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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

The Venezuelan natural gas industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Venezuela's consumption energy of comes from three primary sources: hydroelectricity, liquid hydrocarbons and natural gas. In 1986, the energy consumption in the internal market was 95.5 thousand cubic meters per day of oil equivalent, of which 32% was natural gas, 46% liquid hydrocarbons and 22% hydroelectricity. The Venezuelan energy policy established natural gas usage after hydroelectricity, as a substitute of liquid hydrocarbons, in order to increase exports of these. This policy permits a solid development of the natural gas industry, which is covered in this paper.

Silva, P.V.; Hernandez, N.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration 1 Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss ... The gravity increased most at the ConocoPhillips Sweeny ...

3

Biodiesel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 2-page fact sheet discussing general biodiesel blends and the improvement in engine performance and emissions.

Not Available

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss EIA Home > Petroleum > Petroleum Feature Articles Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss Printer-Friendly PDF Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss By Joanne Shore and John Hackworth1 Introduction The loss of almost 3 million barrels per day of crude oil production in Venezuela following a strike in December 2002 resulted in an increase in the world price of crude oil. However, in the short term, the volume loss probably affected the United States more than most other areas. This country receives more than half of Venezuela's crude and product exports, and replacing the lost volumes proved difficult. U.S. imports of Venezuelan crude oil dropped significantly in December 2002 relative to other years

5

Geologic setting and gas reserves of the Venezuelan LNG project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four gas fields, Mejillones, Patao, Dragon, and Rio Caribe, were discovered by Lagoven, a subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., during an exploratory campaign during 1978-1982, offshore northeastern Venezuela. Thirteen wells drilled in the four fields discovered 13.9 tcf of gas, including 1.2 tcf of gas and condensate in the Rio Caribe field. In February 1991, Lagoven entered into an agreement with Shell, Exxon, and Mitsubishi to assess the viability of producing and exporting gas from the four offshore gas fields in the form of liquified natural gas. This is the Venezuelan LNG Project, otherwise called the Cristobal Colon Project. As part of the agreement the participants established a Project Team in Caracas and undertook the acquisition of 1600 km[sup 2] of 3D seismic data over the four fields to evaluate the geological model of the area. In addition, interpretation of the 3D data has led to a preliminary geological model for the gas bearing sands which envisages deposition in a regional setting varying from bathyal turbidites in the Rio Caribe and Mejillones fields in the west to shelf deposits over the Patao and Dragon fields in the east. In addition to the geological setting this paper will discuss preliminary results of the reserves evaluation for the Rio Caribe, Patao, and Dragon fields.

Prieto, R.; Van der Molen, I.; Ramirez de Arellano, R. (Lagoven, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blends to Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Blends Production & Distribution Specifications Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Blends Biodiesel can be blended and used in many different concentrations, including B100 (pure biodiesel), B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel),

7

Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Blend Plan was written to identify items stored outside of the 213 MBA that will be moved into the MBA for thermal stabilization processing. Product quality oxide items stored in our vaults are found in Appendix A. A table is included in Appendix A which details the isotopic values for the oxide items and calculates the amount of material of any specific run that can be placed in a product can and maintain the 15 watt limit to meet storage vault specifications. This Revision of the Blend Plan adds items of lesser dose rate to lower the exposure of the workers until additional shielding can be added to the gloveboxes.

RISENMAY, H.R.

2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

8

F.O.B. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Angolan Cabinda 64.60 W 1978-2008 Canadian Bow River 52.38 81.82 1978-2008 Canadian Light Sour Blend 74.59 93.75 83.54 2010-2012 Canadian Lloydminster 48.54 79.33 50.11 64.41 78.41 77.01 1978-2012 Ecuadorian Oriente W 74.74 1978-2008 Gabon Rabi-Kouanga 71.27 89.56 1978-2008 Iraqi Basrah Light 62.98 74.36 104.51 103.17 2009-2012 Mexican Mayan 59.96 82.99 55.07 70.36 98.27 99.81 1978-2012 Mexican Olmeca 72.12 99.40 1978-2008 Nigerian Forcados Blend 93.72 110.57 1978-2008 Nigerian Qua Iboe 65.60 82.66 115.82 115.85 2009-2012 Venezuelan Furrial - - 1978-2008 Venezuelan Leona W W 1978-2008 Venezuelan Merey

9

Ethanol-blended Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ethanol-Blended Ethanol-Blended Fuels A Study Guide and Overview of: * Ethanol's History in the U.S. and Worldwide * Ethanol Science and Technology * Engine Performance * Environmental Effects * Economics and Energy Security The Curriculum This curriculum on ethanol and its use as a fuel was developed by the Clean Fuels Development Coalition in cooperation with the Nebraska Ethanol Board. This material was developed in response to the need for instructional materials on ethanol and its effects on vehicle performance, the environment, and the economy. As a renewable alternative energy source made from grain and other biomass resources, ethanol study serves as an excellent learning opportunity for students to use in issue clarification and problem-solving activities. Ethanol illustrates that science and technology can provide us with new

10

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blends to Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends E15 E85 Specifications Production & Distribution Feedstocks Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Blends Ethanol is blended with gasoline in various amounts for use in vehicles. E10 E10 is a low-level blend composed of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline. It is

11

Tropexx – Blending System - Home - Energy Innovation Portal  

• Process gas-blending system • Blending of volatile liquids or gases PATENTS AND AWARDS The Y-12 National Security Complex has

12

Tropexx – Blending System - Energy Innovation Portal  

The Tropexx Blending System is a high-resolution blending system that works with gases, vapors and volatile (readily vaporizable) liquids in addition ...

13

Low-Level Ethanol Fuel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet addresses: (a) why Clean Cities promotes ethanol blends; (b) how these blends affect emissions; (c) fuel performance and availability; and (d) cost, incentives, and regulations.

Not Available

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

South Texas Blending | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon South Texas Blending Jump to: navigation, search Name South Texas Blending Place Laredo, Texas Zip...

15

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Blend Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Definition An ethanol blend is defined as a blended motor fuel containing ethyl alcohol that is at least 99% pure, derived from agricultural products, and

16

Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Blend Plan was written to identify items stored outside of the 213 MBA that will be moved into the MBA for thermal stabilization processing. Product quality oxide items stored in our vaults are found in Appendix B. A table is included in Appendix B which details the isotopic values for the oxide items and calculates the amount of material of any specific run that can be placed in a product can and maintain the 15 watt limit to meet storage vault specifications. There is no chance of exceeding the 15 watt limit with items starting with the designations ''LAO'' or ''PBO.'' All items starting with the designations ''BO,'' ''BLO,'' and ''DZ0'' are at risk of exceeding the 15 watt specification if the can were to be filled.

RISENMAY, H.R.

1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

17

Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Blend Plan documents the feed material items that are stored in 2736-2 vaults, the 2736-ZB 638 cage, the 192C vault, and the 225 vault that will be processed through the thermal stabilization furnaces. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all water and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI) or percent water. The stabilized material must meet water content or LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the water or LOI limits are met.

RISENMAY, H.R.

2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

18

Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intermediate Ethanol Intermediate Ethanol Blends to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Fuels & Lubricants Fuel Effects on Combustion Lubricants Natural Gas Research Biofuels End-Use Research

19

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Standards to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Standards Biodiesel blends are considered compliant with Texas Low Emissions Diesel Fuel (TxLED) regulations if the diesel fuel is compliant with TxLED

20

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blending Ethanol Blending Regulation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blending Regulation Gasoline suppliers who provide fuel to distributors in the state must offer gasoline that is suitable for blending with fuel alcohol. Suppliers may not

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Requirement Suppliers that import gasoline for sale in North Carolina must offer fuel that is not pre-blended with fuel alcohol but that is suitable for future

22

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Mandate Ethanol Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Mandate All gasoline offered for sale at retail stations within the state must contain 10% ethanol (E10). This requirement is waived only if a distributor is unable to purchase ethanol or ethanol-blended gasoline at the same or

23

F.O.B. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

for Selected Crude Streams for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Crude Stream Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Angolan Cabinda 1983-2010 Canadian Bow River 1996-2010 Canadian Light Sour Blend W 90.81 W W W W 2010-2013 Canadian Lloydminster 70.87 79.48 80.36 W 92.04 W 1983-2013 Ecuadorian Oriente 1983-2008 Gabon Rabi-Kouanga 1996-2008 Iraqi Basrah Light 100.31 W W 97.05 101.32 W 2009-2013 Mexican Mayan 98.74 98.36 96.26 99.63 99.74 99.31 1983-2013 Mexican Olmeca 1996-2010 Nigerian Forcados Blend 1996-2008 Nigerian Qua Iboe W W W 2009-2013 Venezuelan Furrial 1996-2008 Venezuelan Leona 1996-2010

24

Method to blend separator powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

25

Identification and genetic analysis of Panama-genotype Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus was isolated in 1993, 1994, and 1995 from human cases of acute, undifferentiated, febrile illness in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Two virus isolates were recovered in 1994 from Peruvian soldiers at a jungle outpost near Pantoja in northern Peru, and 10 isolates were obtained from military personnel and civilians in 1993–1995 in Iquitos, an urban center in northeastern Peru. The genetic relationship of these isolates to other VEE virus strains was determined by sequencing 856-867 nucleotide reverse transcription– polymerase chain reaction fragments derived from the PE2 glycoprotein gene. The sequences were compared with

M. Steven Oberste; Scott C. Weaver; Douglas M. Watts; Jonathan; F. Smith

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Mandate Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blend Mandate All Gasoline sold or offered for sale in Minnesota must contain at least: 10% corn-based ethanol by volume or the maximum percent by volume of corn-based ethanol authorized in a waiver issued by the U.S. Environmental

27

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate All diesel fuel sold to state agencies, political subdivisions of the state, and public schools for use in on-road motor vehicles must contain at

28

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Mandate Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Mandate Within one year after the Montana Department of Transportation has certified that ethanol producers in the state have produced a total of 40 million gallons of denatured ethanol and have maintained that level of

29

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate In September 2013, the commissioners of the Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, and Pollution Control Agency determined that all conditions had been satisfied to implement a 10%

30

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate Pursuant to state law, all diesel motor vehicle fuel and all other liquid fuel used to operate motor vehicle diesel engines in Massachusetts must

31

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Eligibility Commercial Industrial Program Information Kentucky...

32

Intrinsically safe moisture blending system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

33

Fuel blending with PRB coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr. [Roberts and Schaefer, Chicago, IL (United States)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Fuel Blend Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations

35

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Blend Purchase Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement Diesel fuel that the New Hampshire Department of Transportation

36

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuel Blend Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement

37

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program

38

Spinodal decomposition in multicomponent polymer blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 10091, Ref. 28. 53 In previous studies by the Exxon/Princeton group on blends of ethylene– butene copolymers, Ref. 54 it ...

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuel Blending Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on AddThis.com... More in this section...

40

Characteristics of Engine Emissions from Different Biodiesel Blends.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Engine exhaust characteristics from two different biodiesel blends, formulated from soy and animal fat biodiesel blended with ultra-low sulphur diesel, were tested during two different… (more)

Wan, Curtis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

Not Available

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Siclovan, Oltea Puica (Rexford, NY); Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar (Bangalore, IN); Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao (Bangalore, IN); Porob, Digamber G. (Goa, IN); Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi (Bangalore, IN); Heward, William Jordan (Saratoga Springs, NY); Radkov, Emil Vergilov (Euclid, OH); Briel, Linda Jane Valyou (Niskayuna, NY)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

43

PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

CERTA, P.J.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

44

Geometric skinning with approximate dual quaternion blending  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Skinning of skeletally deformable models is extensively used for real-time animation of characters, creatures and similar objects. The standard solution, linear blend skinning, has some serious drawbacks that require artist intervention. Therefore, a ... Keywords: Skinning, dual quaternions, linear combinations, rigid transformations, transformation blending

Ladislav Kavan; Steven Collins; Ji?í Žára; Carol O'Sullivan

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Tax Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit Licensed biodiesel blenders are eligible for a tax credit for special fuel, including diesel, blended with biodiesel to create a biodiesel blend. The

46

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blended Fuel Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition Ethanol blended fuel, such as gasohol, is defined as any gasoline blended with 10% or more of anhydrous ethanol. (Reference Idaho Statutes 63-240

47

Emissions with butane/propane blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State

49

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Blend Use Biofuels Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Blend Use Requirement Whenever possible, governmental entities and state educational institutions must fuel diesel vehicles with biodiesel blends containing at least 2%

50

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blending Tax Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit A biodiesel blender located in Indiana may receive a credit of $0.02 per gallon of blended biodiesel produced at a facility located in Indiana. The

51

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption The biodiesel or ethanol portion of blended fuel containing taxable diesel

52

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Tax Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption Biodiesel blends of at least 20% (B20) that are used for personal, noncommercial use by the individual that produced the biodiesel portion of

53

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement An ethanol retailer selling a blend of 10% ethanol by volume or higher must

54

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blending Tax Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit Businesses and individuals are eligible for a tax credit of up to 15% of the cost of qualified equipment used for storing or blending biodiesel with

55

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit Retailers whose total diesel sales consist of at least 50% biodiesel blends

56

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Labeling Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements Pumps that dispense ethanol-blended gasoline available for purchase must be

57

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blending Blending Equipment Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption Qualified equipment used for storing and blending petroleum-based fuel with

58

Imaginative play with blended reality characters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The idea and formative design of a blended reality character, a new class of character able to maintain visual and kinetic continuity between the fully physical and fully virtual; the technical underpinnings of its unique ...

Robert, David Yann

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

Pernenkil, Lakshman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Blending a Substation into its Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides information about public acceptance issues as well as technical approaches available to make substations acceptable within their environments. Case studies were used to examine substation acceptance experience from utilities in different countries and areas. This is the second report in a multi-year effort to build a multi-volume library on Blending a Substation into its Environment. Volume 1 examined available literature, standards, guides, and regulations that affect the blending o...

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

BLENDING OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To provide the Commission with the results of the staff’s analysis of issues associated with the blending of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), as directed in Chairman Jaczko’s October 8, 2009, memorandum to the staff. The closure of the Barnwell waste disposal facility to most U.S. generators of Class B and C LLRW has caused industry to examine methods for reducing the amount of these wastes, including the blending of some types of Class B and C waste with similar Class A wastes to produce a Class A mixture that can be disposed of at a currently licensed facility. This paper identifies policy, safety, and regulatory issues associated with LLRW blending, provides options for a U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) blending position, and makes a recommendation for a future blending policy. This paper does not address any new commitments. SUMMARY: In this paper, the staff examines the blending or mixing of LLRW with higher concentrations of radionuclides with LLRW with lower concentrations of radionuclides to form a final homogeneous mixture. While recognizing that some mixing of waste is unavoidable, and may even be necessary and appropriate for efficiency or dose reduction purposes, NRC has historically discouraged mixing LLRW to lower the classification of waste in other circumstances.

R. W. Borchardt; Contacts James; E. Kennedy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Retailer Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit The Ethanol Promotion Tax Credit is available to any fuel retailer for up

63

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuel Blending Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation Any provision in a contract between a fuel wholesaler and a refiner or

64

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement State government agencies and universities owning or operating motor

65

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Use Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement Any diesel-powered vehicle the state, county or local government, school district, community college, public college or university, or mass transit

66

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate All state-owned diesel fueling facilities must provide fuel containing at

67

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate The tax rate on fuel containing ethanol is $0.06 per gallon less than the tax rate on other motor fuels in certain geographic areas. This reduced

68

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Fuel Blend Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard At least 85% of gasoline supplied to a retailer or sold in Hawaii must contain a minimum of 10% ethanol (E10), unless the Director determines that

69

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement A retail motor fuel dispenser that dispenses fuel containing more than 10%

70

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blending Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit A tax credit is available for up to 30% of the cost of purchasing or

71

Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends  

SciTech Connect

Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

72

Exploration of parameters for the continuous blending of pharmaceutical powders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transition from traditional batch blending to continuous blending is an opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry to reduce costs and improve quality control. This operational shift necessitates a deeper understanding ...

Lin, Ben Chien Pang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit

74

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Advanced Ethanol Fuel Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants

75

Designing and upgrading plants to blend coal  

SciTech Connect

Fuel flexibility isn't free. Whether you are equipping a new power plant to burn more than one type of coal or retrofitting an existing plant to handle coal blends, you will have to spend time and money to ensure that all three functions performed by its coal-handling system, unloading, stockout, and reclaim, are up to the task. The first half of this article lays out the available options for configuring each subsystem to support blending. The second half describes, in words and pictures, how 12 power plants in the USA, both new and old, address the issue. 9 figs., 1 tab.

McCartney, R.H. [Roberts and Schaefer Co. (United States)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

An evolutionary optimization approach for bulk material blending systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bulk material blending systems still mostly implement static and non-reactive material blending methods like the well-known Chevron stacking. The optimization potential in the existing systems which can be made available using quality analyzing methods ... Keywords: bulk material blending, chevron stacking, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

Michael P. Cipold; Pradyumn Kumar Shukla; Claus C. Bachmann; Kaibin Bao; Hartmut Schmeck

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Fuel Oil Prepared by Blending Heavy Oil and Coal Tar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of temperature, harmonic ration, surfactant and shearing to fuel oil prepared by blending heavy oil and coal tar were detailedly studied. The results show that the viscosity of the blended oil increases gradually with the increase of harmonic ... Keywords: coal tar, heavy oil, blending, surfactant

Guojie Zhang; Xiaojie Guo; Bo Tian; Yaling Sun; Yongfa Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Blending implicit shapes using fuzzy set operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Implicit modelling is a powerful technique to design geometric shapes, where a geometric object is described by a real function. In general, the real functions used in implicit modelling are unbounded and can take any values in space R. In general, ... Keywords: blending operations, fuzzy sets, generalized algebraic operations, implicit curves and surfaces, isosurfaces, piecewise algebraic operations, soft computing

Qingde Li; Jie Tian

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

KRISHNA,C.R.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

BLENDING OF CEPHEIDS IN M33  

SciTech Connect

A precise and accurate determination of the Hubble constant based on Cepheid variables requires proper characterization of many sources of systematic error. One of these is stellar blending, which biases the measured fluxes of Cepheids and the resulting distance estimates. We study the blending of 149 Cepheid variables in M33 by matching archival Hubble Space Telescope data with images obtained at the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 3.5 m telescope, which differ by a factor of 10 in angular resolution. We find that 55% {+-} 4% of the Cepheids have no detectable nearby companions that could bias the WIYN V-band photometry, while the fraction of Cepheids affected below the 10% level is 73% {+-} 4%. The corresponding values for the I band are 60% {+-} 4% and 72% {+-} 4%, respectively. We find no statistically significant difference in blending statistics as a function of period or surface brightness. Additionally, we report all the detected companions within 2'' of the Cepheids (equivalent to 9 pc at the distance of M33) which may be used to derive empirical blending corrections for Cepheids at larger distances.

Chavez, Joy M. [Current address: Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, Hilo, HI 96720, USA. (United States); Macri, Lucas M. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute in Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Pellerin, Anne, E-mail: jchavez@gemini.edu [Current address: Department of Physics, Mount Allison University, Sackville NB E4L 1E6, Canada. (Canada)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than is the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This report provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate blending option to produce oxide for disposal. This the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) alternative will have two missions (1) convert HEU materials into HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend the HEU uranyl nitrate with depleted and natural assay uranyl nitrate to produce an oxide that can be stored until an acceptable disposal approach is available. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Supply of Petroleum Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

85

TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion ( 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

87

Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of Intermediate Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Digg

88

Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends October 7, 2008 - 4:14pm Addthis In August 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to assess the potential impacts of higher intermediate ethanol blends on conventional vehicles and other engines that rely on gasoline. The test program focuses specifically on the effects of intermediate blends of E15 and E20-gasoline blended with 15 and 20 percent ethanol, respectively-on emissions, catalyst and engine durability, drivability or operability, and materials associated with these vehicles and engines. This DOE test program includes technical expertise from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

89

Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Blended Cements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-volume fly ash (HVFA) blended cement can be produced either by intergrinding fly ash with portland cement clinker or by blending dry fly ash with portland cement. Production of HVFA cement using the intergrinding method may be the most cost-effective and practical of the two approaches. This report documents the results of commercial-scale production of HVFA blended cements using up to 55 percent fly ash to replace the portland cement.

2001-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

90

Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

Heavin, Leonard J. (Olympia, WA); King, Edward E. (Gig Harbor, WA); Milliron, Dennis L. (Lacey, WA)

1982-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

91

Combustion Characterization and Modelling of Fuel Blends for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Value (405,990 DOE) COMBUSTION CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELLING OF FUEL BLENDS FOR POWER GENERATION GAS TURBINES University of Central Florida Presentation-Petersen, 1013...

92

Conductive Polymer/Fullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb Framework  

This composite conductive polymer/fullerene blend material can be fabricated to exhibit regular, micrometer-sized pores. The pores allow the material ...

93

Coping with the Decline in Coke Quality – Using Onsite Blending ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... coke (CPC), the blending of non-traditional cokes (NTAC's) has increased. ... Prebaked Anode from Coal - Utilization of Coal Extract as a Coke Feedstock-.

94

Stripping Ethanol from Ethanol-Blended Diesel Fuels for Reductant ...  

Stripping Ethanol from Ethanol-Blended Diesel Fuels for Reductant Use in N0x Catalytic Reduction Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity.

95

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eligibility Commercial Industrial Program Information Kentucky Program Type Corporate Tax Incentive blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against...

96

Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid particles have higher density and/or larger size than indicated by previous analysis of SRS sludge and sludge simulants. (5) Tank 21 waste characterization, laboratory settling tests, and additional field turbidity measurements during mixing evolutions are recommended to better understand potential risk for extended (> 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Crystallization, mechanical, rheological and degradation behavior of polytrimethylene terephthalate, polybutylene terephthalate and polycarbonate blend.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Blends of polycarbonate (PC), polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) and poly butylene terephthalate (PBT) are an important class of commercial blends with numerous applications providing good chemical… (more)

Al-Omairi, L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials Barzin Mobasher1 or water with high SO3 content. External sulfate 2007 World of Coal Ash (WOCA), May 7-10, 2007, Covington, the effect of curing (especially in the case of blended cements) and the effect of the pH change during

Mobasher, Barzin

100

Deferred blending: Image composition for single-pass point rendering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose novel GPU accelerated algorithms for interactive point-based rendering (PBR) and high-quality shading of transparent point surfaces. By introducing the concept of deferred blending we are able to formulate the smooth point interpolation ... Keywords: Alpha blending, GPU processing, Hardware acceleration, Point based rendering, Transparency

Yanci Zhang; Renato Pajarola

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

PultrusionPultrusion of Fabric Reinforced Highof Fabric Reinforced High Flyash Blended Cement CompositesFlyash Blended Cement Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PultrusionPultrusion of Fabric Reinforced Highof Fabric Reinforced High Flyash Blended Cement CompositesFlyash Blended Cement Composites Barzin Mobasher1, Alva Peled 2, Jitendra Pahalijani1 1 Department Engineering Ben-Gurion University, Israel The World of Coal Ash 2005 International Ash Utilization Symposium

Mobasher, Barzin

102

RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT MISSION ANALYSIS WASTE BLENDING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary evaluation for blending Hanford site waste with the objective of minimizing the amount of high-level waste (HLW) glass volumes without major changes to the overall waste retrieval and processing sequences currently planned. The evaluation utilizes simplified spreadsheet models developed to allow screening type comparisons of blending options without the need to use the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model. The blending scenarios evaluated are expected to increase tank farm operation costs due to increased waste transfers. Benefit would be derived from shorter operating time period for tank waste processing facilities, reduced onsite storage of immobilized HLW, and reduced offsite transportation and disposal costs for the immobilized HLW.

