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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evaluates the emissions, fuel economy, and maintenance of five 40-foot transit buses operated on B20 compared to four on petroleum diesel.

Proc, K.; Barnitt, R.; Hayes, R. R.; Ratcliff, M.; McCormick, R. L.; Ha, L.; Fang, H. L.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses: October 15, 2002--September 30, 2004  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report covers literature and laboratory analyses to identify modification requirements of a Cummins Westport B Gas Plus engine for transit buses using a hydrogen/compressed natural fuel blend.

Del Toro, A.; Frailey, M.; Lynch, F.; Munshi, S.; Wayne, S.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Alternative fuel transit buses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K. [and others

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses: October 15, 2002-September 30, 2004  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Development and Demonstration Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses October 15, 2002 - September 30, 2004 A. Del Toro SunLine Services Group Thousand Palms, California M. Frailey National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado F. Lynch Hydrogen Components Inc. Littleton, Colorado S. Munshi Westport Innovations Inc. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada S. Wayne West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia Technical Report NREL/TP-540-38707 November 2005 Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses October 15, 2002 - September 30, 2004 A. Del Toro SunLine Services Group Thousand Palms, California M. Frailey National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado

5

Alternative Fuel Transit Buses  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

35th St. Craig Ave. Alt Blvd. Colucci Pkwy. Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a U.S. DOE national laboratory Transit Buses Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Vehicle Evaluation Program by Robert Motta, Paul Norton, and Kenneth Kelly, NREL Kevin Chandler, Battelle Leon Schumacher, University of Missouri Nigel Clark,West Virginia University October 1996 The authors wish to thank all the transit agencies that participated in this program.

6

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and Tractors Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and Tractors Project Summary Full Title: Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emission Impacts of Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Urban Buses and Farming Tractors Project ID: 86 Principal Investigator: Michael Wang Brief Description: This project studied the full fuel-cycle energy and emissions effects of ethanol-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in urban transit buses and farming tractors. Keywords: Ethanol; diesel; emissions; well-to-wheels (WTW) Purpose Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark- ignition engine vehicles. Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of

7

Transit Users Group Supports Transit Agencies with Natural Gas Buses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fact sheet describes the benefits of the Transit Users Group, which supports transit groups with compressed natural gas (CNG) buses.

Not Available

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Vehicle Modeling and Verification of CNG-Powered Transit Buses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling and Verification of CNG-Powered Transit BusesModeling and Verification of CNG-Powered Transit Buses.Modeling and Veri?cation of CNG-Powered Transit Buses J.K.

Hedrick, J. K.; Ni, A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transit Buses: Today's Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation on AddThis.com... Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation

11

Alternative fuel transit buses: The Pierce Transit Success Story  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Pierce transit program for operating mass transit buses on compressed natural gas (CNG) is described. Cost, reliability, fuel efficiency, emission of combustion products, and future trends are discussed.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An evaluation of emissions of natural gas and diesel buses operated by the Washington Metro Area Transit Authority.

Melendez, M.; Taylor, J.; Wayne, W. S.; Smith, D.; Zuboy, J.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

SunLine Transit Agency, Hydrogen Powered Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper provides preliminary results from an evaluation by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory of hydrogen-powered transit buses at SunLine Transit Agency.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit Buses: Interim Evaluation Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report focuses on the evaluation of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel hybrid electric bus propulsion systems in New York City Transit's transit buses.

Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Eudy, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results Update  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is an update to the 2007 preliminary results report on hydrogen fuel cell and diesel buses operating at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Sunline Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Evaluation Results Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update on the evaluation results for hydrogen and CNG-fueled buses opertating at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses  

SciTech Connect

In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths`s ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths's ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Evaluation of Orion/BAE Hybrid Buses and Orion CNG Buses at New York City Transit: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses the NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric transit buses operated by New York City Transit.

Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Chandler, K.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US); Clark, N.

2000-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

23

King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Interim Evaluation Results  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

King County Metro Transit King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Interim Evaluation Results K. Chandler Battelle K. Walkowicz National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39742 April 2006 King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Interim Evaluation Results K. Chandler Battelle K. Walkowicz National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. FC06.3000 Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39742 April 2006 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

24

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #555: January 26, 2009 Transit Buses are  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5: January 26, 5: January 26, 2009 Transit Buses are Relying Less on Diesel Fuel to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #555: January 26, 2009 Transit Buses are Relying Less on Diesel Fuel on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #555: January 26, 2009 Transit Buses are Relying Less on Diesel Fuel on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #555: January 26, 2009 Transit Buses are Relying Less on Diesel Fuel on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #555: January 26, 2009 Transit Buses are Relying Less on Diesel Fuel on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #555: January 26, 2009 Transit Buses are Relying Less on Diesel Fuel on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #555: January 26, 2009 Transit Buses are Relying Less on Diesel Fuel on

25

SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a protoype fuel cell bus, a prototype hydrogen hybrid interal combustion engine bus, and five new compressed natural gas buses.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Transit Buses: Interim Evaluation Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interim technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington.

Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

To Evaluate Zero Emission Propulsion and Support Technology for Transit Buses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California, in partnership with the San Mateo County Transit District in San Carlos, California. VTA has been operating three fuel cell transit buses in extra revenue service since February 28, 2005. This report provides descriptions of the equipment used, early experiences, and evaluation results from the operation of the buses and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure from March 2005 through July 2006.

Kevin Chandler; Leslie Eudy

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District; Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Report provides preliminary results from an evaluation of prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District -- Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority in San Jose, California.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

New York City Transit Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses Final Results: DOE/ NREL  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transit Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses Final Results: DOE/ NREL Transit Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses Final Results: DOE/ NREL Transit Bus Evaluation Project Jump to: navigation, search Name New York City Transit Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses Final Results: DOE/ NREL Transit Bus Evaluation Project Agency/Company /Organization Department of Energy Partner National Renewable Energy Laboratory Batelle"National Renewable Energy Laboratory Batelle" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. Focus Area Transportation Phase Bring the Right People Together, Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Finance and Implement Projects Resource Type Guide/manual Availability Publicly available--Free Publication Date 7/1/2002 Website http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02o Locality New York City References New York City Transit Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses Final Results: DOE/ NREL Transit Bus Evaluation Project[1]

32

Bay Area Transit Agencies Propel Fuel Cell Buses Toward Commercialization (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration of the next generation of fuel cells buses. Several transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area are participating in demonstrating the largest single fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States.

Not Available

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit Buses: Interim Evaluation Results  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

New York City Transit Hybrid New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit Buses: Interim Evaluation Results K. Chandler and E. Eberts Battelle L. Eudy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-540-38843 January 2006 New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit Buses: Interim Evaluation Results K. Chandler and E. Eberts Battelle L. Eudy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. FC06.3000 Technical Report NREL/TP-540-38843 January 2006 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

34

Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Emission Testing of Washington Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses M. Melendez, J. Taylor, and J. Zuboy National Renewable Energy Laboratory W.S. Wayne West Virginia University D. Smith U.S. Department of Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-540-36355 December 2005 Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses M. Melendez, J. Taylor, and J. Zuboy National Renewable Energy Laboratory W.S. Wayne West Virginia University D. Smith U.S. Department of Energy Prepared under Task No. FC05-9000 Technical Report NREL/TP-540-36355 December 2005 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov

35

Fuel Cell Vehicle World Survey 2003-Fuel Cells in Transit Buses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

range of heavy-duty diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG) transit buses. NABI, Inc., is a wholly owned subsidiary of NABI Rt., which was...

36

Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

Lammert, M.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012 Leslie Eudy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kevin Chandler Battelle Christina Gikakis Federal Transit Administration Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-56406 November 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012 Leslie Eudy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kevin Chandler Battelle Christina Gikakis Federal Transit Administration

38

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Un-Regulated Emissions from CRT-Equipped Transit Buses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Demonstrate applicability of the CRT TM to both new 4-stroke and older 2-stroke diesel engines Document the emissions reductions available using CRT TM retrofits in conjunction with reduced sulfur diesel fuel Evaluate the durability of CRTs in rigorous New York City bus service Apply new measurement and monitoring technologies for PM and toxic emissions Compare diesel-CRTTM with CNG and diesel-electric hybrid buses

Gibbs, Richard

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

40

New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit Buses: Final Evaluation Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the evaluation results for new Orion VII buses at NYCT with CNG propulsion and new hybrid propulsion.

Barnitt, R.; Chandler, K.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

In-Use Performance Comparison of Hybrid Electric, CNG, and Diesel Buses at New York City Transit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hybrid electric (equipped with BAE Systems? HybriDrive propulsion system) transit buses at New York City Transit (NYCT). CNG, Gen I and Gen II hybrid electric propulsion systems were compared on fuel economy, maintenance and operating costs per mile, and reliability.

Barnitt, R. A.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Alternative fuel transit buses: Interim results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Vehicle Evaluation Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transit bus program is designed to provide a comprehensive study of the alternative fuels currently used by the transit bus industry. The study focuses on the reliability, fuel economy, operating costs, and emissions of vehicles running on the various fuels and alternative fuel engines. The alternative fuels being tested are methanol, ethanol, biodiesel and natural gas. The alternative fuel buses in this program use the most common alternative fuel engines from the heavy-duty engine manufacturers. Data are collected in four categories: Bus and route descriptions; Bus operating data; Emissions data; and, Capital costs. The goal is to collect 18 months of data on each test bus. This report summarizes the interim results from the project to date. The report addresses performance and reliability, fuel economy, costs, and emissions of the busses in the program.

Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.J.; Chandler, K.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

New York City Transit Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses Final Results...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of facilities, a description of the project start-up process, evaluation results of hybrid buses studied, lessons learned, and recommendations for future alternative fuel...

44

COMPARISON OF CLEAN DIESEL BUSES TO CNG BUSES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using previously published data on regulated and unregulated emissions, this paper will compare the environmental performance of current generation transit buses operated on compressed natural gas (CNG) to current generation transit buses operated on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and incorporating diesel particulate filters (DPF). Unregulated emissions evaluated include toxic compounds associated with adverse health effects (carbonyl, PAH, NPAH, benzene) as well as PM particle count and size distribution. For all regulated and unregulated emissions, both technologies are shown to be comparable. DPF equipped diesel buses and CNG buses have virtually identical levels of PM mass emissions and particle number emissions. DPF-equipped diesel buses have lower HC and CO emissions and lower emissions of toxic substances such as benzene, carbonyls and PAHs than CNG buses. CNG buses have lower NOx emissions than DPF-equipped buses, though CNG bus NOx emissions are shown to be much more variable. In addition, this paper will compare the capital and operating costs of CNG and DPF-equipped buses. The cost comparison is primarily based on the experience of MTA New York City Transit in operating CNG buses since 1995 and DPF-equipped buses fueled with ULSD since 2001. Published data on the experience of other large transit agencies in operating CNG buses is used to validate the NYCT experience. The incremental cost (compared to ''baseline'' diesel) of operating a typical 200-bus depot is shown to be six times higher for CNG buses than for ''clean diesel'' buses. The contributors to this increased cost for CNG buses are almost equally split between increased capital costs for purchase of buses and installation of fueling infrastructure, and increased operating costs for purchase of fuel, bus maintenance, and fuel station maintenance.

Lowell, D.; Parsley, W.; Bush,C; Zupo, D.

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

45

Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

46

Boise Buses Running Strong with Clean Cities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A local Clean Cities coalition helped Idaho's Valley Regional Transit switch to compressed natural gas buses, allowing the transit authority to maintain its service while reducing harmful emissions.

47

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also economically competitive with California diesel fuel if .roduced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel, because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. The buses were equipped with unmodified Detroit Diesel 6V92 2-stroke diesel engines. Six 40-foot buses were tested. Three of the buses had recently rebuilt engines and were equipped with an oxidation catalytic converter. Vehicle emissions measurements were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The emissions were measured over the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses performed well on both neat and blended MGSD fuel. Three buses without catalytic converters were tested. Compared to their emissions when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel, these buses emitted an average of 5% lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 20% lower particulate matter (PM) when operating on neat MGSD fuel. Catalyst equipped buses emitted an average of 8% lower NOx and 31% lower PM when operating on MGSD than when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel.

Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Nigel N. Clark; Donald W. Lyons; Mridul Gautam; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

1999-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

48

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides results from fuel cell bus evaluations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District, SunLine Transit Agency, and Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results over the last year. There are 25 active FCEBs in demonstrations this year at eight locations.

Eudy, L.; Chander, K.; Gikakis, C.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Start-Up Experience (Alternative Fuel Transit Buses Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This report, based on interviews and site visits conducted in October 1999, describes the start-up activities of the DART liquefied natural gas program, identifying problem areas, highlighting successes, and capturing the lessons learned in DART's ongoing efforts to remain at the forefront of the transit industry.

Battelle

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

51

Case Study: Ebus Hybrid Electric Buses and Trolleys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evaluation focuses on the demonstration of hybrid electric buses and trolleys produced by Ebus Inc. at the Indianapolis Transportation Corporation and the Knoxville Area Transit.

Barnitt, R.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority: Compressed Natural Gas Transit Bus Evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evaluates compressed natural gas (CNG) powered transit buses at Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), providing a comparison between them and standard diesel transit buses.

Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Melendez, M.

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Charter Buses | Staff Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charter Buses for Tours and Special Events Charter Buses for Tours and Special Events Bus Request: Requests for tours and special events may be made by contacting the Transportation Office at 631-344-2535. Cancellation Policy: All cancellations must be made by phone to 631-344-2535 only during BNL business hours. Reservation must be canceled ten (10) business days prior to avoid penalty. Cancel two (2) to nine (9) business days prior - $150.00 penalty. Cancel within 24 hours - full fee will be charged. Staff Services maintains a contract that includes drivers for the rental of coaches, school buses, and vans for on-site tours and the transportation of large numbers of employees and visitors off-site. Our contract bus service rates are shown below: Hampton Jitney - Coaches Equipment Rates 8 Hour Day 4 Hour

54

Characterization of exhaust emissions from palm oil-based and soybean oil-based biodiesel fueled heavy-duty transit buses.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biodiesel blends offer a renewable energy fueling option for compression-ignition internal combustion engines. Typically, biodiesel blended at or less than 20% (B20), by volume, will… (more)

Efaw, Trampas J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses Program Status Update  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Program status update focuses on the experiences gathered during New York City Transit's deployment of hybrid electric buses in its fleet. This report is part of an ongoing Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies program to study heavy-duty alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles in the United States. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting the Transit Bus Evaluation Project to compare alternative fuel or advanced technology and diesel fuel buses. Information for the comparison comes from data collected on the operational, maintenance, performance, and emissions characteristics of alternative fuel or advanced technology buses currently being used in vehicle fleets and comparable diesel fuel buses serving as controls within the same fleet. This report highlights the New York City Transit (NYCT) alternative fuel and advanced technology programs including its diesel hybrid-electric buses. As part of the NREL Transit Bus Evaluation Project, data collection and evaluation of the Orion VI diesel hybrid-electric buses at NYCT are nearly complete. Final reports from the evaluation are being prepared by NREL and Battelle (NREL's support contractor for the project) and will be available in early 2002. If you want to know more about this transit bus program, its components, advanced technology vehicles, or incentive programs, contact any of the following personnel or visit the Web sites listed.

Not Available

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Boise Buses Running Strong with Clean Cities | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boise Buses Running Strong with Clean Cities Boise Buses Running Strong with Clean Cities Boise Buses Running Strong with Clean Cities May 28, 2013 - 12:05pm Addthis Working with Republic Services, the city of Boise and Valley Regional Transit, Treasure Valley Clean Cities built four compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling stations that allowed all three organizations to transition to CNG vehicles. | Photo courtesy of Valley Regional Transit. Working with Republic Services, the city of Boise and Valley Regional Transit, Treasure Valley Clean Cities built four compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling stations that allowed all three organizations to transition to CNG vehicles. | Photo courtesy of Valley Regional Transit. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts?

57

LPG buses in southern California leave the competition at the curb  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that after the first year of a landmark experiment in which LPG has been competing against methanol and CNG in city buses, propane appears to be pulling out in front of the pack. According to Efren Medellin, superintendent of vehicle maintenance at the Orange County Transit Authority, two LPG buses had registered a total of 31,000 moles with relatively little, if any, downtime. The two methanol buses had run a total of 30,000 miles while the two CNG buses had traveled only 5000 miles. Furthermore the methanol and CNG buses have had their share of downtime for new parts and other problems. The propane-powered buses appear to be running consistently well without mechanical difficulties. The only problem that occurred was occasional backfiring. As a result, the electronic controls were replaced and no subsequent complaints were heard.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof.

