engine component with cooling passages  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A component for use in a turbine engine including a first member and a second member associated with the first member. The second member includes a plurality of connecting elements extending therefrom. The connecting elements include securing portions at ends thereof that are received in corresponding cavities formed in the first member to attach the second member to the first member. The connecting elements are constructed to space apart a first surface of the second member from a first surface of the first member such that at least one cooling passage is formed between adjacent connecting elements and the first surface of the second member and the first surface of the first member.

Arrell, Douglas J. (Oviedo, FL); James, Allister W. (Orlando, FL)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

459

Sandia National Laboratories: Materials and Components Compatibilitiy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS ExhibitIowaLosSandia Participated in AMII toand Components

460

Automated Assessment of Polyethylene Wear in Cemented Acetabular Components using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automated Assessment of Polyethylene Wear in Cemented Acetabular Components using Anteroposterior, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, DD1 9SY, UK Abstract Polyethylene wear in the acetabular components of hip to the polyethylene acetabular component of a prosthesis so that both it and the metal femoral head component can

St Andrews, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant & Stack Component Integration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and cogeneration opportunity Standard Manufacturing Process ­ Low capex Standard Components ­ Standard HVAC

462

FROGi: Fractal components deployment over OSGi Mikael Desertot1 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FROGi: Fractal components deployment over OSGi Mikael Desertot1 3 , Humberto Cervantes2 and Didier, a proposal to support continuous de- ployment activities inside Fractal, a hierarchical component model of Fractal components. With FROGi, it is possible to automate the assembly of a Fractal component application

Donsez, Didier

463

Color tuning of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce phosphor and their blend for white LEDs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gadolinium or lanthanum co-doped (0.5 mole) yttrium aluminum garnet doped with cerium phosphors were synthesized by a citric acid gel method and the effect of co-dopants on the structural and luminescent properties were studied. A significant peak shift in the photoluminescence spectra of yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium was observed from 535 to 556 and 576 nm for gadolinium or lanthanum co-doped phosphors, respectively. The color tuned phosphor were blended with yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium which showed a considerable improvement in the Commission International De Eclairage chromaticity co-ordinate values of gallium nitride based blue light emitting diode pumped white light. White light emitted from yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium shows a Commission International De Eclairage value of (0.229, 0.182) whereas the yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium phosphor blended with gadolinium or lanthanum co-doped phosphor shows (0.262, 0.243) and (0.295, 0.282), respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility to use these phosphor blends to enhance the white light generation in the field of white-light emitting diode solid-state lighting.

Kottaisamy, M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kalasalingam University, Krishnankoil 626 190 (India)], E-mail: mmksamy66@yahoo.com; Thiyagarajan, P.; Mishra, J.; Ramachandra Rao, M.S. [Materials Science Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Anodizing of High Electrically Stressed Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anodizing creates an aluminum oxide coating that penetrates into the surface as well as builds above the surface of aluminum creating a very hard ceramic-type coating with good dielectric properties. Over time and use, the electrical carrying components (or spools in this case) experience electrical breakdown, yielding undesirable x-ray dosages or failure. The spool is located in the high vacuum region of a rod pinch diode section of an x-ray producing machine. Machine operators have recorded decreases in x-ray dosages over numerous shots using the reusable spool component, and re-anodizing the interior surface of the spool does not provide the expected improvement. A machine operation subject matter expert coated the anodized surface with diffusion pump oil to eliminate electrical breakdown as a temporary fix. It is known that an anodized surface is very porous, and it is because of this porosity that the surface may trap air that becomes a catalyst for electrical breakdown. In this paper we present a solution of mitigating electrical breakdown by oiling. We will also present results of surface anodizing improvements achieved by surface finish preparation and surface sealing. We conclude that oiling the anodized surface and using anodized hot dip sealing processes will have similar results.