SHUFORD DH; STEGEN G

2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

103

Battery separators based on polyphenylquinoxaline polymer blends. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is a final report on battery separators based on polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) polymer blends. The report describes the preparation of the polymer blends and their extrusion into membranes, reports a series of quality assurance tests for the membranes, and reports cycle life testing of the new membranes. The test results for the PPQ blend membranes are compared with the results obtained for standard separator membranes. It is concluded that PPQ/Cellulose Acetate is a good candidate material for alkaline battery separators; however, because of cost considerations, it is not competative with similar state-of-the-art materials.

Angres, I.; Kowalchik, L.; Parkhurst, W.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Phosphor blends for high-CRI fluorescent lamps  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A phosphor blend comprises at least two phosphors each selected from one of the groups of phosphors that absorb UV electromagnetic radiation and emit in a region of visible light. The phosphor blend can be applied to a discharge gas radiation source to produce light sources having high color rendering index. A phosphor blend is advantageously includes the phosphor (Tb,Y,LuLa,Gd).sub.x(Al,Ga).sub.yO.sub.12:Ce.sup.3+, wherein x is in the range from about 2.8 to and including 3 and y is in the range from about 4 to and including 5.

Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Manivannan, Venkatesan (Clifton Park, NY); Beers, William Winder (Chesterland, OH); Toth, Katalin (Pomaz, HU); Balazs, Laszlo D. (Budapest, HU)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

105

Safety and Performance Assessment of Ethanol/Diesel Blends (E-Diesel)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Subcontract report discussing safety concerns of ethanol-diesel blends and pathways to reducing risks.

Waterland, L. R.; Venkatesh, S.; Unnasch, S.

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

New New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing

107

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

108

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on February 12, 2013. EZFeed Policy Place Kentucky Name Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Policy Category Financial Incentive Policy Type Corporate Tax Incentive Affected Technologies Biomass/Biogas Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector State/Province Primary Website http://energy.ky.gov/biofuels/Pages/biofuelsIncentives.aspx Summary blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against the corporation income tax imposed under KRS 141.040 and/or the limited liability entity tax (LLET) imposed under KRS 141.0401. The amount

109

Time phased alternate blending of feed coals for liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for reducing process performance excursions during feed coal or process solvent changeover in a coal hydroliquefaction process by blending of feedstocks or solvents over time. ,

Schweigharett, Frank (Allentown, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Garg, Diwaker (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5-192009; 1 Sandia National Laboratories CNG, H 2 , CNG-H 2 Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior Jay Keller, Sandia National Laboratories Keynote Lecture presented at:...

111

West Coast (PADD 5) Imports from Spain of Gasoline Blending ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

West Coast (PADD 5) Imports from Spain of Gasoline Blending Components (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9;

112

Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert October 7, 2010 - 11:58am Addthis Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy What does this project do? Rooftop solar panels provide 27 percent of the facility's energy. Maricopa County officials estimate the complex is 42 percent more energy efficient than many modern day buildings. Next month, hikers marveling at the sun bathed canyons and ridges of White Tank Mountain in the Sonoran Desert will see something on the horizon - if they look hard. Built to blend into the desert landscape, the new 29,000 square-foot White Tank Library and Nature Center in Surprise, Ariz., is set to open on Nov. 13. Rooftop solar panels provide 27 percent of the facility's energy.

113

BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

Lee, S.

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

114

Coal Blending for NOx Reductions and Performance Improvements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following its formation and initial meeting in 1995, the Alabama Fuels Development Consortium (AFDC) identified its highest priority as mitigating the adverse effects of burning low-volatile Alabama coals. These adverse effects included increased NOx emissions and flame instability. A pilot-scale AFDC study in 1995 and larger-scale projects conducted in partnership with EPRI in 1996 (Shoal Creek/Mina Pribbenow Blend Firing Demonstration) and 1997 (Shoal Creek/Mina Pribbenow Blend Milling Demonstration) m...

2004-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

115

Thermal stabilization FY 1999 blend plan  

SciTech Connect

This Blend Plan documents the alternate feed material items for the thermal stabilization process that will be used in place of the metal items that were originally planned to be processed. Problems with resolution of the safety basis for the metal items resulted in the decision to run material that already had an established safety basis. Various in process and scrap recovery items stored in gloveboxes, plutonium oxide and plutonium oxide mixed with uranium oxide stored in 2736-2 vaults will be processed through the stabilization furnaces until the safety basis for the metal items has been resolved. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all volatile materials and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI). The stabilized material must meet LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-94 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the LOI limits are met.

RISENMAY, H.R.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

BLENDING OF RADIOACTIVE SALT SOLUTIONS IN MILLION GALLON TANKS  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 – 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, “One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory”. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, R.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

117

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

118

Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

119

Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components  

SciTech Connect

Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.

Wilson III, George R. (Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin (United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)); Freerks, Robert L. (Rentech, Incorporated, 1331 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States))

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Blending scheduling under uncertainty based on particle swarm optimization with hypothesis test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blending is an important unit operation in process industry. As a nonlinear optimization problem with constraints, it is difficult to obtain optimal solution for blending scheduling, especially under uncertainty. As a novel evolutionary computing technique, ...

Hui Pan; Ling Wang

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Theoretical and experimental investigation of particle interactions in pharmaceutical powder blending  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In pharmaceutical manufacturing practices, blending of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with excipients is a crucial step in that homogeneity of active ingredient after blending is a key issue for the quality assurance ...

Pu, Yu, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

High Volume Fly Ash Blended Cements: Status Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At present, the production of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete involves the addition of large volumes of fly ash as a separate ingredient at a ready-mixed concrete batch plant. This necessitates additional storage silos and quality control at the job site. In order to resolve these issues, CANMET, in partnership with Electric Power Research Institute, U.S.A., undertook a major research project to develop blended cements incorporating high volumes of ASTM Class fly ash. The blended cements are made by ...

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

123

Biodiesel Blends in Space Heating Equipment: January 31, 2001 -- September 28, 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications.

Krishna, C. R.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Brief paper: Multi-frequency disturbance rejection via blending control technique for hard disk drives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the rejection of multiple narrowband disturbances in hard disk drives (HDDs). Inspired by a control blending idea, the multi-frequency disturbance rejection is formulated as a blending control problem. Each disturbance rejection ... Keywords: Blending control, H2 control, Hard disk drives, Servo control, Vibration rejection

Chunling Du; Lihua Xie; F. L. Lewis; Youyi Wang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Combinatorial Optimization of Pulverizers for Blended-Coal-Fired Power Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal blending has become an important way to ease the tension of coal purchase for many Chinese power plants. Mixed by pulverizers which has been widely used, is considered the most reasonable and convenient approach of coal blending. The implementation ... Keywords: power plant, coal blending, combinatorial optimization, pulverizer, NSGA-II

Xia Ji; Peng Peng; Hua Zhigang; Lu Pan; Chen Gang

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU UNH for commercial use  

SciTech Connect

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form that is more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UNH blending HEU disposition option. Process requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste/emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

A Blended Satellite Total Precipitable Water Product for Operational Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total precipitable water (TPW), the amount of water vapor in a column from the surface of the earth to space, is used by forecasters to predict heavy precipitation. In this paper, a process for blending TPW values retrieved from two satellite ...

Stanley Q. Kidder; Andrew S. Jones

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

129

NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Labbe, D.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

U.S. transparency monitoring of HEU oxide conversion and blending to LEU hexafluoride at three Russian blending plants  

SciTech Connect

The down-blending of Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) takes place at three Russian gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. The fluorination of HEU oxide and down-blending of HEU hexafluoride began in 1994, and shipments of low enriched uranium (LEU) hexafluoride product to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) began in 1995 US transparency monitoring under the HEU Purchase Agreement began in 1996 and includes a permanent monitoring presence US transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU is received and down-blended to LEU for shipment to USEC The monitoring begins with observation of the receipt of HEU oxide shipments, including confirmation of enrichment using US nondestructive assay equipment The feeding of HEU oxide to the fluorination process and the withdrawal of HEU hexafluoride are monitored Monitoring is also conducted where the blending takes place and where shipping cylinders are filled with LEU product. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to US monitors.

Leich, D., LLNL

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

131

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Oxide blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for commercial use  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the oxide blending HEU disposition option. This option provides for a yearly HEU throughput of 1 0 metric tons (MT) of uranium metal with an average U235 assay of 50% blended with 165 MT of natural assay triuranium octoxide (U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) per year to produce 177 MT of 4% U235 assay U{sub 3} O{sub 8}, for LWR fuel. Since HEU exists in a variety of forms and not necessarily in the form to be blended, worst case scenarios for preprocessing prior to blending will be assumed for HEU feed streams.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

134

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Prohibition of the Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

135

REVIEW OF RHEOLOGY MODELS FOR HANFORD WASTE BLENDING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste ? waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ?One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant? that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes.. The equations described in Meacham?s report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 ?m diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 ?m in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: ? Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations. ? Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction ? Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign. o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks o Blends from the qualification tanks ? Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation expe

Koopman, D.; Stone, M.

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

136

REVIEW OF RHEOLOGY MODELS FOR HANFORD WASTE BLENDING  

SciTech Connect

The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste ? waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ?One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant? that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes.. The equations described in Meacham?s report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 μm diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 μm in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: ? Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations. ? Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction ? Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign. o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks o Blends from the qualification tanks ? Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation expe

Koopman, D.; Stone, M.

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

137

Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended Gasoline Dataset Summary Description These data files contain volume, mass, and hardness changes of elastomers and plastics representative exposed to gasoline containing various levels of ethanol. These materials are representative of those used in gasoline fuel storage and dispensing hardware. All values are compared to the original untreated condition. The data sets include results from specimens exposed directly to the fuel liquid and also a set of specimens exposed only to the fuel vapors. Source Mike Kass, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Date Released August 16th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated August 16th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords compatibility elastomers ethanol gasoline

138

Development of By-Pass Blending Station System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new building blending station system named by-pass blending station (BBS) has been developed to reduce building pump energy consumption in both district heating and cooling systems. Theoretical investigation demonstrated that the BBS can significantly reduce building pump power for a typical cooling system when constant water flow is maintained in the building side. When differential pressure reset is applied in the building side, more pump energy can be saved. The BBS also reduces the pump size and therefore results in lower initial system cost. A case study was also performed and demonstrated 42% of annual chilled water pump energy savings for constant building water flow, and 82% of annual chilled water pump savings for differential pressure resetting at Omaha, Nebraska.

Liu, M.; Barnes, D.; Bunz, K.; Rosenberry, N.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Coal Blending for the Reduction of Acid Gas Emissions: A Characterization of the Milling and Combustion Blends of Powder River Basin Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a systematic study of performance and emission parameters from the combustion of Eastern bituminous coal, a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and various blends of these two coals. This study also investigated the effects of coal blending on mill performance, combustion, particulate emissions, and various emissions.

2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

140

Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Impact of Alternative Fuels and Blends: Simple Tool for Ranking Coal and Blends Based on Slagging Potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a summary of ongoing work to identify, develop, and validate advanced tools to assess the impact of fuel quality on boiler performance.BackgroundThe deposition of ash particles during the combustion of coal—or blends of coals—is one of the major issues associated with power companies’ lost generation. The ash deposition process, driven by accumulation of molten/sticky, sintered, or loosely condensed deposits on ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Youngquist, Adam D [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Moore, Wayne [Delphi; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

144

Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends. September 2013. A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends. September 2013. Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends Manufacturer Compatibility Statement Fiberglass 1 Containment Solutions Tanks manufactured after January 1, 1995 are all compatible with ethanol blends up to 100% (E100) (UL Listed) Owens Corning Single Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and 1994 are approved to store up to 10% ethanol (E10) Double Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and July 1, 1990 are approved to store up to 10% ethanol (E10) Tanks manufactured between July 2, 1990 and December 31, 1994 were warrantied to store any ethanol blend Xerxes Single Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured prior to 1981 are not compatible with ethanol blends Tanks manufactured from February 1981 through June 2005 are

145

U.S. Uranium Down-blending Activities: Fact Sheet | National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Down-blending Activities: Fact Sheet Mar 23, 2012 The permanent disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) permanently reduces nuclear security vulnerabilities. In 1996, the...

146

DOE News Release - DOE Completes Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performanc...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 2004 DOE Completes HydrogenCNG Blended Fuels Performance and Emissions Vehicle Testing The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, has...

147

Evaluation of Leachate Chemistry from Coal Refuse Blended and Layered with Fly Ash.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Alkaline fly ash has been studied as a liming agent within coal refuse fills to reclaim acid-forming refuse. Previous studies focused on bulk blending ash… (more)

Hunt, Joseph Edward

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Effect of PCI blending on combustion characteristics for iron-making.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The PCI technology is well established for reducing the consumption of economic and environmentally expensive coke in blast furnace iron-making. Often, coal blends show unexpected… (more)

Gill, Trilochan Singh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Catalytic conversion of C3+ alcohols to hydrocarbon blend-stock  

Catalytic conversion of C3+ alcohols to hydrocarbon blend-stock Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

150

U.S. Uranium Down-blending Activities: Fact Sheet | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

(HEU) permanently reduces nuclear security vulnerabilities. In 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced plans to reduce stockpiles of surplus HEU by down-blending, or...

151

An Improved Technique for Increasing the Accuracy of Photometrically Determined Redshifts for ___Blended___ Galaxies  

SciTech Connect

The redshift of a galaxy can be determined by one of two methods; photometric or spectroscopic. Photometric is a term for any redshift determination made using the magnitudes of light in different filters. Spectroscopic redshifts are determined by measuring the absorption spectra of the object then determining the difference in wavelength between the 'standard' absorption lines and the measured ones, making it the most accurate of the two methods. The data for this research was collected from SDSS DR8 and then separated into blended and non-blended galaxy sets; the definition of 'blended' is discussed in the Introduction section. The current SDSS photometric redshift determination method does not discriminate between blended and non-blended data when it determines the photometric redshift of a given galaxy. The focus of this research was to utilize machine learning techniques to determine if a considerably more accurate photometric redshift determination method could be found, for the case of the blended and non-blended data being treated separately. The results show a reduction of 0.00496 in the RMS error of photometric redshift determinations for blended galaxies and a more significant reduction of 0.00827 for non-blended galaxies, illustrated in Table 2.

Parker, Ashley Marie; /Marietta Coll. /SLAC

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

152

Effect of Blending HDPE with Coke on the Reduction Behavior of a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This has led to the exploration of the possibility of using polymer/coke blends in the production of ferro-alloys, particularly High Carbon Ferromanganese (HC ...

153

BLENDING STUDY FOR SRR SALT DISPOSITION INTEGRATION: TANK 50H SCALE-MODELING AND COMPUTER-MODELING FOR BLENDING PUMP DESIGN, PHASE 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. Blending requires the miscible salt solutions from potentially multiple source tanks per batch to be well mixed without disturbing settled sludge solids that may be present in a Blend Tank. Disturbing solids may be problematic both from a feed quality perspective as well as from a process safety perspective where hydrogen release from the sludge is a potential flammability concern. To develop the necessary technical basis for the design and operation of blending equipment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) completed scaled blending and transfer pump tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A 94 inch diameter pilot-scale blending tank, including tank internals such as the blending pump, transfer pump, removable cooling coils, and center column, were used in this research. The test tank represents a 1/10.85 scaled version of an 85 foot diameter, Type IIIA, nuclear waste tank that may be typical of Blend Tanks used in SDI. Specifically, Tank 50 was selected as the tank to be modeled per the SRR, Project Engineering Manager. SRNL blending tests investigated various fixed position, non-rotating, dual nozzle pump designs, including a blending pump model provided by the blend pump vendor, Curtiss Wright (CW). Primary research goals were to assess blending times and to evaluate incipient sludge disturbance for waste tanks. Incipient sludge disturbance was defined by SRR and SRNL as minor blending of settled sludge from the tank bottom into suspension due to blending pump operation, where the sludge level was shown to remain constant. To experimentally model the sludge layer, a very thin, pourable, sludge simulant was conservatively used for all testing. To experimentally model the liquid, supernate layer above the sludge in waste tanks, two salt solution simulants were used, which provided a bounding range of supernate properties. One solution was water (H{sub 2}O + NaOH), and the other was an inhibited, more viscous salt solution. The research performed and data obtained significantly advances the understanding of fluid mechanics, mixing theory and CFD modeling for nuclear waste tanks by benchmarking CFD results to actual experimental data. This research significantly bridges the gap between previous CFD models and actual field experiences in real waste tanks. A finding of the 2009, DOE, Slurry Retrieval, Pipeline Transport and Plugging, and Mixing Workshop was that CFD models were inadequate to assess blending processes in nuclear waste tanks. One recommendation from that Workshop was that a validation, or bench marking program be performed for CFD modeling versus experiment. This research provided experimental data to validate and correct CFD models as they apply to mixing and blending in nuclear waste tanks. Extensive SDI research was a significant step toward bench marking and applying CFD modeling. This research showed that CFD models not only agreed with experiment, but demonstrated that the large variance in actual experimental data accounts for misunderstood discrepancies between CFD models and experiments. Having documented this finding, SRNL was able to provide correction factors to be used with CFD models to statistically bound full scale CFD results. Through the use of pilot scale tests performed for both types of pumps and available engineering literature, SRNL demonstrated how to effectively apply CFD results to salt batch mixing in full scale waste tanks. In other words, CFD models were in error prior to development of experimental correction factors determined during this research, which provided a technique to use CFD models fo

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

154

Emissions mitigation of blended coals through systems optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For coal fired power stations, such as those located in the US, that have installed NOx and SOx emissions abatement equipment substantial carbon dioxide reduction could be achieved by shifting from pure PRB coal to blended coals with local bituminous coal. Don Labbe explains how. The article is based on a presentation at Power-Gen Asia 2009, which takes place 7-9 October in Bangkok, Thailand and an ISA POWID 2009 paper (19th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controlls and Instrumentation Conference, Chicago, Illinois, May 2009). 4 refs., 3 figs.

Don Labbe [IOM Invensys Operations Management (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

INVESTIGATION ON THE FLAME EXTINCTION LIMIT OF FUEL BLENDS  

SciTech Connect

Lean flame extinction limits of binary fuel mixtures of methane (CH{sub 4}), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were measured using a twin-flame counter-flow burner. Experiments were conducted to generate an extinction equivalence ratio vs. global stretch rate plot and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the equivalence ratio corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The foregoing gases were selected because they are the primary constitutes of natural gas, which is the primary focus of the present study. To validate the experimental setup and methodology, the flame extinction limit of pure fuels at zero stretch conditions were also estimated and compared with published values. The lean flame extinction limits of methane (f{sub ext} = 4.6%) and propane (f{sub ext} = 2.25%) flames measured in the present study agreed with the values reported in the literature. It was observed that the flame extinction limit of fuel blends have a polynomial relation with the concentration of component fuels in the mixture. This behavior contradicts with the commonly used linear Le Chatelier's approximation. The experimentally determined polynomial relations between the flame extinction limits of fuel blends (i.e. methane-propane and methane-ethane) and methane concentration are as follows: (1) Methane-Propane--%f{sub ext} = (1.05 x 10{sup -9}) f{sup 5}-(1.3644 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(6.40299 x 10{sup -6}) f{sup 3}-(1.2108459 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2}+(2.87305329 x 10{sup -3}) f+2.2483; (2) Methane-Ethane--%f{sub ext} = (2.1 x 10{sup -9})f{sup 5}-(3.5752 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(2.095425 x 10{sup -5}) f{sup 3}-(5.037353 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2} + 6.08980409 f + 2.8923. Where f{sub ext} is the extinction limits of methane-propane and methane-ethane fuel blends, and f is the concentration (% volume) of methane in the fuel mixture. The relations were obtained by fitting fifth order curve (polynomial regression) to experimentally measured extinction limits at different mixture conditions. To extend the study to a commercial fuel, the flame extinction limit for Birmingham natural gas (a blend of 95% methane, 5% ethane and 5% nitrogen) was experimentally determined and was found to be 3.62% fuel in the air-fuel mixture.

Ahsan R. Choudhuri

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement  

SciTech Connect

To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Problems and Solutions for Multi-coals Blending in Thermal Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multi-coals blending is an applicable method for energy-saving and pollutant reduction in thermal plants. However, the utilizations have been hampered by problems such as complexities of practical implements, risks against safety during operation, difficulties ... Keywords: multi-coals blending, whole process, global optimization, expert system

Peng Peng; Xia Ji; Yang Tao

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends  

SciTech Connect

Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Combustion Characteristics of Coal and Biomass Blends and Thermal Dynamic Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By using TGA technology, the combustion characteristics under different conditions of hard coal and biomass blends has been discussed. The combustion curves of blends exhibited the characteristics with two peaks. Results also exhibited that there was ... Keywords: coal, biomass, thermal analysis, combustion characteristics

Haizhen Huang; Haibo Chen; Guohua Wang; Jun Liu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

Moriarty, K.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation  

SciTech Connect

Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

Composition dependence of the interaction parameter in isotopic polymer blends  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic polymer mixtures lack the structural asymmetries and specific interactions encountered in blends of chemically distinct species. In this respect, they form ideal model systems for exploring the limitations of the widely-used Flory-Huggins (FH) lattice model and for testing and improving new theories of polymer thermodynamics. The FH interaction parameter between deuterium-labeled and unlabeled segments of the same species ([sub [chi]HD]) should in principle be independent of concentration ([phi]), through previous small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments have shown that it exhibits a minimum at [phi] [approximately] 0.5 for poly(vinylethylene) (PVE) and poly(ethylethylene) (PEE). The authors report new data on polyethylene (PE) as a function of molecular weight, temperature (T), and [phi], which show qualitatively similar behavior. However, measurements on [sub [chi]HD]([phi]) for polystyrene (PS) show a maximum at [phi] [approximately]0.5, in contrast to PVE, PEE, and PE. Reproducing the concentration dependence of [phi] in different model isotopic systems should serve as a sensitive test of the way in which theories of polymer thermodynamics can account for the details of the local packing and also the effects of noncombinatorial entropy, which appear to be the main cause of the variation of [sub [chi]HD]([phi]) for PE. These data also serve to quantify the effects of isotopic substitution in SANS experiments on polyolefin blends and thus lay the ground work for definitive studies of the compatibility of branched and linear polyethylenes.

Londono, J.D.; Narten, A.H.; Wignall, G.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Honnell, K.G.; Hsieh, E.T.; Johnson, T.W. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States). Research and Development); Bates, F.S. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

163

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and Tractors Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and Tractors Project Summary Full Title: Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emission Impacts of Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Urban Buses and Farming Tractors Project ID: 86 Principal Investigator: Michael Wang Brief Description: This project studied the full fuel-cycle energy and emissions effects of ethanol-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in urban transit buses and farming tractors. Keywords: Ethanol; diesel; emissions; well-to-wheels (WTW) Purpose Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark- ignition engine vehicles. Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of

164

Modeling the Auto-Ignition of Biodiesel Blends with a Multi-Step Model  

SciTech Connect

There is growing interest in using biodiesel in place of or in blends with petrodiesel in diesel engines; however, biodiesel oxidation chemistry is complicated to directly model and existing surrogate kinetic models are very large, making them computationally expensive. The present study describes a method for predicting the ignition behavior of blends of n-heptane and methyl butanoate, fuels whose blends have been used in the past as a surrogate for biodiesel. The autoignition is predicted using a multistep (8-step) model in order to reduce computational time and make this a viable tool for implementation into engine simulation codes. A detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends was used as a basis for validating the multistep model results. The ignition delay trends predicted by the multistep model for the n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends matched well with that of the detailed CHEMKIN model for the majority of conditions tested.