A. Del Toro; M. Frailey; F. Lynch; S. Munshi; S. Wayne; A. Del Toro; M. Frailey; F. Lynch; S. Munshi; S. Wayne

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

New York City Transit Drives Hybrid Electric Buses into the Future; Advanced Technology Vehicles in Service, Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (Fact Sheet)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HYBRID DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HYBRID ELECTRIC TRANSIT BUS EVALUATIONS The role of AVTA is to bridge the gap between R&D and commercial availability of advanced vehicle technologies that reduce U.S. petroleum use while improving air quality. AVTA supports the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program in moving these technologies from R&D to market deployment by examining market factors

60

Indianapolis Public Transportation Corporation. Advanced Technology Vehicles in Service: Diesel Hybrid Electric Buses (Fact Sheet).  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Web site and in print publications. Web site and in print publications. TESTING ADVANCED VEHICLES INDIANAPOLIS PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION â—† DIESEL HYBRID ELECTRIC BUSES Indianapolis Public Transportation DIESEL HYBRID ELECTRIC BUSES NREL/PIX 13504, 13505, 13583 THE INDIANAPOLIS PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION CORPORATION (INDYGO) provides transit service in the Indianapolis Metropolitan area, using 226 vehicles to serve 28 fixed and demand response routes. IndyGo vehicles

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Lightweight Buses With Electric Drive Improve Fuel Economy and Passenger Experience  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lightweight Buses With Electric Drive Improve Lightweight Buses With Electric Drive Improve Fuel Economy and Passenger Experience Background The standard, 40-foot diesel- powered transit bus is noisy, consumes a gallon of fuel for every three miles it travels, weighs 28,000 pounds, and contributes significantly to ur- ban air pollution. While hybrid electric buses do exist, they are very expensive, and typi- cally get just four miles to the gallon. Autokinetics and the Department of Energy Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program saw sig- nificant room for improvement in hybrid electric buses-in terms of weight and noise reduction, better fuel economy, lower cost, and rider percep- tion-using lightweight body

62

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Reports Increase in Durability and Reliability for Current Generation Fuel Cell Buses (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in evaluating the durability and reliability of fuel cell buses being demonstrated in transit service. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Technology Validation team in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane Buses Shuttle Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on AddThis.com... Oct. 13, 2012 Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine W atch how travelers in Bar Harbor, Maine, rely on propane-powered shuttle buses. For information about this project, contact Maine Clean Communities.

65

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane Buses Save Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on AddThis.com... Feb. 25, 2010 Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools F ind out how Gloucester County Schools' propane buses are quieter and cost

66

Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Buses Go Green in Virginia  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

School Buses Go Green School Buses Go Green in Virginia to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Buses Go Green in Virginia on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Buses Go Green in Virginia on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Buses Go Green in Virginia on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Buses Go Green in Virginia on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Buses Go Green in Virginia on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Buses Go Green in Virginia on AddThis.com... Oct. 1, 2011 School Buses Go Green in Virginia " We've taken some important first steps toward lower emissions and reduced dependence on foreign oil. Everybody needs to be doing everything they can

67

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Transportation Fuels for School Buses  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Clean Transportation Clean Transportation Fuels for School Buses to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Transportation Fuels for School Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Transportation Fuels for School Buses on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Transportation Fuels for School Buses on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Transportation Fuels for School Buses on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Transportation Fuels for School Buses on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Transportation Fuels for School Buses on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Clean Transportation Fuels for School Buses

68

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Requirement for School Buses  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Requirement Requirement for School Buses to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Requirement for School Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Requirement for School Buses on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Requirement for School Buses on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Requirement for School Buses on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Requirement for School Buses on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Requirement for School Buses on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Requirement for School Buses Every school bus that is capable of operating on diesel fuel must be

69

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane Buses Help Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on AddThis.com...

70

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Use in School Buses  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Use in Biodiesel Use in School Buses to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Use in School Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Use in School Buses on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Use in School Buses on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Use in School Buses on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Use in School Buses on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Use in School Buses on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Use in School Buses The South Carolina Department of Education must fuel state school bus fleets with biodiesel when feasible. (Reference South Carolina Code of Laws

71

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2005. [FTA 2006] U.S. Non-Rail Vehicle Market ViabilityWelding BART’s Aluminum Rail Transit Cars, Welding JournalAutomobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air Mikhail

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Tempe Transportation Division: LNG Turbine Hybrid Electric Buses  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet describes the performance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) turbine hybrid electric buses used in Tempe's Transportation Division.

Not Available

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas School Buses Grant  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Compressed Natural Gas Compressed Natural Gas School Buses Grant and Loan Pilot Program to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas School Buses Grant and Loan Pilot Program on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas School Buses Grant and Loan Pilot Program on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas School Buses Grant and Loan Pilot Program on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas School Buses Grant and Loan Pilot Program on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas School Buses Grant and Loan Pilot Program on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas School Buses Grant and Loan Pilot Program on AddThis.com...

74

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Shuttle Buses Offer Free  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Hybrid Electric Hybrid Electric Shuttle Buses Offer Free Rides in Maryland to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Shuttle Buses Offer Free Rides in Maryland on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Shuttle Buses Offer Free Rides in Maryland on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Shuttle Buses Offer Free Rides in Maryland on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Shuttle Buses Offer Free Rides in Maryland on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Shuttle Buses Offer Free Rides in Maryland on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Shuttle Buses Offer Free Rides in Maryland on AddThis.com... June 18, 2010

75

Hydrogen-Powered Buses Brochure Â… 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Powered by Powered by Hydrogen EERE Information Center 1-877-EERE-INFO (1-877-337-3463) eere.energy.gov/informationcenter Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. October 2010 Source: NREL, Dennis Schroeder Source: NREL, Dennis Schroeder Hydrogen-Powered Buses Showcase Advanced Vehicle Technologies Visitors to federal facilities across the country may now have the opportunity to tour the sites in a hydrogen- powered shuttle bus. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting the demonstration of hydrogen-powered vehicles and hydrogen infrastructure at federal facilities across the country. Nine facilities will receive fourteen hydrogen- powered buses to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced by Ford Motor Company, the

76

School Buses Get Greener in Bluegrass State | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

School Buses Get Greener in Bluegrass State School Buses Get Greener in Bluegrass State School Buses Get Greener in Bluegrass State September 10, 2010 - 11:45am Addthis Ed McNeel, superintendent of Corbin's school district, poses aboard the district's new hybrid-diesel bus. | Photo Courtesy of Susie Hart. Ed McNeel, superintendent of Corbin's school district, poses aboard the district's new hybrid-diesel bus. | Photo Courtesy of Susie Hart. Lindsay Gsell What are the key facts? Kentucky will receive 213 hybrid diesel buses in the next year. The project is funded with nearly $13 million in Clean Cities Recovery Act funding. The new buses will be more than 60% more fuel efficient than traditional vehicles. It's September and traditional school buses are once again on the roads in large numbers. However, throughout Kentucky, a new type of school bus will hit the road

77

Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - Nanyang | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - Nanyang Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - Nanyang Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - Nanyang Agency/Company /Organization: BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport Focus Area: Fuels & Efficiency Topics: Best Practices Website: www.best-europe.org/upload/BEST_documents/info_documents/Best%20report This report addresses the experience of introducing ethanol buses and fuel stations in Nanyang (China). Though the demonstration met initial obstacles, significant data and information was collected. The responses from drivers and passengers show that the ethanol buses were well accepted, and the function and performance of the ethanol buses was satisfactory. How to Use This Tool

78

Biodiesel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 2-page fact sheet discussing general biodiesel blends and the improvement in engine performance and emissions.

Not Available

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Use in School Buses...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Louisiana Legislature. The Board will consider the environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of using biodiesel in school buses. (Reference House Resolution 72, 201...

80

Early Results from DOE/NREL Transit Bus Evaluations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation at 2005 American Public Transportation Association Conference provides status of NREL/DOE evaluations of New York City Transit and King County Metro hybrid electric buses.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Transit Vehicle Testing Reports  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Planning and Transit Division: Advanced Technology Vehicles in Service: LNG Turbine Hybrid Electric Buses, February 2002 (PDF 446 KB PDF ) Dallas Area Rapid...

82

Experiences from Introduction of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel Station |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Experiences from Introduction of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel Station Experiences from Introduction of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel Station Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Experiences from Introduction of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel Station Agency/Company /Organization: BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport Focus Area: Fuels & Efficiency Topics: Best Practices Website: www.best-europe.org/upload/BEST_documents/info_documents/Best%20report Ethanol buses were demonstrated within BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport (BEST). This report describes the problems at the sites and how they were solved. The aim of the report is to guide other local transport authorities on how to deal with the questions raised when a bus demonstration begins. How to Use This Tool This tool is most helpful when using these strategies:

83

The BEST Experiences with Bioethanol Buses | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The BEST Experiences with Bioethanol Buses The BEST Experiences with Bioethanol Buses Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The BEST Experiences with Bioethanol Buses Agency/Company /Organization: BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport Focus Area: Fuels & Efficiency Topics: Best Practices Website: www.best-europe.org/upload/BEST_documents/info_documents/Best%20report This report summarizes the results of the BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport (BEST) demonstration of bioethanol buses. The conclusion is that bioethanol is a suitable fuel for public transport. Bioethanol has a potential to replace diesel in compression engines. How to Use This Tool This tool is most helpful when using these strategies: Avoid - Cut the need for travel Shift - Change to low-carbon modes Improve - Enhance infrastructure & policies

84

Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel April 1, 2010 - 6:48pm Addthis Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rental car customers may be able to breathe a little easier during their next trip to the airport. Alamo Rent A Car, Enterprise Rent-A-Car, and National Car Rental, all brands operated by the subsidiaries of Enterprise Holdings, are converting their airport shuttle buses to run on biodiesel fuel. The move is a good one for the environment, and will ultimately reduce the company's carbon emissions. "We are saving 420,000 gallons of petroleum diesel," says Lee Broughton, director of corporate identity and sustainability for Enterprise Holdings. Hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions will plummet, making the air

85

New Yellow School Buses Harness the Sun in Wisconsin | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

to the charge gained from the solar array, the buses also recharge their batteries using regenerative braking, just like traditional hybrid vehicles. The school bus-with the need...

86

Life-cycle Energy and Emissions Inventories for Motorcycles, Diesel Automobiles, School Buses, Electric Buses, Chicago Rail, and New York City Rail  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Buses, and Metropolitan Rail  Mikhail Chester and Arpad Buses, and Metropolitan Rail  Mikhail Chester and Arpad 2005, Metra (2005)]  Metra Rail, 2005.  Available Daily 

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Exploration of parameters for the continuous blending of pharmaceutical powders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transition from traditional batch blending to continuous blending is an opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry to reduce costs and improve quality control. This operational shift necessitates a deeper understanding ...

Lin, Ben Chien Pang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Interim Evaluation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CA Peterbilt378, Class 8 truck Cummins Westport ISXG high-pressure direct injection LNG and diesel Completed in 2004 Note: CNG compressed natural gas; LNG liquefied...

89

King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CA Peterbilt378, Class 8 truck Cummins Westport ISXG high-pressure direct injection LNG and diesel Completed in 2004 Note: CNG compressed natural gas; LNG liquefied...

90

Vehicle Modeling and Verification of CNG-Powered Transit Buses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by Compressed Natural Gas. . . . . . . . .. . 2 Internalbuses powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) engines. ThisBus Powered by Compressed Natural Gas The remainder of the

Hedrick, J. K.; Ni, A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Glacier-Waterton Park Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on AddThis.com... Dec. 31, 2004 Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane F ind out how Glacier-Waterton International Peace Park uses propane buses.

92

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Pennsylvania School Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on AddThis.com... Feb. 16, 2013 Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas F ind out how schools in Pennsylvania transport students in compressed

93

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Natural Gas School Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money on AddThis.com... Nov. 12, 2011 Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money

94

National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Impact of Compressed Natural Gas Fueled Buses on Street Pavements 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), together with other state regulations have encouraged or mandated transit systems to use alternative fuels to power bus fleets. Among such fuels, compressed natural gas (CNG) is attractive, although it must be stored in robust, heavy pressurized cylinders, capable of withstanding pressures up to 5,000 psi. Such systems are typically heavier than conventional diesel storage tanks. As a result, this raises gross vehicle weight, sometimes significantly, which then increases the consumption of the pavement over which CNG buses operate. Capital Metro, the Austin, Texas transit authority, is currently evaluating a number of CNG fueled buses. As part of the U.S. DOT Region Six University Transportation Centers Program (UTCP), a study was instigated into the scale of incremental pavement consumption associated with the operation of these buses. The study suggests that replacing current vehicles with CNG powered models utilizing aluminum storage tanks would raise average network equivalent single rehabilitation costs across the network of over four percent. Finally, it recommends that full cost study be undertaken with evaluation of the adoption of

Dingyi Yang; Robert Harrison

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Reports Increase in Durability and Reliability for Current Generation Fuel Cell Buses (Fact Sheet), Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlights (HFCTH)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

869 * November 2010 869 * November 2010 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Reports Increase in Durability and Reliability for Current Generation Fuel Cell Buses NREL Team: Hydrogen Technology Validation, Leslie Eudy Accomplishment: NREL recently reported an increase in durability and reliability for fuel cell systems demonstrated in transit service (first reported in July 2010). Context: The transit industry provides an excellent test-bed for developing and optimizing advanced transportation technologies, such as fuel cells. In coordination with the Federal Transit Administration, the Department of Energy (DOE) funds the evaluation of fuel cell buses (FCBs) in real-world service. Under this funding, NREL has collected and analyzed data on nine early generation FCBs operated by four transit agencies in the United States.

97

Natural gas buses: Separating myth from fact (Clean Cities alternative fuel information series fact sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Increasing numbers of transit agencies across North America are making the choice to convert their bus fleets to compressed natural gas (CNG), and even more are seriously considering it. Natural gas buses now account for at least 20{percent} of all new bus orders. However, it becomes difficult for fleet operators to fairly evaluate the potential benefits of an alternative fuel program if they are confronted with misinformation or poor comparisons based on false assumptions. This fact sheet addresses some of the most common misconceptions that seem to work their way into anecdotal stories, media reports, and even some poorly researched white papers and feasibility studies. It is an expanded version of information that was presented on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy at the South Coast Air Basin Alternative Fuel and Electric Transit Bus Workshop in Diamond Bar, California, on March 15, 2000.

Parish, R.

2000-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

98

Lower Merion a Key Player in Alternative Fuel Buses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This 2-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of natural gas power in buses by the Lower Merion School District, located in the western suburbs of Philadelphia, PA. It includes information on the history of the program, along with contact information for the local Clean Cities Coordinator and Lower Merion School District.

Not Available

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Use Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement Any diesel-powered vehicle the state, county or local government, school district, community college, public college or university, or mass transit

100

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel and Propane Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on AddThis.com... Oct. 2, 2009

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

New Buses Transport Students and Savings in Texas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Buses Transport Students and Savings in Texas Buses Transport Students and Savings in Texas New Buses Transport Students and Savings in Texas July 29, 2010 - 6:27pm Addthis Students look underneath one of Fort Worth Independent School District's new hybrid diesel buses. | Photo courtesy of FWISD Students look underneath one of Fort Worth Independent School District's new hybrid diesel buses. | Photo courtesy of FWISD Lindsay Gsell This fall, when students in Texas' Fort Worth Independent School District (FWISD) board school buses, some of them will be riding on the district's new hybrid electric diesel vehicles. Thanks to Recovery Act funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, the district was able to purchase 25 buses-enough to transport 1,800 students to school while saving the district 12,000 gallons

102

Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting Control Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alternative Field Buses Alternative Field Buses for Lighting Control Applications Prepared By: Ed Koch, Akua Controls Francis Rubinstein, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Prepared For: Broadata Communications Torrence, CA May 15, 2005 DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by its trade name,

103

Contactless prepaid and bankcards in transit fare collection systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many public transit agencies are considering direct acceptance of contactless credit and debit cards (collectively contactless bankcards) at gates in rail stations and on board buses. Concerns have been raised about riders ...

Brakewood, Candace Elizabeth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Environmental, health, and safety issues of fuel cells in transportation. Volume 1: Phosphoric acid fuel-cell buses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Phosphoric Acid Fuel-Cell (PAFC) Bus Program to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cells in heavy-duty transportation systems. As part of this program, PAFC- powered buses are being built to meet transit industry design and performance standards. Test-bed bus-1 (TBB-1) was designed in 1993 and integrated in March 1994. TBB-2 and TBB-3 are under construction and should be integrated in early 1995. In 1987 Phase I of the program began with the development and testing of two conceptual system designs- liquid- and air-cooled systems. The liquid-cooled PAFC system was chosen to continue, through a competitive award, into Phase H, beginning in 1991. Three hybrid buses, which combine fuel-cell and battery technologies, were designed during Phase III. After completing Phase II, DOE plans a comprehensive performance testing program (Phase HI) to verify that the buses meet stringent transit industry requirements. The Phase III study will evaluate the PAFC bus and compare it to a conventional diesel bus. This NREL study assesses the environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues that may affect the commercialization of the PAFC bus. Because safety is a critical factor for consumer acceptance of new transportation-based technologies the study focuses on these issues. The study examines health and safety together because they are integrally related. In addition, this report briefly discusses two environmental issues that are of concern to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first issue involves a surge battery used by the PAFC bus that contains hazardous constituents. The second issue concerns the regulated air emissions produced during operation of the PAFC bus.

Ring, S.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Alternative Fuels at AC Transit  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alternative Fuels at AC Transit Alternative Fuels at AC Transit Speaker(s): Jaimie Levin Date: November 1, 2011 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Eve Edelson Mr. Levin will discuss AC Transit's range of environmental technology initiatives, including: zero emission fuel cell transit buses; state-of-the-art, high-capacity, hydrogen fueling stations; solar energy systems; and stationary solid oxide fuel cell power generators. AC Transit has the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States, featuring fuel cell systems with more than 10,000 hours of continuous operation without any failures or power degradation. Their fuel cell fleet has logged more than 400,000 miles of service and carried in excess of one million passengers. Come hear what AC Transit has learned, where they're headed,

106

Natural Gas Buses: Separating Myth from Fact; Autobuses Urbanos de Gas Natural: Separemos el Mito de la Realidad  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using a myth vs. fact format, this fact sheet addresses common public misconceptions about compressed natural gas buses.