Flores, P. [NSTec; Henderson, D. J. [NSTec; Good, D. E. [NSTec; Hogge, K. [NSTec; Mitton, C. V. [NSTec; Molina, I. [NSTec; Naffziger, C. [NSTec; Codova, S. R. [SNL; Ormond, E. U. [SNL

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Communication adapter for use with a drilling component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A communication adapter is disclosed that provides for removable attachment to a drilling component when the drilling component is not actively drilling and for communication with an integrated transmission system in the drilling component. The communication adapter comprises a data transmission coupler that facilitates communication between the drilling component and the adapter, a mechanical coupler that facilitates removable attachment of the adapter to the drilling component, and a data interface.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Hall; Jr.; H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Rawle, Michael (Springville, UT)

2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

466

Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to use spectroscopic techniques to investigate in detail phenomena involving the vibrational quasi-continuum in a simple physical system. Acetaldehyde was chosen for the study because: (i) methyl groups have been suggested to be important promotors of intramolecular vibrational relaxation, (ii) the internal rotation of a methyl group is an easily describle large-amplitude motion, which should retain its simple character even at high levels of excitation, and (iii) the aldehyde carbonyl group offers the possibility of both vibrational and electronic probing. The present investigation of the ground electronic state has three parts: (1) understanding the {open_quotes}isolated{close_quotes} internal-rotation motion below, at, and above the top of the torsional barrier, (2) understanding in detail traditional (bond stretching and bending) vibrational fundamental and overtone states, and (3) understanding interactions involving states with multiquantum excitations of at least one of these two kinds of motion.

Hougen, J.T. [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Evaluation of Sialon internal combustion engine components and fabrication of several ceramic components for automotive applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fabrication development work was carried out on a push-rod tip having a stepped OD design and a 90[degree] shoulder in the transition area. Spray-dried Sialon premix was used in dry press tooling, and components were densified to about 98% of theoretical density using pressureless sintering conditions. Upon evaluation of the sintered components, it was found that afl components showed defects in the transition area. Modifications of the pressing parameters, incorporation of a 45[degree] angle in the shoulder area, and the use of tailored premix did not lead to the fabrication of defect-free parts. From these observations, it was concluded that the original part design could not easily be adapted to high-volume ceramic manufacturing methods. Subsequently, a modification to the desip was implemented. An SiC material with improved toughness (Hexoloy SX) was used for fabricating several test components with a closely machined, straight OD design. Pressureless-sintered and post-hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) Hexoloy SX components were supplied to The American Ceramic Engine Company (ACE) for assembly and testing. Fuel pump push-rod assemblies with Hemoloy SX tips were prepared by ACE, but no testing has been carried out to date.

McMurtry, C.H.; Ten Eyck, M.O.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Evaluation of Sialon internal combustion engine components and fabrication of several ceramic components for automotive applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fabrication development work was carried out on a push-rod tip having a stepped OD design and a 90{degree} shoulder in the transition area. Spray-dried Sialon premix was used in dry press tooling, and components were densified to about 98% of theoretical density using pressureless sintering conditions. Upon evaluation of the sintered components, it was found that afl components showed defects in the transition area. Modifications of the pressing parameters, incorporation of a 45{degree} angle in the shoulder area, and the use of tailored premix did not lead to the fabrication of defect-free parts. From these observations, it was concluded that the original part design could not easily be adapted to high-volume ceramic manufacturing methods. Subsequently, a modification to the desip was implemented. An SiC material with improved toughness (Hexoloy SX) was used for fabricating several test components with a closely machined, straight OD design. Pressureless-sintered and post-hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) Hexoloy SX components were supplied to The American Ceramic Engine Company (ACE) for assembly and testing. Fuel pump push-rod assemblies with Hemoloy SX tips were prepared by ACE, but no testing has been carried out to date.

McMurtry, C.H.; Ten Eyck, M.O.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Experimental investigation of size effect on thermal conductivity for ultra-thin amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation was conducted to determine whether a size effect phenomenon for one particular thermophysical property, thermal conductivity, actually exists for amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films with thicknesses ranging from 40 nm...

Kim, Ick Chan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

CORRELATION OF DNA METHYLATION WITH MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN MARINE ORGANISMS: A CASE STUDY OF NOAA MUSSEL WATCH TISSUE SAMPLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) obtained from the NOAA Mussel Watch program were screened for DNA methylation, a type of epigenetic response to stressors. Oysters were collected from sites in the Gulf of Mexico having high mercury...

Brinkmeyer, Robin; Taylor, Robert; Germ, Kaylyn E.