Toulson, Dr. Elisa [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Allen, Casey M [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, Dennis J [Michigan State University, East Lansing; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Schock, Harold [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomasscoal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass­coal blends in pneumatic conveying.1088/0957-0233/23/8/085307 Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass­coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass­coal blends in fuel injection

Yan, Yong

166

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 61, NO. 5, MAY 2012 1343 Flow Measurement of Biomass and Blended Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to those in the horizontal pipe. Index Terms--Biomass­coal flow, blended biomass, cross- correlation. It is expected that biomass­coal mixture or blended biomass flow is significantly more complex than and between different biomass fuels. Quantitative data about biomass­coal mixture flow and blended biomass

Yan, Yong

167

Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

169

HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UF{sub 6} blending alternative to produce LEU UF{sub 6} for commercial use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials; the nuclear material will be converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed; blending as UF{sub 6} to produce a UF{sub 6} product for commercial use is one of them. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UF{sub 6} blending HEU disposition option. Resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

The Role of Leadership in Starting and Operating Blended Learning Charter Schools: A Multisite Case Study.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heavily utilizing both instructional technology and face-to-face instruction within a bricks-and-mortar school environment, blended learning charter schools are gaining attention as a cost-effective school design.… (more)

Agostini, Michael

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries DOE Grant No: DE-SC0006306 Alan Cisar* and Chris Rhodes Lynntech, Inc., 2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South, College Station, TX...

172

Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Optimal handling of Highly Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients during milling and blending operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis investigates best practices for Highly Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (HAPI) milling and blending. We utilize a qualitative analysis centering on a benchmarking study and quantitative analyses using a ...

Setty, Prashant (Prashant Neelappanavara)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Knock limits in spark ignited direct injected engines using gasoline/ethanol blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct Fuel Injection (DI) extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in DI is therefore ...

Kasseris, Emmanuel P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Durable and Non-Toxic Topical Flame Retardants for Cotton and Cotton Blends.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Flame retardant chemicals were used as topical finishes on cotton and cotton blended fabric. Comparison of flame resistance and durability of non-bromine/non-antimony flame retardants were… (more)

Mathews, Marc Christopher

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Coal Combustion and Organic By-Product Blends as Soil Substitutes / Amendments for Horticulture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a field assessment of the use of blends of coal combustion by-products with biosolids in horticultural applications such as potting mixes for ornamentals and turf production.

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

177

Characterization and Combustion Performance of Corn Oil-Based Biofuel Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, the development and use of biofuels have received considerable attention due to the high demand for environmentally acceptable (green) fuels. Most of the recent studies have looked at the processes of converting vegetable oils into biodiesel. It is well known vegetable oil to biodiesel conversion involves many processes including transesterification, which makes biodiesel costly and time-consuming to produce. In this study, the effects of blending high-viscosity fresh and used corn oils with low-viscosity diesel and jet fuel mixed with butanol and ethanol were studied. Several corn oil-based blends were formulated and characterized to understand the effect of composition on viscosity, fuel stability and energy content. The formulated corn oil blends were combusted in a 30 kW modified combustion chamber to determine the corresponding NOx and CO emission levels, along with CO? levels. Used corn oil was made by simply heating fresh corn oil for a fixed period of time (about 44 hours), and was characterized by quantifying its total polar material (TPM), iodine value, free fatty acid content, and peroxide value. The combustion experiments were conducted at a constant heat output of 68,620 kJ/hr (19 kW), to observe and study the effects of equivalence ratio, swirl number, and fuel composition on emissions. Used corn oil blends exhibited better combustion performance than fresh corn oil blends, due in part to the higher unsaturation levels in fresh corn oil. NOx emissions for used corn oil increased with swirl number. Among all the blends, the one with the higher amount of diesel (lower amount of corn oil) showed higher NOx emissions. The blend with fresh corn oil showed decreasing NOx with increasing equivalence ratio at swirl number 1.4. All blends showed generally decreasing CO trends at both swirl numbers at very lean conditions. The diesel fuel component as well as the alcohols in the blends were also important in the production of pollutants. Compared to the diesel-based blends mixed with used corn oil, butanol, and ethanol, the jet fuel-based blends showed higher NOx levels and lower CO levels at both swirl numbers.

Savant, Gautam Sandesh

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

179

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

Karner, D.; Francfort, James Edward

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen–50% CNG fuel.

Don Karner; Francfort, James Edward

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Business Plan for Utilization of Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBP) -- Biosolids Blends in Horticultural Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a marketing plan for coal combustion by-products (CCBP)-biosolids blends which summarizes the business opportunity (potential demand for CCBP-biosolids blends) and defines conditions necessary to seize and execute the opportunity identified. The plan places a hypothetical business in a specific location (Austell, GA) to make the cost-profit analysis as realistic as possible. It should be remembered, however, that the marketing plan for a business venture is not "the business." This h...

1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

182

Solvent Blending Strategy to Upgrade MCU CSSX Solvent to Equivalent Next-Generation CSSX Solvent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of the present study have validated an equal-volume blending strategy for upgrading freshly prepared CSSX solvent to a blended solvent functionally equivalent to NG-CSSX solvent. It is shown that blending fresh CSSX solvent as currently used in MCU with an equal volume of an NG-CSSX solvent concentrate of appropriate composition yields a blended solvent composition (46.5 mM of MaxCalix, 3.5 mM of BOBCalixC6, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, 3 mM of guanidine suppressor, and 1.5 mM of TOA in Isopar L) that exhibits equivalent batch ESS performance to that of the NG-CSSX solvent containing 50 mM of MaxCalix, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, and 3 mM of guanidine suppressor in Isopar L. The solvent blend composition is robust to third-phase formation. Results also show that a blend containing up to 60% v/v of CSSX solvent could be accommodated with minimal risk. Extraction and density data for the effect of solvent concentration mimicking diluent evaporation or over-dilution of the equal-volume blended solvent are also given, providing input for setting operational limits. Given that the experiments employed all pristine chemicals, the results do not qualify a blended solvent starting with actual used MCU solvent, which can be expected to have undergone some degree of degradation. Consequently, further work should be considered to evaluate this risk and implement appropriate remediation if needed.

Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Phase Behavior of Neat Triblock Copolymers and Copolymer/Homopolymer Blends Near Network Phase Windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (ISM) copolymers near the styrene-rich network phase window was examined through the use of neat triblock copolymers and copolymer/homopolymer blends. Both end-block and middle-block blending protocols were employed using poly(isoprene) (PI), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(styrene) (PS) homopolymers. Blended specimens exhibited phase transformations to well-ordered nanostructures (at homopolymer loadings up to 26 vol % of the total blend volume). Morphological consistency between neat and blended specimens was established at various locations in the ISM phase space. Copolymer/homopolymer blending permitted the refinement of lamellar, hexagonally packed cylinder, and disordered melt phase boundaries as well as the identification of double gyroid (Q{sup 230}), alternating gyroid (Q{sup 214}), and orthorhombic (O{sup 70}) network regimes. Additionally, the experimental phase diagram exhibited similar trends to those found in a theoretical ABC triblock copolymer phase diagram with symmetric interactions and statistical segments lengths generated by Tyler et al.

M Tureau; L Rong; B Hsiao; T Epps

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

Hybrid Dynamic Density Functional Theory for Polymer Melts and Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a high-speed and accurate hybrid dynamic density functional theory for the computer simulations of the phase separation processes of polymer melts and blends. The proposed theory is a combination of the dynamic self-consistent field (SCF) theory and a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau type theory with the random phase approximation (GRPA). The SCF theory is known to be accurate in evaluating the free energy of the polymer systems in both weak and strong segregation regions although it has a disadvantage of the requirement of a considerable amount of computational cost. On the other hand, the GRPA theory has an advantage of much smaller amount of required computational cost than the SCF theory while its applicability is limited to the weak segregation region. To make the accuracy of the SCF theory and the high-performance of the GRPA theory compatible, we adjust the chemical potential of the GRPA theory by using the SCF theory every constant time steps in the dynamic simulations. The performance of the GRPA and the hybrid theories is tested by using several systems composed of an A/B homopolymer, an AB diblock copolymer, or an ABC triblock copolymer. Using the hybrid theory, we succeeded in reproducing the metastable complex phase-separated domain structures of an ABC triblock copolymer observed by experiments.

Takashi Honda; Toshihiro Kawakatsu

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

186

A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

Krishna, C.R.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Blending Study of MgO-Based Separator Materials for Thermal Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development and testing of a new technique for blending of electrolyte-binder (separator) mixes for use in thermal batteries is described. The original method of blending such materials at Sandia involved liquid Freon TF' as a medium. The ban on the use of halogenated solvents throughout much of the Department of Energy complex required the development of an alternative liquid medium as a replacement. The use of liquid nitrogen (LN) was explored and developed into a viable quality process. For comparison, a limited number of dry-blending tests were also conducted using a Turbula mixer. The characterization of pellets made from LN-blended separators involved deformation properties at 530 C and electrolyte-leakage behavior at 400 or 500 C, as well as performance in single-cells and five-cell batteries under several loads. Stack-relaxation tests were also conducted using 10-cell batteries. One objective of this work was to observe if correlations could be obtained between the mechanical properties of the separators and the performance in single cells and batteries. Separators made using three different electrolytes were examined in this study. These included the LiCl-KCl eutectic, the all-Li LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte, and the low-melting LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic. The electrochemical performance of separator pellets made with LN-blended materials was compared to that for those made with Freon T P and, in some cases, those that were dry blended. A satisfactory replacement MgO (Marinco 'OL', now manufactured by Morton) was qualified as a replacement for the standard Maglite 'S' MgO that has been used for years but is no longer commercially available. The separator compositions with the new MgO were optimized and included in the blending and electrochemical characterization tests.

GUIDOTTI, RONALD A.; REINHARDT, FREDERICK W.; ANDAZOLA, ARTHUR H.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS TO CFD MODELS FOR BLENDING IN A TANK USING DUAL OPPOSING JETS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research has been completed in a pilot scale, eight foot diameter tank to investigate blending, using a pump with dual opposing jets. The jets re-circulate fluids in the tank to promote blending when fluids are added to the tank. Different jet diameters and different horizontal and vertical orientations of the jets were investigated. In all, eighty five tests were performed both in a tank without internal obstructions and a tank with vertical obstructions similar to a tube bank in a heat exchanger. These obstructions provided scale models of several miles of two inch diameter, serpentine, vertical cooling coils below the liquid surface for a full scale, 1.3 million gallon, liquid radioactive waste storage tank. Two types of tests were performed. One type of test used a tracer fluid, which was homogeneously blended into solution. Data were statistically evaluated to determine blending times for solutions of different density and viscosity, and the blending times were successfully compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The other type of test blended solutions of different viscosity. For example, in one test a half tank of water was added to a half tank of a more viscous, concentrated salt solution. In this case, the fluid mechanics of the blending process was noted to significantly change due to stratification of fluids. CFD models for stratification were not investigated. This paper is the fourth in a series of papers resulting from this research (Leishear, et.al. [1- 4]), and this paper documents final test results, statistical analysis of the data, a comparison of experimental results to CFD models, and scale-up of the results to a full scale tank.

Leishear, R.

2011-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

189

Process simulation, integration and optimization of blending of petrodiesel with biodiesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the increasing stringency on sulfur content in petrodiesel, there is a growing tendency of broader usage of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) with sulfur content of 15 ppm. Refineries around the world should develop cost-effective and sustainable strategies to meet these requirements. The primary objective of this work is to analyze alternatives for producing ULSD. In addition to the conventional approach of revamping existing hydrotreating facilities, the option of blending petrodiesel with biodiesel is investigated. Blending petrodiesel with biodiesel is a potentially attractive option because it is naturally low in sulfur, enhances the lubricity of petrodiesel, and is a sustainable energy resource. In order to investigate alternatives for producing ULSD, several research tasks were undertaken in this work. Firstly, base-case designs of petrodiesel and biodiesel production processes were developed using computer-aided tools ASPEN Plus. The simulations were adjusted until the technical criteria and specifications of petrodiesel and biodiesel production were met. Next, process integration techniques were employed to optimize the synthesized processes. Heat integration for petrodiesel and biodiesel was carried out using algebraic, graphical and optimization methods to maximize the integrated heat exchange and minimize the heating and cooling utilities. Additionally, mass integration was applied to conserve material resources. Cost estimation was carried out for both processes. The capital investments were obtained from ASPEN ICARUS Process Evaluator, while operating costs were calculated based on the updated chemical market prices. The total operating costs before and after process integration were calculated and compared. Next, blending optimization was performed for three blending options with the optimum blend for each option identified. Economic comparison (total annualized cost, breakeven analysis, return on investment, and payback period) of the three options indicated that the blending of ULSD with chemical additives was the most profitable. However, the subsequent life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and safety comparisons demonstrated that the blending of ULSD with biodiesel was superior.

Wang, Ting

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Emissions characterization and particle size distribution from a DPF-equipped diesel truck fueled with biodiesel blends.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biodiesel may be derived from either plant or animal sources, and is usually employed as a compression ignition fuel in a blend with petroleum diesel… (more)

Olatunji, Idowu O.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

The EC bioethanol blend mandate policy: its effect on ACP sugar trade and potential interaction with EPA policies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The study aim was to determine effects of the EC bioethanol blend mandate policy and its potential interaction with the EPA policies on EU/ACP countries.… (more)

Sukati, M.A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Study of comfort properties of natural and synthetic knitted fabrics in different blend ratios for winter active sportswear.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of the present study is to produce base layer winter active sportswear fabrics using natural and synthetic fibres and their blends which will… (more)

Wardiningsih, W

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Leaching and standing water characteristics of bottom ash and composted manure blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal burning electrical generating facilities produce roughly 91 million metric tons of ash byproducts annually. Typically, this ash is retained at the power plant sites, adding to the cost of managing wastes at the plants. Another waste material requiring significant management efforts and costs is manure. Repeated application of manure on small parcels of land can contribute to environmental problems such as impaired water quality due to nitrate (NO?) leaching into the groundwater and phosphorus (P) runoff into surface water bodies. Alternative uses of bottom ash (BA) and composted manure (CM) such as a soil amendment for landscapes or potting media need to be explored. Before an alternative is adopted at a large scale, however, it must be evaluated for its effectiveness and environmental integrity. Two column studies were conducted to evaluate three blends of acidic and alkaline BA and CM, namely B1 (95:5%), B2 (90:10%), and B3 (80:20%). Samples from standing water (top) and leachate (bottom) were collected at weekly intervals to evaluate the effects of different blend ratios and time on chemical and physical properties. It was found that higher CM content in acidic and alkaline raw blends (no-de-ionized water added) resulted in significantly higher concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P, and potassium (K). Generally, a higher CM content in acidic and alkaline blends resulted in higher leachate concentrations for total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total volatile solids (TVS), total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), TKN, NO?-N, ammonium (NH?-N), P, and K. Concentrations of nearly all chemicals were lower in standing water (top) compared to leachate (bottom) for acidic and alkaline blends. Alkaline blends had higher leachate and standing water TKN, NH?-N, N0?-N, P, and K compared to the acidic blends. After day 28, standing water TDS concentrations for all acidic blends were below the USEPA drinking water standard for TDS. Standing water for alkaline blends remained below the USEPA drinking water standard for TDS for the entire duration of the study. Leachate and standing water concentrations for all blends were below the USEPA drinking water standard for NO?-N for acidic blends. Standing water and leachate for alkaline blends B1 and B2 were below the USEPA drinking water standard for NO?-N while standing water was well below the standard for the entire duration of the study. P concentrations were low in leachate and nonexistent in standing water for both acidic and alkaline blends. Based on these findings, it is concluded that acidic and alkaline B1 (95:5%) and B2 (90:10%) may be considered as a soil amendment substitute.

Mathis, James Gregory

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

195

Pilot plant assessment of blend properties and their impact on critical power plant components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of blending eastern bituminous coals with western subbituminous coals on utility boiler operation. Relative to the baseline bituminous coal, the testing reported here indicated that there were significant impacts to boiler performance due to the blending of the eastern and western coals. Results indicated that fuel blending can be used to adequately control flue gas emissions of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} at the expense of reduced milling efficiency, increased sootblowing in the high-temperature and low-temperature regions of the boiler and, to a lesser extent, decreased collection efficiency for an electrostatic precipitator. The higher reactivity of the subbituminous coal increased the overall combustion efficiency, which may tend to decrease the impact of milling efficiency losses. The extent of these impacts was directly related to the percentage of subbituminous coal in the blends. At the lowest blend ratios of subbituminous coal, the impacts were greatly reduced.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

NO reduction in decoupling combustion of biomass and biomass-coal blend  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a form of energy that is CO{sub 2}-neutral. However, NOx emissions in biomass combustion are often more than that of coal on equal heating-value basis. In this study, a technology called decoupling combustion was investigated to demonstrate how it reduces NO emissions in biomass and biomass-coal blend combustion. The decoupling combustion refers to a two-step combustion method, in which fuel pyrolysis and the burning of char and pyrolysis gas are separated and the gas burns out during its passage through the burning-char bed. Tests in a quartz dual-bed reactor demonstrated that, in decoupling combustion, NO emissions from biomass and biomass-coal blends were both less than those in traditional combustion and that NO emission from combustion of blends of biomass and coal decreased with increasing biomass percentage in the blend. Co-firing rice husk and coal in a 10 kW stove manufactured according to the decoupling combustion technology further confirmed that the decoupling combustion technology allows for truly low NO emission as well as high efficiency for burning biomass and biomass-coal blends, even in small-scale stoves and boilers. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Li Dong; Shiqiu Gao; Wenli Song; Jinghai Li; Guangwen Xu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex Systems

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

The effects of blending hydrogen with methane on engine operation, efficiency, and emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

-01-0474 -01-0474 The effects of blending hydrogen with methane on engine operation, efficiency, and emissions Thomas Wallner and Henry K. Ng Argonne National Laboratory Robert W. Peters University of Alabama at Birmingham Copyright © 2007 SAE International ABSTRACT Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers and transportation fuels. Because of the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations, widespread introduction of vehicles powered by pure hydrogen is not likely in the near future. Blending hydrogen with methane could be one solution. Such blends take advantage of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and, at the same time, reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. In this paper, the authors analyze the combustion properties of hydrogen/methane

198

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Alan Cisar, Lynntech  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries DOE Grant No: DE-SC0006306 Alan Cisar* and Chris Rhodes Lynntech, Inc., 2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South, College Station, TX 77845 *E-mail: alan.cisar@lynntech.com, Phone: 979.764.2311 Prof. Arumugam Manthiram University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 Prof. Fuqiang Liu University of Texas Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 Conclusions Lynntech, in conjunction with the University of Texas and the University of Texas at Arlington, developed a new series of low-cost polymer blend membranes with high proton conductivity and ultralow vanadium ion permeability. The proton conductivity and physical properties of these membranes are tunable by adjusting the ratio of acid and base components. Membrane conductivity was found to be more critical to

199

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of recycling. Young is chairman of the Paducah Citizens Advisory Board, which advises the Department of Energy regarding cleanup issues at the Paducah site. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of

200

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Blending Hydrogen into Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Prepared under Task No. HT12.2010 Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

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201

Calcination of Fluorinel-sodium waste blends using sugar as a feed additive (formerly WINCO-11879)  

SciTech Connect

Methods were studied for using sugar as a feed additive for converting the sodium-bearing wastes stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant into granular, free flowing solids by fluidized-bed calcination at 500{degrees}C. All methods studied blended sodium-bearing wastes with Fluorinel wastes but differed in the types of sugar (sucrose or dextrose) that were added to the blend. The most promising sugar additive was determined to be sucrose, since it is converted more completely to inorganic carbon than is dextrose. The effect of the feed aluminum-to-alkali metal mole ratio on calcination of these blends with sugar was also investigated. Increasing the aluminum-to-alkali metal ratio from 0.6 to 1.0 decreased the calcine product-to-fines ratio from 3.0 to 1.0 and the attrition index from 80 to 15%. Further increasing the ratio to 1.25 had no effect.

Newby, B.J.; Thomson, T.D.; O`Brien, B.H.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of recycling. Young is chairman of the Paducah Citizens Advisory Board, which advises the Department of Energy regarding cleanup issues at the Paducah site. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of

204

Blending of hydrogen in natural gas distribution systems. Volume I. Gas blends flow in distribution system, mixing points, and regulatory standards. Final report, June 1, 1976--August 30, 1977. [10 and 20% hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume of the subject study ''Blending of Hydrogen in Natural Gas Distribution Systems'' describes studies on the determination of gas distribution system flows with hydrogen - natural gas blends, potential hydrogen admission points to gas distribution systems, and the impact of hydrogen - natural gas blends on regulatory standards for gas distribution systems. The studies resulted in the following principal findings: (1) Most existing natural gas distribution systems could adequately transport 20% blends of hydrogen by volume with little or no modification. (2) The best point of admission of the hydrogen into a natural gas distribution system would be at the meter and regulating stations supplying a particular distribution system. (3) The impact of hydrogen - natural gas blends on state regulatory standards appears to be minimal for PSE and G, but requires further study for various National Codes and for other states.

None

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Design and Application of Coal Blending Control System Based on HOLLiAS-LK Large-Scale PLC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To make full use of coal combustion heat energy, and for the purposes of energy savings and pollutant reductions, more than two different coal needs to optimize the preparation of coal. This article describes design and application of coal blending control ... Keywords: coal blending system, PLC, cascade control, kingview

Hong Zhu; Haitao Li; Sheng Fu; Yinhua Pang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials  

SciTech Connect

The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

Pauls, R. E. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Brazilian experience with self-adjusting fuel system for variable alcohol-gasoline blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fuel control system has been developed which allows fuels of various stoichiometries to be used interchangeably without suffering a fuel consumption penalty, allowing a more efficient use of the combustion energy. This Adaptive Lean Limit Control system uses a single, digital sensor and an electronic circuit to detect lean limit engine operation, and feeds back information to the fuel system to maintain the best economy mixture, regardless of the fuel blend being used. The hardware is described, and the results of extensive vehicle testing, using 20% and 50% ethanol-gasoline blends, are included.