LaRocque, T.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Kansas City Buses Provide a Clean Ride for Kids | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Kansas City Buses Provide a Clean Ride for Kids Kansas City Buses Provide a Clean Ride for Kids Kansas City Buses Provide a Clean Ride for Kids March 18, 2011 - 2:25pm Addthis Kansas City Buses Provide a Clean Ride for Kids Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities What does this project do? Creates infrastructure such as fueling stations to support compressed natural gas vehicles. Saves the Kansas City, Kansas School District money Reduces pollution Educates students about natural gas technologies. On Wednesday March 16, the Kansas City, Kansas School District welcomed some newcomers to their community - 47 natural gas school buses deployed as part of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Vehicle Pilot Program, supported by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Kansas City's mayor, the school's director of transportation, and the Kansas City Clean

108

New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit Buses: Interim Evaluation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CA Peterbilt378, Class 8 truck Cummins Westport ISXG high pressure direct injection LNG and diesel Complete and reported IndyGo Indianapolis, IN Ebus 22-ft bus Series hybrid,...

109

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

110

How California Can Increase Investments in Public Transit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All Aboard How California Can Increase Investments in Public Transit July 2011 #12;About \\ Berkeley Law All Aboard: How California Can Increase Investments in Public Transit Executive Summary: The Importance of Public Transit The buses, passenger rail cars, and shuttle vans that serve California

Militzer, Burkhard

111

Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - La Spezia | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - La Spezia Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - La Spezia Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - La Spezia Agency/Company /Organization: BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport Focus Area: Fuels & Efficiency Topics: Best Practices Website: www.best-europe.org/upload/BEST_documents/info_documents/Best%20report This report summarizes the introduction and utilization of E95 buses and E95 pumps in the region of La Spezia (Italy) within the framework of the BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport (BEST) project. How to Use This Tool This tool is most helpful when using these strategies: Avoid - Cut the need for travel Shift - Change to low-carbon modes Improve - Enhance infrastructure & policies

112

Alternative Fuel School Buses Earn High Marks: Reprint from Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 5, No. 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A two-page article on school buses that run on alternative fuels including biodiesel and compressed natural gas. Reprinted from Alternative Fuel News, published by the Clean Cities Program of DOE.

Not Available

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Inspection of compressed natural gas cylinders on school buses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring compressed natural gas (CNF)-powered school bus demonstrations in various locations around the country. Early in 1994, two non-DOE-sponsored CNG pickup trucks equipped with composite-reinforced-aluminum fuel cylinders experienced cylinder ruptures during refueling. As reported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI): ...analysis of the cylinder ruptures on the pickup trucks revealed that they were due to acid-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the overwrap. The overwrap that GRI refers to is a resin-impregnated fiber that is wrapped around the outside of the gas cylinder for added strength. Because ensuring the safety of the CNG vehicles it sponsors is of paramount concern to DOE, the Department, through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), conducted inspections of DOE-sponsored vehicles nationwide. The work had three objectives: inspection, documentation, and education. First, inspectors visited sites where CNG-powered school buses sponsored by DOE are based, and inspected the CNG cylinders for damage. Second, information learned during the inspections was collected for DOE. Third, the inspections found that the education and awareness of site personnel, in terms of cylinder damage detection, needed to be increased.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Update from the NREL Alternative Fuel Transit Bus Evaluation Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The object of this project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to provide a comprehensive comparison of heavy-duty urban transit buses operating on alternative fuels and diesel fuel. Final reports from this project were produced in 1996 from data collection and evaluation of 11 transit buses from eight transit sites. With the publication of these final reports, three issues were raised that needed further investigation: (1) the natural gas engines studied were older, open-loop control engines; (2) propane was not included in the original study; and (3) liquefied natural gas (LNG) was found to be in the early stages of deployment in transit applications. In response to these three issues, the project has continued by emissions testing newer natural gas engines and adding two new data collection sites to study the newer natural gas technology and specifically to measure new technology LNG buses.

Chandler, K. (Battelle); Norton, P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Clark, N. (West Virginia University)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends  

SciTech Connect

Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

116

Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

117

Microsoft Word - NUCLEUS - INL Busing-DAT 10-14-2010.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

INL busing now becoming the DOE role model INL busing now becoming the DOE role model For energy savings and pollution reduction The following message to Integrated Transportation Services from R&D Support Services Director Debby Tate was sent to all her transportation employees last month. There has been a surprising and welcome change in attitude for why we have INL busing. I'd like to share it with you because of the role each of you has played in moving Bus Operations forward in exciting new directions for the future. INL was one of only eight institutions in the nation to win a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award. The Laboratory received the Lean, Clean & Green Award for extraordinary improvements to fleet sustainability. Robert Gallegos (DOE-ID), Deborah Tate, Scott Wold (Integrated

118

Guidelines for Conversion of Diesel Buses to Compressed Natural Gas | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guidelines for Conversion of Diesel Buses to Compressed Natural Gas Guidelines for Conversion of Diesel Buses to Compressed Natural Gas Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Guidelines for Conversion of Diesel Buses to Compressed Natural Gas Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Transportation Topics: Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: www.unescap.org/ttdw/Publications/TIS_pubs/pub_1361/pub_1361_fulltext. UN Region: Central Asia, Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, "Pacific" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

119

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus networks.

COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

120

St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emission Impacts of Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Urban Buses and Farming Tractors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

...................................................................................................................................... 14 Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Corn Fields........................................................ 34 Appendix B: Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Corn Fields) LHV lower heating value LPG liquefied petroleum gas LS low-sulfur LSD low-sulfur diesel MTBE methyl

Argonne National Laboratory

122

SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fourth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from April 2008 through October 2008. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous three evaluation reports.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fifth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from October 2008 through June 2009. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous four evaluation reports.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

King County Metro Transit: Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Laboratory Testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Paper summarizes chassis dynamometer testing of two 60-foot articulated transit buses, one conventional and one hybrid, at NREL's ReFUEL Laboratory. It includes experimental setup, test procedures, and results from vehicle testing performed at the NREL ReFUEL laboratory.

Hayes, R. R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Walkowicz, K.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The evaluation period in this report (January 2008 through February 2009) has been chosen to coincide with a UTC Power propulsion system changeout that occurred on January 15, 2008.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blends to Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Blends Production & Distribution Specifications Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Blends Biodiesel can be blended and used in many different concentrations, including B100 (pure biodiesel), B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel),

127

Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Blend Plan was written to identify items stored outside of the 213 MBA that will be moved into the MBA for thermal stabilization processing. Product quality oxide items stored in our vaults are found in Appendix A. A table is included in Appendix A which details the isotopic values for the oxide items and calculates the amount of material of any specific run that can be placed in a product can and maintain the 15 watt limit to meet storage vault specifications. This Revision of the Blend Plan adds items of lesser dose rate to lower the exposure of the workers until additional shielding can be added to the gloveboxes.

RISENMAY, H.R.

2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

128

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of int

129

BAE/Orion Hybrid Electric Buses at New York City Transit: A Generation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 truck Cummins Westport ISXG high-pressure, direct- injection, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and diesel Completed in 2004 Host Site Profile-NYCT NYCT is a part of the Metropolitan...

130

Non-parametric statistical evaluation of biodiesel emissions from transit buses.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Research on biodiesel emissions has been triggered by depleting fossil fuel resources and environmental protection concerns. However, vehicular emissions are inadequately understood and quantified because… (more)

Mudgal, Abhisek

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences and Current Status  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report reviews past and present fuel cell bus technology development and implementation in the United States.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Ethanol-blended Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ethanol-Blended Ethanol-Blended Fuels A Study Guide and Overview of: * Ethanol's History in the U.S. and Worldwide * Ethanol Science and Technology * Engine Performance * Environmental Effects * Economics and Energy Security The Curriculum This curriculum on ethanol and its use as a fuel was developed by the Clean Fuels Development Coalition in cooperation with the Nebraska Ethanol Board. This material was developed in response to the need for instructional materials on ethanol and its effects on vehicle performance, the environment, and the economy. As a renewable alternative energy source made from grain and other biomass resources, ethanol study serves as an excellent learning opportunity for students to use in issue clarification and problem-solving activities. Ethanol illustrates that science and technology can provide us with new

133

Dept. of Energy/Dept. of Transportation Gas Turbine Transit Bus Demonstration Program: program plan  

SciTech Connect

This document is the program plan for a cooperative project of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) of the Department of Transportation and the Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) of the Department of Energy to test and evaluate the use of gas-turbine engines in transit buses. UMTA is responsible for furnishing buses from UMTA grantees, technical direction for bus/engine integration, and coordination of operational use of buses in selected cities. TEC is responsible for providing gas turbines, data acquisition/reduction services, and management for the complete project. The project will be carried out in three phases. In Phase I, prototype turbine engines will be used. One turbine-powered bus and diesel-powered bus will be tested at a test facility to obtain baseline data. Five turbine-powered buses will be evaluated in revenue service in one city. In Phase II, preproduction turbine engines will be used. One turbine-powered bus and diesel-powered bus will be baseline tested and ten turbine-powered buses will be evaluated in two cities. In Phase III, production gas turbine engines will be used. Only the turbine-powered bus will run baseline tests in this phase. Ten turbine-powered buses will be evaluated in two cities.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blends to Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends E15 E85 Specifications Production & Distribution Feedstocks Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Blends Ethanol is blended with gasoline in various amounts for use in vehicles. E10 E10 is a low-level blend composed of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline. It is

135

Tropexx – Blending System - Home - Energy Innovation Portal  

• Process gas-blending system • Blending of volatile liquids or gases PATENTS AND AWARDS The Y-12 National Security Complex has

136

Tropexx – Blending System - Energy Innovation Portal  

The Tropexx Blending System is a high-resolution blending system that works with gases, vapors and volatile (readily vaporizable) liquids in addition ...

137

Low-Level Ethanol Fuel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet addresses: (a) why Clean Cities promotes ethanol blends; (b) how these blends affect emissions; (c) fuel performance and availability; and (d) cost, incentives, and regulations.

Not Available

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

South Texas Blending | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon South Texas Blending Jump to: navigation, search Name South Texas Blending Place Laredo, Texas Zip...

139

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Blend Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Definition An ethanol blend is defined as a blended motor fuel containing ethyl alcohol that is at least 99% pure, derived from agricultural products, and

140

Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Blend Plan was written to identify items stored outside of the 213 MBA that will be moved into the MBA for thermal stabilization processing. Product quality oxide items stored in our vaults are found in Appendix B. A table is included in Appendix B which details the isotopic values for the oxide items and calculates the amount of material of any specific run that can be placed in a product can and maintain the 15 watt limit to meet storage vault specifications. There is no chance of exceeding the 15 watt limit with items starting with the designations ''LAO'' or ''PBO.'' All items starting with the designations ''BO,'' ''BLO,'' and ''DZ0'' are at risk of exceeding the 15 watt specification if the can were to be filled.

RISENMAY, H.R.

1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Blend Plan documents the feed material items that are stored in 2736-2 vaults, the 2736-ZB 638 cage, the 192C vault, and the 225 vault that will be processed through the thermal stabilization furnaces. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all water and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI) or percent water. The stabilized material must meet water content or LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the water or LOI limits are met.

RISENMAY, H.R.

2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

142

Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intermediate Ethanol Intermediate Ethanol Blends to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Fuels & Lubricants Fuel Effects on Combustion Lubricants Natural Gas Research Biofuels End-Use Research

143

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Standards to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Standards Biodiesel blends are considered compliant with Texas Low Emissions Diesel Fuel (TxLED) regulations if the diesel fuel is compliant with TxLED

144

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blending Ethanol Blending Regulation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blending Regulation Gasoline suppliers who provide fuel to distributors in the state must offer gasoline that is suitable for blending with fuel alcohol. Suppliers may not

145

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Requirement Suppliers that import gasoline for sale in North Carolina must offer fuel that is not pre-blended with fuel alcohol but that is suitable for future

146

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Mandate Ethanol Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Mandate All gasoline offered for sale at retail stations within the state must contain 10% ethanol (E10). This requirement is waived only if a distributor is unable to purchase ethanol or ethanol-blended gasoline at the same or

147

Method to blend separator powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

148

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Mandate Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blend Mandate All Gasoline sold or offered for sale in Minnesota must contain at least: 10% corn-based ethanol by volume or the maximum percent by volume of corn-based ethanol authorized in a waiver issued by the U.S. Environmental

149

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate All diesel fuel sold to state agencies, political subdivisions of the state, and public schools for use in on-road motor vehicles must contain at

150

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Mandate Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Mandate Within one year after the Montana Department of Transportation has certified that ethanol producers in the state have produced a total of 40 million gallons of denatured ethanol and have maintained that level of

151

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate In September 2013, the commissioners of the Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, and Pollution Control Agency determined that all conditions had been satisfied to implement a 10%

152

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate Pursuant to state law, all diesel motor vehicle fuel and all other liquid fuel used to operate motor vehicle diesel engines in Massachusetts must

153

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Eligibility Commercial Industrial Program Information Kentucky...

154

Intrinsically safe moisture blending system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

155

Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Fuel blending with PRB coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr. [Roberts and Schaefer, Chicago, IL (United States)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Fuel Blend Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations

158

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Blend Purchase Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement Diesel fuel that the New Hampshire Department of Transportation

159

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuel Blend Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement

160

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Spinodal decomposition in multicomponent polymer blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 10091, Ref. 28. 53 In previous studies by the Exxon/Princeton group on blends of ethylene– butene copolymers, Ref. 54 it ...

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Adaptive Transit: Enhancing Suburban Transit Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an the push to introduce CNG (compressednatural gas) buses.Adelaide has the largest CNG fleet in Australia- 110 of theplus bus fleet are currently CNG bu~ vehicles, with plans to

Cervero, Robert; Beutler, John

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Feasibility and Calculated Performance of Near-Term Pulse Energy Storage Components for Use in Mass Transit Vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrically driven mass transit vehicles—trams, light rail, and buses—are typically powered from the utility grid via third-rail or overhead catenary mechanisms. These feed systems supply adequate traction power, but they limit vehicle flexibility and, for safety and aesthetic reasons, are generally undesirable. Electric vehicles can carry their own onboard batteries, but existing and projected near-term battery systems are too bulky for most day-long mass transit uses. Enhancing third-rail ...

2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

165

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuel Blending Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on AddThis.com... More in this section...

166

Characteristics of Engine Emissions from Different Biodiesel Blends.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Engine exhaust characteristics from two different biodiesel blends, formulated from soy and animal fat biodiesel blended with ultra-low sulphur diesel, were tested during two different… (more)

Wan, Curtis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

Not Available

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Siclovan, Oltea Puica (Rexford, NY); Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar (Bangalore, IN); Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao (Bangalore, IN); Porob, Digamber G. (Goa, IN); Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi (Bangalore, IN); Heward, William Jordan (Saratoga Springs, NY); Radkov, Emil Vergilov (Euclid, OH); Briel, Linda Jane Valyou (Niskayuna, NY)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

169

PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

CERTA, P.J.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

170

Geometric skinning with approximate dual quaternion blending  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Skinning of skeletally deformable models is extensively used for real-time animation of characters, creatures and similar objects. The standard solution, linear blend skinning, has some serious drawbacks that require artist intervention. Therefore, a ... Keywords: Skinning, dual quaternions, linear combinations, rigid transformations, transformation blending

Ladislav Kavan; Steven Collins; Ji?í Žára; Carol O'Sullivan

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Tax Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit Licensed biodiesel blenders are eligible for a tax credit for special fuel, including diesel, blended with biodiesel to create a biodiesel blend. The

172

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blended Fuel Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition Ethanol blended fuel, such as gasohol, is defined as any gasoline blended with 10% or more of anhydrous ethanol. (Reference Idaho Statutes 63-240

173

Wurtzite–Zinc Blende Transition in InAs Nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... epitaxy (MOVPE) at 420–480°C, using aerosol fabricated, size-selected gold particles .... P1.11 MOCVD Growth and the Transport Properties of Lattice- Matched ... P1.32 Improved light output power of InGaN/GaN based light-emitting diodes ...

174

Technical evaluation report on the 120 Vac vital instrument buses and inverter Technical Specifications Issue B71  

SciTech Connect

The operation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with one of its 120 Vac vital buses energized in an off-normal mode was analyzed. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment was made to determine the increment of risk by energizing a vital bus from an off-site source directly vs energizing it from its normal, uninterruptible source (i.e., a battery/inverter arrangement). The calculations were made based on uninterruptible source energized vital buses as the normal mode. The analysis indicated that a reduction in the incremental risk increase (caused by plant operation with a vital bus being energized in an off-normal mode) can be accomplished by limiting the time permitted in that condition. Currently, the time that a vital bus can be energized in the off-normal mode is not universally time-limited by plant Technical Specifications. Several alternatives for the reduction in incremental risk were examined and their value/impacts were derived. These data indicate that a recommendation be made for a Technical Specification time limitation of 72 hours per year for off-normal energizing a vital bus during operation of a PWR.

St. Leger-Barter, G.; White, R.L.