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

472

Use of a predictive model for the impact of cofiring coal/biomass blends on slagging and fouling propensity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper describes an investigation of slagging and fouling effects when cofiring coal/biomass blends by using a predictive model for large utility boilers. This model is based on the use a zone computational method to determine the midsection temperature profile throughout a boiler, coupled with a thermo-chemical model, to define and assess the risk of elevated slagging and fouling levels during cofiring of solid fuels. The application of this prediction tool was made for a 618 MW thermal wall-fired pulverized coal boiler, cofired with a typical medium volatile bituminous coal and two substitute fuels, sewage sludge and sawdust. Associated changes in boiler efficiency as well as various heat transfer and thermodynamic parameters of the system were analyzed with slagging and fouling effects for different cofiring ratios. The results of the modeling revealed that, for increased cofiring of sewage sludge, an elevated risk of slagging and high-temperature fouling occurred, in complete contrast to the effects occurring with the utilization of sawdust as a substitute fuel. 30 refs., 9 figs.,1 tab.

Piotr Plaza; Anthony J. Griffiths; Nick Syred; Thomas Rees-Gralton [Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Centre for Research in Energy

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

An assessment of methyl mercury and volatile mercury in land-applied sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency issued regulations covering the land-application of municipal sewage sludge. These regulations established maximum pollutant concentrations and were based upon a risk assessment of human exposure. Mercury, assumed to be inorganic and non-volatile, was one pollutant evaluated. From April, 1995 through February, 1996, the authors studied the species of mercury contaminating municipal sludge applied to land, and the potential for volatilization of mercury from land-applied sludge. Methyl mercury was found at 0.1% of total mercury concentrations and was emitted from land-applied sludge to the atmosphere. Elemental mercury (Hg) was formed in land-applied sludge via the reduction of oxidized mercury and was also emitted to the atmosphere. Hg emission from land-applied sludge was significantly elevated over background soil emission. Methyl mercury is more toxic and more highly bioaccumulated than inorganic mercury, and warrants assessment considering these special criteria. Additionally, mercury emission from sludge-amended soil may lead to the contamination of other environmental media with significant concentrations of the metal. Although these pathways were not evaluated in the regulatory risk assessment, they are an important consideration for evaluating the risks from mercury in land-applied sludge. This presentation will summarize the results of a re-assessment of US EPA regulations regarding the land-application of municipal sewage sludge using data on methyl mercury toxicity and mercury transport in the atmosphere.

Carpi, A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lindberg, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

474

The Relationships of Diesel Fuel Properties, Chemistry, and HCCI Engine Performance as Determined by Principal Component Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to meet common fuel specifications such as cetane number and volatility, a refinery must blend a number of refinery stocks derived from various process units in the refinery. Fuel chemistry can be significantly altered in meeting fuel specifications. Additionally, fuel specifications are seldom changed in isolation, and the drive to meet one specification may significantly alter other specifications or fuel chemistry. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines depend on the kinetic behavior of a fuel to achieve reliable ignition and are expected to be more dependent on fuel specifications and chemistry than today's conventional engines. Regression analysis can help in determining the underlying relationships between fuel specifications, chemistry, and engine performance. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in this work, because of its ability to deal with co-linear variables and to uncover 'hidden' relationships in the data. In this paper, a set of 11 diesel fuels with widely varying properties were run in a simple HCCI engine. Fuel properties and engine performance are examined to identify underlying fuel relationships and to determine the interplay between engine behavior and fuels. Results indicate that fuel efficiency is mainly controlled by a collection of specifications related to density and energy content and ignition characteristics are controlled mainly by cetane number.

Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Crawford, Robert W [Rincon Ranch Consulting

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Thermal barrier coatings for turbine components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine component, such as a turbine blade having a metal substrate (22) is coated with a metal MCrAlY alloy layer (24) and then a thermal barrier layer (20) selected from LaAlO.sub.3, NdAlO.sub.3, La.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7, Dy.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12, HO.sub.3 Al.sub.3 O.sub.12, ErAlO.sub.3, GdAlO.sub.3, Yb.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 O.sub.7, LaYbO.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7 or Y.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Bethesda, MD); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Compound cooling flow turbulator for turbine component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Multi-scale turbulation features, including first turbulators (46, 48) on a cooling surface (44), and smaller turbulators (52, 54, 58, 62) on the first turbulators. The first turbulators may be formed between larger turbulators (50). The first turbulators may be alternating ridges (46) and valleys (48). The smaller turbulators may be concave surface features such as dimples (62) and grooves (54), and/or convex surface features such as bumps (58) and smaller ridges (52). An embodiment with convex turbulators (52, 58) in the valleys (48) and concave turbulators (54, 62) on the ridges (46) increases the cooling surface area, reduces boundary layer separation, avoids coolant shadowing and stagnation, and reduces component mass.

Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

477

Component failure data handbook. Technical evaluation report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data.