Leshner, M.D.; Luengo, C.A.; Calandra, F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Development and experimental evaluation of a high temperature mechanism for blended n-heptane-isooctane-ethanol-air-mixtures and gasoline-ethanol-air-mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laminar burning velocity measurements using the closed vessel bomb method have been done for fuel-blend-air-mixtures at 373 K initial temperature and up to 20 bar initial pressure. The two experimentally investigated fuel blends consist, on the one hand, ... Keywords: ethanol-gasoline-blends, laminar burning velocity

S. Jerzembeck; C. Glawe; N. Peters

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Selection of best neural network for estimating properties of diesel-biodiesel blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soybean oil was transesterified with methanol in the presence of alkaline catalyst to produce methyl esters commonly known as biodiesel. Biodiesel and diesel blends were prepared and tested in laboratory for flash point, fire point, viscosity and density. ... Keywords: artificial neural network, biodiesel, density, fire point, flash point, transesterification, viscosity

Jatinder Kumar; Ajay Bansal

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BLEND DOWN PROGRAM AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE PRESENT AND FUTURE  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) entered into an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 40 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to TVA for conversion to fuel for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant. Savannah River Site (SRS) inventories included a significant amount of this material, which resulted from processing spent fuel and surplus materials. The HEU is blended with natural uranium (NU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) with a 4.95% 235U isotopic content and shipped as solution to the TVA vendor. The HEU Blend Down Project provided the upgrades needed to achieve the product throughput and purity required and provided loading facilities. The first blending to low enriched uranium (LEU) took place in March 2003 with the initial shipment to the TVA vendor in July 2003. The SRS Shipments have continued on a regular schedule without any major issues for the past 5 years and are due to complete in September 2008. The HEU Blend program is now looking to continue its success by dispositioning an additional approximately 21 MTU of HEU material as part of the SRS Enriched Uranium Disposition Project.

Magoulas, V; Charles Goergen, C; Ronald Oprea, R

2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

213

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1 Department; accepted 6 June 2000 Abstract This paper reviews literature on co-firing of coal with biomass fuels. Here of coal and biomass fuels are presented. Different classes of co-firing methods are identified

Wooldridge, Margaret S.

214

TURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELING OF COAL:BIOMASS BLENDS IN A SWIRL BURNER I -PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELING OF COAL:BIOMASS BLENDS IN A SWIRL BURNER I - PRELIMINARY RESULTS of Mathematics Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843 ABSTRACT A combustion model using three mixture fractions has been developed for accurate simulation of coal:manure combustion. This model treats coal

Daripa, Prabir

215

Understanding Polymorphism Formation in Electrospun Fibers of Immiscible Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Blends  

SciTech Connect

Effects of electric poling, mechanical stretching, and dipolar interaction on the formation of ferroelectric ({beta} and/or {gamma}) phases in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) have been studied in electrospun fibers of PVDF/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and PVDF/polysulfone (PSF) blends with PVDF as the minor component, using wide-angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared techniques. Experimental results of as-electrospun neat PVDF fibers (beaded vs. bead-free) showed that mechanical stretching during electrospinning, rather than electric poling, was effective to induce ferroelectric phases. For as-electrospun PVDF blend fibers with the non-polar PSF matrix, mechanical stretching during electrospinning again was capable of inducing some ferroelectric phases in addition to the major paraelectric ({alpha}) phase. However, after removing the mechanical stretching in a confined melt-recrystallization process, only the paraelectric phase was obtained. For as-electrospun PVDF blend fibers with the polar (or ferroelectric) PAN matrix, strong intermolecular interactions between polar PAN and PVDF played an important role in the ferroelectric phase formation in addition to the mechanical stretching effect during electrospinning. Even after the removal of mechanical stretching through the confined melt-recrystallization process, a significant amount of ferroelectric phases persisted. Comparing the ferroelectric phase formation between PVDF/PSF and PVDF/PAN blend fibers, we concluded that the local electric field-dipole interactions were the determining factor for the nucleation and growth of polar PVDF phases.

G Zhong; L Zhang; R Su; K Wang; H Fong; L Zhu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. These samples' combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. This report covers the first quarter's progress. Major activities during this period were focused on finding the plants where a demo MTU column will be installed to prepare the samples needed to characterize the combustion behavior of slurry effluents. Also, a meeting was held at Penn State University to discuss the availability of the laboratory furnace for testing the plant coal/recovered coal fines blends.

Singh, Shyam.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Blended learning and pure e-learning concepts for information retrieval: experiences and future directions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Today, teaching and learning are mostly supported by digital material and electronic communication ranging from the provision of slides or scripts in digital form to elaborate, interactive learning environments. This article describes the prospects and ... Keywords: Blended learning, Interaction, Teaching information retrieval, e-Learning

Andreas Henrich; Stefanie Sieber

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide, UO{sub 3}, was used in the testing. Next, NU made up of UO{sub 3} and DU made up of UO{sub 2} was used in the test work. In every test, the blend achieved was characterized by spatial sampling of the ground product and analyzing for {sup 235}U concentration. The test work proved that these uranium oxide materials can be blended successfully. The spatial concentration was found to be uniform. Next, sintered thorium oxide pellets were used as surrogate for light water breeder reactor pellets (LWBR). To simulate LWBR pellet dispositioning, the thorium oxide pellets were first ground to a powder form and then the powder was blended with NU. In these tests also the concentration of {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th in blended products fell within established limits proving the success of RM-2 milling technology. RM-2 milling technology is applicable to any dry radioactive waste, especially brittle solids that can be ground up and mixed with the non-radioactive stock.

Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

223

Measurement of Selected Physical and Chemical Properties of Blends of Coaal-Based Jet fuel with Dodecane and Norpar-13.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of blending a coal-based fuel, JP-900, with two model paraffinic fuels, dodecane and Norpar-13, on… (more)

Guiadem, Sidonie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Effects of blending, staging and furnace temperature on co-firing of coal and biomass-bagasse.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This manuscript reports on emissions generated from laboratory-scale batch combustion of a high-volatile content bituminous coal, sugar-cane bagasse, and blends thereof. The average bulk equivalence… (more)

Arvind, Joshi Kulbhushan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Wear, durability, and lubricating oil performance of a straight vegetable oil (Karanja) blend fueled direct injection compression ignition engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Depletion of fossil fuel resources and resulting associated environmental degradation has motivated search for alternative transportation fuels. Blending small quantity of Karanja oil (straight vegetable oil) with mineral diesel is one of the simplest available alternatives

Avinash Kumar Agarwal; Atul Dhar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Intended for policymakers and others who make decisions about, and set guidelines for, the proper use of intermediate ethanol blends such as E20 in both vehicle engines and other engine types.

Knoll, K.; West, B.; Clark, W.; Graves, R.; Orban, J.; Przesmitzki, S.; Theiss, T.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Blending of hydrogen in natural gas distribution systems. Volume II. Combustion tests of blends in burners and appliances. Final report, June 1, 1976--August 30, 1977. [8, 11, 14, 20, 22, 25, and 31% hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The emerging ''hydrogen economy'' is a strong contender as one method to supplement or extend the domestic natural gas supply. This volume of the subject study ''Blending Hydrogen in Natural Gas Distribution Systems'' describes combustion studies to determine the maximum amount of hydrogen that can be blended in natural gas and utilized satisfactorily in typical appliances with no adjustment or conversion. Eleven pilot burners and twenty-three main burners typical of those in current use were operated on hydrogen-natural gas mixtures containing approximately 8, 11, 14, 20, 22, 25, and 31 percent, by volume, hydrogen. The eleven pilot burners and thirteen main burners were tested outside the appliance they were a part of. Ten main burners were tested in their respective appliances. Performance of the various burners tested are as follows: (1) Gas blends containing more than 6 to 11% hydrogen are the limiting mixtures for target type pilot burners. (2) Gas blends containing more than 20 to 22% hyrogen are the limiting mixtures for main burners operating in the open. (3) Gas blends containing more than 22 to 25% hydrogen are the limiting mixtures for main burners tested in appliances. (4) Modification of the orifice in target pilots or increasing the supply pressure to a minimum of 7 inches water column will permit the use of gas blends with 20% hydrogen.

None

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

2003-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

229

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen-50% CNG fuel.

Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

2003-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

230

Multiple boiler steam blending control system for an electric power plant  

SciTech Connect

A steam blending control is provided for two or more boilers in an electric power plant. To blend an oncoming boiler with an online boiler, the oncoming boiler is fired to a pressure ramp setpoint and outlet steam is isolated from the plant turbine and directed through position controlled bypass valve means. When steam temperature and pressure conditions are matched, the oncoming boiler isolation valve is opened and the bypass flow then existing is stored in a memory. The oncoming boiler bypass flow is cut back with total oncoming boiler steam flow controlled to the memorized flow valve as a setpoint. Flow from the on-line boiler is cut back under load control as the oncoming boiler flow to the plant turbine is increased. Deblending is implemented in a similar manner.

Binstock, M.H.; Criswell, R.L.

1981-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

231

Impact of Biofuel Blending on Diesel Soot Oxidation: Implications for Aftertreatment  

SciTech Connect

Control strategies for diesel particulate filters (DPFs) remain one of the most important aspects of aftertreatment research and understanding the soot oxidation mechanism is key to controlling regeneration. Currently, most DPF models contain simple, first order heterogeneous reactions oxidation models with empirically fit parameters. This work improves the understanding of fundamental oxidation kinetics necessary to advance the capabilities of predictive modeling, by leading to better control over regeneration of the device. This study investigated the effects of blending soybean-derived biodiesel fuel on diesel particulate emissions under conventional combustion from a 1.7L direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five biofuel blend levels were investigated and compared to conventional certification diesel for the nanostructure, surface chemistry and major constituents of the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of diesel particulate matter (PM), and the relationship between these properties and the particulate oxidation kinetics.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Foster, David [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin; Vander Wal, Dr. Randy [NASA-Glenn Research Center, Cleveland

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Pilot Plant Assessment of Blend Properties and Their Impact on Critical Power Plant Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low-sulfur subbituminous coals, currently in demand to meet regulated SO2 emission standards, are very different in composition from bituminous coal and affect many operating characteristics when fired in boilers designed for bituminous coal. This report documents a pilot-scale study of the relative impacts of a subbituminous coal or blend containing subbituminous coal on unit operating characteristics such as mill performance, furnace wall slagging, convective pass fouling, and electrostatic precipitato...

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

233

Laboratory Studies on Rendering Remediation Wastes Nonhazardous: Blending of Tar and Tarry Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some remediation wastes and tarry soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites will be classified as hazardous waste based on the results of Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests. This report presents the results of bench-scale mixing tests of nine blending agents on several former MGP tars and tarry soils known to exceed the toxicity characteristic (TC) for benzene. These mixing studies were designed to measure the dilution, loss by volatilization, or fixation by adsorption of ...

2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Use of Savannah River Site facilities for blend down of highly enriched uranium  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company was asked to assess the use of existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities for the conversion of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). The purpose was to eliminate the weapons potential for such material. Blending HEU with existing supplies of depleted uranium (DU) would produce material with less than 5% U-235 content for use in commercial nuclear reactors. The request indicated that as much as 500 to 1,000 MT of HEU would be available for conversion over a 20-year period. Existing facilities at the SRS are capable of producing LEU in the form of uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}) powder, uranyl nitrate [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] solution, or metal. Additional processing, and additional facilities, would be required to convert the LEU to uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) or uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 3}), the normal inputs for commercial fuel fabrication. This study`s scope does not include the cost for new conversion facilities. However, the low estimated cost per kilogram of blending HEU to LEU in SRS facilities indicates that even with fees for any additional conversion to UO{sub 2} or UF{sub 6}, blend-down would still provide a product significantly below the spot market price for LEU from traditional enrichment services. The body of the report develops a number of possible facility/process combinations for SRS. The primary conclusion of this study is that SRS has facilities available that are capable of satisfying the goals of a national program to blend HEU to below 5% U-235. This preliminary assessment concludes that several facility/process options appear cost-effective. Finally, SRS is a secure DOE site with all requisite security and safeguard programs, personnel skills, nuclear criticality safety controls, accountability programs, and supporting infrastructure to handle large quantities of special nuclear materials (SNM).

Bickford, W.E.; McKibben, J.M.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Formulation Efforts for Direct Vitrification of INEEL Blend Calcine Waste Simulate: Fiscal Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of glass formulation efforts for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) high level waste (HWL) calcine. Two waste compositions were used during testing. Testing started by using the Run 78 calcine composition and switched to simulated Blend calcine composition when it became available. The goal of the glass formulation efforts was to develop a frit composition that will accept higher waste loading that satisfies the glass processing and product acceptance constraints. 1. Melting temperature of 1125 ? 25?C 2. Viscosity between 2 and 10 Pa?s at the melting temperature 3. Liquidus temperature at least 100?C below the melting temperature 4. Normalized release of B, Li and Na each below 1 g/m2 (per ASTM C 1285-97) Glass formulation efforts tested several frit compositions with variable waste loadings of Run 78 calcine waste simulant. Frit 107 was selected as the primary candidate for processing since it met all process and performance criteria up to 45 mass% waste loading. When the simulated Blend calcine waste composition became available Frits 107 and 108 compositions were retested and again Frit 107 remained the primary candidate. However, both frits suffered a decrease in waste loading when switching from the Run 78 calcine to simulated Blend calcine waste composition. This was due to increase concentrations of both F and Al2O3 along with a decrease in CaO and Na2O in the simulate Blend calcine waste all of which have strong impacts on the glass properties that limit waste loading of this type of waste.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.; Reamer, I. A.

2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

236

In-cylinder pressure characteristics of a CI engine using blends of diesel fuel and methyl esters of beef tallow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Cummins N14-410 diesel engine was operated on 12 fuels produced by blending methyl tallowate, methyl soyate, and ethanol with no. 2 diesel fuel. Engine in-cylinder pressure data were used to evaluate engine performance. Peak cylinder pressures for each fuel blend at all engine speeds were lower than peak pressure for diesel fuel with the exception of the 80% diesel, 13% methyl tallowate, and 7% ethanol; and the 80% diesel, 6.5% methyl tallowate, 6.5% methyl soyate and 7% ethanol blends. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) values for all fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. The differences in IMEP values correlated with differences in power output of the engine. Similarly, maximum rates of pressure rise for most fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. It was concluded that the fuel blends used in this study would have no detrimental long-term effects on engine performance, wear, and knock. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A.; Borg, J.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

238

Measuring the Effect of Fuel Structures and Blend Distribution on Diesel Emissions Using Isotope Tracing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon atoms occupying specific positions within fuel molecules can be labeled and followed in emissions. Renewable bio-derived fuels possess a natural uniform carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) tracer several orders of magnitude above petroleum-derived fuels. These fuels can be used to specify sources of carbon in particulate matter (PM) or other emissions. Differences in emissions from variations in the distribution of a fuel component within a blend can also be measured. Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), we traced fuel components with biological {sup 14}C/C levels of 1 part in 10{sup 12} against a {sup 14}C-free petroleum background in PM and CO{sub 2}. Different carbon atoms in the ester structure of the diesel oxygenate dibutyl maleate displayed far different propensities to produce PM. Homogeneous cosolvent and heterogeneous emulsified ethanol-in-diesel blends produced significantly different PM despite having the same oxygen content in the fuel. Emulsified blends produced PM with significantly more volatile species. Although ethanol-derived carbon was less likely to produce PM than diesel fuel, it formed non-volatile structures when it resided in PM. The contribution of lubrication oil to PM was determined by measuring an isotopic difference between 100% bio-diesel and the PM it produced. Data produced by the experiments provides validation for combustion models.

Cheng, A S; Mueller, C J; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

2004-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

239

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: RECOVERY AND DOWN BLEND URANIUM FOR BENEFICIAL USE  

SciTech Connect

For over fifty years, the H Canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has performed remotely operated radiochemical separations of irradiated targets to produce materials for national defense. Although the materials production mission has ended, the facility continues to play an important role in the stabilization and safe disposition of proliferable nuclear materials. As part of the US HEU Disposition Program, SRS has been down blending off-specification (off-spec) HEU to produce LEU since 2003. Off-spec HEU contains fission products not amenable to meeting the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) commercial fuel standards prior to purification. This down blended HEU material produced 301 MT of ~5% enriched LEU which has been fabricated into light water reactor fuel being utilized in Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) reactors in Tennessee and Alabama producing economic power. There is still in excess of ~10 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for beneficial use as either ~5% enriched LEU, or for use in subsequent LEU reactors requiring ~19.75% enriched LEU fuel.

Magoulas, V.

2013-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

240

50,000 mile methanol/gasoline blend fleet study: a progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Seven current production automobiles are being used in a fleet study to obtain operational experience in using 10% methanol/90% gasoline blends as an automotive fuel. Data from chassis dynamometer tests (run according to the 1975--1978 Federal test procedure) have been obtained, showing fuel economy and exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, unburned fuel, methanol, and aldehydes. These data are shown for each of the vehicles when operated on the 10% methanol blend, and on unleaded low octane Indolene. Chassis dynamometer tests were run at 5,000-mile intervals during the 35,000 miles accumulated on each of the four 1977 model-year vehicles and at 5,000 and 10,000 mile accumulation levels for each of the three 1978 model-year vehicles. These data show an average decrease in volumetric fuel economy (approx. = 5%) and a reduction in carbon monoxide emissions associated with the use of the 10% methanol blend. Exhaust emission deterioration factors are projected from the Federal test procedure urban cycle data. The most severe driveability problems that have been encountered thus far into the program are related to operating on a phase separated fuel and materials compatibility problems with an elastomer in the air-fuel control hardware of one vehicle.

Stamper, K R

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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241

Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

A2: Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment). September 2013. A2: Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment). September 2013. Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment) Manufacturer Product Model Ethanol Compatibility Bravo Systems Fiberglass Fittings Series F, FF, FPE, FR, F Retrofit- S, RPE Retrofit-Si, F BLR, F D-BLR-S, TBF E0-E100 Bravo Systems Spill Buckets B3XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Tank Sumps & Covers B4XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Transition Sumps (planter, walkover, H-20 rated) B5XX, B6XX, B7XX, B8XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Transition Sumps B8XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Under Dispenser Contain- ment Sumps B7XXX, B8XXX, B9XXX E0-E100 Brugg Pipes FLEXWELL-HL, SECON-X, NIROFLEX, LPG E0-E100 KPS Petrol Pipe Systems Pipes and Associated Products All single- and double-wall plastic pipes, flexible

242

NMOG Emissions Characterizations and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

Not Available

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Technical Issues Associated With the Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends (>E10) in the U.S. Legacy Fleet  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in assessing the impact of using intermediate ethanol blends (E10 to E30) in the legacy fleet of vehicles in the U.S. fleet. The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify the issues associated with intermediate ethanol blends with an emphasis on the end-use or vehicle impacts of increased ethanol levels; (2) assess the likely severity of the issues and whether they will become more severe with higher ethanol blend levels, or identify where the issue is most severe; (3) identify where gaps in knowledge exist and what might be required to fill those knowledge gaps; and (4) compile a current and complete bibliography of key references on intermediate ethanol blends. This effort is chiefly a critical review and assessment of available studies. Subject matter experts (authors and selected expert contacts) were consulted to help with interpretation and assessment. The scope of this report is limited to technical issues. Additional issues associated with consumer, vehicle manufacturer, and regulatory acceptance of ethanol blends greater than E10 are not considered. The key findings from this study are given.

Rich, Bechtold [Alliance Technical Services; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Timbario, Tom [Alliance Technical Services; Goodman, Marc [Alliance Technical Services

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Results of Aging Tests of Vendor-Produced Blended Feed Simulant  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is procuring through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) a minimum of five 3,500 gallon batches of waste simulant for Phase 1 testing in the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). To make sure that the quality of the simulant is acceptable, the production method was scaled up starting from laboratory-prepared simulant through 15-gallon vendor prepared simulant and 250-gallon vendor prepared simulant before embarking on the production of the 3500-gallon simulant batch by the vendor. The 3500-gallon PEP simulant batches were packaged in 250-gallon high molecular weight polyethylene totes at NOAH Technologies. The simulant was stored in an environmentally controlled environment at NOAH Technologies within their warehouse before blending or shipping. For the 15-gallon, 250-gallon, and 3500-gallon batch 0, the simulant was shipped in ambient temperature trucks with shipment requiring nominally 3 days. The 3500-gallon batch 1 traveled in a 70-75°F temperature controlled truck. Typically the simulant was uploaded in a PEP receiving tank within 24-hours of receipt. The first uploading required longer with it stored outside. Physical and chemical characterization of the 250-gallon batch was necessary to determine the effect of aging on the simulant in transit from the vendor and in storage before its use in the PEP. Therefore, aging tests were conducted on the 250-gallon batch of the vendor-produced PEP blended feed simulant to identify and determine any changes to the physical characteristics of the simulant when in storage. The supernate was also chemically characterized. Four aging scenarios for the vendor-produced blended simulant were studied: 1) stored outside in a 250-gallon tote, 2) stored inside in a gallon plastic bottle, 3) stored inside in a well mixed 5-L tank, and 4) subject to extended temperature cycling under summer temperature conditions in a gallon plastic bottle. The following series of aging tests were conducted to accomplish these objectives.

Russell, Renee L.; Buchmiller, William C.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

247

IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. This project complements another ongoing project titled ''Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project''. The objectives of that research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, they have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, the activities have covered two areas: development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

Elana M. Chapman; Andre L. Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees  

SciTech Connect

Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.; Jagerstad, M.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt.% additive of all viscosity and lubricity additives tested here to even approach the lower limit of the ASTM diesel fuel viscosity requirement. To treat neat DME sufficiently to make DME comply with the ASTM diesel fuel viscosity requirement would require a viscosity additive with 10{sup 45} cSt viscosity, which is not possible with current additive technologies.

Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Charge Separation of Wurtzite/Zinc-blende Heterojunction GaN Nanowires  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electronic properties of wurtzite/zinc-blende (WZ/ZB) heterostructure GaN are investigated using first-principles methods. A small component of ZB stacking formed along the growth direction in the WZ GaN nanowires does not show a significant effect on the electronic property, whereas a charge separation of electrons and holes occurs along the directions perpendicular to the growth direction in the ZB stacking. The later case provides an efficient way to separate the charge through controlling crystal structure. These results should have significant implications for most state of the art excitonic solar cells and the tuning region in tunable laser diodes.

Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Jingbo; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

254

Investment Busts, Reputation, and the Temptation to Blend in with the Crowd ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a real-options model of an industry in which agents time abandonment of their projects in an effort to protect their reputations. Agents delay abandonment attempting to signal their quality. When a public common shock forces abandonment of a small fraction of projects irrespective of agents ’ quality, many agents abandon their projects strategically even if they are unaffected by the shock. Such “blending in with the crowd ” effect creates an additional incentive to delay abandonment ahead of the shock, leading to accumulation of “living dead ” projects, which further amplifies the shock. The potential for moderate public common shocks often improves agents’values.

Steven R. Grenadier; Andrey Malenko; Ilya A. Strebulaev; Marc Martos-vila; Erwan Morellec; Kelly Shue; Youchang Wu (discussant

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Powertrain Component Inspection from Mid-Level Blends Vehicle Aging Study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls on the nation to significantly increase its use of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law expands the renewable fuel standard to require use of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Given that ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the U.S. market, ethanol will likely make up a significant portion of the 36-billion-gallon requirement. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10-gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85 - a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). Consumption of E85 is at present limited by both the size of the FFV fleet and the number of E85 fueling stations. Gasoline consumption in the United States is currently about 140 billion gallons per year; thus the maximum use of ethanol as E10 is only about 14 billion gallons. While the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market represented less than 1% of the ethanol consumed in 2010 and will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Because of these factors, DOE and others have been assessing the viability of using mid-level ethanol blends (E15 or E20) as a way to accommodate growing volumes of ethanol. The DOE Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program has been under way since 2007, supported jointly by the Office of the Biomass Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program. One of the larger projects, the Catalyst Durability Study, or Vehicle Aging Study, will be completed early in calendar year 2011. The following report describes a subproject of the Vehicle Aging Study in which powertrain components from 18 of the vehicles were examined at Southwest Research Institute under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

Shoffner, Brent [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Johnson, Ryan [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Heimrich, Martin J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Lochte, Michael [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Nanostructured Electrodes For Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Model Study Using Carbon Nanotube Dispersed Polythiophene-fullerene Blend Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We test the feasibility of using nanostructured electrodes in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells to improve their photovoltaic performance by enhancing their charge collection efficiency and thereby increasing the optimal active blend layer thickness. As a model system, small concentrations of single wall carbon nanotubes are added to blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester in order to create networks of efficient hole conduction pathways in the device active layer without affecting the light absorption. The nanotube addition leads to a 22% increase in the optimal blend layer thickness from 90 nm to 110 nm, enhancing the short circuit current density and photovoltaic device efficiency by as much as {approx}10%. The associated incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency for the given thickness also increases by {approx}10% uniformly across the device optical absorption spectrum, corroborating the enhanced charge carrier collection by nanostructured electrodes.