1982-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

175

Emissions with butane/propane blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State

177

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Blend Use Biofuels Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Blend Use Requirement Whenever possible, governmental entities and state educational institutions must fuel diesel vehicles with biodiesel blends containing at least 2%

178

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blending Tax Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit A biodiesel blender located in Indiana may receive a credit of $0.02 per gallon of blended biodiesel produced at a facility located in Indiana. The

179

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption The biodiesel or ethanol portion of blended fuel containing taxable diesel

180

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Tax Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption Biodiesel blends of at least 20% (B20) that are used for personal, noncommercial use by the individual that produced the biodiesel portion of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement An ethanol retailer selling a blend of 10% ethanol by volume or higher must

182

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blending Tax Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit Businesses and individuals are eligible for a tax credit of up to 15% of the cost of qualified equipment used for storing or blending biodiesel with

183

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit Retailers whose total diesel sales consist of at least 50% biodiesel blends

184

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Labeling Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements Pumps that dispense ethanol-blended gasoline available for purchase must be

185

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blending Blending Equipment Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption Qualified equipment used for storing and blending petroleum-based fuel with

186

Diesel and CNG Transit Bus Emissions Characterization By Two Chassis Dynamometer Laboratories: Results and Issues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFHAER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found that oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses. It was observed that by varying the rapidity of pedal movement during accelerations in the Central Business District cycle (CBD), CO and PM emissions from the diesel buses could be varied by a factor of three or more. The driving styles may be characterized as aggressive and non-aggressive, but both styles followed the CBD speed command acceptably. PM emissions were far higher for the aggressive driving style. For the NG fueled vehicles driving style had a similar, although smaller, effect on NO{sub x}. It is evident that driver habits may cause substantial deviation in emissions for the CBD cycle. When the CO emissions are used as a surrogate for driver aggression, a regression analysis shows that NO{sub x} and PM emissions from the two laboratories agree closely for equivalent driving style. Implications of driver habit for emissions inventories and regulations are briefly considered.

Nigel N. Clark, Mridul Gautam; Byron L. Rapp; Donald W. Lyons; Michael S. Graboski; Robert L. McCormick; Teresa L. Alleman; Paul Norton

1999-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

187

Imaginative play with blended reality characters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The idea and formative design of a blended reality character, a new class of character able to maintain visual and kinetic continuity between the fully physical and fully virtual; the technical underpinnings of its unique ...

Robert, David Yann

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

Pernenkil, Lakshman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Blending a Substation into its Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides information about public acceptance issues as well as technical approaches available to make substations acceptable within their environments. Case studies were used to examine substation acceptance experience from utilities in different countries and areas. This is the second report in a multi-year effort to build a multi-volume library on Blending a Substation into its Environment. Volume 1 examined available literature, standards, guides, and regulations that affect the blending o...

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

190

BLENDING OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To provide the Commission with the results of the staff’s analysis of issues associated with the blending of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), as directed in Chairman Jaczko’s October 8, 2009, memorandum to the staff. The closure of the Barnwell waste disposal facility to most U.S. generators of Class B and C LLRW has caused industry to examine methods for reducing the amount of these wastes, including the blending of some types of Class B and C waste with similar Class A wastes to produce a Class A mixture that can be disposed of at a currently licensed facility. This paper identifies policy, safety, and regulatory issues associated with LLRW blending, provides options for a U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) blending position, and makes a recommendation for a future blending policy. This paper does not address any new commitments. SUMMARY: In this paper, the staff examines the blending or mixing of LLRW with higher concentrations of radionuclides with LLRW with lower concentrations of radionuclides to form a final homogeneous mixture. While recognizing that some mixing of waste is unavoidable, and may even be necessary and appropriate for efficiency or dose reduction purposes, NRC has historically discouraged mixing LLRW to lower the classification of waste in other circumstances.

R. W. Borchardt; Contacts James; E. Kennedy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Retailer Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit The Ethanol Promotion Tax Credit is available to any fuel retailer for up

192

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuel Blending Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation Any provision in a contract between a fuel wholesaler and a refiner or

193

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement State government agencies and universities owning or operating motor

194

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate All state-owned diesel fueling facilities must provide fuel containing at

195

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate The tax rate on fuel containing ethanol is $0.06 per gallon less than the tax rate on other motor fuels in certain geographic areas. This reduced

196

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Fuel Blend Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard At least 85% of gasoline supplied to a retailer or sold in Hawaii must contain a minimum of 10% ethanol (E10), unless the Director determines that

197

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement A retail motor fuel dispenser that dispenses fuel containing more than 10%

198

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blending Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit A tax credit is available for up to 30% of the cost of purchasing or

199

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit

200

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Advanced Ethanol Fuel Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Designing and upgrading plants to blend coal  

SciTech Connect

Fuel flexibility isn't free. Whether you are equipping a new power plant to burn more than one type of coal or retrofitting an existing plant to handle coal blends, you will have to spend time and money to ensure that all three functions performed by its coal-handling system, unloading, stockout, and reclaim, are up to the task. The first half of this article lays out the available options for configuring each subsystem to support blending. The second half describes, in words and pictures, how 12 power plants in the USA, both new and old, address the issue. 9 figs., 1 tab.

McCartney, R.H. [Roberts and Schaefer Co. (United States)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

biogas to indian buses come home, dad biosensor lab in singapore sexy statistics world university No reason to rush homeLiU alumna Klara Tiitso enjoys her life in London | page 30  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biogas to indian buses come home, dad biosensor lab in singapore sexy statistics world university an Indian Master's student whose studies at Linköping inspired him to use biogas as fuel for busses. He

Zhao, Yuxiao

203

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Storage Options for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses for Urban Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United Nations Development Program/Global Environment Facility (UNDP/GEF) Fuel Cell Bus Project will develop a fuel cell transit bus by combining two Ballard automotive fuel cells with an energy storage system. The battery system will be an important component of the bus and will assist the fuel cell systems (FC-S) to store regenerative baking energy in the hybrid system. The battery also has the potential to increase fuel cell system performance, efficiency, and durability by reducing FC-S transient...

2010-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

204

An evolutionary optimization approach for bulk material blending systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bulk material blending systems still mostly implement static and non-reactive material blending methods like the well-known Chevron stacking. The optimization potential in the existing systems which can be made available using quality analyzing methods ... Keywords: bulk material blending, chevron stacking, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

Michael P. Cipold; Pradyumn Kumar Shukla; Claus C. Bachmann; Kaibin Bao; Hartmut Schmeck

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Fuel Oil Prepared by Blending Heavy Oil and Coal Tar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of temperature, harmonic ration, surfactant and shearing to fuel oil prepared by blending heavy oil and coal tar were detailedly studied. The results show that the viscosity of the blended oil increases gradually with the increase of harmonic ... Keywords: coal tar, heavy oil, blending, surfactant

Guojie Zhang; Xiaojie Guo; Bo Tian; Yaling Sun; Yongfa Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

DOE Hosts Workshop on Transition to Electric Vehicles | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Hosts Workshop on Transition to Electric Vehicles DOE Hosts Workshop on Transition to Electric Vehicles DOE Hosts Workshop on Transition to Electric Vehicles July 21, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - On Thursday, July 22, 2010, the Department of Energy will host an electric vehicle workshop at DOE Headquarters in Washington, DC, bringing together more than 150 city officials, vehicle manufacturers, utility companies and other stakeholders. The workshop will help participants better coordinate their efforts to expand the availability and use of electric cars, trucks and buses by discussing the infrastructure investments needed to support the broad deployment of plug-in electric vehicles. Throughout the day, the workshop will focus the discussion on high-impact steps regions can pursue in the near-term to better prepare for

207

DOE Hosts Workshop on Transition to Electric Vehicles | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Workshop on Transition to Electric Vehicles Workshop on Transition to Electric Vehicles DOE Hosts Workshop on Transition to Electric Vehicles July 21, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - On Thursday, July 22, 2010, the Department of Energy will host an electric vehicle workshop at DOE Headquarters in Washington, DC, bringing together more than 150 city officials, vehicle manufacturers, utility companies and other stakeholders. The workshop will help participants better coordinate their efforts to expand the availability and use of electric cars, trucks and buses by discussing the infrastructure investments needed to support the broad deployment of plug-in electric vehicles. Throughout the day, the workshop will focus the discussion on high-impact steps regions can pursue in the near-term to better prepare for

208

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Blending implicit shapes using fuzzy set operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Implicit modelling is a powerful technique to design geometric shapes, where a geometric object is described by a real function. In general, the real functions used in implicit modelling are unbounded and can take any values in space R. In general, ... Keywords: blending operations, fuzzy sets, generalized algebraic operations, implicit curves and surfaces, isosurfaces, piecewise algebraic operations, soft computing

Qingde Li; Jie Tian

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

KRISHNA,C.R.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

BLENDING OF CEPHEIDS IN M33  

SciTech Connect

A precise and accurate determination of the Hubble constant based on Cepheid variables requires proper characterization of many sources of systematic error. One of these is stellar blending, which biases the measured fluxes of Cepheids and the resulting distance estimates. We study the blending of 149 Cepheid variables in M33 by matching archival Hubble Space Telescope data with images obtained at the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 3.5 m telescope, which differ by a factor of 10 in angular resolution. We find that 55% {+-} 4% of the Cepheids have no detectable nearby companions that could bias the WIYN V-band photometry, while the fraction of Cepheids affected below the 10% level is 73% {+-} 4%. The corresponding values for the I band are 60% {+-} 4% and 72% {+-} 4%, respectively. We find no statistically significant difference in blending statistics as a function of period or surface brightness. Additionally, we report all the detected companions within 2'' of the Cepheids (equivalent to 9 pc at the distance of M33) which may be used to derive empirical blending corrections for Cepheids at larger distances.

Chavez, Joy M. [Current address: Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, Hilo, HI 96720, USA. (United States); Macri, Lucas M. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute in Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Pellerin, Anne, E-mail: jchavez@gemini.edu [Current address: Department of Physics, Mount Allison University, Sackville NB E4L 1E6, Canada. (Canada)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than is the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This report provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate blending option to produce oxide for disposal. This the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) alternative will have two missions (1) convert HEU materials into HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend the HEU uranyl nitrate with depleted and natural assay uranyl nitrate to produce an oxide that can be stored until an acceptable disposal approach is available. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

A2: Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment). September 2013. A2: Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment). September 2013. Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment) Manufacturer Product Model Ethanol Compatibility Bravo Systems Fiberglass Fittings Series F, FF, FPE, FR, F Retrofit- S, RPE Retrofit-Si, F BLR, F D-BLR-S, TBF E0-E100 Bravo Systems Spill Buckets B3XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Tank Sumps & Covers B4XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Transition Sumps (planter, walkover, H-20 rated) B5XX, B6XX, B7XX, B8XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Transition Sumps B8XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Under Dispenser Contain- ment Sumps B7XXX, B8XXX, B9XXX E0-E100 Brugg Pipes FLEXWELL-HL, SECON-X, NIROFLEX, LPG E0-E100 KPS Petrol Pipe Systems Pipes and Associated Products All single- and double-wall plastic pipes, flexible

214

Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Supply of Petroleum Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

216

Framework for Bus Rapid Transit Development and Deployment Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ATSAC AVL BOCC BRT Caltrans CBD CNG DGPS EIS FTA GPS ITE ITScompressed natural gas (CNG) diesel-electric hybrids,compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. The buses have a special

Miller, Mark A.; Yin, Yafeng; Balvanyos, Tunde; Ceder, Avishai

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion ( 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

219

Designing New Transit Bus Garages to be Fuel Flexible  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Designing New Transit Bus Garages to be Fuel Flexible Prepared By: Marathon Technical Services Six Venus Crescent P.O. Box 318 Heidelberg, Ontario, Canada N0B1Y0 Telephone: 519-699-9250 May 12, 2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ DESIGNING NEW TRANSIT BUS GARAGES TO BE FUEL FLEXIBLE Background Information Before discussing the building design features that are recommended for CNG and GH2 buses, it is important to understand what makes these fuels different from gasoline or diesel. The items below summarize the basic differences between the properties of gaseous and liquid fuels that influence the building design changes: 1. Natural Gas and Hydrogen are both lighter-than-air and in gaseous form at atmospheric

220

Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of Intermediate Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Digg

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends October 7, 2008 - 4:14pm Addthis In August 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to assess the potential impacts of higher intermediate ethanol blends on conventional vehicles and other engines that rely on gasoline. The test program focuses specifically on the effects of intermediate blends of E15 and E20-gasoline blended with 15 and 20 percent ethanol, respectively-on emissions, catalyst and engine durability, drivability or operability, and materials associated with these vehicles and engines. This DOE test program includes technical expertise from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

222

Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Blended Cements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-volume fly ash (HVFA) blended cement can be produced either by intergrinding fly ash with portland cement clinker or by blending dry fly ash with portland cement. Production of HVFA cement using the intergrinding method may be the most cost-effective and practical of the two approaches. This report documents the results of commercial-scale production of HVFA blended cements using up to 55 percent fly ash to replace the portland cement.

2001-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

223

Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

Heavin, Leonard J. (Olympia, WA); King, Edward E. (Gig Harbor, WA); Milliron, Dennis L. (Lacey, WA)

1982-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

224

Combustion Characterization and Modelling of Fuel Blends for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Value (405,990 DOE) COMBUSTION CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELLING OF FUEL BLENDS FOR POWER GENERATION GAS TURBINES University of Central Florida Presentation-Petersen, 1013...

225

Conductive Polymer/Fullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb Framework  

This composite conductive polymer/fullerene blend material can be fabricated to exhibit regular, micrometer-sized pores. The pores allow the material ...

226

Coping with the Decline in Coke Quality – Using Onsite Blending ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... coke (CPC), the blending of non-traditional cokes (NTAC's) has increased. ... Prebaked Anode from Coal - Utilization of Coal Extract as a Coke Feedstock-.

227

Stripping Ethanol from Ethanol-Blended Diesel Fuels for Reductant ...  

Stripping Ethanol from Ethanol-Blended Diesel Fuels for Reductant Use in N0x Catalytic Reduction Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity.

228

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eligibility Commercial Industrial Program Information Kentucky Program Type Corporate Tax Incentive blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against...

229

Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

CNG and Diesel Transit Bus Emissions in Review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the past three years, the California Air Resources Board (CARB), in collaboration with the University of California and other entities, has investigated the tailpipe emissions from three different latemodel, in-use heavy-duty transit buses in five different configurations. The study has focused on the measurement of regulated emissions (NOX, HC, CO, total PM), other gaseous emissions (CO2, NO2, CH4, NMHC), a number of pollutants of toxic risk significance (aromatics, carbonyls, PAHs, elements), composition (elemental and organic carbon), and the physical characterization (size-segregated number count and mass) of the particles in the exhaust aerosol. Emission samples are also tested in a modified Ames assay. The impact of oxidation catalyst control for both diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) buses and a passive diesel particulate filter (DPF) were evaluated over multiple driving cycles (idle, 55 mph cruise, CBD, UDDS, NYBC) using a chassis dynamometer. For brevity, only CBD results are discussed in this paper and particle sizing results are omitted. The database of results is large and some findings have been reported already at various forums including last year's DEER conference. The goal of this paper is to offer an overview of the lessons learned and attempt to draw overall conclusions and interpretations based on key findings to date.

Ayala, A. (a); Kado, N. (a,b); Okamoto, R. (a); Gebel, M. (a) Rieger, P. (a); Kobayashi, R. (b); Kuzmicky, P. (b)

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

231

TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid particles have higher density and/or larger size than indicated by previous analysis of SRS sludge and sludge simulants. (5) Tank 21 waste characterization, laboratory settling tests, and additional field turbidity measurements during mixing evolutions are recommended to better understand potential risk for extended (> 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Clean air program: Liquefied natural gas safety in transit operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report examines the safety issues relating to the use of Liquefied natural Gas (LNG) in transit service. The surveys consisted of: (1) extensive interviews; (2) review of recrods, procedures, and plans relating to safety; (3) examination of facilities and equipment; (4) observations of operations including fueling, maintenance, morning start-up, and revenue service; (5) measurement of methane concentrations in the air where the buses are being fueled or stored. Interviews included all job categories associated with management, operations, safety, maintenance, acquisition, and support. The surveys also included an examination of the occupational hygiene aspects of LNG use.

Friedman, D.M.; Malcosky, N.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Crystallization, mechanical, rheological and degradation behavior of polytrimethylene terephthalate, polybutylene terephthalate and polycarbonate blend.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Blends of polycarbonate (PC), polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) and poly butylene terephthalate (PBT) are an important class of commercial blends with numerous applications providing good chemical… (more)

Al-Omairi, L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials Barzin Mobasher1 or water with high SO3 content. External sulfate 2007 World of Coal Ash (WOCA), May 7-10, 2007, Covington, the effect of curing (especially in the case of blended cements) and the effect of the pH change during

Mobasher, Barzin

236

Deferred blending: Image composition for single-pass point rendering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose novel GPU accelerated algorithms for interactive point-based rendering (PBR) and high-quality shading of transparent point surfaces. By introducing the concept of deferred blending we are able to formulate the smooth point interpolation ... Keywords: Alpha blending, GPU processing, Hardware acceleration, Point based rendering, Transparency

Yanci Zhang; Renato Pajarola

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

PultrusionPultrusion of Fabric Reinforced Highof Fabric Reinforced High Flyash Blended Cement CompositesFlyash Blended Cement Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PultrusionPultrusion of Fabric Reinforced Highof Fabric Reinforced High Flyash Blended Cement CompositesFlyash Blended Cement Composites Barzin Mobasher1, Alva Peled 2, Jitendra Pahalijani1 1 Department Engineering Ben-Gurion University, Israel The World of Coal Ash 2005 International Ash Utilization Symposium

Mobasher, Barzin

238

RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT MISSION ANALYSIS WASTE BLENDING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary evaluation for blending Hanford site waste with the objective of minimizing the amount of high-level waste (HLW) glass volumes without major changes to the overall waste retrieval and processing sequences currently planned. The evaluation utilizes simplified spreadsheet models developed to allow screening type comparisons of blending options without the need to use the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model. The blending scenarios evaluated are expected to increase tank farm operation costs due to increased waste transfers. Benefit would be derived from shorter operating time period for tank waste processing facilities, reduced onsite storage of immobilized HLW, and reduced offsite transportation and disposal costs for the immobilized HLW.