Gentillon, C.D.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Rapid Spontaneous Assembly of Single Component Liposomes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can single component bilayer forming surfactants spontaneously assemble to form unilamellar vesicles of a definite size ? Although possible by Helfrich's theory, this has not been observed without external forcing. We show two variants of a method where this is possible without any input of external energy, with the time of synthesis reduced to as less as 15 minutes. It is shown that the average diameter of the liposomes formed is intrinsic and depends only on the temperature and the lipid type, eliminating kinetic effects normally observed. This thus can be a candidate mechanism for vesicle size selection in pre-biotic conditions. The method may also be suitable to study time-resolved studies of micelle to vesicle transition.

P. Sunthar; Sopan M. Phapal

2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

479

Arsenic methylation capability and hypertension risk in subjects living in arseniasis-hyperendemic areas in southwestern Taiwan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: Cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) from drinking water has been shown to be associated with hypertension in a dose-response pattern. This study further explored the association between arsenic methylation capability and hypertension risk among residents of arseniasis-hyperendemic areas in Taiwan considering the effect of CAE and other potential confounders. Method: There were 871 subjects (488 women and 383 men) and among them 372 were diagnosed as having hypertension based on a positive history or measured systolic blood pressure {>=} 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure {>=} 90 mm Hg. Urinary arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Primary arsenic methylation index [PMI, defined as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) divided by (As{sup III} + As{sup V})] and secondary arsenic methylation index (SMI, defined as dimethylarsinic acid divided by MMA{sup V}) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capability. Results: The level of urinary arsenic was still significantly correlated with cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) calculated from a questionnaire interview (p = 0.02) even after the residents stopped drinking the artesian well water for 2-3 decades. Hypertensive subjects had higher percentages of MMA{sup V} and lower SMI than subjects without hypertension. However, subjects having CAE > 0 mg/L-year had higher hypertension risk than those who had CAE = 0 mg/L-year disregard a high or low methylation index. Conclusion: Inefficient arsenic methylation ability may be related with hypertension risk.

Huang, Y.-K. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, C.-H. [National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research and Development, National Taiwan University Hospital Yun-Lin Branch, Yun-Lin, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y.-L. [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Yang, M.-H. [Department of Nuclear Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-J. [Genomic Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Y.-M. [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

Non-destructive component separation using infrared radiant energy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating a first component and a second component from one another at an adhesive bond interface between the first component and second component. Typically the method involves irradiating the first component with infrared radiation from a source that radiates substantially only short wavelengths until the adhesive bond is destabilized, and then separating the first component and the second component from one another. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is placed inside an enclosure and the assembly is illuminated from an IR source that is external to the enclosure. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is simultaneously irradiated by a multi-planar array of IR sources. Often the IR radiation is unidirectional. In some embodiments the IR radiation is narrow-band short wavelength infrared radiation.

Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Russell, Steven W. (Knoxville, TN); Holt, Jerrid S. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blending component methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Evaluation of aging degradation of structural components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Irradiation embrittlement of the neutron shield tank (NST) A212 Grade B steel from the Shippingport reactor, as well as thermal embrittlement of CF-8 cast stainless steel components from the Shippingport and KRB reactors, has been characterized. Increases in Charpy transition temperature (CTT), yield stress, and hardness of the NST material in the low-temperature low-flux environment are consistent with the test reactor data for irradiations at < 232{degrees}C. The shift in CTT is not as severe as that observed in surveillance samples from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR): however, it shows very good agreement with the results for HFIR A212-B steel irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The results indicate that fluence rate has not effect on radiation embrittlement at rates as low as 2 {times} 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s at the low operating temperature of the Shippingport NST, i.e., 55{degrees}C. This suggest that radiation damage in Shippingport NST and HFIR surveillance samples may be different because of the neutron spectra and/or Cu and Ni content of the two materials. Cast stainless steel components show relatively modest decreases in fracture toughness and Charpy-impact properties and a small increase in tensile strength. Correlations for estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steels predict accurate or slightly conservative values for Charpy-impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, and J{sub IC} of the materials. The kinetics of thermal embrittlement and degree of embrittlement at saturation, i.e., the minimum impact energy achieved after long-term aging, were established from materials that were aged further in the laboratory. The results were consistent with the estimates. The correlations successfully predict the mechanical properties of the Ringhals 2 reactor hot- and crossover-leg elbows (CF-8M steel) after service of {approx}15 y.

Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z