Nam, C.Y.; Wu, Q.; Su, D.; Chiu, C.-y; Tremblay, N.J.; Nuckolls, C,; Black, C.T.

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

257

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through -200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc.

Singh, S. [SS Energy Environmental International, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States); Scaroni, A.; Miller, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

A blended learning Approach to teaching foreign policy: Student experiences of learning through face-to-face and online discussion and their relationship to academic performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents research on students' experiences of learning through a blend of face-to-face and online discussion. The participants in our study were students enrolled in a foreign policy course at a major Australian university. Students' conceptions ... Keywords: Blended learning, Computer mediated communication, Learning through discussion, Phenomenography, Teaching/learning strategies

Ana-Maria Bliuc; Robert A. Ellis; Peter Goodyear; Leanne Piggott

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

260

User's guide to the Venezuelan macrofinancial model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a user's guide and documentation for a macrofinancial model of Venezuela. This model was developed under a DOE International Affairs Division grant (contract no. EX-76-A-01-2295) for the project, "A ...

Aliana, Simon

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Venezuelan ``apertura`` invites private exploration capital  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Congress of the Republic of Venezuela on July 4, 1995, approved the conditions for an Exploration Association Contract. This action opened Venezuela to exploration for light and medium crudes by private companies in association with a special-purpose affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela (Pdvsa). The objective of the apertura, or opening, is to attract private capital to Venezuela`s petroleum sector and thereby accelerate exploration and development of light and medium crude oil. An important parallel objective is for this incremental investment into the country to stimulate the domestic economy and encourage development and growth across all sectors. The paper discusses the geology of the four primary sedimentary basins in Venezuela, source rocks and maturity, and the costs and terms of Venezuela`s contract.

Carnevali, J. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

1995-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

262

Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size distribution remained approximately the same (50 nm) but the particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content in the fuel. In addition, increasing ethanol content significantly reduced the number concentration of 50 and 100 nm particles during gradual and WOT accelerations.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Prediction of early heat of hydration of plain and blended cements using neuro-fuzzy modelling techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a new approach based on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was presented for the prediction of early heat of hydration of plain and blended cements. Two different type of model is trained and tested using these data. The ... Keywords: ANFIS, Cement, Fuzzy logic, Hydration heat, Neural networks

Abdulhamit Subasi; Ahmet Serdar Yilmaz; Hanifi Binici

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. This report covers the first quarter`s progress. Major activities during this period were focused on finding the plants where a demo MTU column will be installed to prepare the samples needed to characterize the combustion behavior of slurry effluents. Also, a meeting was held at Penn State University to discuss the availability of the laboratory furnace for testing the plant coal/recovered coal fines blends.

Singh, Shyam

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

265

Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

Melaina, M. W.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Isotopic Tracing of Particulate Matter from a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Ethanol-in-Diesel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) was used to investigate the relative contribution to diesel engine particulate matter (PM) from the ethanol and diesel fractions of blended fuels. Four test fuels along with a diesel fuel baseline were investigated. The test fuels were comprised of {sup 14}C depleted diesel fuel mixed with contemporary grain ethanol (>400 the {sup 14}C concentration of diesel). An emulsifier (Span 85) or cosolvent (butyl alcohol) was used to facilitate mixing. The experimental test engine was a 1993 Cummins B5.9 diesel rated at 175 hp at 2500 rpm. Test fuels were run at steady-state conditions of 1600 rpm and 210 ft-lbs, and PM samples were collected on quartz filters following dilution of engine exhaust in a mini-dilution tunnel. AMS analysis of the filter samples showed that the ethanol contributed less to PM relative to its fraction in the fuel blend. For the emulsified blends, 6.4% and 10.3% contributions to PM were observed for 11.5% and 23.0% ethanol fuels, respectively. For the cosolvent blends, even lower contributions were observed (3.8% and 6.3% contributions to PM for 12.5% and 25.0% ethanol fuels, respectively).

Cheng, A.S.; Dibble, R.W.; Buchholz, B.

1999-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

267

IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Annual Technical Progress Report for Project Entitled "Impact Annual Technical Progress Report for Project Entitled "Impact of DME-Diesel Fuel Blend Properties on Diesel Fuel Injection Systems" May 16, 2002 - May 15, 2003 Elana M. Chapman, Andre Boehman, Kimberly Wain, Wallis Lloyd, Joseph M. Perez, Donald Stiver, Joseph Conway Report Issue Date: June 2003 DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-01NT41115 The Pennsylvania State University The Energy Institute University Park, PA 16802 ii DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus,

268

Results of Research Engine and Vehicle Drive Cycle Testing during Blended Hydrogen/Methane Operation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Results of Research Engine and Results of Research Engine and Vehicle Drive Cycle Testing during Blended Hydrogen/Methane Operation Thomas Wallner, Henning Lohse-Busch, Henry Ng Argonne National Laboratory Robert Peters University of Alabama at Birmingham NHA Annual Hydrogen Conference 2007 San Antonio/Texas March 19 th - 22 nd 2007 DOE-Sponsors: Lee Slezak, Gurpreet Singh Government license The submitted manuscript was developed by the UChicago Argonne LLC as Operator of Argonne National Laboratory ("Argonne") under Contract No. DE-AC-02-06CH11357 with DOE. The U.S. Government retains for itself, and others acting on its behalf, a paid-up, nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in said article to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on

269

Estimation of Physical Properties of AN-107 Cesium and Technetium Eluate Blend  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study, as defined in the associated test specifications and task technical and quality assurance plan, was to estimate all the physical properties that are required to design the storage and transport facilities for the concentrated cesium and technetium eluates. Specifically, the scope of this study included: (1) modeling of the aqueous electrolyte chemistry of Tank 241-AN-107 Cs and Tc eluate evaporators, (2) process modeling of semi-batch and continuous evaporation operations, (3) determination of the operating vacuum and target endpoint of each evaporator, (4) calculation of the physical properties of the concentrated Cs and Tc eluate blend, and (5) development of the empirical correlations for the physical properties thus estimated.

Choi, A.S.

2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

270

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

271

Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Performance of a small scale boiler burner in the firing of fuel blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power plants spend nearly 50 billion dollars a year on fuel cost. Presently coal accounts for over 75% of the electricity generated in this country. Due to increasingly harsh environmental regulations, the demand for low sulfur (S) coal has dramatically increased. This increase in demand is expected to cause the price of coal to rise. Such a senario has caused the utilities to explore the possibilities of supplementing coal with fuel alternatives such as the byproducts of process industries. The supplemental fuel for utilities located near feedlots (e.g. Northwest Texas) happens to be feedlot manure. Feedlot manure is attractive because it is nearly ten times cheaper than coal and is relatively inexpensive to transport. There exists nearly six million head of cattle in Northwest Texas which produce 25,000 tons of manure each day. Feedlot manure presents water and air pollution concerns if not disposed of properly. As such, the feedlot operators are eager to find methods of safely disposing of the feedlot manure. A small scale boiler burner facility has been constructed to simulate a utility class boiler. Experiments were conducted with coal only and then for coal/feedlot manure. Three types of feedlot manure are examined; raw feedlot manure, partially composted feedlot manure, and finished composted feedlot manure. Performance characteristics and emission data were taken for each case. A summary of the results is as follows: (I) sulfur Wyoming coal was fired and a gasification efficiency of 66% was measured. (i I) Emissions measurements were recorded and it was seen that emissions of NO,, and S02 increased as the burnt mass fraction increased. However, all emissions were within NSPS guidelines. (iii) The successful firing of coal and feedlot manure was achieved, a gasification efficiency in the range of 86% was measured, which is higher than 66% obtained when firing coal alone. (iv) When the fuel blend is fully burnt, the NO,, emissions with the blend firing was lower than the firing of coal alone.

Frazzitta, Stephen

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

PUBLIC AND REGULATORY ACCEPTANCE OF BLENDING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE VS DILUTION  

SciTech Connect

On April 21, 2009, the Energy Facilities Contractors Group (EFCOG) Waste Management Working Group (WMWG) provided a recommendation to the Department of Energy's Environmental Management program (DOE-EM) concerning supplemental guidance on blending methodologies to use to classify waste forms to determine if the waste form meets the definition of Transuranic (TRU) Waste or can be classified as Low-Level Waste (LLW). The guidance provides specific examples and methods to allow DOE and its Contractors to properly classify waste forms while reducing the generation of TRU wastes. TRU wastes are much more expensive to characterize at the generator's facilities, ship, and then dispose at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) than Low-Level Radioactive Waste's disposal. Also the reduction of handling and packaging of LLW is inherently less hazardous to the nuclear workforce. Therefore, it is important to perform the characterization properly, but in a manner that minimizes the generation of TRU wastes if at all possible. In fact, the generation of additional volumes of radioactive wastes under the ARRA programs, this recommendation should improve the cost effective implementation of DOE requirements while properly protecting human health and the environment. This paper will describe how the message of appropriate, less expensive, less hazardous blending of radioactive waste is the 'right' thing to do in many cases, but can be confused with inappropriate 'dilution' that is frowned upon by regulators and stakeholders in the public. A proposal will be made in this paper on how to communicate this very complex and confusing technical issue to regulatory bodies and interested stakeholders to gain understanding and approval of the concept. The results of application of the proposed communication method and attempt to change the regulatory requirements in this area will be discussed including efforts by DOE and the NRC on this very complex subject.

Goldston, W.

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Blend Down Monitoring System Fissile Mass Flow Monitor and its Implementation at the Siberian Chemical Enterprise, Seversk, Russia  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the implementation plans and preparations for installation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment at the Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE), Seversk, Russia, are presented. The FMFM, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is part of the Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) for the U.S. Department of Energy Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program. The BDMS provides confidence to the United States that the Russian nuclear facilities supplying the lower assay ({approx}4%) product low enriched uranium (PLEU) to the United States from down-blended weapon-grade HEU are meeting the nonproliferation goals of the government-to-government HEU purchase agreement signed between the Russian Federation and the United States in 1993. The first BDMS has been operational at Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant, Novouralsk, since February 1999. The second BDMS has been operational at Electro Chemical Plant, Zelenogorsk, since March 2003. These systems are successfully providing HEU transparency data to the United States. The third BDMS was successfully installed on the HEU down-blending tee in the SChE Enrichment Plant in October 2004. The FMFM makes use of a set of thermalized {sup 252}Cf spontaneous neutron sources for modulated fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas stream for measuring the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow rate. To do this, the FMFM measures the transport time of the fission fragments created from the fission activation process under the modulated source to the downstream detectors by detecting the delayed gamma rays from the fission fragments retained in the flow. The FMFM provides unattended nonintrusive measurements of the {sup 235}U mass flow of the UF{sub 6} gas in the blending tee legs of HEU, the LEU blend stock, and the resulting P-LEU. The FMFM also confirms that highly enriched UF{sub 6} gas identified in the HEU leg flows through the blending tee into the P-LEU leg. This report contains details of the SChE FMFM equipment characteristics as well as the technical installation requirements and the latest measurement results.

Uckan, T

2005-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

275

Mechanical Properties and Durability of Concrete Made with High-Volume Fly Ash Blended Cement Produced in a Cement Plant: Commercial -Scale Trial Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This interim report documents the preliminary results of the commercial-scale production of a high-volume fly ash (HVFA) blended cement, using up to 55 percent fly ash to replace the portland cement.

2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

276

Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses: October 15, 2002--September 30, 2004  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report covers literature and laboratory analyses to identify modification requirements of a Cummins Westport B Gas Plus engine for transit buses using a hydrogen/compressed natural fuel blend.

Del Toro, A.; Frailey, M.; Lynch, F.; Munshi, S.; Wayne, S.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Crystallization and Solidification Properties Chapter 4 Effects of Tempering on Physical Properties of Shortenings Based on BinaryBlends of Palm Oil & Anhydrous Milk Fat During Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties Chapter 4 Effects of Tempering on Physical Properties of Shortenings Based on BinaryBlends of Palm Oil & Anhydrous Milk Fat During Storage Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nu

278

Cocoa Butter and Related CompoundsChapter 16 Molecular Interactions of Triacylglycerides in Blends of Cocoa Butter with trans-free Vegetable Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cocoa Butter and Related Compounds Chapter 16 Molecular Interactions of Triacylglycerides in Blends of Cocoa Butter with trans-free Vegetable Oils Food Science Health Nutrition eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Bioc

279

Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

Andile B. Mzinyati [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Pyrolysis and ignition behavior of coal, cattle biomass, and coal/cattle biomass blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increases in demand, lower emission standards, and reduced fuel supplies have fueled the recent effort to find new and better fuels to power the necessary equipment for society’s needs. Often, the fuels chosen for research are renewable fuels derived from biomass. Current research at Texas A&M University is focused on the effectiveness of using cattle manure biomass as a fuel source in conjunction with coal burning utilities. The scope of this project includes fuel property analysis, pyrolysis and ignition behavior characteristics, combustion modeling, emissions modeling, small scale combustion experiments, pilot scale commercial combustion experiments, and cost analysis of the fuel usage for both feedlot biomass and dairy biomass. This paper focuses on fuel property analysis and pyrolysis and ignition characteristics of feedlot biomass. Deliverables include a proximate and ultimate analysis, pyrolysis kinetics values, and ignition temperatures of four types of feedlot biomass (low ash raw manure [LARM], low ash partially composted manure [LAPC], high ash raw manure [HARM], and high ash partially composted manure [HAPC]) as well as blends of each biomass with Texas lignite coal (TXL). Activation energy results for pure samples of each fuel using the single reaction model rigorous solution were as follows: 45 kJ/mol (LARM), 43 kJ/mol (LAPC), 38 kJ/mol (HARM), 36 kJ/mol (HAPC), and 22 kJ/mol (TXL). Using the distributed activation energy model the activation energies were 169 kJ/mol (LARM), 175 kJ/mol (LAPC), 172 kJ/mol (HARM), 173 kJ/mol (HAPC), and 225 kJ/mol (TXL). Ignition temperature results for pure samples of each of the fuels were as follows: 734 K (LARM), 745 K (LAPC), 727 (HARM), 744 K (HAPC), and 592 K (TXL). There was little difference observed between the ignition temperatures of the 50% blends of coal with biomass and the pure samples of coal as observed by the following results: 606 K (LARM), 571 K (LAPC), 595 K (HARM), and 582 K (HAPC).

Martin, Brandon Ray

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

An Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion in Emulsified Vegetable-Methanol Blend  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vegetable oil is one of the most widely available renewable sources of energy that can be used to meet the world’s demands. Many vegetable oils also have the advantage of containing little to no detectable amounts of nitrogen. Recently, research studies have revealed that when two liquids with different vapor pressure values are formed into droplet-like emulsions, a micro-explosion effect can happen under specific environmental conditions. Understanding the micro-explosion phenomena can help increase the efficiency of bio-emulsion combustion as well as reduce pollution levels. Many researchers have conducted experiments to find the optimal condition that induces microexplosion effects. Microexplosion is also associated with the formation of shock waves characteristic of explosions at larger scales. However, little is known about how emulsion composition and droplet size affect the micro-explosion process. Through this research, methanol-in-vegetable oil emulsion has been studied from the microexplosion point of view using custom made electric furnace equipment with a high speed camera system and an acoustic sensor system. The main goal of this study is to understand the effect of emulsion compositions, chamber temperatures, and droplet sizes on the characteristics of microexplosion. First, an n-hexadecane-in-water emulsion was prepared to validate the performance of the custom-made experimental apparatus using previous published data. Methanol-in-canola oil emulsions with different compositions were also prepared and used to compare the micro-explosion phenomena with water as a volatile compound. Microexplosion events of the blended fuels were captured using a high speed camera and an acoustic sensor. The wave signals generated by the microexplosion were analyzed after converting the signals using a Fast Fourier Transform coded in Matlab. One of the major findings of this research work was that higher temperatures and higher concentrations of high vapor pressure fluids such as methanol and water in emulsions causes a high probability of microexplosion event due to the sudden expansion of the emulsified fluid. Also, the effect of size on microexplosion was evident in the greater probability of explosion. Methanol-in-canola oil emulsion with 15 % methanol with droplets size of 200 ?m placed in a furnace chamber heated to 980 ?C showed optimal microexplosion behavior based on the formation of fine droplets. Also, smaller droplets produced higher frequencies, which could be used to detect microexplosion without high speed imaging. When large droplets microexploded, lower frequencies were detected in all the blends.

Nam, Hyungseok

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Inclusion of Blended Lipid Solutions as Functional Ingredients to Alter the Fatty Acid Profile of Beef Patties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We hypothesized that beef patties formulated with the addition of a beef fat, plant oil and rosemary extract (antioxidant) blend would increase unsaturated fatty acid content and maintain desirable sensory attributes as compared to 10 and 20% fat control beef patties. Treatment patties were formulated by combining beef trimmings (6% fat) with a lipid blend mixture (4% or 14% addition, respectively) containing 57% beef tallow, 0.3% rosemary extract and 43% of either high oleic safflower oil (SO), olive oil (OO), or corn oil (CO) to achieve a total fat content of 10 or 20%. Treatment patties were similar to control patties for lipid oxidation at 0 and 3 d of refrigerated (2oC) storage and up to 56 d of frozen (-10oC) storage. Cooked lipid blend patties at 10 or 20% fat content were similar to or higher, respectively, than control patties for juiciness and were no different for other sensory attributes evaluated. At 10 and 20% fat levels, oleic acid (18:1) in cooked SO patties (46.1 and 50.3%, respectively) and OO patties (43.8 and 48.1%, respectively) was higher than the control (37.3 and 37.6%, respectively). Unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios at the 10 and 20% fat levels were higher in SO (1.37 and 1.60, respectively) and CO (1.40 and 1.48, respectively) patties than the control (0.97 and 0.94, respectively). The incorporation of nutritionally enhanced lipid blends increased unsaturated fatty acid content and maintained desirable sensory attributes of beef patties while suppressing lipid oxidation.

Lowder, Austin C.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

284

THE EFFECTS OF BIODIESEL BLENDS AND ARCO EC-DIESEL ON EMISSIONS from LIGHT HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chassis dynamometer tests were performed on 7 light heavy-duty diesel trucks comparing the emissions of a California diesel fuel with emissions from 4 other fuels: ARCO EC-diesel (EC-D) and three 20% biodiesel blends (1 yellow grease and 2 soy-based). The EC-D and the yellow grease biodiesel blend both showed significant reductions in THC and CO emissions over the test vehicle fleet. EC-D also showed reductions in PM emission rates. NOx emissions were comparable for the different fuel types over the range of vehicles tested. The soy-based biodiesel blends did not show significant or consistent emissions differences over all test vehicles. Total carbon accounted for more than 70% of the PM mass for 4 of the 5 sampled vehicles. Elemental and organic carbon ratios varied significantly from vehicle-to-vehicle but showed very little fuel dependence. Inorganic species represented a smaller portion of the composite total, ranging from 0.2 to 3.3% of the total PM. Total PAH emissions ranged from approximately 1.8 mg/mi to 67.8 mg/mi over the different vehicle/fuel combinations representing between 1.6 and 3.8% of the total PM mass.

Durbin, Thomas

2001-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

285

Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

286

Excitation Dynamics in Low Band Gap Donor-Acceptor Copolymers and Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Donor-acceptor (D-A) type copolymers show great potential for the application in the active layer of organic solar cells. Nevertheless the nature of the excited states, the coupling mechanism and the relaxation pathways following photoexcitation are yet to be clarified. We carried out comparative measurements of the steady state absorption and photoluminescence (PL) on the copolymer poly[N-(1-octylnonyl)-2,7-carbazole] -alt-5,5-[4',7' -di(thien-2-yl)-2',1',3' -benzothiadiazole] (PCDTBT), its building blocks as well as on the newly synthesized N-(1-octylnonyl)-2,7-bis-[(5-phenyl)thien-2-yl)carbazole (BPT-carbazole) (see Figure 1). The high-energy absorption band (HEB) of PCDTBT was identified with absorption of carbazoles with adjacent thiophene rings while the low-energy band (LEB) originates instead from the charge transfer (CT) state delocalized over the aforementioned unit with adjacent benzothiadiazole group. Photoexcitation of the HEB is followed by internal relaxation prior the radiative decay to the ground state. Adding PC70BM results in the efficient PL quenching within the first 50 ps after excitation. From the PL excitation experiments no evidence for a direct electron transfer from the HEB of PCDTBT towards the fullerene acceptor was found, therefore the internal relaxation mechanisms within PCDTBT can be assumed to precede. Our findings indicate that effective coupling between copolymer building blocks governs the photovoltaic performance of the blends.

Björn Gieseking; Berthold Jäck; Eduard Preis; Stefan Jung; Michael Forster; Ullrich Scherf; Carsten Deibel; Vladimir Dyakonov

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

287

Fuzzy linear programming based optimal fuel scheduling incorporating blending/transloading facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the blending/transloading facilities are modeled using an interactive fuzzy linear programming (FLP), in order to allow the decision-maker to solve the problem of uncertainty of input information within the fuel scheduling optimization. An interactive decision-making process is formulated in which decision-maker can learn to recognize good solutions by considering all possibilities of fuzziness. The application of the fuzzy formulation is accompanied by a careful examination of the definition of fuzziness, appropriateness of the membership function and interpretation of results. The proposed concept provides a decision support system with integration-oriented features, whereby the decision-maker can learn to recognize the relative importance of factors in the specific domain of optimal fuel scheduling (OFS) problem. The formulation of a fuzzy linear programming problem to obtain a reasonable nonfuzzy solution under consideration of the ambiguity of parameters, represented by fuzzy numbers, is introduced. An additional advantage of the FLP formulation is its ability to deal with multi-objective problems.

Djukanovic, M.; Babic, B.; Milosevic, B. [Electrical Engineering Inst. Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D.J. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States). Power System Control; Pao, Y.H. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)]|[AI WARE, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Ordered Ground State Wurtzite Alloys from Zinc-Blende Parent Compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ground state structures of the A{sub x}B{sub 1-x}C wurtzite (WZ) alloys with x=0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 are revealed by a ground state search using the valence-force field model and density-functional theory total-energy calculations. It is shown that the ground state WZ alloy always has a lower strain energy and formation enthalpy than the corresponding zinc-blende (ZB) alloy. Therefore, we propose that the WZ phase can be stabilized through alloying. This idea is supported by the fact that the WZ AlP{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 0.5}, AlP{sub 0.75}Sb{sub 0.25}, ZnS{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5}, and ZnS{sub 0.75}Te{sub 0.25} alloys in the lowest-energy structures are more stable than the corresponding ZB alloys. In this example, the alloy adopts a structure distinct from both parent phases.