SHUFORD DH; STEGEN G

2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

239

Battery separators based on polyphenylquinoxaline polymer blends. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is a final report on battery separators based on polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) polymer blends. The report describes the preparation of the polymer blends and their extrusion into membranes, reports a series of quality assurance tests for the membranes, and reports cycle life testing of the new membranes. The test results for the PPQ blend membranes are compared with the results obtained for standard separator membranes. It is concluded that PPQ/Cellulose Acetate is a good candidate material for alkaline battery separators; however, because of cost considerations, it is not competative with similar state-of-the-art materials.

Angres, I.; Kowalchik, L.; Parkhurst, W.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Phosphor blends for high-CRI fluorescent lamps  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A phosphor blend comprises at least two phosphors each selected from one of the groups of phosphors that absorb UV electromagnetic radiation and emit in a region of visible light. The phosphor blend can be applied to a discharge gas radiation source to produce light sources having high color rendering index. A phosphor blend is advantageously includes the phosphor (Tb,Y,LuLa,Gd).sub.x(Al,Ga).sub.yO.sub.12:Ce.sup.3+, wherein x is in the range from about 2.8 to and including 3 and y is in the range from about 4 to and including 5.

Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Manivannan, Venkatesan (Clifton Park, NY); Beers, William Winder (Chesterland, OH); Toth, Katalin (Pomaz, HU); Balazs, Laszlo D. (Budapest, HU)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Safety and Performance Assessment of Ethanol/Diesel Blends (E-Diesel)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Subcontract report discussing safety concerns of ethanol-diesel blends and pathways to reducing risks.

Waterland, L. R.; Venkatesh, S.; Unnasch, S.

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

New New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing

243

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

244

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on February 12, 2013. EZFeed Policy Place Kentucky Name Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Policy Category Financial Incentive Policy Type Corporate Tax Incentive Affected Technologies Biomass/Biogas Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector State/Province Primary Website http://energy.ky.gov/biofuels/Pages/biofuelsIncentives.aspx Summary blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against the corporation income tax imposed under KRS 141.040 and/or the limited liability entity tax (LLET) imposed under KRS 141.0401. The amount

245

Time phased alternate blending of feed coals for liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for reducing process performance excursions during feed coal or process solvent changeover in a coal hydroliquefaction process by blending of feedstocks or solvents over time. ,

Schweigharett, Frank (Allentown, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Garg, Diwaker (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5-192009; 1 Sandia National Laboratories CNG, H 2 , CNG-H 2 Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior Jay Keller, Sandia National Laboratories Keynote Lecture presented at:...

247

West Coast (PADD 5) Imports from Spain of Gasoline Blending ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

West Coast (PADD 5) Imports from Spain of Gasoline Blending Components (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9;

248

Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert October 7, 2010 - 11:58am Addthis Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy What does this project do? Rooftop solar panels provide 27 percent of the facility's energy. Maricopa County officials estimate the complex is 42 percent more energy efficient than many modern day buildings. Next month, hikers marveling at the sun bathed canyons and ridges of White Tank Mountain in the Sonoran Desert will see something on the horizon - if they look hard. Built to blend into the desert landscape, the new 29,000 square-foot White Tank Library and Nature Center in Surprise, Ariz., is set to open on Nov. 13. Rooftop solar panels provide 27 percent of the facility's energy.

249

BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

Lee, S.

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

250

Coal Blending for NOx Reductions and Performance Improvements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following its formation and initial meeting in 1995, the Alabama Fuels Development Consortium (AFDC) identified its highest priority as mitigating the adverse effects of burning low-volatile Alabama coals. These adverse effects included increased NOx emissions and flame instability. A pilot-scale AFDC study in 1995 and larger-scale projects conducted in partnership with EPRI in 1996 (Shoal Creek/Mina Pribbenow Blend Firing Demonstration) and 1997 (Shoal Creek/Mina Pribbenow Blend Milling Demonstration) m...

2004-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

251

Results of Aging Tests of Vendor-Produced Blended Feed Simulant  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is procuring through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) a minimum of five 3,500 gallon batches of waste simulant for Phase 1 testing in the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). To make sure that the quality of the simulant is acceptable, the production method was scaled up starting from laboratory-prepared simulant through 15-gallon vendor prepared simulant and 250-gallon vendor prepared simulant before embarking on the production of the 3500-gallon simulant batch by the vendor. The 3500-gallon PEP simulant batches were packaged in 250-gallon high molecular weight polyethylene totes at NOAH Technologies. The simulant was stored in an environmentally controlled environment at NOAH Technologies within their warehouse before blending or shipping. For the 15-gallon, 250-gallon, and 3500-gallon batch 0, the simulant was shipped in ambient temperature trucks with shipment requiring nominally 3 days. The 3500-gallon batch 1 traveled in a 70-75°F temperature controlled truck. Typically the simulant was uploaded in a PEP receiving tank within 24-hours of receipt. The first uploading required longer with it stored outside. Physical and chemical characterization of the 250-gallon batch was necessary to determine the effect of aging on the simulant in transit from the vendor and in storage before its use in the PEP. Therefore, aging tests were conducted on the 250-gallon batch of the vendor-produced PEP blended feed simulant to identify and determine any changes to the physical characteristics of the simulant when in storage. The supernate was also chemically characterized. Four aging scenarios for the vendor-produced blended simulant were studied: 1) stored outside in a 250-gallon tote, 2) stored inside in a gallon plastic bottle, 3) stored inside in a well mixed 5-L tank, and 4) subject to extended temperature cycling under summer temperature conditions in a gallon plastic bottle. The following series of aging tests were conducted to accomplish these objectives.

Russell, Renee L.; Buchmiller, William C.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

252

Thermal stabilization FY 1999 blend plan  

SciTech Connect

This Blend Plan documents the alternate feed material items for the thermal stabilization process that will be used in place of the metal items that were originally planned to be processed. Problems with resolution of the safety basis for the metal items resulted in the decision to run material that already had an established safety basis. Various in process and scrap recovery items stored in gloveboxes, plutonium oxide and plutonium oxide mixed with uranium oxide stored in 2736-2 vaults will be processed through the stabilization furnaces until the safety basis for the metal items has been resolved. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all volatile materials and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI). The stabilized material must meet LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-94 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the LOI limits are met.

RISENMAY, H.R.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Clean Cities: Natural Gas Transit and School Bus Users Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

related to natural gas buses Serving as a liaison between stakeholders and natural gas vehicleequipment manufacturers Meetings TUG meeting participation is generally limited to...

254

An Information And Institutional Inventory Of California Transit Agencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fees, to pay for compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. Some ofNVT have looked at compressed natural gas as a fuel option

Hickman, Mark; Day, Theodore

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

BLENDING OF RADIOACTIVE SALT SOLUTIONS IN MILLION GALLON TANKS  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 – 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, “One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory”. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, R.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

256

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

257

SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

259

Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components  

SciTech Connect

Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.

Wilson III, George R. (Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin (United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)); Freerks, Robert L. (Rentech, Incorporated, 1331 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States))

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Blending scheduling under uncertainty based on particle swarm optimization with hypothesis test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blending is an important unit operation in process industry. As a nonlinear optimization problem with constraints, it is difficult to obtain optimal solution for blending scheduling, especially under uncertainty. As a novel evolutionary computing technique, ...

Hui Pan; Ling Wang

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Theoretical and experimental investigation of particle interactions in pharmaceutical powder blending  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In pharmaceutical manufacturing practices, blending of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with excipients is a crucial step in that homogeneity of active ingredient after blending is a key issue for the quality assurance ...

Pu, Yu, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

High Volume Fly Ash Blended Cements: Status Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At present, the production of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete involves the addition of large volumes of fly ash as a separate ingredient at a ready-mixed concrete batch plant. This necessitates additional storage silos and quality control at the job site. In order to resolve these issues, CANMET, in partnership with Electric Power Research Institute, U.S.A., undertook a major research project to develop blended cements incorporating high volumes of ASTM Class fly ash. The blended cements are made by ...

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

263

Biodiesel Blends in Space Heating Equipment: January 31, 2001 -- September 28, 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications.

Krishna, C. R.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Brief paper: Multi-frequency disturbance rejection via blending control technique for hard disk drives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the rejection of multiple narrowband disturbances in hard disk drives (HDDs). Inspired by a control blending idea, the multi-frequency disturbance rejection is formulated as a blending control problem. Each disturbance rejection ... Keywords: Blending control, H2 control, Hard disk drives, Servo control, Vibration rejection

Chunling Du; Lihua Xie; F. L. Lewis; Youyi Wang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Combinatorial Optimization of Pulverizers for Blended-Coal-Fired Power Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal blending has become an important way to ease the tension of coal purchase for many Chinese power plants. Mixed by pulverizers which has been widely used, is considered the most reasonable and convenient approach of coal blending. The implementation ... Keywords: power plant, coal blending, combinatorial optimization, pulverizer, NSGA-II

Xia Ji; Peng Peng; Hua Zhigang; Lu Pan; Chen Gang

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU UNH for commercial use  

SciTech Connect

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form that is more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UNH blending HEU disposition option. Process requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste/emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

A Blended Satellite Total Precipitable Water Product for Operational Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total precipitable water (TPW), the amount of water vapor in a column from the surface of the earth to space, is used by forecasters to predict heavy precipitation. In this paper, a process for blending TPW values retrieved from two satellite ...

Stanley Q. Kidder; Andrew S. Jones

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

269

NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Labbe, D.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Final report, September 1997--May 1998  

SciTech Connect

Alternative fuels such as Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and alcohol fuels (methanol and ethanol) are already being used in commercial vehicles and transit buses in revenue service. Hydrogen, which has better air quality characteristics as a vehicle fuel, is being used in research demonstration projects in fuel cell powered buses, as well as in internal combustion engines in automobiles and small trucks. At present, there are no facility guidelines to assist transit agencies (and others) contemplating the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. This document addresses the various issues involved. Hydrogen fuel properties, potential hazards, fuel requirements for specified levels of bus service, applicable codes and standards, ventilation, and electrical classification are indicated in this document. These guidelines also present various facility and bus design issues that need to be considered by a transit agency to ensure safe operations when using hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Fueling facility, garaging facility, maintenance facility requirements and safety practices are discussed. Critical fuel-related safety issues in the design of the related system on the bus are also identified. A system safety assessment and hazard resolution process is also presented. This approach may be used to select design strategies which are economical, yet ensure a specified level of safety.

Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.A.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

U.S. transparency monitoring of HEU oxide conversion and blending to LEU hexafluoride at three Russian blending plants  

SciTech Connect

The down-blending of Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) takes place at three Russian gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. The fluorination of HEU oxide and down-blending of HEU hexafluoride began in 1994, and shipments of low enriched uranium (LEU) hexafluoride product to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) began in 1995 US transparency monitoring under the HEU Purchase Agreement began in 1996 and includes a permanent monitoring presence US transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU is received and down-blended to LEU for shipment to USEC The monitoring begins with observation of the receipt of HEU oxide shipments, including confirmation of enrichment using US nondestructive assay equipment The feeding of HEU oxide to the fluorination process and the withdrawal of HEU hexafluoride are monitored Monitoring is also conducted where the blending takes place and where shipping cylinders are filled with LEU product. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to US monitors.

Leich, D., LLNL

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

272

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Oxide blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for commercial use  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the oxide blending HEU disposition option. This option provides for a yearly HEU throughput of 1 0 metric tons (MT) of uranium metal with an average U235 assay of 50% blended with 165 MT of natural assay triuranium octoxide (U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) per year to produce 177 MT of 4% U235 assay U{sub 3} O{sub 8}, for LWR fuel. Since HEU exists in a variety of forms and not necessarily in the form to be blended, worst case scenarios for preprocessing prior to blending will be assumed for HEU feed streams.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

275

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Prohibition of the Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

276

REVIEW OF RHEOLOGY MODELS FOR HANFORD WASTE BLENDING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste ? waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ?One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant? that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes.. The equations described in Meacham?s report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 ?m diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 ?m in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: ? Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations. ? Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction ? Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign. o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks o Blends from the qualification tanks ? Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation expe

Koopman, D.; Stone, M.

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

277

REVIEW OF RHEOLOGY MODELS FOR HANFORD WASTE BLENDING  

SciTech Connect

The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste ? waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ?One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant? that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes.. The equations described in Meacham?s report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 μm diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 μm in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: ? Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations. ? Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction ? Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign. o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks o Blends from the qualification tanks ? Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation expe

Koopman, D.; Stone, M.

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

278

CNG transit fueling station handbook. Final report, October 1993-June 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manual has been complied for use by a Transit Authority Engineer or an Engineering Company who is involved in the design of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fueling facilities. It is intended to provide a convenient and comprehensive reference document, to supplement but not replace codes and other reference documents. It is also intended to be used as a basis for the design of a broad range of CNG fueling facilities. The scope is limited to straight CNG and hence Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) or LNG vaporization to CNG has not been addressed. Similarly, this document does not deal with the facility modifications which may be required to park, service, or fuel CNG buses indoors. Additional information on actual gas fueling is available from the Gas Research Institute.

Adams, R.R.; Pennington, M.D.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended Gasoline Dataset Summary Description These data files contain volume, mass, and hardness changes of elastomers and plastics representative exposed to gasoline containing various levels of ethanol. These materials are representative of those used in gasoline fuel storage and dispensing hardware. All values are compared to the original untreated condition. The data sets include results from specimens exposed directly to the fuel liquid and also a set of specimens exposed only to the fuel vapors. Source Mike Kass, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Date Released August 16th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated August 16th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords compatibility elastomers ethanol gasoline

282

Development of By-Pass Blending Station System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new building blending station system named by-pass blending station (BBS) has been developed to reduce building pump energy consumption in both district heating and cooling systems. Theoretical investigation demonstrated that the BBS can significantly reduce building pump power for a typical cooling system when constant water flow is maintained in the building side. When differential pressure reset is applied in the building side, more pump energy can be saved. The BBS also reduces the pump size and therefore results in lower initial system cost. A case study was also performed and demonstrated 42% of annual chilled water pump energy savings for constant building water flow, and 82% of annual chilled water pump savings for differential pressure resetting at Omaha, Nebraska.

Liu, M.; Barnes, D.; Bunz, K.; Rosenberry, N.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Coal Blending for the Reduction of Acid Gas Emissions: A Characterization of the Milling and Combustion Blends of Powder River Basin Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a systematic study of performance and emission parameters from the combustion of Eastern bituminous coal, a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and various blends of these two coals. This study also investigated the effects of coal blending on mill performance, combustion, particulate emissions, and various emissions.

2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

284

Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Impact of Alternative Fuels and Blends: Simple Tool for Ranking Coal and Blends Based on Slagging Potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a summary of ongoing work to identify, develop, and validate advanced tools to assess the impact of fuel quality on boiler performance.BackgroundThe deposition of ash particles during the combustion of coal—or blends of coals—is one of the major issues associated with power companies’ lost generation. The ash deposition process, driven by accumulation of molten/sticky, sintered, or loosely condensed deposits on ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Youngquist, Adam D [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Moore, Wayne [Delphi; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

288

Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends. September 2013. A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends. September 2013. Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends Manufacturer Compatibility Statement Fiberglass 1 Containment Solutions Tanks manufactured after January 1, 1995 are all compatible with ethanol blends up to 100% (E100) (UL Listed) Owens Corning Single Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and 1994 are approved to store up to 10% ethanol (E10) Double Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and July 1, 1990 are approved to store up to 10% ethanol (E10) Tanks manufactured between July 2, 1990 and December 31, 1994 were warrantied to store any ethanol blend Xerxes Single Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured prior to 1981 are not compatible with ethanol blends Tanks manufactured from February 1981 through June 2005 are

289

U.S. Uranium Down-blending Activities: Fact Sheet | National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Down-blending Activities: Fact Sheet Mar 23, 2012 The permanent disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) permanently reduces nuclear security vulnerabilities. In 1996, the...

290

DOE News Release - DOE Completes Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performanc...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 2004 DOE Completes HydrogenCNG Blended Fuels Performance and Emissions Vehicle Testing The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, has...