Xiang, H. J.; Wei, S. H.; Chen, S.; Gong, X. G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

SODIUM POLYPHOSPHATE-MODIFIED CLASS C/CLASS F FLY ASH BLEND CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors investigated the usefulness of the coal combustion by-products, Class C fly ash (C) and Class F fly ash (F), in developing cost-effective acid-resistant phosphate-based cements for geothermal wells. In the temperature range of 20-100 C, sodium polyphosphate (NaP) as the acidic cement-forming solution preferentially reacted with calcium sulfate and lime in the C as the base solid reactant through the exothermic acid-base reaction route, rather than with the tricalcium aluminate in C. This reaction led to the formation of hydroxyapatite (HOAp). In contrast, there was no acid-base reaction between the F as the acidic solid reactant and NaP. After autoclaving the cements at 250 C, a well-crystallized HOAp phase was formed in the NaP-modified C cement that was responsible for densifying the cement's structure, thereby conferring low water permeability and good compressive strength on the cement. however, the HOAp was susceptible to hot CO{sub 2}-laden H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution (pH 1.1), allowing some acid erosion of the cement. On the other hand, the mullite in F hydrothermally reacted with the Na from NaP to form the analcime phase. Although this phase played a pivotal role in abating acid erosion, its generation created an undesirable porous structure in the cement. They demonstrated that blending fly ash with a C/F ratio of 70/30 resulted in the most suitable properties for acid-resistant phosphate-based cement systems.

SUGAMA, T.; BROTHERS, L.E.; KASPEREIT, D.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Blend Down Monitoring System Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Implementation at the ElectroChemical Plant, Zelenogorsk, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The implementation plans and preparations for installation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment at the ElectroChemical Plant (ECP), Zelenogorsk, Russia, are presented in this report. The FMFM, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is part of the Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS), developed for the U.S. Department of Energy Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program. The BDMS provides confidence to the United States that the Russian nuclear facilities supplying the lower-assay ({approx}4%) product low enriched uranium (P-LEU) to the United States from down-blended weapons-grade HEU are meeting the nonproliferation goals of the government-to-government HEU Purchase Agreement, signed between the Russian Federation and the United States in 1993. The first BDMS has been operational at Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant, Novouralsk, since February 1999 and is successfully providing HEU transparency data to the United States. The second BDMS was installed at ECP in February 2003. The FMFM makes use of a set of thermalized californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) spontaneous neutron sources for a modulated fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas stream for measuring the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow rate. To do this, the FMFM measures the transport time of the fission fragments created from the fission activation process under the modulated source to the downstream detectors by detecting the delayed gamma rays from the fission fragments. The FMFM provides unattended, nonintrusive measurements of the {sup 235}U mass flow in the HEU, LEU blend stock, and P-LEU process legs. The FMFM also provides the traceability of the HEU flow to the product process leg. This report documents the technical installation requirements and the expected operational characteristics of the ECP FMFM.

Uckan, T.

2005-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

293

VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and biomass minerals.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Effect of Blending on High-Pressure Laminar Flame Speed Measurements, Markstein Lengths, and Flame Stability of Hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas is the primary fuel used in industrial gas turbines for power generation. Hydrocarbon blends of methane, ethane, and propane make up a large portion of natural gas and it has been shown that dimethyl ether can be used as a supplement or in its pure form for gas turbine combustion. Because of this, a fundamental understanding of the physical characteristics such as the laminar flame speed is necessary, especially at elevated pressures to have the most relevance to the gas turbine industry. This thesis discusses the equations governing premixed laminar flames, historical methods used to measure the laminar flame speed, the experimental device used in this study, the procedure for converting the measured data into the flame speed, the results of the measurements, and a discussion of the results. The results presented in this thesis include the flame speeds for binary blends of methane, ethane, propane, and dimethyl ether performed at elevated pressures, up to 10-atm initial pressure, using a spherically expanding flame in a constant-volume vessel. Also included in this thesis is a comparison between the experimental measurements and four chemical kinetic models. The C4 mechanism, developed in part through collaboration between the National University of Ireland Galway and Texas A&M, was improved using the data presented herein, showing good agreement for all cases. The effect of blending ethane, propane, and dimethyl ether with methane in binary form is emphasized in this study, with the resulting Markstein length, Lewis number (Le), and flame stability characterized and discussed. It was noticed in this study, as well as in other studies, that the critical radius of the flame typically decreased as the Le decreased, and that the critical radius of the flame increased as the Le increased. Also, a rigorous uncertainty analysis has been performed, showing a range of 0.3 cm/s to 3.5 cm/s depending on equivalence ratio and initial pressure.

Lowry, William Baugh

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Application of Image And X-Ray Microtomography Technique To Quantify Filler Distribution In Thermoplastic-Natural Rubber Blend Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray microtomography and ImageJ 1.39 u is used as a tool to quantify volume percentage of B{sub 4}C as fillers in thermoplastic-natural rubber blend composites. The use of percentage of area occupied by fillers as obtain from ImageJ from the microtomography sliced images enables the proposed technique to easily obtain the amount volume percentage of B{sub 4}C in the composite non-destructively. Comparison with other technique such as density measurement and chemical analysis proves the proposed technique as one of the promising approach.

Ahmad, Sahrim; Rasid, Rozaidi; Mouad, A. T. [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Aziz Mohamed, A.; Abdullah, Jaafar; Dahlan, M.; Mohamad, Mahathir; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Hamzah Harun, M. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Yazid, Hafizal [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Hafizal Yazid, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Abdullah, W. Saffiey W.

2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

296

Low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol and ethanol-PRF blends: An experimental and modeling study  

SciTech Connect

In this brief communication, we present new experimental species profile measurements for the low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol under knock-prone conditions. These experiments show that ethanol exhibits no global low temperature reactivity at these conditions, although we note the heterogeneous decomposition of ethanol to ethylene and water. Similar behavior is reported for an E85 blend in n-heptane. Kinetic modeling results are presented to complement these experiments and elucidate the interaction of ethanol and primary reference fuels undergoing cooxidation. (author)

Haas, Francis M.; Chaos, Marcos; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

Modeling The NOx Emissions In A Low NOx Burner While Fired With Pulverized Coal And Dairy Biomass Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New regulations like the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) will pose greater challenges for Coal fired power plants with regards to pollution reduction. These new regulations plan to impose stricter limits on NOX reduction. The current regulations by themselves already require cleanup technology; newer regulations will require development of new and economical technologies. Using a blend of traditional fuels & biomass is a promising technology to reduce NOX emissions. Experiments conducted previously at the Coal and Biomass energy lab at Texas A&M reported that dairy biomass can be an effective Reburn fuel with NOX reduction of up to 95%; however little work has been done to model such a process with Feedlot Biomass as a blend with the main burner fuel. The present work concerns with development of a zero dimensional for a low NOx burner (LNB) model in order to predict NOX emissions while firing a blend of Coal and dairy biomass. Two models were developed. Model I assumes that the main burner fuel is completely oxidized to CO,CO2,H20 and fuel bound nitrogen is released as HCN, NH3, N2; these partially burnt product mixes with tertiary air, undergoes chemical reactions specified by kinetics and burns to complete combustion. Model II assumes that the main burner solid fuel along with primary and secondary air mixes gradually with recirculated gases, burn partially and the products from the main burner include partially burnt solid particles and fuel bound nitrogen partially converted to N2, HCN and NH3. These products mix gradually with tertiary air, undergo further oxidation-reduction reactions in order to complete the combustion. The results are based on model I. Results from the model were compared with experimental findings to validate it. Results from the model recommend the following conditions for optimal reduction of NOx: Equivalence Ratio should be above 0.95; mixing time should be below 100ms. Based on Model I, results indicate that increasing percentage of dairy biomass in the blend increases the NOx formation due to the assumption that fuel N compounds ( HCN, NH3) do not undergo oxidation in the main burner zone. Thus it is suggested that model II must be adopted in the future work.

Uggini, Hari

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Development of a Low NOx Burner System for Coal Fired Power Plants Using Coal and Biomass Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The low NOx burner (LNB) is the most cost effective technology used in coal-fired power plants to reduce NOx. Conventional (unstaged) burners use primary air for transporting particles and swirling secondary air to create recirculation of hot gases. LNB uses staged air (dividing total air into primary, secondary and tertiary air) to control fuel bound nitrogen from mixing early and oxidizing to NOx; it can also limit thermal NOx by reducing peak flame temperatures. Previous research at Texas A&M University (TAMU) demonstrated that cofiring coal with feedlot biomass (FB) in conventional burners produced lower or similar levels of NOx but increased CO. The present research deals with i) construction of a small scale 29.31 kW (100,000 BTU/hr) LNB facility, ii) evaluation of firing Wyoming (WYO) coal as the base case coal and cofiring WYO and dairy biomass (DB) blends, and iii) evaluating the effects of staging on NOx and CO. Ultimate and Proximate analysis revealed that WYO and low ash, partially composted, dairy biomass (LA-PC-DB-SepS) had the following heat values and empirical formulas: CH0.6992N0.0122O0.1822S0.00217 and CH_1.2554N_0.0470O_0.3965S_0.00457. The WYO contained 3.10 kg of Ash/GJ, 15.66 kg of VM/GJ, 0.36 kg of N/GJ, and 6.21 kg of O/GJ while LA-PC-DB-SepS contained 11.57 kg of Ash/GJ, 36.50 kg of VM/GJ, 1.50 kg of N/GJ, and 14.48 kg of O/GJ. The construction of a LNB nozzle capable of providing primary, swirled secondary and swirled tertiary air for staging was completed. The reactor provides a maximum residence time of 1.8 seconds under hot flow conditions. WYO and DB were blended on a mass basis for the following blends: 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, and 80:20. Results from firing pure WYO showed that air staging caused a slight decrease of NOx in lean regions (equivalence ratio, greater than or equal to 1.0) but an increase of CO in rich regions (=1.2). For unstaged combustion, cofiring resulted in most fuel blends showing similar NOx emissions to WYO. Staged cofiring resulted in a 12% NOx increase in rich regions while producing similar to slightly lower amounts of NOx in lean regions. One conclusion is that there exists a strong inverse relationship between NOx and CO emissions.

Gomez, Patsky O.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Production of bread from blends of sorghum flour and gelatinized cassava starch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low specific volume yeast leavened bread was prepared from blends containing sorghum flour, raw and gelatinized cassava starch. Cassava starch was gelatinized in 90% distilled water by boiling for 4 min. The starch paste was cooled to 30'C and mixed with sorghum flour, sugar (8%). dry yeast (2%), salt (2%) and raw cassava starch to develop a batter. The batter was scaled (200 g), fermented at 300C and 90% RH for 40 min and baked at 192'C for 20 min. Gelatinized starch enhanced batter cohesiveness and viscosity, while raw cassava starch improved the crumb. Sorghum-cassava bread had greater loaf volume and significantly better crumb structure than sorghum bread. Sorghum flours free of black specks, with fine particle size distribution produced the best bread. Dorado flour produced the best loaf, ATx630*Tx435 flour produced bread with lower loaf volume and a sticky crumb, and waxy flour produced unacceptable bread with wet, sticky crumb and low loaf volume. Amylose content was 25.6, 20.8, and 4.1%, respectively. The sorghum flours with reduced amylose content had poor bread quality, suggesting that amylose may play an important role in breadmaking quality of sorghum cassava breads. Freshly baked sorghum-cassava breads had acceptable texture and flavor; a high staling rate shortened their freshness. Antistaling additives can retard staling and prolong the freshness of sorghum-cassava bread. Shortening (1%) and succinylate monoglycerides (SMG, 1%) increased loaf volume, and improved crumb structure and softness, but caused a rancid off-flavor. Glycerol and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate did not increase bread volume and had no effect on crumb properties. Sorghum flours had significantly different pasting properties. The nonwaxy had the highest peak viscosity and the greatest setback viscosity. Shortening (1%) and 1% SMG retarded the onset of viscosity and increased the time required to reach peak viscosity. Nonwheat yeast leavened bread can be made with fine sorghum flour when gelatinized cassava starch is used to provide a continuous network to disperse the sorghum flour. The coarse grain bread can be sliced and consumed similar to wheat bread, although it stales rapidly.

Hugo, Leda Florinda

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. One plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through -200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace win be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. The burning profile of the plant coal and the three blends was determined in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Results indicated slower burning of the blends due to low volatile matter and oxidized coal particles. Ash fusing temperatures of the samples were determined using ASTM procedure. Preliminary combustion evaluation of the samples (100% plant coal, 80% plant coal/20% recovered coal fines) indicated that the flame was stable at 100,000-200,000 Btu/hr firing rate. Carbon conversion efficiency of 85 to 90% was recorded using the Ash Tracer technique. Tests are continuing to determine the operating boundaries for these blends while measuring the emissions of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, CO and O{sub 2}, maintaining a stable flame.

Singh, S. [SS Energy Environmental International, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States); Scaroni, A.; Miller, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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301

Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE-RICH POLYPHENLENESULFIDE BLEND TOP COATINGS FOR MITIGATING CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL IN 300 DEGREE CELCIUS BRINE.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We evaluated usefulness of a coating system consisting of an underlying polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) layer and top polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-blended PPS layer as low friction, water repellent, anti-corrosion barrier film for carbon steel steam separators in geothermal power plants. The experiments were designed to obtain information on kinetic coefficient of friction, surface free energy, hydrothermal oxidation, alteration of molecular structure, thermal stability, and corrosion protection of the coating after immersing the coated carbon steel coupons for up to 35 days in CO{sub 2}-laden brine at 300 C. The superficial layer of the assembled coating was occupied by PTFE self-segregated from PPS during the melt-flowing process of this blend polymer; it conferred an outstanding slipperiness and water repellent properties because of its low friction and surface free energy. However, PTFE underwent hydrothermal oxidation in hot brine, transforming its molecular structure into an alkylated polyfluorocarboxylate salt complex linked to Na. Although such molecular transformation increased the friction and surface free energy, and also impaired the thermal stability of PTFE, the top PTFE-rich PPS layer significantly contributed to preventing the permeation of moisture and corrosive electrolytes through the coating film, so mitigating the corrosion of carbon steel.

SUGAMA, T.; JUNG, D.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

304

Self-degradable Slag/Class F Fly Ash-Blend Cements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Self-degradable slag/Class F fly ash blend pozzolana cements were formulated, assuming that they might serve well as alternative temporary fracture sealers in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells operating at temperatures of {ge} 200 C. Two candidate formulas were screened based upon material criteria including an initial setting time {ge} 60 min at 85 C, compressive strength {ge} 2000 psi for a 200 C autoclaved specimen, and the extent of self-degradation of cement heated at {ge} 200 C for it was contacted with water. The first screened dry mix formula consisted of 76.5 wt% slag-19.0 wt% Class F fly ash-3.8 wt% sodium silicate as alkali activator, and 0.7 wt% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the self-degradation promoting additive, and second formula comprised of 57.3 wt% slag, 38.2 wt% Class F fly ash, 3.8 wt% sodium silicate, and 0.7 wt% CMC. After mixing with water and autoclaving it at 200 C, the aluminum-substituted 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal phase was identified as hydrothermal reaction product responsible for the development of a compressive strength of 5983 psi. The 200 C-autoclaved cement made with the latter formula had the combined phases of tobermorite as its major reaction product and amorphous geopolymer as its minor one providing a compressive strength of 5271 psi. Sodium hydroxide derived from the hydrolysis of sodium silicate activator not only initiated the pozzolanic reaction of slag and fly ash, but also played an important role in generating in-situ exothermic heat that significantly contributed to promoting self-degradation of cementitious sealers. The source of this exothermic heat was the interactions between sodium hydroxide, and gaseous CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}COOH by-products generated from thermal decomposition of CMC at {ge} 200 C in an aqueous medium. Thus, the magnitude of this self-degradation depended on the exothermic temperature evolved in the sealer; a higher temperature led to a sever disintegration of sealer. The exothermic temperature was controlled by the extent of thermal decomposition of CMC, demonstrating that CMC decomposed at higher temperature emitted more gaseous reactants. Hence, such large emission enhanced the evolution of in-situ exothermic heat. In contrast, the excessive formation of geopolymer phase due to more incorporation of Class F fly ash into this cementitious system affected its ability to self-degrade, reflecting that there was no self-degradation. The geopolymer was formed by hydrothermal reactions between sodium hydroxide from sodium silicate and mullite in Class F fly ash. Thus, the major reason why geopolymer-based cementitiuos sealers did not degrade after heated sealers came in contact with water was their lack of free sodium hydroxide.

Sugama, T.; Warren, J.; Butcher, T. (BNL); Lance Brothers (Halliburton); Bour, D. (AltaRock Energy, Inc.)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

James E. Francfort

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Copyrolysis of Seyitomer-lignite and safflower seed: influence of the blending ratio and pyrolysis temperature on product yields and oil characterization  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolytic behaviors of biomass/coal mixtures were investigated under a heating rate of 7{sup o}C min{sup -1}, over a range of pyrolysis temperatures between 400 and 700{sup o}C, and the blending ratio of coal in mixtures was varied between 0 and 100 wt %. The results indicated that considerable synergistic effects were observed during the copyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor leading to an increase in the oil yield at lower than coal blending ratios of 33%. At the lower blending coal ratio conditions, the oil yields are higher than the expected ones, calculated as the sum of oil fractions produced by pyrolysis of each separated component. The maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 39.5% was obtained with 5% of lignite mixed with safflower seed. The obtained oils are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. These findings can potentially help to understand and predict the behavior of coal/biomass blends in practical liquefaction systems. 33 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Ozlem Onay; Evren Bayram; O. Mete Kockar [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program was to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples were prepared as 100% plant coal, 90% plant coal/10% fines, 85% plant coal/15% fines, and 80% plant coal /20% fines with a particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. The plant coal and recovered coal fines were obtained from the Randolph Preparation Plant of Peabody Coal Co., Marissa, IL. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace was used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace was used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. The burning profile of the plant coal and the three blends was determined in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Results indicated slower burning of the blends due to low volatile matter and oxidized coal particles. Combustion emissions of these samples were determined in the down-fired combustor, while relative ignition temperatures were determined in the drop tube furnace. Chemical composition of ashes were analyzed to establish a correlation with their respective ash fusion temperatures. Overall study of these samples suggested that the blended samples had combustion properties similar to the original plant coal. In other words, flames were stable under identical firing rates of approximately 200,000 Btu`s/hr and 25% excess air. CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub x}, were similar to each other and within the experimental error. Combustion efficiency of 99{sup +}% was achievable. Ash chemical analysis of each sample revealed that slagging and fouling should not be different from each other.

Singh, S. [SS Energy Environmental International, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States); Scaroni, A.; Miller, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Foster, Prof. Dave [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Efficiency and Emissions Study of a Residential Micro-cogeneration System based on a Modified Stirling Engine and Fuelled by a Wood Derived Fas Pyrolysis Liquid-ethanol Blend.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A residential micro-cogeneration system based on a Stirling engine unit was modified to operate with wood derived fast pyrolysis liquid (bio-oil)-ethanol blend. A pilot stabilized… (more)

Khan, Umer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State  

SciTech Connect

There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses: October 15, 2002-September 30, 2004  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Development and Demonstration Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses October 15, 2002 - September 30, 2004 A. Del Toro SunLine Services Group Thousand Palms, California M. Frailey National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado F. Lynch Hydrogen Components Inc. Littleton, Colorado S. Munshi Westport Innovations Inc. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada S. Wayne West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia Technical Report NREL/TP-540-38707 November 2005 Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses October 15, 2002 - September 30, 2004 A. Del Toro SunLine Services Group Thousand Palms, California M. Frailey National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado

312

Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State  

SciTech Connect

There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Ambipolar blends of CuPc and C60: charge carrier mobility, electronic structure and its implications for solar cell applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ambipolar transport has been realised in blends of the molecular hole conductor Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and the electron conducting fullerene C60. Charge carrier mobilities and the occupied electronic levels have been analyzed as a function of the mixing ratio using field-effect transistor measurements and photoelectron spectroscopy. These results are discussed in the context of photovoltaic cells based on these materials.

W. Bruetting; M. Bronner; M. Goetzenbrugger; A. Opitz

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

314

Color tuning of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce phosphor and their blend for white LEDs  

SciTech Connect

Gadolinium or lanthanum co-doped (0.5 mole) yttrium aluminum garnet doped with cerium phosphors were synthesized by a citric acid gel method and the effect of co-dopants on the structural and luminescent properties were studied. A significant peak shift in the photoluminescence spectra of yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium was observed from 535 to 556 and 576 nm for gadolinium or lanthanum co-doped phosphors, respectively. The color tuned phosphor were blended with yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium which showed a considerable improvement in the Commission International De Eclairage chromaticity co-ordinate values of gallium nitride based blue light emitting diode pumped white light. White light emitted from yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium shows a Commission International De Eclairage value of (0.229, 0.182) whereas the yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium phosphor blended with gadolinium or lanthanum co-doped phosphor shows (0.262, 0.243) and (0.295, 0.282), respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility to use these phosphor blends to enhance the white light generation in the field of white-light emitting diode solid-state lighting.

Kottaisamy, M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kalasalingam University, Krishnankoil 626 190 (India)], E-mail: mmksamy66@yahoo.com; Thiyagarajan, P.; Mishra, J.; Ramachandra Rao, M.S. [Materials Science Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Use of a predictive model for the impact of cofiring coal/biomass blends on slagging and fouling propensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper describes an investigation of slagging and fouling effects when cofiring coal/biomass blends by using a predictive model for large utility boilers. This model is based on the use a zone computational method to determine the midsection temperature profile throughout a boiler, coupled with a thermo-chemical model, to define and assess the risk of elevated slagging and fouling levels during cofiring of solid fuels. The application of this prediction tool was made for a 618 MW thermal wall-fired pulverized coal boiler, cofired with a typical medium volatile bituminous coal and two substitute fuels, sewage sludge and sawdust. Associated changes in boiler efficiency as well as various heat transfer and thermodynamic parameters of the system were analyzed with slagging and fouling effects for different cofiring ratios. The results of the modeling revealed that, for increased cofiring of sewage sludge, an elevated risk of slagging and high-temperature fouling occurred, in complete contrast to the effects occurring with the utilization of sawdust as a substitute fuel. 30 refs., 9 figs.,1 tab.

Piotr Plaza; Anthony J. Griffiths; Nick Syred; Thomas Rees-Gralton [Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Centre for Research in Energy

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

A Neural Networks Model of the Venezuelan Economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Besides an indicator of the GDP, the Central Bank of Venezuela generates the so called Monthly Economic Activity General Indicator. The a priori knowledge of this indicator, which represents and sometimes even anticipates the economy's fluctuations, could be helpful in developing public policies and in investment decision making. The purpose of this study is forecasting the IGAEM through non parametric methods, an approach that has proven effective in a wide variety of problems in economics and finance.