291

Evaluation of Leachate Chemistry from Coal Refuse Blended and Layered with Fly Ash.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Alkaline fly ash has been studied as a liming agent within coal refuse fills to reclaim acid-forming refuse. Previous studies focused on bulk blending ash… (more)

Hunt, Joseph Edward

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Effect of PCI blending on combustion characteristics for iron-making.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The PCI technology is well established for reducing the consumption of economic and environmentally expensive coke in blast furnace iron-making. Often, coal blends show unexpected… (more)

Gill, Trilochan Singh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Catalytic conversion of C3+ alcohols to hydrocarbon blend-stock  

Catalytic conversion of C3+ alcohols to hydrocarbon blend-stock Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

294

U.S. Uranium Down-blending Activities: Fact Sheet | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

(HEU) permanently reduces nuclear security vulnerabilities. In 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced plans to reduce stockpiles of surplus HEU by down-blending, or...

295

An Improved Technique for Increasing the Accuracy of Photometrically Determined Redshifts for ___Blended___ Galaxies  

SciTech Connect

The redshift of a galaxy can be determined by one of two methods; photometric or spectroscopic. Photometric is a term for any redshift determination made using the magnitudes of light in different filters. Spectroscopic redshifts are determined by measuring the absorption spectra of the object then determining the difference in wavelength between the 'standard' absorption lines and the measured ones, making it the most accurate of the two methods. The data for this research was collected from SDSS DR8 and then separated into blended and non-blended galaxy sets; the definition of 'blended' is discussed in the Introduction section. The current SDSS photometric redshift determination method does not discriminate between blended and non-blended data when it determines the photometric redshift of a given galaxy. The focus of this research was to utilize machine learning techniques to determine if a considerably more accurate photometric redshift determination method could be found, for the case of the blended and non-blended data being treated separately. The results show a reduction of 0.00496 in the RMS error of photometric redshift determinations for blended galaxies and a more significant reduction of 0.00827 for non-blended galaxies, illustrated in Table 2.

Parker, Ashley Marie; /Marietta Coll. /SLAC

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

296

Effect of Blending HDPE with Coke on the Reduction Behavior of a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This has led to the exploration of the possibility of using polymer/coke blends in the production of ferro-alloys, particularly High Carbon Ferromanganese (HC ...

297

BLENDING STUDY FOR SRR SALT DISPOSITION INTEGRATION: TANK 50H SCALE-MODELING AND COMPUTER-MODELING FOR BLENDING PUMP DESIGN, PHASE 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. Blending requires the miscible salt solutions from potentially multiple source tanks per batch to be well mixed without disturbing settled sludge solids that may be present in a Blend Tank. Disturbing solids may be problematic both from a feed quality perspective as well as from a process safety perspective where hydrogen release from the sludge is a potential flammability concern. To develop the necessary technical basis for the design and operation of blending equipment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) completed scaled blending and transfer pump tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A 94 inch diameter pilot-scale blending tank, including tank internals such as the blending pump, transfer pump, removable cooling coils, and center column, were used in this research. The test tank represents a 1/10.85 scaled version of an 85 foot diameter, Type IIIA, nuclear waste tank that may be typical of Blend Tanks used in SDI. Specifically, Tank 50 was selected as the tank to be modeled per the SRR, Project Engineering Manager. SRNL blending tests investigated various fixed position, non-rotating, dual nozzle pump designs, including a blending pump model provided by the blend pump vendor, Curtiss Wright (CW). Primary research goals were to assess blending times and to evaluate incipient sludge disturbance for waste tanks. Incipient sludge disturbance was defined by SRR and SRNL as minor blending of settled sludge from the tank bottom into suspension due to blending pump operation, where the sludge level was shown to remain constant. To experimentally model the sludge layer, a very thin, pourable, sludge simulant was conservatively used for all testing. To experimentally model the liquid, supernate layer above the sludge in waste tanks, two salt solution simulants were used, which provided a bounding range of supernate properties. One solution was water (H{sub 2}O + NaOH), and the other was an inhibited, more viscous salt solution. The research performed and data obtained significantly advances the understanding of fluid mechanics, mixing theory and CFD modeling for nuclear waste tanks by benchmarking CFD results to actual experimental data. This research significantly bridges the gap between previous CFD models and actual field experiences in real waste tanks. A finding of the 2009, DOE, Slurry Retrieval, Pipeline Transport and Plugging, and Mixing Workshop was that CFD models were inadequate to assess blending processes in nuclear waste tanks. One recommendation from that Workshop was that a validation, or bench marking program be performed for CFD modeling versus experiment. This research provided experimental data to validate and correct CFD models as they apply to mixing and blending in nuclear waste tanks. Extensive SDI research was a significant step toward bench marking and applying CFD modeling. This research showed that CFD models not only agreed with experiment, but demonstrated that the large variance in actual experimental data accounts for misunderstood discrepancies between CFD models and experiments. Having documented this finding, SRNL was able to provide correction factors to be used with CFD models to statistically bound full scale CFD results. Through the use of pilot scale tests performed for both types of pumps and available engineering literature, SRNL demonstrated how to effectively apply CFD results to salt batch mixing in full scale waste tanks. In other words, CFD models were in error prior to development of experimental correction factors determined during this research, which provided a technique to use CFD models fo

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

298

TRANSITION STRATEGIES Sig Gronich  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies, such as electric and hybrid vehicles. The State and counties are committed to alternative, but minimize losses in local excise tax revenue (incentive in place at the time) and minimize higher gasoline of 2004. This incentive provided a tax credit of $0.51 per gallon of ethanol that is blended with gasoline

299

Evaluating Rail Transit Criticism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report evaluates criticism of rail transit systems. It examines claims that rail transit is ineffective at increasing public transit ridership and improving transportation system performance, that rail transit investments are not cost effective, and that transit is an outdated form of transportation. It finds that critics often misrepresent issues and use biased and inaccurate analysis. This is a companion to the report Rail Transit in

Todd Litman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Emissions mitigation of blended coals through systems optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For coal fired power stations, such as those located in the US, that have installed NOx and SOx emissions abatement equipment substantial carbon dioxide reduction could be achieved by shifting from pure PRB coal to blended coals with local bituminous coal. Don Labbe explains how. The article is based on a presentation at Power-Gen Asia 2009, which takes place 7-9 October in Bangkok, Thailand and an ISA POWID 2009 paper (19th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controlls and Instrumentation Conference, Chicago, Illinois, May 2009). 4 refs., 3 figs.

Don Labbe [IOM Invensys Operations Management (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

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301

INVESTIGATION ON THE FLAME EXTINCTION LIMIT OF FUEL BLENDS  

SciTech Connect

Lean flame extinction limits of binary fuel mixtures of methane (CH{sub 4}), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were measured using a twin-flame counter-flow burner. Experiments were conducted to generate an extinction equivalence ratio vs. global stretch rate plot and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the equivalence ratio corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The foregoing gases were selected because they are the primary constitutes of natural gas, which is the primary focus of the present study. To validate the experimental setup and methodology, the flame extinction limit of pure fuels at zero stretch conditions were also estimated and compared with published values. The lean flame extinction limits of methane (f{sub ext} = 4.6%) and propane (f{sub ext} = 2.25%) flames measured in the present study agreed with the values reported in the literature. It was observed that the flame extinction limit of fuel blends have a polynomial relation with the concentration of component fuels in the mixture. This behavior contradicts with the commonly used linear Le Chatelier's approximation. The experimentally determined polynomial relations between the flame extinction limits of fuel blends (i.e. methane-propane and methane-ethane) and methane concentration are as follows: (1) Methane-Propane--%f{sub ext} = (1.05 x 10{sup -9}) f{sup 5}-(1.3644 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(6.40299 x 10{sup -6}) f{sup 3}-(1.2108459 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2}+(2.87305329 x 10{sup -3}) f+2.2483; (2) Methane-Ethane--%f{sub ext} = (2.1 x 10{sup -9})f{sup 5}-(3.5752 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(2.095425 x 10{sup -5}) f{sup 3}-(5.037353 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2} + 6.08980409 f + 2.8923. Where f{sub ext} is the extinction limits of methane-propane and methane-ethane fuel blends, and f is the concentration (% volume) of methane in the fuel mixture. The relations were obtained by fitting fifth order curve (polynomial regression) to experimentally measured extinction limits at different mixture conditions. To extend the study to a commercial fuel, the flame extinction limit for Birmingham natural gas (a blend of 95% methane, 5% ethane and 5% nitrogen) was experimentally determined and was found to be 3.62% fuel in the air-fuel mixture.

Ahsan R. Choudhuri

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

RTD Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: Interim Review Summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of the data NREL collected from a project to evaluate the in-use performance of buses from the Regional Transportation District of Denver operating on B20.

Proc, K.; Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement  

SciTech Connect

To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Problems and Solutions for Multi-coals Blending in Thermal Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multi-coals blending is an applicable method for energy-saving and pollutant reduction in thermal plants. However, the utilizations have been hampered by problems such as complexities of practical implements, risks against safety during operation, difficulties ... Keywords: multi-coals blending, whole process, global optimization, expert system

Peng Peng; Xia Ji; Yang Tao

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends  

SciTech Connect

Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Combustion Characteristics of Coal and Biomass Blends and Thermal Dynamic Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By using TGA technology, the combustion characteristics under different conditions of hard coal and biomass blends has been discussed. The combustion curves of blends exhibited the characteristics with two peaks. Results also exhibited that there was ... Keywords: coal, biomass, thermal analysis, combustion characteristics

Haizhen Huang; Haibo Chen; Guohua Wang; Jun Liu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

Moriarty, K.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation  

SciTech Connect

Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

309

Composition dependence of the interaction parameter in isotopic polymer blends  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic polymer mixtures lack the structural asymmetries and specific interactions encountered in blends of chemically distinct species. In this respect, they form ideal model systems for exploring the limitations of the widely-used Flory-Huggins (FH) lattice model and for testing and improving new theories of polymer thermodynamics. The FH interaction parameter between deuterium-labeled and unlabeled segments of the same species ([sub [chi]HD]) should in principle be independent of concentration ([phi]), through previous small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments have shown that it exhibits a minimum at [phi] [approximately] 0.5 for poly(vinylethylene) (PVE) and poly(ethylethylene) (PEE). The authors report new data on polyethylene (PE) as a function of molecular weight, temperature (T), and [phi], which show qualitatively similar behavior. However, measurements on [sub [chi]HD]([phi]) for polystyrene (PS) show a maximum at [phi] [approximately]0.5, in contrast to PVE, PEE, and PE. Reproducing the concentration dependence of [phi] in different model isotopic systems should serve as a sensitive test of the way in which theories of polymer thermodynamics can account for the details of the local packing and also the effects of noncombinatorial entropy, which appear to be the main cause of the variation of [sub [chi]HD]([phi]) for PE. These data also serve to quantify the effects of isotopic substitution in SANS experiments on polyolefin blends and thus lay the ground work for definitive studies of the compatibility of branched and linear polyethylenes.

Londono, J.D.; Narten, A.H.; Wignall, G.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Honnell, K.G.; Hsieh, E.T.; Johnson, T.W. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States). Research and Development); Bates, F.S. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

310

Modeling the Auto-Ignition of Biodiesel Blends with a Multi-Step Model  

SciTech Connect

There is growing interest in using biodiesel in place of or in blends with petrodiesel in diesel engines; however, biodiesel oxidation chemistry is complicated to directly model and existing surrogate kinetic models are very large, making them computationally expensive. The present study describes a method for predicting the ignition behavior of blends of n-heptane and methyl butanoate, fuels whose blends have been used in the past as a surrogate for biodiesel. The autoignition is predicted using a multistep (8-step) model in order to reduce computational time and make this a viable tool for implementation into engine simulation codes. A detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends was used as a basis for validating the multistep model results. The ignition delay trends predicted by the multistep model for the n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends matched well with that of the detailed CHEMKIN model for the majority of conditions tested.

Toulson, Dr. Elisa [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Allen, Casey M [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, Dennis J [Michigan State University, East Lansing; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Schock, Harold [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomasscoal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass­coal blends in pneumatic conveying.1088/0957-0233/23/8/085307 Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass­coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass­coal blends in fuel injection

Yan, Yong

312

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 61, NO. 5, MAY 2012 1343 Flow Measurement of Biomass and Blended Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to those in the horizontal pipe. Index Terms--Biomass­coal flow, blended biomass, cross- correlation. It is expected that biomass­coal mixture or blended biomass flow is significantly more complex than and between different biomass fuels. Quantitative data about biomass­coal mixture flow and blended biomass

Yan, Yong

313

Gas turbine combustor transition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

314

Gas turbine combustor transition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

Coslow, Billy Joe (Winter Park, FL); Whidden, Graydon Lane (Great Blue, CT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Phase transitions in insertion electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phase transitions that occur during lithium insertion into layered and framework structures are discussed in the context of their application as positive and negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. The discussion is focused on the two-dimensional structures of graphite, LiNi{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}O{sub 2} (M = Co, Ti and Mg), and Li{sub 1.2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8}; examples of framework structures with a three-dimensional interstitial space for Li{sup +}-ion transport include the spinel oxides and intermetallic compounds with zinc-blende-type structures. The phase transitions are discussed in terms of their tolerance to lithium insertion and extraction and to the chemical stability of the electrodes in the cell environment.

Thackeray, M. M.

2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

316

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

317

Baldrige Program Transition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Baldrige Performance Excellence Program is transitioning to a Sustainable, Enterprise Model. ... A Vision to Be Among the Best. ...

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

318

Management Transition Guidance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Records and Information Records and Information Management Transition Guidance November 2013 Records and Information Management Transition Guidance i Records and Information Management Transition Guidance Table of Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................ 1 1.0 Introduction and Purpose ..................................................................................................... 1 LM Records Functions ................................................................................................................ 1 2.0 The Records Life Cycle ....................................................................................................... 2 3.0 Organizational Responsibilities ........................................................................................... 2

319

HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UF{sub 6} blending alternative to produce LEU UF{sub 6} for commercial use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials; the nuclear material will be converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed; blending as UF{sub 6} to produce a UF{sub 6} product for commercial use is one of them. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UF{sub 6} blending HEU disposition option. Resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

The Role of Leadership in Starting and Operating Blended Learning Charter Schools: A Multisite Case Study.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heavily utilizing both instructional technology and face-to-face instruction within a bricks-and-mortar school environment, blended learning charter schools are gaining attention as a cost-effective school design.… (more)

Agostini, Michael

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries DOE Grant No: DE-SC0006306 Alan Cisar* and Chris Rhodes Lynntech, Inc., 2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South, College Station, TX...

322

Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Optimal handling of Highly Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients during milling and blending operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis investigates best practices for Highly Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (HAPI) milling and blending. We utilize a qualitative analysis centering on a benchmarking study and quantitative analyses using a ...

Setty, Prashant (Prashant Neelappanavara)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Knock limits in spark ignited direct injected engines using gasoline/ethanol blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct Fuel Injection (DI) extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in DI is therefore ...

Kasseris, Emmanuel P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Durable and Non-Toxic Topical Flame Retardants for Cotton and Cotton Blends.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Flame retardant chemicals were used as topical finishes on cotton and cotton blended fabric. Comparison of flame resistance and durability of non-bromine/non-antimony flame retardants were… (more)

Mathews, Marc Christopher

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Coal Combustion and Organic By-Product Blends as Soil Substitutes / Amendments for Horticulture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a field assessment of the use of blends of coal combustion by-products with biosolids in horticultural applications such as potting mixes for ornamentals and turf production.

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

Characterization and Combustion Performance of Corn Oil-Based Biofuel Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, the development and use of biofuels have received considerable attention due to the high demand for environmentally acceptable (green) fuels. Most of the recent studies have looked at the processes of converting vegetable oils into biodiesel. It is well known vegetable oil to biodiesel conversion involves many processes including transesterification, which makes biodiesel costly and time-consuming to produce. In this study, the effects of blending high-viscosity fresh and used corn oils with low-viscosity diesel and jet fuel mixed with butanol and ethanol were studied. Several corn oil-based blends were formulated and characterized to understand the effect of composition on viscosity, fuel stability and energy content. The formulated corn oil blends were combusted in a 30 kW modified combustion chamber to determine the corresponding NOx and CO emission levels, along with CO? levels. Used corn oil was made by simply heating fresh corn oil for a fixed period of time (about 44 hours), and was characterized by quantifying its total polar material (TPM), iodine value, free fatty acid content, and peroxide value. The combustion experiments were conducted at a constant heat output of 68,620 kJ/hr (19 kW), to observe and study the effects of equivalence ratio, swirl number, and fuel composition on emissions. Used corn oil blends exhibited better combustion performance than fresh corn oil blends, due in part to the higher unsaturation levels in fresh corn oil. NOx emissions for used corn oil increased with swirl number. Among all the blends, the one with the higher amount of diesel (lower amount of corn oil) showed higher NOx emissions. The blend with fresh corn oil showed decreasing NOx with increasing equivalence ratio at swirl number 1.4. All blends showed generally decreasing CO trends at both swirl numbers at very lean conditions. The diesel fuel component as well as the alcohols in the blends were also important in the production of pollutants. Compared to the diesel-based blends mixed with used corn oil, butanol, and ethanol, the jet fuel-based blends showed higher NOx levels and lower CO levels at both swirl numbers.

Savant, Gautam Sandesh

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

329

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

Karner, D.; Francfort, James Edward

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen–50% CNG fuel.

Don Karner; Francfort, James Edward

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Business Plan for Utilization of Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBP) -- Biosolids Blends in Horticultural Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a marketing plan for coal combustion by-products (CCBP)-biosolids blends which summarizes the business opportunity (potential demand for CCBP-biosolids blends) and defines conditions necessary to seize and execute the opportunity identified. The plan places a hypothetical business in a specific location (Austell, GA) to make the cost-profit analysis as realistic as possible. It should be remembered, however, that the marketing plan for a business venture is not "the business." This h...

1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

332

Solvent Blending Strategy to Upgrade MCU CSSX Solvent to Equivalent Next-Generation CSSX Solvent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of the present study have validated an equal-volume blending strategy for upgrading freshly prepared CSSX solvent to a blended solvent functionally equivalent to NG-CSSX solvent. It is shown that blending fresh CSSX solvent as currently used in MCU with an equal volume of an NG-CSSX solvent concentrate of appropriate composition yields a blended solvent composition (46.5 mM of MaxCalix, 3.5 mM of BOBCalixC6, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, 3 mM of guanidine suppressor, and 1.5 mM of TOA in Isopar L) that exhibits equivalent batch ESS performance to that of the NG-CSSX solvent containing 50 mM of MaxCalix, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, and 3 mM of guanidine suppressor in Isopar L. The solvent blend composition is robust to third-phase formation. Results also show that a blend containing up to 60% v/v of CSSX solvent could be accommodated with minimal risk. Extraction and density data for the effect of solvent concentration mimicking diluent evaporation or over-dilution of the equal-volume blended solvent are also given, providing input for setting operational limits. Given that the experiments employed all pristine chemicals, the results do not qualify a blended solvent starting with actual used MCU solvent, which can be expected to have undergone some degree of degradation. Consequently, further work should be considered to evaluate this risk and implement appropriate remediation if needed.

Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Phase Behavior of Neat Triblock Copolymers and Copolymer/Homopolymer Blends Near Network Phase Windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (ISM) copolymers near the styrene-rich network phase window was examined through the use of neat triblock copolymers and copolymer/homopolymer blends. Both end-block and middle-block blending protocols were employed using poly(isoprene) (PI), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(styrene) (PS) homopolymers. Blended specimens exhibited phase transformations to well-ordered nanostructures (at homopolymer loadings up to 26 vol % of the total blend volume). Morphological consistency between neat and blended specimens was established at various locations in the ISM phase space. Copolymer/homopolymer blending permitted the refinement of lamellar, hexagonally packed cylinder, and disordered melt phase boundaries as well as the identification of double gyroid (Q{sup 230}), alternating gyroid (Q{sup 214}), and orthorhombic (O{sup 70}) network regimes. Additionally, the experimental phase diagram exhibited similar trends to those found in a theoretical ABC triblock copolymer phase diagram with symmetric interactions and statistical segments lengths generated by Tyler et al.

M Tureau; L Rong; B Hsiao; T Epps

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Biology and Phase Transition - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 24, 2003 ... next · up · previous. Next: Kaufman and percolation Up: Phase Transition Models in Previous: Phase Transition Models in ...

336

Hybrid Dynamic Density Functional Theory for Polymer Melts and Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a high-speed and accurate hybrid dynamic density functional theory for the computer simulations of the phase separation processes of polymer melts and blends. The proposed theory is a combination of the dynamic self-consistent field (SCF) theory and a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau type theory with the random phase approximation (GRPA). The SCF theory is known to be accurate in evaluating the free energy of the polymer systems in both weak and strong segregation regions although it has a disadvantage of the requirement of a considerable amount of computational cost. On the other hand, the GRPA theory has an advantage of much smaller amount of required computational cost than the SCF theory while its applicability is limited to the weak segregation region. To make the accuracy of the SCF theory and the high-performance of the GRPA theory compatible, we adjust the chemical potential of the GRPA theory by using the SCF theory every constant time steps in the dynamic simulations. The performance of the GRPA and the hybrid theories is tested by using several systems composed of an A/B homopolymer, an AB diblock copolymer, or an ABC triblock copolymer. Using the hybrid theory, we succeeded in reproducing the metastable complex phase-separated domain structures of an ABC triblock copolymer observed by experiments.

Takashi Honda; Toshihiro Kawakatsu

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

337

Site Transition Guidance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Site Transition Guidance March 2010 Office of Environmental Management U.S. Department of Energy Washington D. C. 20585 Standard Review Plan (SRP) Technical Framework for EM...

338

Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

The Transition to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prospects for Building a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure,”and James S. Cannon. The Hydrogen Energy Transition: Movingof Energy, National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, November 2002.

Ogden, Joan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

Krishna, C.R.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Blending Study of MgO-Based Separator Materials for Thermal Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development and testing of a new technique for blending of electrolyte-binder (separator) mixes for use in thermal batteries is described. The original method of blending such materials at Sandia involved liquid Freon TF' as a medium. The ban on the use of halogenated solvents throughout much of the Department of Energy complex required the development of an alternative liquid medium as a replacement. The use of liquid nitrogen (LN) was explored and developed into a viable quality process. For comparison, a limited number of dry-blending tests were also conducted using a Turbula mixer. The characterization of pellets made from LN-blended separators involved deformation properties at 530 C and electrolyte-leakage behavior at 400 or 500 C, as well as performance in single-cells and five-cell batteries under several loads. Stack-relaxation tests were also conducted using 10-cell batteries. One objective of this work was to observe if correlations could be obtained between the mechanical properties of the separators and the performance in single cells and batteries. Separators made using three different electrolytes were examined in this study. These included the LiCl-KCl eutectic, the all-Li LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte, and the low-melting LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic. The electrochemical performance of separator pellets made with LN-blended materials was compared to that for those made with Freon T P and, in some cases, those that were dry blended. A satisfactory replacement MgO (Marinco 'OL', now manufactured by Morton) was qualified as a replacement for the standard Maglite 'S' MgO that has been used for years but is no longer commercially available. The separator compositions with the new MgO were optimized and included in the blending and electrochemical characterization tests.

GUIDOTTI, RONALD A.; REINHARDT, FREDERICK W.; ANDAZOLA, ARTHUR H.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS TO CFD MODELS FOR BLENDING IN A TANK USING DUAL OPPOSING JETS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research has been completed in a pilot scale, eight foot diameter tank to investigate blending, using a pump with dual opposing jets. The jets re-circulate fluids in the tank to promote blending when fluids are added to the tank. Different jet diameters and different horizontal and vertical orientations of the jets were investigated. In all, eighty five tests were performed both in a tank without internal obstructions and a tank with vertical obstructions similar to a tube bank in a heat exchanger. These obstructions provided scale models of several miles of two inch diameter, serpentine, vertical cooling coils below the liquid surface for a full scale, 1.3 million gallon, liquid radioactive waste storage tank. Two types of tests were performed. One type of test used a tracer fluid, which was homogeneously blended into solution. Data were statistically evaluated to determine blending times for solutions of different density and viscosity, and the blending times were successfully compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The other type of test blended solutions of different viscosity. For example, in one test a half tank of water was added to a half tank of a more viscous, concentrated salt solution. In this case, the fluid mechanics of the blending process was noted to significantly change due to stratification of fluids. CFD models for stratification were not investigated. This paper is the fourth in a series of papers resulting from this research (Leishear, et.al. [1- 4]), and this paper documents final test results, statistical analysis of the data, a comparison of experimental results to CFD models, and scale-up of the results to a full scale tank.

Leishear, R.

2011-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

343

Process simulation, integration and optimization of blending of petrodiesel with biodiesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the increasing stringency on sulfur content in petrodiesel, there is a growing tendency of broader usage of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) with sulfur content of 15 ppm. Refineries around the world should develop cost-effective and sustainable strategies to meet these requirements. The primary objective of this work is to analyze alternatives for producing ULSD. In addition to the conventional approach of revamping existing hydrotreating facilities, the option of blending petrodiesel with biodiesel is investigated. Blending petrodiesel with biodiesel is a potentially attractive option because it is naturally low in sulfur, enhances the lubricity of petrodiesel, and is a sustainable energy resource. In order to investigate alternatives for producing ULSD, several research tasks were undertaken in this work. Firstly, base-case designs of petrodiesel and biodiesel production processes were developed using computer-aided tools ASPEN Plus. The simulations were adjusted until the technical criteria and specifications of petrodiesel and biodiesel production were met. Next, process integration techniques were employed to optimize the synthesized processes. Heat integration for petrodiesel and biodiesel was carried out using algebraic, graphical and optimization methods to maximize the integrated heat exchange and minimize the heating and cooling utilities. Additionally, mass integration was applied to conserve material resources. Cost estimation was carried out for both processes. The capital investments were obtained from ASPEN ICARUS Process Evaluator, while operating costs were calculated based on the updated chemical market prices. The total operating costs before and after process integration were calculated and compared. Next, blending optimization was performed for three blending options with the optimum blend for each option identified. Economic comparison (total annualized cost, breakeven analysis, return on investment, and payback period) of the three options indicated that the blending of ULSD with chemical additives was the most profitable. However, the subsequent life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and safety comparisons demonstrated that the blending of ULSD with biodiesel was superior.

Wang, Ting

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Emissions characterization and particle size distribution from a DPF-equipped diesel truck fueled with biodiesel blends.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biodiesel may be derived from either plant or animal sources, and is usually employed as a compression ignition fuel in a blend with petroleum diesel… (more)

Olatunji, Idowu O.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The EC bioethanol blend mandate policy: its effect on ACP sugar trade and potential interaction with EPA policies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The study aim was to determine effects of the EC bioethanol blend mandate policy and its potential interaction with the EPA policies on EU/ACP countries.… (more)

Sukati, M.A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Study of comfort properties of natural and synthetic knitted fabrics in different blend ratios for winter active sportswear.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of the present study is to produce base layer winter active sportswear fabrics using natural and synthetic fibres and their blends which will… (more)

Wardiningsih, W

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Leaching and standing water characteristics of bottom ash and composted manure blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal burning electrical generating facilities produce roughly 91 million metric tons of ash byproducts annually. Typically, this ash is retained at the power plant sites, adding to the cost of managing wastes at the plants. Another waste material requiring significant management efforts and costs is manure. Repeated application of manure on small parcels of land can contribute to environmental problems such as impaired water quality due to nitrate (NO?) leaching into the groundwater and phosphorus (P) runoff into surface water bodies. Alternative uses of bottom ash (BA) and composted manure (CM) such as a soil amendment for landscapes or potting media need to be explored. Before an alternative is adopted at a large scale, however, it must be evaluated for its effectiveness and environmental integrity. Two column studies were conducted to evaluate three blends of acidic and alkaline BA and CM, namely B1 (95:5%), B2 (90:10%), and B3 (80:20%). Samples from standing water (top) and leachate (bottom) were collected at weekly intervals to evaluate the effects of different blend ratios and time on chemical and physical properties. It was found that higher CM content in acidic and alkaline raw blends (no-de-ionized water added) resulted in significantly higher concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P, and potassium (K). Generally, a higher CM content in acidic and alkaline blends resulted in higher leachate concentrations for total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total volatile solids (TVS), total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), TKN, NO?-N, ammonium (NH?-N), P, and K. Concentrations of nearly all chemicals were lower in standing water (top) compared to leachate (bottom) for acidic and alkaline blends. Alkaline blends had higher leachate and standing water TKN, NH?-N, N0?-N, P, and K compared to the acidic blends. After day 28, standing water TDS concentrations for all acidic blends were below the USEPA drinking water standard for TDS. Standing water for alkaline blends remained below the USEPA drinking water standard for TDS for the entire duration of the study. Leachate and standing water concentrations for all blends were below the USEPA drinking water standard for NO?-N for acidic blends. Standing water and leachate for alkaline blends B1 and B2 were below the USEPA drinking water standard for NO?-N while standing water was well below the standard for the entire duration of the study. P concentrations were low in leachate and nonexistent in standing water for both acidic and alkaline blends. Based on these findings, it is concluded that acidic and alkaline B1 (95:5%) and B2 (90:10%) may be considered as a soil amendment substitute.

Mathis, James Gregory

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

349

DOE Grids Service Transition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Grids Service Transition DOE Grids Service Transition Services Overview ECS Audio/Video Conferencing Fasterdata IPv6 Network Network Performance Tools (perfSONAR) ESnet OID Registry PGP Key Service Virtual Circuits (OSCARS) DOE Grids Service Transition Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside the US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside the US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net DOE Grids Service Transition Background ESnet has decided to transition support and management for the certificate services provided by the DOE Grids public key infrastructure (PKI) to the Open Sciences Grid (OSG). OSG and ESnet provide service to many of the same user communities, and have long been collaborators in the areas of identity

350

Pilot plant assessment of blend properties and their impact on critical power plant components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of blending eastern bituminous coals with western subbituminous coals on utility boiler operation. Relative to the baseline bituminous coal, the testing reported here indicated that there were significant impacts to boiler performance due to the blending of the eastern and western coals. Results indicated that fuel blending can be used to adequately control flue gas emissions of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} at the expense of reduced milling efficiency, increased sootblowing in the high-temperature and low-temperature regions of the boiler and, to a lesser extent, decreased collection efficiency for an electrostatic precipitator. The higher reactivity of the subbituminous coal increased the overall combustion efficiency, which may tend to decrease the impact of milling efficiency losses. The extent of these impacts was directly related to the percentage of subbituminous coal in the blends. At the lowest blend ratios of subbituminous coal, the impacts were greatly reduced.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

NO reduction in decoupling combustion of biomass and biomass-coal blend  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a form of energy that is CO{sub 2}-neutral. However, NOx emissions in biomass combustion are often more than that of coal on equal heating-value basis. In this study, a technology called decoupling combustion was investigated to demonstrate how it reduces NO emissions in biomass and biomass-coal blend combustion. The decoupling combustion refers to a two-step combustion method, in which fuel pyrolysis and the burning of char and pyrolysis gas are separated and the gas burns out during its passage through the burning-char bed. Tests in a quartz dual-bed reactor demonstrated that, in decoupling combustion, NO emissions from biomass and biomass-coal blends were both less than those in traditional combustion and that NO emission from combustion of blends of biomass and coal decreased with increasing biomass percentage in the blend. Co-firing rice husk and coal in a 10 kW stove manufactured according to the decoupling combustion technology further confirmed that the decoupling combustion technology allows for truly low NO emission as well as high efficiency for burning biomass and biomass-coal blends, even in small-scale stoves and boilers. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Li Dong; Shiqiu Gao; Wenli Song; Jinghai Li; Guangwen Xu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex Systems

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Federal Transit Administration-National Transit Database (NTD) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Federal Transit Administration-National Transit Database (NTD) Federal Transit Administration-National Transit Database (NTD) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Federal Transit Administration-National Transit Database (NTD) Agency/Company /Organization: Federal Transit Administration Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Resource Type: Dataset User Interface: Website Website: www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/ Cost: Free Language: English Federal Transit Administration-National Transit Database (NTD) Screenshot References: National Transit Database[1] "The NTD was established by Congress to be the Nation's primary source for information and statistics on the transit systems of the United States. Recipients or beneficiaries of grants from the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the Urbanized Area Formula Program (§5307) or

353

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 4, Number 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This issue of Alternative Fuel News focuses on transit buses and refuse haulers. Many transit agencies and waste management companies are investigating alternatives to traditional diesel buses and refuse haulers.

Ficker, C.

2000-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

354

The effects of blending hydrogen with methane on engine operation, efficiency, and emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

-01-0474 -01-0474 The effects of blending hydrogen with methane on engine operation, efficiency, and emissions Thomas Wallner and Henry K. Ng Argonne National Laboratory Robert W. Peters University of Alabama at Birmingham Copyright © 2007 SAE International ABSTRACT Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers and transportation fuels. Because of the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations, widespread introduction of vehicles powered by pure hydrogen is not likely in the near future. Blending hydrogen with methane could be one solution. Such blends take advantage of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and, at the same time, reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. In this paper, the authors analyze the combustion properties of hydrogen/methane

355

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Alan Cisar, Lynntech  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries DOE Grant No: DE-SC0006306 Alan Cisar* and Chris Rhodes Lynntech, Inc., 2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South, College Station, TX 77845 *E-mail: alan.cisar@lynntech.com, Phone: 979.764.2311 Prof. Arumugam Manthiram University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 Prof. Fuqiang Liu University of Texas Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 Conclusions Lynntech, in conjunction with the University of Texas and the University of Texas at Arlington, developed a new series of low-cost polymer blend membranes with high proton conductivity and ultralow vanadium ion permeability. The proton conductivity and physical properties of these membranes are tunable by adjusting the ratio of acid and base components. Membrane conductivity was found to be more critical to

356

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of recycling. Young is chairman of the Paducah Citizens Advisory Board, which advises the Department of Energy regarding cleanup issues at the Paducah site. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of

357

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Blending Hydrogen into Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Prepared under Task No. HT12.2010 Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

358

Calcination of Fluorinel-sodium waste blends using sugar as a feed additive (formerly WINCO-11879)  

SciTech Connect

Methods were studied for using sugar as a feed additive for converting the sodium-bearing wastes stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant into granular, free flowing solids by fluidized-bed calcination at 500{degrees}C. All methods studied blended sodium-bearing wastes with Fluorinel wastes but differed in the types of sugar (sucrose or dextrose) that were added to the blend. The most promising sugar additive was determined to be sucrose, since it is converted more completely to inorganic carbon than is dextrose. The effect of the feed aluminum-to-alkali metal mole ratio on calcination of these blends with sugar was also investigated. Increasing the aluminum-to-alkali metal ratio from 0.6 to 1.0 decreased the calcine product-to-fines ratio from 3.0 to 1.0 and the attrition index from 80 to 15%. Further increasing the ratio to 1.25 had no effect.