Costanzo, Sabatino; Jimenez, Luis; Gonzalez, Juan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more components of the elastomers (by the solvent). This extraction of additives can negatively change the properties of the elastomer, leading to reduced performance and durability. For a seal application, some level of volume swell is acceptable, since the expansion will serve to maintain a seal. However, the acceptable level of swell is dependent on the particular application of the elastomer product. It is known that excessive swell can lead to unacceptable extrusion of the elastomer beyond the sealed interface, where it becomes susceptible to damage. Also, since high swell is indicative of high solubility, there is a heightened potential for fluid to seep through the seal and into the environment. Plastics, on the other hand, are used primarily in structural applications, such as solid components, including piping and fluid containment. Volume change, especially in a rigid system, will create internal stresses that may negatively affect performance. In order to better understand and predict the compatibility for a given polymer type and fuel composition, an analysis based on Hansen solubility theory was performed for each plastic and elastomer material. From this study, the solubility distance was calculated for each polymer material and test fuel combination. Using the calculated solubility distance, the ethanol concentration associated with peak swell and overall extent of swell can be predicted for each polymer. The bulk of the material discussion centers on the plastic materials, and their compatibility with Fuel C, CE25a, CE50a, and CE85a. The next section of this paper focuses on the elastomer compatibility with the higher ethanol concentrations with comparison to results obtained previously for the lower ethanol levels. The elastomers were identical to those used in the earlier study. Hansen solubility theory is also applied to the elastomers to provide added interpretation of the results. The final section summarizes the performance of the metal coupons.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR  

SciTech Connect

In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600°F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 – 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

319

BLENDING LOW ENRICHED URANIUM WITH DEPLETED URANIUM TO CREATE A SOURCE MATERIAL ORE THAT CAN BE PROCESSED FOR THE RECOVERY OF YELLOWCAKE AT A CONVENTIONAL URANIUM MILL  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex, there are a number of streams of low enriched uranium (LEU) that contain various trace contaminants. These surplus nuclear materials require processing in order to meet commercial fuel cycle specifications. To date, they have not been designated as waste for disposal at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Currently, with no commercial outlet available, the DOE is evaluating treatment and disposal as the ultimate disposition path for these materials. This paper will describe an innovative program that will provide a solution to DOE that will allow disposition of these materials at a cost that will be competitive with treatment and disposal at the NTS, while at the same time recycling the material to recover a valuable energy resource (yellowcake) for reintroduction into the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. International Uranium (USA) Corporation (IUSA) and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS) have entered into a commercial relationship to pursue the development of this program. The program involves the design of a process and construction of a plant at NFS' site in Erwin, Tennessee, for the blending of contaminated LEU with depleted uranium (DU) to produce a uranium source material ore (USM Ore{trademark}). The USM Ore{trademark} will then be further processed at IUC's White Mesa Mill, located near Blanding, Utah, to produce conventional yellowcake, which can be delivered to conversion facilities, in the same manner as yellowcake that is produced from natural ores or other alternate feed materials. The primary source of feed for the business will be the significant sources of trace contaminated materials within the DOE complex. NFS has developed a dry blending process (DRYSM Process) to blend the surplus LEU material with DU at its Part 70 licensed facility, to produce USM Ore{trademark} with a U235 content within the range of U235 concentrations for source material. By reducing the U235 content to source material levels in this manner, the material will be suitable for processing at a conventional uranium mill under its existing Part 40 license to remove contaminants and enable the product to re-enter the commercial fuel cycle. The tailings from processing the USM Ore{trademark} at the mill will be permanently disposed of in the mill's tailings impoundment as 11e.(2) byproduct material. Blending LEU with DU to make a uranium source material ore that can be returned to the nuclear fuel cycle for processing to produce yellowcake, has never been accomplished before. This program will allow DOE to disposition its surplus LEU and DU in a cost effective manner, and at the same time provide for the recovery of valuable energy resources that would be lost through processing and disposal of the materials. This paper will discuss the nature of the surplus LEU and DU materials, the manner in which the LEU will be blended with DU to form a uranium source material ore, and the legal means by which this blending can be accomplished at a facility licensed under 10 CFR Part 70 to produce ore that can be processed at a conventional uranium mill licensed under 10 CFR Part 40.

Schutt, Stephen M.; Hochstein, Ron F.; Frydenlund, David C.; Thompson, Anthony J.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

320

Measurement and inspection of engines operated 50,000 miles on methanol/gasoline blends. Final report No. MED 120, December 1979-December 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The inspection of 6 commercial designed engines which were operated 50,000 miles on 10% methanol/90% unleaded gasoline blend were covered. The program was conducted at the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, Department of Energy, Bartlesville, Oklahoma with the Mobile Energy Division, Southwest Research Institute providing the technical expertise for the technical inspection of the engines following program completion. These vehicles operated throughout this program with minimal or no operational problems, this report will only indicate engine wear and deposits as determined by standard CRC rating techniques.

Brown, J.G.; Tosh, J.D.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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321

Ethanol Blends and Engine Operating Strategy Effects on Light-Duty Spark-Ignition Engine Particle Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spark ignition (SI) engines with direct injection (DI) fueling can improve fuel economy and vehicle power beyond that of port fuel injection (PFI). Despite this distinct advantage, DI fueling often increases particle emissions such that SI exhaust may be subject to future particle emissions regulations. Challenges in controlling particle emissions arise as engines encounter varied fuel composition such as intermediate ethanol blends. Furthermore, modern engines are operated using unconventional breathing strategies with advanced cam-based variable valve actuation systems. In this study, we investigate particle emissions from a multi-cylinder DI engine operated with three different breathing strategies, fueling strategies and fuels. The breathing strategies are conventional throttled operation, early intake valve closing (EIVC) and late intake valve closing (LIVC); the fueling strategies are single injection DI (sDI), multi-injection DI (mDI), and PFI; and the fuels are emissions certification gasoline, E20 and E85. The results indicate the dominant factor influencing particle number concentration emissions for the sDI and mDI strategies is the fuel injection timing. Overly advanced injection timing results in particle formation due to fuel spray impingement on the piston, and overly retarded injection timing results in particle formation due to poor fuel and air mixing. In addition, fuel type has a significant effect on particle emissions for the DI fueling strategies. Gasoline and E20 fuels generate comparable levels of particle emissions, but E85 produces dramatically lower particle number concentration. The particle emissions for E85 are near the detection limit for the FSN instrument, and particle number emissions are one to two orders of magnitude lower for E85 relative to gasoline and E20. We found PFI fueling produces very low levels of particle emissions under all conditions and is much less sensitive to engine breathing strategy and fuel type than the DI fueling strategies. The particle number-size distributions for PFI fueling are of the same order for all of the breathing strategies and fuel types and are one to two orders lower than for the sDI fuel injection strategy with gasoline and E20. Remarkably, the particle emissions for E85 under the sDI fueling strategy are similar to particle emissions with a PFI fueling strategy. Thus by using E85, the efficiency and power advantages of DI fueling can be gained without generating high particle emissions.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Youngquist, Adam D [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Moore, Wayne [Delphi; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportion of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.

Merritt, P. M.; Ulmet, V.; McCormick, R. L.; Mitchell, W. E.; Baumgard, K. J.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Validation of TRMM and Other Rainfall Estimates with a High-Density Gauge Dataset for West Africa. Part I: Validation of GPCC Rainfall Product and Pre-TRMM Satellite and Blended Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gauge data over North Africa are used to provide an assessment of satellite and blended rainfall products for 1988–94 and for 1998. A comparison is also made with the Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC) gauge dataset. For the 1988–94 ...

S. E. Nicholson; B. Some; J. McCollum; E. Nelkin; D. Klotter; Y. Berte; B. M. Diallo; I. Gaye; G. Kpabeba; O. Ndiaye; J. N. Noukpozounkou; M. M. Tanu; A. Thiam; A. A. Toure; A. K. Traore

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

DOE/GO-102013-3861 DOE/GO-102013-3861 September 2013 Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its

326

The Impact of Charge on Performance of an Air-to-Air Heat Pump for R22 and Three Binary Blends of Refrigerants 32 and 134a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted in which the performance of three blends of R134a and R32 were compared to R22. The effect of refrigerant charge and the size of expansion device on the performance of these refrigerants in an air-to-air heat pump operating in the air-conditioning mode was quantified. All tests were conducted according to ASHRAE Standard 116 (1983). The mixtures consisted of 60%/40%, 70%/30% and 80%/20% ratios by mass of R134a and R32. Charge levels of 5, 5.45, 5.90 and 6.00 kilograms (11, 12, 13 and 14 pounds) were tested. At each charge level, outdoor room conditions of 27.8°C, 35.0°C and 40.6°C (82°F, 95°F and 105°F) were tested. For each combination of charge level and outdoor room temperature, orifice diameters of 1.64, 1.78, 1.96 and 2.07 millimeters (0.0645, 0.0700, 0.0770 and 0.0815 inches) were tested. Three variables were used to quantify refrigerant performance: total capacity, total electrical power consumption and coefficient of performance (COP). Several other variables such as mass flow rate, compressor suction pressures and differential pressures were also used to determine system characteristics. The performance of the three mixtures was not as good as the R22. The capacities were between 7 and 17% lower than R22. The energy efficiency ratios were IV within three percent in some cases but the corresponding capacities at these EERs were more than 12% lower than the R22 base case. The best results for a mixture was the 60/40 blend. The capacity was 7.3% lower than the base case and the EER was 8.5% lower.

Robinson, J. H.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Enhancements of a Combustion Vessel to Determine Laminar Flame Speeds of Hydrocarbon Blends with Helium Dilution at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel flexibility in gas turbines is of particular importance because of the main fuel source, natural gas. Blends of methane, ethane, and propane are big constituents in natural gas and consequently are of particular interest. With this level of importance comes the need for baseline data such as laminar flame speed of said fuels. While flame speeds at standard temperature and pressure have been extensively studied in the literature, experimental data at turbine-like conditions are still lacking currently. This thesis discusses the theory behind laminar flames; new data acquisition techniques; temperature and pressure capability improvements; measured flame speeds; and a discussion of the results including stability analysis. The measured flame speeds were those of methane, ethane, and propane fuel blends, as well as pure methane, at an elevated pressure of 5 atm and temperatures of 298 and 473 K, using a constant-volume, cylindrical combustion vessel. The current Aramco mechanism developed in conjunction with National University of Ireland Galway compared favorably with the data, while the literature data showed discrepancies at stoichiometric to rich conditions. An in-depth flame speed uncertainty analysis yielded a wide range of values from 0.5 cm/s to 21.5 cm/s. It is well known that high-pressure experiments develop flame instabilities when air is used as the oxidizer. In this study, the hydrodynamic instabilities were restrained by using a high diluent-to-oxygen ratio. The thermal-diffusive instabilities were inhibited by using helium as the diluent. To characterize this flame stability, the Markstein length and Lewis number were calculated for the presented conditions. The resultant positive Markstein lengths showed a low propensity of flame speed to flame stretch, while the larger-than-unity Lewis numbers showed the relatively higher diffusivity of helium to that of nitrogen.

Plichta, Drew

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance degradation of R410A at higher temperatures was greater than R22. However, the R22 and R410A systems both operated normally during all tests. Visual observations of the R410A system provided no indication of vibrations or TXV hunting at high ambient outdoor test conditions with the compressor operating in the transcritical regime.

Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

Fixed Bed Countercurrent Low Temperature Gasification of Dairy Biomass and Coal-Dairy Biomass Blends Using Air-Steam as Oxidizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concentrated animal feeding operations such as cattle feedlots and dairies produce a large amount of manure, cattle biomass (CB), which may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. However, the concentrated production of low quality CB at these feeding operations serves as a good feedstock for in situ gasification for syngas (CO and H2) production and subsequent use in power generation. A small scale (10 kW) countercurrent fixed bed gasifier was rebuilt to perform gasification studies under quasisteady state conditions using dairy biomass (DB) as feedstock and various air-steam mixtures as oxidizing sources. A DB-ash (from DB) blend and a DB-Wyoming coal blend were also studied for comparison purposes. In addition, chlorinated char was also produced via pure pyrolysis of DB using N2 and N2-steam gas mixtures. The chlorinated char is useful for enhanced capture of Hg in ESP of coal fired boilers. Two main parameters were investigated in the gasification studies with air-steam mixtures. One was the equivalence ratio ER (the ratio of stochiometric air to actual air) and the second was the steam to fuel ratio (S:F). Prior to the experimental studies, atom conservation with i) limited product species and ii) equilibrium modeling studies with a large number of product species were performed on the gasification of DB to determine suitable range of operating conditions (ER and S:F ratio). Results on bed temperature profile, gas composition (CO, CO2, H2, CH4, C2H6, and N2), gross heating value (HHV), and energy conversion efficiency (ECE) are presented. Both modeling and experimental results show that gasification under increased ER and S:F ratios tend to produce rich mixtures in H2 and CO2 but poor in CO. Increased ER produces gases with higher HHV but decreases the ECE due to higher tar and char production. Gasification of DB under the operating conditions 1.59less than0.8 yielded gas mixtures with compositions as given below: CO (4.77 - 11.73 %), H2 (13.48 - 25.45%), CO2 (11-25.2%), CH4 (0.43-1.73 %), and C2H6 (0.2- 0.69%). In general, the bed temperature profiles had peaks that ranged between 519 and 1032 degrees C for DB gasification.

Gordillo Ariza, Gerardo

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance degradation of R410A at higher temperatures was greater than R22. However, the R22 and R410A systems both operated normally during all tests. Visual observations of the R410A system provided no indication of vibrations or TXV hunting at high ambient outdoor test conditions with the compressor operating in the transcritical regime.

Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Techno-Economic Feasibility of H-CNG Blends in India Geoffrey M. Morrison, Ravindra Kumar*, Sachin Chugh*, S.K. Puri*, D.K. Tuli* and R.K. Malhotra*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This study investigates the techno-economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from gasification of biomass.5 Briquetted biomass transportation 2.9 Biomass gasification to H2 26.7 H2 intermediary storage 6.1 H2,930 Estimated Hydrogen to Provide 20% blends by Volume (2g H2=22.4L) tons/year 13,813 Weight of Biomass required

California at Davis, University of

332

Standard specification for blended uranium oxides with 235U content of less than 5 % for direct hydrogen reduction to nuclear grade uranium dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This specification covers blended uranium trioxide (UO3), U3O8, or mixtures of the two, powders that are intended for conversion into a sinterable uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by means of a direct reduction process. The UO2 powder product of the reduction process must meet the requirements of Specification C 753 and be suitable for subsequent UO2 pellet fabrication by pressing and sintering methods. This specification applies to uranium oxides with a 235U enrichment less than 5 %. 1.2 This specification includes chemical, physical, and test method requirements for uranium oxide powders as they relate to the suitability of the powder for storage, transportation, and direct reduction to UO2 powder. This specification is applicable to uranium oxide powders for such use from any source. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for preventing criticality accidents, for health and safety, or for shipping. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of th...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Catalytic hydroprocessing of coal-derived gasification residues to fuel blending stocks: effect of reaction variables and catalyst on hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), and hydrodesulfurization (HDS)  

SciTech Connect

Gas liquors, tar oils, and tar products resulting from the coal gasification of a high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch plant can be successfully refined to fuel blending components by the use of severe hydroprocessing conditions. High operating temperatures and pressures combined with low space velocities ensure the deep hydrogenation of refractory oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. Hydrodeoxygenation, particularly the removal of phenolic components, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation were obtained at greater than 99% levels using the NiMo and NiW on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Maximum deoxygenation activity was achieved using the NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst having a maximum pore size distribution in the range of 110-220{angstrom}. The NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, which also has a relatively high proportion of smaller pore sizes (35-60 {angstrom}), displays lower hydrogenation activity. 30 refs., 1 fig. 8 tabs.

Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

EFFECT OF QUARTZ/MULLITE BLEND CERAMIC ADDITIVE ON IMPROVING RESISTANCE TO ACID OF SODIUM SILICATE-ACTIVATED SLAG CEMENT. CELCIUS BRINE.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We evaluated the usefulness of manufactured quartz/mullite blend (MQMB) ceramic powder in increasing the resistance to acid of sodium silicate-activated slag (SSAS) cementitious material for geothermal wells. A 15-day exposure to 90{sup o} CO{sub 2}-laden H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} revealed that the MQMB had high potential as an acid-resistant additive for SSAS cement. Two factors, the appropriate ratio of slag/MQMB and the autoclave temperature, contributed to better performance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement in abating its acid erosion. The most effective slag/MQMB ratio in minimizing the loss in weight by acid erosion was 70/30 by weight. For autoclave temperature, the loss in weight of 100 C autoclaved cement was a less than 2%, but at 300 C it was even lower. Before exposure to acid, the cement autoclaved at 100 C was essentially amorphous; increasing the temperature to 200 C led to the formation of crystalline analcime in the zeolitic mineral family during reactions between the mullite in MQMB and the Na from sodium silicate. In addition, at 300 C, crystal of calcium silicate hydrate (1) (CSH) was generated in reactions between the quartz in MQMB and the activated slag. These two crystalline phases (CSH and analcime) were responsible for densifying the autoclaved cement, conveying improved compressive strength and minimizing water permeability. The CSH was susceptible to reactions with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, forming two corrosion products, bassanite and ionized monosilicic acid. However, the uptake of ionized monosilicic acid by Mg dissociated from the activated slag resulted in the formation of lizardite as magnesium silicate hydrate. On the other hand, the analcime was barely susceptible to acid if at all. Thus, the excellent acid resistance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement was due to the combined phases of lizardite and analcime.

SUGAMA, T.; BROTHERS, L.E.; VAN DE PUTTE, T.R.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Kokjohn, Sage [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

East Coast (PADD 1) Conventional Gasoline Blended Blended with ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Stock Type: Area: 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History; Total Stocks: 3: 96: 55: 29: 23: 26: 2006-2012: Bulk Terminal: 3: 96: 55: 29: 23: 26: 2006-2012-= No ...

338

Development of a New Flame Speed Vessel to Measure the Effect of Steam Dilution on Laminar Flame Speeds of Syngas Fuel Blends at Elevated Pressures and Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic gas, syngas, is a popular alternative fuel for the gas turbine industry, but the composition of syngas can contain different types and amounts of contaminants, such as carbon dioxide, methane, moisture, and nitrogen, depending on the industrial process involved in its manufacturing. The presence of steam in syngas blends is of particular interest from a thermo-chemical perspective as there is limited information available in the literature. This study investigates the effect of moisture content (0 ? 15% by volume), temperature (323 ? 423 K), and pressure (1 ? 10 atm) on syngas mixtures by measuring the laminar flame speed in a newly developed constant-volume, heated experimental facility. This heated vessel also broadens the experimental field of study in the authors? laboratory to low vapor pressure fuels and other vaporized liquids. The new facility is capable of performing flame speed experiments at an initial pressure as high as 30 atm and an initial temperature up to 600 K. Several validation experiments were performed to demonstrate the complete functionality of the flame speed facility. Additionally, a design-of-experiments methodology was used to study the mentioned syngas conditions that are relevant to the gas turbine industry. The design-of-experiments methodology provided the capability to identify the most influential factor on the laminar flame speed of the conditions studied. The experimental flame speed data are compared to the most up-to-date C4 mechanism developed through collaboration between Texas A&M and the National University of Ireland Galway. Along with good model agreement shown with all presented data, a rigorous uncertainty analysis of the flame speed has been performed showing an extensive range of values from 4.0 cm/s to 16.7 cm/s. The amount of carbon monoxide dilution in the fuel was shown to be the most influential factor on the laminar flame speed from fuel lean to fuel rich. This is verified by comparing the laminar flame speed of the atmospheric mixtures. Also, the measured Markstein lengths of the atmospheric mixtures are compared and do not demonstrate a strong impact from any one factor but the ratio of hydrogen and carbon monoxide plays a key role. Mixtures with high levels of CO appear to stabilize the flame structure of thermal-diffusive instability. The increase of steam dilution has only a small effect on the laminar flame speed of high-CO mixtures, while more hydrogen-dominated mixtures demonstrate a much larger and negative effect of increasing water content on the laminar flame speed.

Krejci, Michael

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

The Dependence of Donor:Acceptor Ratio on the Photovoltaic Performances of Blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3OT) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) have been fabricated. P3OT and PC{sub 71}BM were used as the electron donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively. Both materials were mixed and dissolved in dichlorobenzene with three different D:A ratios i.e. 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 (weight) while maintained at the concentration of 2 wt%(26 mg/ml). The blended thin films were sandwiched between the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and the aluminum film. This paper reports the influence of donor:acceptor ratio on the performance of solar cell devices measured by current-voltage measurement both in the dark and under 1.5 AM solar illumination. It was found that all devices showed the photovoltaic effect with poor diode behavior and the donor:acceptor ratio significantly influenced on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells.

Fauzia, Vivi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

340

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil exports are ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Optimization of blended battery packs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis reviews the traditional battery pack design process for hybrid and electric vehicles, and presents a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that eases the process of cell selection and pack design, especially ...

Erb, Dylan C. (Dylan Charles)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Effect of Coal Blending By  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants are a major source of mercury (Hg) released into the environment and the utility industry is currently investigating options to reduce Hg emissions. One control option is to utilize existing pollution control equipment such as wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers. The split (speciation) between chemical forms of mercury (Hg) species has a strong influence on the control and environmental fate of Hg emissions from coal combustion. The high-temperature coal combustion process releases Hg in elemental form (Hg 0). A significant fraction of the Hg 0 can be subsequently oxidized in the low-temperature, post-combustion environment of a coal-fired boiler. Relative to Hg 0, oxidized Hg (Hg 2+) is more effectively removed by air pollution control systems (APCS). For example, the water-soluble Hg 2+ is much more easily captured than insoluble Hg 0 in FGD units. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology widely applied for reducing NOX emissions from power plants also affects the speciation of Hg in the coal combustion flue gases. Recent full-scale field tests conducted in the U.S. showed increases in Hg oxidation across the SCR catalysts for plants firing bituminous coals with sulfur (S) content ranging from 1.0 to 3.9%. However, plants firing subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coals which contains significantly lower chlorine (Cl) and sulfur (S)

Pilot-scale Coal Combustor The; Shannon D. Serre; Chun Wai Lee

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Equipment for Blending and Premixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...accessibility for ease of cleaning Have low power consumption Require low maintenance Provide dust-tight operation The above list indicates that the use of high-shear paddle- or plough-type

344

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS MADE FROM HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE (TANK FARM BLEND) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMATION (FBSR)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at 6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanford’s blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a “tie back” between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular ESTD and BSR products (radioactive and non-radioactive) were analyzed for to

Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

345

Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per barrel of crude oil are given in following table: Gasoline Sale Price per barrel Gas 1

Phillips, David

346

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS MADE FROM HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE (TANK FARM BLEND) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMATION (FBSR)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is amorphous, macro-encapsulates the granules, and the monoliths pass ANSI/ANS 16.1 and ASTM C1308 durability testing with Re achieving a Leach Index (LI) of 9 (the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, IDF, criteria for Tc-99) after a few days and Na achieving an LI of >6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanford’s blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a “tie back” between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular ESTD and BSR products (radioactive and non-radioactive) were analyzed for to

Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

347

Political risks focus attention on supply of Venezuelan oil to the ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

weather; gasoline; capacity; nuclear; exports; ... Saudi Arabia, and Mexico. Meanwhile, the United States, the world's largest oil consumer and oil importer, ...

348

Political risks focus attention on supply of Venezuelan oil to the ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Uncertainty about the health of Hugo Chávez, Venezuela's president, has raised interest in understanding Venezuela's contribution to U.S. oil supply.

349

Model for estimating Venezuelan population with working age using artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work presents the development of an Artificial Neural Networks model for estimating the female and male population with working age in Venezuela. For the creation of the model it is used the previous year values related to the employed, unemployed ... Keywords: artificial neural networks, labor force, regression analysis

Samaria Muñoz-Bravo; Anna Pérez-Méndez; Francklin Rivas-Echeverría

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

U.S. Landed Costs of Venezuelan Merey Crude Oil (Dollars ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2009: 37.66: 39.18: W: 49.22: 58.30: 64.00: 63.21: 68.17: 65.89: 68.26: 72.03: 69.99: 2010: ...

351

Product Supplied for Aviation Gasoline Blending Components  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Data may not add to ...

352

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports from Bahrain  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

353

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Exports by Destination  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil exports are ...

354

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports from Malta  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

355

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports from Jamaica  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

356

Stocks of Motor Gasoline Blending Components  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

169,784 168,136 166,156 171,254 169,872 169,336 1983-2013 PADD 1 49,945 49,955 48,286 47,499 46,224 45,277 2004-2013 PADD 2 30,015 30,069 29,849 36,038 36,327 35,678 2004-2013 PADD...

357

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports from Portugal  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

358

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Refinery, Bulk Terminal ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Distillate stocks ...

359

Reformulated Gasoline Blending Components Imports from Russia  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

360

Reformulated Gasoline Blending Components Imports from Turkey  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports from Syria  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

362

Reformulated Gasoline Blending Components Imports from Ecuador  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

363

Blending a Substation into Its Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides case studies and analyses of technologies to demonstrate that the use of gas-insulated stations (GIS) technology helps utilities to site substations in locations that would pose significant challenges to conventional outdoor substations.

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

364

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Reformulated Gasoline Blending ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

365

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports from Kyrgyzstan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

366

Phase Behavior in Asymmetric Polymer Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Banderet, A. Makromolekulare Chemie 1967 , 101 , Balsara, N.M. ; Strey, R. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition inLeibler, L. Makromolekulare Chemie-Rapid Communications

Nedoma, Alisyn Jenise

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

What's a hydrogen blended fueled vehicle?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

available for testing. However, development of fuel cell vehicles continues in earnest by vehicle manufacturers and other groups such as DOE's FreedomCar & Vehicle Technologies...

368

Stocks of Motor Gasoline Blending Components  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Stocks include those ...

369

Brake blending strategy for a hybrid vehicle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including a transmission for driving a pair of wheels of a vehicle and a heat engine and an electric motor/generator coupled to the transmission. A friction brake system is provided for applying a braking torque to said vehicle. A controller unit generates control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system for controllably braking the vehicle in response to a drivers brake command. The controller unit determines and amount of regenerative torque available and compares this value to a determined amount of brake torque requested for determining the control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system.

Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI)

2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

370

Blending a Substation into its Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the demand for substations in residential and urban areas increasesand the public's tolerance of substations in their backyard decreaseselectric companies are faced with the growing challenge to reduce substation impact in terms of footprint, aesthetics, noise, interference, environmental impact, and safety. In parallel, there is an increasing demand to make substations more physically secure. This EPRI project is built on the premise that reducing a substation's impact on its surroundingsand making i...

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

371

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports from Mexico  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

372

Stocks of Motor Gasoline Blending Components, CBOB  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Stocks include those ...

373

Ethanol blending provides another proxy for gasoline ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook ... Search EIA.gov. A-Z Index; ... and inventory data that enter into the traditional gasoline product supplied calculation.

374

Polycaprolactone Blends for Tissue Engineering and  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Certain limitations of PCL in tissue engineering and drug delivery are due to their ... A7: On-the-fly System Design for High Precision/Ultra Fast/Wide Area Fabrication .... C19: Dissolution Behavior of Cu Under Bump Metallization in Ball Grid Array ... Volume and Fast Turnaround Automated Inline TEM Sample Preparation.

375

BlendDB : blending table layouts to support efficient browsing of relational databases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The physical implementation of most relational databases follows their logical description, where each relation is stored in its own file or collection of files on disk. Such an implementation is good for queries that ...

Marcus, Adam, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

East Coast (PADD 1) Imports of Gasoline Blending Components ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

456: 448: 2013: 514: 529: 492: 669: 648: 574: 551: 458-= No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual ...

377

Weekly U.S. Imports of Conventional Other Gasoline Blending ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

456 : 2011-Mar: 03/04 : 376 : 03/11 : 406 : 03/18 : 433 : 03/25 : 445 : 2011-Apr: 04/01 : 586 : 04/08 : 505 : 04/15 : 483 : 04/22 : 423 : 04/29 : 457 : 2011-May: 05/06 :

378

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Movements by Tanker and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

379

Refiner and Blender Inputs of Motor Gasoline Blending Components  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Finished motor gasoline ...

380

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports by Area of Entry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil includes ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

East Coast (PADD 1) Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

382

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

383

Midwest (PADD 2) Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

384

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

385

East Coast (PADD 1) Imports from Chile of Gasoline Blending ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1995: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 1996: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 1997: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0 ...

386

Ethanol blending provides another proxy for gasoline demand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook ... Search EIA.gov. A-Z Index; ... and inventory data that enter into the traditional gasoline product supplied calculation.

387

Estimation of the degree of hydration of blended cement ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The minimum particle size measured was 1 JUn. Air dispersion and laser scattering techniques were used. cement atw/c=0.4. ...

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

388

NREL UL Fuel Dispensing Infrastructure Intermediate Blends Performance Testing (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation provides an overview of NREL's project to determine compatibility and safe performance of installed fuel dispensing infrastructure with E15.

Moriarty, K.; Clark, W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Hydrogen effects on materials for CNG/H2 blends.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

No concerns for Hydrogen-Enriched Compressed Natural gas (HCNG) in steel storage tanks if material strength is CNG) (e.g., CO) may provide extrinsic mechanism for mitigating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in steel tanks.

Farese, David (Air Products, USA); Keller, Jay O.; Somerday, Brian P.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

089 The Electrical Properties of Polyaniline Blend with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

005 Calcium Phosphates for Drug Carrier: Adsorption and Release Kinetics of Drugs ... 058 Properties Optimization of Refractory Mineral Resources in China.

391

Reformulated Gasoline Blending Components Imports from Non OPEC  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

392

Study on the Combustion Characteristics and Kinetics of Blending ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The changes of combustion characteristic parameters o f pulverized coals are analyzed. The results show that DTG curves of coal combustion move to low ...

393

U.S. Motor Gasoline Blending Components Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

394

Wurtzite–Zinc Blende Transition in InAs Nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... epitaxy (MOVPE) at 420–480°C, using aerosol fabricated, size-selected gold particles .... P1.11 MOCVD Growth and the Transport Properties of Lattice- Matched ... P1.32 Improved light output power of InGaN/GaN based light-emitting diodes ...

395

Pyrolyzed macrocycle/carbon blends for advanced electrocatalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pyrolysis of metallated macrocycle compounds involves a vapor phase condensation to form a solid, condensation product that is carbonaceous and electronically conductive. Reaction of these vapors with hot carbon surfaces permits condensation on these surfaces that prepares active electrocatalytic carbons. The role of the metal ion in these processes is not clear, although the chelate clearly acts to carry the metal into the vapor phase. Rapid peroxide decomposition results only with the composite (carbon plus chelate) char. Thus these modified surfaces add the necessary peroxide reactivity to carbon for high oxygen electroreduction rates.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Rieke, P.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

COMPUTERIZED SOLUTIONS TO MINE PLANNING AND BLENDING PROBLEMS (COAL).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal quality plays a crucial role both economically and environmentally in the operation of a coal-fired power plant. These plants are designed to operate most… (more)

LONERGAN, JAMES EDWARD.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Conceptual Blends and Critical Awareness in Teaching Cultural Narratives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

slogan “Wir sind ein Volk” (we are one people), ultimatelyreunification), Wir sind EIN Volk (we are one people), andthe folkloric Wir sind EIN Volk narrative from 1990? How

howell, tes

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Refiner and Blender Net Inputs of Motor Gasoline Blending ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Percent Utilization is ...

399

Blender Net Input of Reformulated GTAB Gasoline Blending ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

400

Stocks by Type - Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) CBOB Gasoline Blending ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

be introduced into the network. This would be an issue in cases where the hydrogen production system does not produce pure hydrogen. In most research programs, the focus of...

402

Trifluoromethyl Iodide and its Blends as High-Performance ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in airborne aircraft and at ground level at ... These estimates are of necessity very crude because they ... without changing t 3 mineral oil lubricant (Ref. ...

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

403

Conventional Gasoline Blended Bulk Terminal Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

404

Reformulated GTAB Gasoline Blending Components Total Stocks Stocks ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

405

Ternary Blends for Controlling Cost and Carbon Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... per ASTM C618, “Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash ... m3 (169 lb/ft3) and reported CaCO3 and ... program: • ACI 212.3R-10, “Report on Chemical ...

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Membranes Obtained from PA6/HDPE Blends Via Precipitation by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results showed the characteristic pores for microfiltration process. .... of Transparent Conductive Films of Magnesium Hydroxide Based Compounds.

407

Blend surfaces for set theoretic volume modelling systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most volume modelling systems are very limited in the complexity of the surfaces which they support. This is satisfactory for basic models of most mechanical components, since the functional surfaces are not usually complex. However, there are often ... Keywords: computer aided design, curved surfaces, ray tracing, volume modelling

Alan E. Middleditch; Kenneth H. Sears

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Blender Net Production of Conventional Gasoline Blended with ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast: 1,688: 1,693: 1,715: 1,697: 1,696: 1,742: 2005-2013: Appalachian No. 1: 215: 228: 213: 204: 213: 202: ... La. Gulf Coast: 107: 102: 103: ...

409

Catalytic reforming boosts octane for gasoline blending - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Because reformate contains significant amounts of benzene, toluene, and xylene, it also is an important source of feedstock for the petrochemical industry.

410

Biofuels markets face blending constraints and other challenges ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

411

Rolled Product Form Development and Optimization Using Blended ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Composition Design of Multi-Component ?-Ti Alloys Based on a Cluster Model ... Rheological Properties of Feedstock Composed of Titanium Alloy Powder and ...

412

Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Analytic Definition of Curves and Surfaces by Parabolic Blending  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A procedure for interpolating between specified points of a curve or surface is described. The method guarantees slope continuity at all junctions. A surface panel divided into p x q contiguous patches is completely specified by the coordinates of (p+1) x (q+1) points. Each individual patch, however, depends parametrically on the coordinates of 16 points, allowing shape flexibility and global conformity.

A. W. Overhauser

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

414

U.S. Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Spatly Islands : 2007-2007: Swaziland : 1999-1999: Sweden: 4 : 5: 1 : 1997-2013: Switzerland : 1997-1997: Syria : 2011-2011: Taiwan : 5 : 2000-2013: Thailand : 1999-2007:

415

U.S. Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Spatly Islands : 2007-2007: Swaziland : 1999-1999: Sweden : 142: 44 : 1997-2013: Switzerland : 1997-1997: Syria : 2011-2011: Taiwan : 150 : 2000-2013: Thailand

416

U.S. Motor Gasoline Blending Components Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Spatly Islands: 43 : 2007-2007: Swaziland : 1999-1999: Sweden: 2,847: 3,729: 3,197: 2,490: 5,846: 1,388: 1997-2012: Switzerland : 1997-1997: Syria : 134 : 2011-2011 ...

417

U.S. Conventional Gasoline Blending Components Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Spatly Islands : 2007-2007: Sweden: 110 : 142: 9 : 2004-2013: Syria : 2011-2011: Taiwan : 150 : 2004-2013: Thailand : 2006-2007: Togo : 2012-2012: Trinidad and Tobago

418

U.S. Conventional Gasoline Blending Components Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

419

Midwest RFG Is Small Fraction Of Market & Is “Unique” Blend  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... are the uncertainties surrounding supply that result from the temporary West Shore pipeline shutdown and the UNOCAL patent, ...

420

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The law puts a 15-billion-gallon limit on credits available for the amount of corn ethanol that can contribute to the renewable fuel standard. Less than 1% of the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Stocks of Motor Gasoline RBOB with Alcohol Blending Components  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Stocks include those ...

422

Stocks of All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Stocks include those ...

423

Imports of Reformulated Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Finished motor gasoline ...

424

Stocks of Reformulated Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Finished motor gasoline ...

425

Stocks of Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Stocks include those ...

426

Image blending techniques and their application in underwater mosaicing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The fusion of several images of the same scene into a single and larger composite is known as photo-mosaic. Unfortunately, the seams along image boundaries… (more)

Prados Gutiérrez, Ricard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Interim Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is an interim report for a study of biodiesel oxidative stability. It describes characterization and accelerated stability test results for 19 B100 samples and six diesel fuels.

McCormick, R. L.; Alleman, T. L.; Waynick, J. A.; Westbrook, S. R.; Porter, S.

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Biofuels markets face blending constraints and other challenges ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Volume shares are an important metric because of limits on the share of biofuels that can be used in ... when the Environmental ... compliance with the ...

429

Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200, 250, and 300°C at slightly superheated conditions. A propane:steam mass ratio of 5:100 was used for the steam-propane distillation runs. For the 34.2°API crude oil, weight yields are very similar for steam and steam-propane distillation, about 54% weight of original oil. However for the 25.1°API crude oil, weight yield for steam-propane distillation, 63%, is significantly higher than for steam distillation, 42% weight of original oil. The results indicate that propane has a stronger distillation effect on the intermediate oil than on the light oil. This is possibly due to the following reasons: (1) lesser amount of light fractions in the intermediate oil that enhance the separation of components in the oil caused by the concentration gradient, (2) the solvent effect of the propane on paraffinic fractions, these being more abundant in the intermediate than in the light oil, and (3) the propane is inducing a cracking of the oil at the higher temperatures and pressure. The positive effect of propane on distillation of the intermediate oil is also evident from the fact that the residual oil is highly viscous (due most likely to asphaltene precipitation), while lighter fractions have been distilled off.

Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

A SIMULATION MODEL FOR CANADA-US CLIMATE POLICY ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as Greenland Shelf oil, Venezuelan heavy oil, Athabaska tar sands and Green River oil shale. The latter sources

431

Stocks, Flows, and Prospects of Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as Greenland Shelf oil, Venezuelan heavy oil, Athabaska tar sands and Green River oil shale. The latter sources

Delucchi, Mark

432

Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

Tom Campbell

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

433

The Ambiguous Transition: Building State Capacity and Expanding Popular Participation in Venezuela's Agrarian Reform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reduce the role of foreign oil companies. “Once government-Venezuelan state and the foreign oil companies against eachChinese immigrants. The foreign oil firms, which dominated

Page, Tiffany Linton

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Overview - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... (tar sands, oil shales) or created liquids (gas-to-liquids, coal oil). Canadian and Venezuelan heavy oil and tar sands and similar deposits are ...

435

Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

Kass, Michael Delos (Oak Ridge, TN); Graves, Ronald Lee (Knoxville, TN); Storey, John Morse Elliot (Oak Ridge, TN); Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur (Andersonville, TN); Sluder, Charles Scott (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, John Foster (Powell, TN)

2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

436

Net Imports of Motor Gasoline Blending Components into the U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

437

Blending Multiresolution Satellite Data with Application to the Initialization of an Orographic Precipitation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of multisensor, multifrequency satellite data to specify initial conditions for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models offers a unique opportunity to improve the depiction of small-scale processes in the atmosphere through a myriad of ...

Robert J. Kuligowski; Ana P. Barros

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Turbocharged engine operations using knock resistant fuel blends for engine efficiency improvements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engine downsizing with a turbocharger has become popular these days in automotive industries. Downsizing the engine lets the engine operate in a more efficient region, and the engine boosting compensates for the power loss ...

Jo, Young Suk

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Preliminary Compatibility Assessment of Metallic Dispenser Materials for Service in Ethanol Fuel Blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The compatibility of selected metals representative of those commonly used in dispensing systems was evaluated in an aggressive E20 formulation (CE20a) and in synthetic gasoline (Reference Fuel C) in identical testing to facilitate comparison of results. The testing was performed at modestly elevated temperature (nominally 60 C) and with constant fluid flow in an effort to accelerate potential interactions in the screening test. Based on weight change, the general corrosion of all individual coupons exposed in the vapor phase above Reference Fuel C and CE20a as well as all coupons immersed in Reference Fuel C was essentially nil (brass and phosphor bronze), but the associated corrosion films were quite thin and apparently protective. For coupons immersed in CE20a, four different materials exhibited net weight loss over the entire course of the experiment: cartridge brass, phosphor bronze, galvanized steel, and terne-plated steel. None of these exhibited substantial incompatibility with the test fluid, with the largest general corrosion rate calculated from coupon weight loss to be approximately 4 {micro}m/y for the cartridge brass specimens. Selective leaching of zinc (from brass) and tin (from bronze) was observed, as well as the presence of sulfide surface films rich in these elements, suggesting the importance of the role of sulfuric acid in the CE20a formulation. Analysis of weight loss data for the slightly corroded metals indicated that the corrosivity of the test environment decreased with exposure time for brass and bronze and increased for galvanized and terne-plated steel. Other materials immersed in CE20a - type 1020 mild steel, type 1100 aluminum, type 201 nickel, and type 304 stainless steel - each appeared essentially immune to corrosion at the test conditions.

Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Preliminary Compatibility Assessment of Metallic Dispenser Materials for Service in Ethanol Fuel Blends  

SciTech Connect

The compatibility of selected metals representative of those commonly used in dispensing systems was evaluated in an aggressive E20 formulation (CE20a) and in synthetic gasoline (Reference Fuel C) in identical testing to facilitate comparison of results. The testing was performed at modestly elevated temperature (nominally 60 C) and with constant fluid flow in an effort to accelerate potential interactions in the screening test. Based on weight change, the general corrosion of all individual coupons exposed in the vapor phase above Reference Fuel C and CE20a as well as all coupons immersed in Reference Fuel C was essentially nil (<0.3 {micro}m/y), with no evidence of localized corrosion such as pitting/crevice corrosion or selective leaching at any location. Modest discoloration was observed on the copper-based alloys (cartridge brass and phosphor bronze), but the associated corrosion films were quite thin and apparently protective. For coupons immersed in CE20a, four different materials exhibited net weight loss over the entire course of the experiment: cartridge brass, phosphor bronze, galvanized steel, and terne-plated steel. None of these exhibited substantial incompatibility with the test fluid, with the largest general corrosion rate calculated from coupon weight loss to be approximately 4 {micro}m/y for the cartridge brass specimens. Selective leaching of zinc (from brass) and tin (from bronze) was observed, as well as the presence of sulfide surface films rich in these elements, suggesting the importance of the role of sulfuric acid in the CE20a formulation. Analysis of weight loss data for the slightly corroded metals indicated that the corrosivity of the test environment decreased with exposure time for brass and bronze and increased for galvanized and terne-plated steel. Other materials immersed in CE20a - type 1020 mild steel, type 1100 aluminum, type 201 nickel, and type 304 stainless steel - each appeared essentially immune to corrosion at the test conditions.

Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend venezuelan furrial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Estimating Impacts of Diesel Fuel Reformulation with Vector-based Blending  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the refining cost, investment, and operating impacts of specifications for reformulated diesel fuel (RFD) produced in refineries of the U.S. Midwest in summer of year 2010. The study evaluates different diesel fuel reformulation investment pathways. The study also determines whether there are refinery economic benefits for producing an emissions reduction RFD (with flexibility for individual property values) compared to a vehicle performance RFD (with inflexible recipe values for individual properties). Results show that refining costs are lower with early notice of requirements for RFD. While advanced desulfurization technologies (with low hydrogen consumption and little effect on cetane quality and aromatics content) reduce the cost of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, these technologies contribute to the increased costs of a delayed notice investment pathway compared to an early notice investment pathway for diesel fuel reformulation. With challenging RFD specifications, there is little refining benefit from producing emissions reduction RFD compared to vehicle performance RFD. As specifications become tighter, processing becomes more difficult, blendstock choices become more limited, and refinery benefits vanish for emissions reduction relative to vehicle performance specifications. Conversely, the emissions reduction specifications show increasing refinery benefits over vehicle performance specifications as specifications are relaxed, and alternative processing routes and blendstocks become available. In sensitivity cases, the refinery model is also used to examine the impact of RFD specifications on the economics of using Canadian synthetic crude oil. There is a sizeable increase in synthetic crude demand as ultra low sulfur diesel fuel displaces low sulfur diesel fuel, but this demand increase would be reversed by requirements for diesel fuel reformulation.

Hadder, G.R.

2003-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

442

NREL UL E15 Fuel Dispensing Infrastructure Intermediate Blends Performance Testing (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation provides an overview of NREL's project to determine compatibility and safe performance of installed fuel dispensing infrastructure with E15.

Moriarty, K.; Clark, W.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Toughening mechanisms in composites of miscible polymer blends with rigid filler particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fillers are often added to polymers improve stiffness at the cost of reduced toughness, but this tradeoff is not universal. Well-dispersed microscopic particles have been shown to improve toughness and stiffness simultaneously ...

Aronow, Roger Lockwood

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Attachment 1 Procedure ETA-YTP001 Revision 0 Attachment 1 - Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Acceleration Test Procedure ETA-YTP001 Revision 0 Effective May 15, 2003 Implementation of SAE...

445

J5: Electrical Conductivity of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Evaluated by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

B7: Synthesis and Electrical Properties of K2NiF4-Type (Ca2-xLnx)MnO4 (Ln=Nd and Sm) · B8: Monitoring Oxygen Diffusion in Gd-Doped Ceria by Null ...

446

Electrolytic Hydrogen from a Blend of Nuclear- and Wind-Produced...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Set a H 2 production rate (as a proportion of all-H 2 production) Apply to actual hourly electricity price data and minimize cost of H 2 production while maintaining constant H 2...

447

MINIMIZING NET CO2 EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL / BIOMASS BLENDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study presents a set of thermodynamic calculations on the optimal mode of solid fuel utilization considering a wide range of fuel types and processing technologies. The technologies include stand-alone combustion, biomass/coal cofiring, oxidative pyrolysis, and straight carbonization with no energy recovery but with elemental carbon storage. The results show that the thermodynamically optimal way to process solid fuels depends strongly on the specific fuels and technologies available, the local demand for heat or for electricity, and the local baseline energy-production method. Burning renewable fuels reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions as widely recognized. In certain cases, however, other processing methods are equally or more effective, including the simple carbonization or oxidative pyrolysis of biomass fuels.

Todd Lang; Robert Hurt

2001-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

448

MINIMIZING NET CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL/BIOMASS BLENDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid fuels vary significantly with respect to the amount of CO{sub 2} directly produced per unit heating value. Elemental carbon is notably worse than other solid fuels in this regard, and since carbon (char) is an intermediate product of the combustion of almost all solid fuels, there is an opportunity to reduce specific CO{sub 2} emissions by reconfiguring processes to avoid char combustion wholly or in part. The primary goal of this one-year Innovative Concepts project is to make a fundamental thermodynamic assessment of three modes of solid fuel use: (1) combustion, (2) carbonization, and (3) oxidative pyrolysis, for a wide range of coal and alternative solid fuels. This period a large set of thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the potential of the three processes. The results show that the net carbon dioxide emissions and the relative ranking of the different processes depends greatly on the particular baseline fossil fuel being displaced by the new technology. As an example, in a baseline natural gas environment, it is thermodynamically more advantageous to carbonize biomass than to combust it, and even more advantageous to oxidatively pyrolyze the biomass.

Robert Hurt; Todd Lang

2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

449

The Effect Of Biodiesel Blends On A Multi-Cylinder Engine And The Impact On Aftertreatment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recently, topics including global warming, increased environmental awareness, recycling, and organically produced meat and vegetables have been prevalent in the media and research arenas. The… (more)

Peterson, Amy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Amorphous and Semi-Crystalline Blends of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Bridging Microstructure, Properties and Processing of Polymer Based ...