Newby, B.J.; Thomson, T.D.; O`Brien, B.H.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of recycling. Young is chairman of the Paducah Citizens Advisory Board, which advises the Department of Energy regarding cleanup issues at the Paducah site. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Blending of hydrogen in natural gas distribution systems. Volume I. Gas blends flow in distribution system, mixing points, and regulatory standards. Final report, June 1, 1976--August 30, 1977. [10 and 20% hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume of the subject study ''Blending of Hydrogen in Natural Gas Distribution Systems'' describes studies on the determination of gas distribution system flows with hydrogen - natural gas blends, potential hydrogen admission points to gas distribution systems, and the impact of hydrogen - natural gas blends on regulatory standards for gas distribution systems. The studies resulted in the following principal findings: (1) Most existing natural gas distribution systems could adequately transport 20% blends of hydrogen by volume with little or no modification. (2) The best point of admission of the hydrogen into a natural gas distribution system would be at the meter and regulating stations supplying a particular distribution system. (3) The impact of hydrogen - natural gas blends on state regulatory standards appears to be minimal for PSE and G, but requires further study for various National Codes and for other states.

None

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Design and Application of Coal Blending Control System Based on HOLLiAS-LK Large-Scale PLC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To make full use of coal combustion heat energy, and for the purposes of energy savings and pollutant reductions, more than two different coal needs to optimize the preparation of coal. This article describes design and application of coal blending control ... Keywords: coal blending system, PLC, cascade control, kingview

Hong Zhu; Haitao Li; Sheng Fu; Yinhua Pang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials  

SciTech Connect

The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

Pauls, R. E. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Brazilian experience with self-adjusting fuel system for variable alcohol-gasoline blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fuel control system has been developed which allows fuels of various stoichiometries to be used interchangeably without suffering a fuel consumption penalty, allowing a more efficient use of the combustion energy. This Adaptive Lean Limit Control system uses a single, digital sensor and an electronic circuit to detect lean limit engine operation, and feeds back information to the fuel system to maintain the best economy mixture, regardless of the fuel blend being used. The hardware is described, and the results of extensive vehicle testing, using 20% and 50% ethanol-gasoline blends, are included.

Leshner, M.D.; Luengo, C.A.; Calandra, F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Transition-Metal Hydrides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transition-Metal Hydride Electrochromics Transition-Metal Hydride Electrochromics A new type of electrochromic hydride material has interesting and unusual properties. Thin Ni-Mg films, for example, are mirror-like in appearance and have very low visible transmittance. On exposure to hydrogen gas or on reduction in alkaline electrolyte, the films become transparent. The transition is believed to result from formation of nickel magnesium hydride, Mg2NiH4. Switchable mirrors based on rare earth hydrides were discovered in 1996 at Vrije University in the Netherlands, Rare earth-magnesium alloy films were subsequently found to be superior to the pure lanthanides in maximum transparency and mirror-state reflectivity by Philips Laboratories. The newer transition-metal types which use less expensive and less reactive materials were discovered at LBNL. This has now become a very active area of study with a network of researchers.

368

Information and Records Management Transition Guidance | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Information and Records Management Transition Guidance Information and Records Management Transition Guidance Information and Records Management Transition Guidance (March 2004)...

369

Control Strategies For Transit Priority  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light Rail Transit," Transportation Research Record, No.Rail Signal Control Strategies by Combining Transit and Traffic Simulation Models," Transportation Research

Skabardonis, Alexander

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup...

371

Development and experimental evaluation of a high temperature mechanism for blended n-heptane-isooctane-ethanol-air-mixtures and gasoline-ethanol-air-mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laminar burning velocity measurements using the closed vessel bomb method have been done for fuel-blend-air-mixtures at 373 K initial temperature and up to 20 bar initial pressure. The two experimentally investigated fuel blends consist, on the one hand, ... Keywords: ethanol-gasoline-blends, laminar burning velocity

S. Jerzembeck; C. Glawe; N. Peters

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Selection of best neural network for estimating properties of diesel-biodiesel blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soybean oil was transesterified with methanol in the presence of alkaline catalyst to produce methyl esters commonly known as biodiesel. Biodiesel and diesel blends were prepared and tested in laboratory for flash point, fire point, viscosity and density. ... Keywords: artificial neural network, biodiesel, density, fire point, flash point, transesterification, viscosity

Jatinder Kumar; Ajay Bansal

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BLEND DOWN PROGRAM AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE PRESENT AND FUTURE  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) entered into an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 40 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to TVA for conversion to fuel for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant. Savannah River Site (SRS) inventories included a significant amount of this material, which resulted from processing spent fuel and surplus materials. The HEU is blended with natural uranium (NU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) with a 4.95% 235U isotopic content and shipped as solution to the TVA vendor. The HEU Blend Down Project provided the upgrades needed to achieve the product throughput and purity required and provided loading facilities. The first blending to low enriched uranium (LEU) took place in March 2003 with the initial shipment to the TVA vendor in July 2003. The SRS Shipments have continued on a regular schedule without any major issues for the past 5 years and are due to complete in September 2008. The HEU Blend program is now looking to continue its success by dispositioning an additional approximately 21 MTU of HEU material as part of the SRS Enriched Uranium Disposition Project.

Magoulas, V; Charles Goergen, C; Ronald Oprea, R

2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

374

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1 Department; accepted 6 June 2000 Abstract This paper reviews literature on co-firing of coal with biomass fuels. Here of coal and biomass fuels are presented. Different classes of co-firing methods are identified

Wooldridge, Margaret S.

375

TURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELING OF COAL:BIOMASS BLENDS IN A SWIRL BURNER I -PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELING OF COAL:BIOMASS BLENDS IN A SWIRL BURNER I - PRELIMINARY RESULTS of Mathematics Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843 ABSTRACT A combustion model using three mixture fractions has been developed for accurate simulation of coal:manure combustion. This model treats coal

Daripa, Prabir

376

Understanding Polymorphism Formation in Electrospun Fibers of Immiscible Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Blends  

SciTech Connect

Effects of electric poling, mechanical stretching, and dipolar interaction on the formation of ferroelectric ({beta} and/or {gamma}) phases in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) have been studied in electrospun fibers of PVDF/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and PVDF/polysulfone (PSF) blends with PVDF as the minor component, using wide-angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared techniques. Experimental results of as-electrospun neat PVDF fibers (beaded vs. bead-free) showed that mechanical stretching during electrospinning, rather than electric poling, was effective to induce ferroelectric phases. For as-electrospun PVDF blend fibers with the non-polar PSF matrix, mechanical stretching during electrospinning again was capable of inducing some ferroelectric phases in addition to the major paraelectric ({alpha}) phase. However, after removing the mechanical stretching in a confined melt-recrystallization process, only the paraelectric phase was obtained. For as-electrospun PVDF blend fibers with the polar (or ferroelectric) PAN matrix, strong intermolecular interactions between polar PAN and PVDF played an important role in the ferroelectric phase formation in addition to the mechanical stretching effect during electrospinning. Even after the removal of mechanical stretching through the confined melt-recrystallization process, a significant amount of ferroelectric phases persisted. Comparing the ferroelectric phase formation between PVDF/PSF and PVDF/PAN blend fibers, we concluded that the local electric field-dipole interactions were the determining factor for the nucleation and growth of polar PVDF phases.

G Zhong; L Zhang; R Su; K Wang; H Fong; L Zhu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. These samples' combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. This report covers the first quarter's progress. Major activities during this period were focused on finding the plants where a demo MTU column will be installed to prepare the samples needed to characterize the combustion behavior of slurry effluents. Also, a meeting was held at Penn State University to discuss the availability of the laboratory furnace for testing the plant coal/recovered coal fines blends.

Singh, Shyam.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Blended learning and pure e-learning concepts for information retrieval: experiences and future directions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Today, teaching and learning are mostly supported by digital material and electronic communication ranging from the provision of slides or scripts in digital form to elaborate, interactive learning environments. This article describes the prospects and ... Keywords: Blended learning, Interaction, Teaching information retrieval, e-Learning

Andreas Henrich; Stefanie Sieber

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Examining hydrogen transitions.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide, UO{sub 3}, was used in the testing. Next, NU made up of UO{sub 3} and DU made up of UO{sub 2} was used in the test work. In every test, the blend achieved was characterized by spatial sampling of the ground product and analyzing for {sup 235}U concentration. The test work proved that these uranium oxide materials can be blended successfully. The spatial concentration was found to be uniform. Next, sintered thorium oxide pellets were used as surrogate for light water breeder reactor pellets (LWBR). To simulate LWBR pellet dispositioning, the thorium oxide pellets were first ground to a powder form and then the powder was blended with NU. In these tests also the concentration of {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th in blended products fell within established limits proving the success of RM-2 milling technology. RM-2 milling technology is applicable to any dry radioactive waste, especially brittle solids that can be ground up and mixed with the non-radioactive stock.

Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

site_transition.cdr  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Legacy Legacy Management U.S. DEPARTMENT OF This fact sheet explains the process for transferring a site to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion Introduction Transition Process After environmental remediation is completed at a site and there is no continuing mission, responsibility for the site and the associated records are transferred to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management for post-closure management. Where residual hazards (e.g., disposal cells, ground water contamination) remain, active long-term surveillance and maintenance will be required to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) established transition guidance for remediated sites that will transfer to LM for long-term surveillance and maintenance. The

384

Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Network Observability Transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the modeling, monitoring, and control of complex networks, a fundamental problem concerns the comprehensive determination of the state of the system from limited measurements. Using power grids as example networks, we show that this problem leads to a new type of percolation transition, here termed a {\\it network observability transition}, which we solve analytically for the configuration model. We also demonstrate a dual role of the network's community structure, which both facilitates optimal measurement placement and renders the networks substantially more sensitive to `observability attacks'. Aside from their immediate implications for the development of smart grids, these results provide insights into decentralized biological, social, and technological networks.

Yang, Yang; Motter, Adilson E; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.258701

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Transitions for the People: Theory and Practice of `Transition' and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

respond to the challenges, and opportunities, of Peak Oil and Climate Change?" [Transition Network 2008 change and peak-oil. There is much of interest here, for academics of sustainability transitions

Watson, Andrew

387

Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

388

Measurement of Selected Physical and Chemical Properties of Blends of Coaal-Based Jet fuel with Dodecane and Norpar-13.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of blending a coal-based fuel, JP-900, with two model paraffinic fuels, dodecane and Norpar-13, on… (more)

Guiadem, Sidonie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Effects of blending, staging and furnace temperature on co-firing of coal and biomass-bagasse.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This manuscript reports on emissions generated from laboratory-scale batch combustion of a high-volatile content bituminous coal, sugar-cane bagasse, and blends thereof. The average bulk equivalence… (more)

Arvind, Joshi Kulbhushan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Wear, durability, and lubricating oil performance of a straight vegetable oil (Karanja) blend fueled direct injection compression ignition engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Depletion of fossil fuel resources and resulting associated environmental degradation has motivated search for alternative transportation fuels. Blending small quantity of Karanja oil (straight vegetable oil) with mineral diesel is one of the simplest available alternatives

Avinash Kumar Agarwal; Atul Dhar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Intended for policymakers and others who make decisions about, and set guidelines for, the proper use of intermediate ethanol blends such as E20 in both vehicle engines and other engine types.

Knoll, K.; West, B.; Clark, W.; Graves, R.; Orban, J.; Przesmitzki, S.; Theiss, T.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Blending of hydrogen in natural gas distribution systems. Volume II. Combustion tests of blends in burners and appliances. Final report, June 1, 1976--August 30, 1977. [8, 11, 14, 20, 22, 25, and 31% hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The emerging ''hydrogen economy'' is a strong contender as one method to supplement or extend the domestic natural gas supply. This volume of the subject study ''Blending Hydrogen in Natural Gas Distribution Systems'' describes combustion studies to determine the maximum amount of hydrogen that can be blended in natural gas and utilized satisfactorily in typical appliances with no adjustment or conversion. Eleven pilot burners and twenty-three main burners typical of those in current use were operated on hydrogen-natural gas mixtures containing approximately 8, 11, 14, 20, 22, 25, and 31 percent, by volume, hydrogen. The eleven pilot burners and thirteen main burners were tested outside the appliance they were a part of. Ten main burners were tested in their respective appliances. Performance of the various burners tested are as follows: (1) Gas blends containing more than 6 to 11% hydrogen are the limiting mixtures for target type pilot burners. (2) Gas blends containing more than 20 to 22% hyrogen are the limiting mixtures for main burners operating in the open. (3) Gas blends containing more than 22 to 25% hydrogen are the limiting mixtures for main burners tested in appliances. (4) Modification of the orifice in target pilots or increasing the supply pressure to a minimum of 7 inches water column will permit the use of gas blends with 20% hydrogen.

None

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

FE Transition Deliverables  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transition Deliverables Transition Deliverables To: Cynthia Quarterman From: Charles Roy, FE-3 Date: 12/04/08 Re: On 12/03/08 Cynthia Quarterman requested a list of major projects with quick starts and job creation from Vic Der. Attached is a hard copy of this document. An electronic version of this document will be submitted to Cynthia Quarterman through the Office of Management. If there are any questions, please contact Charles Roy at 202-586-8977. ,^ (^// Cc~y Major Projects with Quick Starts & Jobs Creation Office of Clean Coal Summary of Projects and Job Creation The following table outlines the near-term possibilities for projects that capture and sequester carbon from coal-based systems. The potential jobs associated with these activities are listed along with likely construction and operation dates. Since the funding

394

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

2003-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

395

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen-50% CNG fuel.

Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

2003-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

396

Multiple boiler steam blending control system for an electric power plant  

SciTech Connect

A steam blending control is provided for two or more boilers in an electric power plant. To blend an oncoming boiler with an online boiler, the oncoming boiler is fired to a pressure ramp setpoint and outlet steam is isolated from the plant turbine and directed through position controlled bypass valve means. When steam temperature and pressure conditions are matched, the oncoming boiler isolation valve is opened and the bypass flow then existing is stored in a memory. The oncoming boiler bypass flow is cut back with total oncoming boiler steam flow controlled to the memorized flow valve as a setpoint. Flow from the on-line boiler is cut back under load control as the oncoming boiler flow to the plant turbine is increased. Deblending is implemented in a similar manner.

Binstock, M.H.; Criswell, R.L.

1981-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

397

Impact of Biofuel Blending on Diesel Soot Oxidation: Implications for Aftertreatment  

SciTech Connect

Control strategies for diesel particulate filters (DPFs) remain one of the most important aspects of aftertreatment research and understanding the soot oxidation mechanism is key to controlling regeneration. Currently, most DPF models contain simple, first order heterogeneous reactions oxidation models with empirically fit parameters. This work improves the understanding of fundamental oxidation kinetics necessary to advance the capabilities of predictive modeling, by leading to better control over regeneration of the device. This study investigated the effects of blending soybean-derived biodiesel fuel on diesel particulate emissions under conventional combustion from a 1.7L direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five biofuel blend levels were investigated and compared to conventional certification diesel for the nanostructure, surface chemistry and major constituents of the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of diesel particulate matter (PM), and the relationship between these properties and the particulate oxidation kinetics.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Foster, David [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin; Vander Wal, Dr. Randy [NASA-Glenn Research Center, Cleveland

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Pilot Plant Assessment of Blend Properties and Their Impact on Critical Power Plant Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low-sulfur subbituminous coals, currently in demand to meet regulated SO2 emission standards, are very different in composition from bituminous coal and affect many operating characteristics when fired in boilers designed for bituminous coal. This report documents a pilot-scale study of the relative impacts of a subbituminous coal or blend containing subbituminous coal on unit operating characteristics such as mill performance, furnace wall slagging, convective pass fouling, and electrostatic precipitato...

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

399

Laboratory Studies on Rendering Remediation Wastes Nonhazardous: Blending of Tar and Tarry Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some remediation wastes and tarry soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites will be classified as hazardous waste based on the results of Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests. This report presents the results of bench-scale mixing tests of nine blending agents on several former MGP tars and tarry soils known to exceed the toxicity characteristic (TC) for benzene. These mixing studies were designed to measure the dilution, loss by volatilization, or fixation by adsorption of ...

2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Use of Savannah River Site facilities for blend down of highly enriched uranium  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company was asked to assess the use of existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities for the conversion of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). The purpose was to eliminate the weapons potential for such material. Blending HEU with existing supplies of depleted uranium (DU) would produce material with less than 5% U-235 content for use in commercial nuclear reactors. The request indicated that as much as 500 to 1,000 MT of HEU would be available for conversion over a 20-year period. Existing facilities at the SRS are capable of producing LEU in the form of uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}) powder, uranyl nitrate [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] solution, or metal. Additional processing, and additional facilities, would be required to convert the LEU to uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) or uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 3}), the normal inputs for commercial fuel fabrication. This study`s scope does not include the cost for new conversion facilities. However, the low estimated cost per kilogram of blending HEU to LEU in SRS facilities indicates that even with fees for any additional conversion to UO{sub 2} or UF{sub 6}, blend-down would still provide a product significantly below the spot market price for LEU from traditional enrichment services. The body of the report develops a number of possible facility/process combinations for SRS. The primary conclusion of this study is that SRS has facilities available that are capable of satisfying the goals of a national program to blend HEU to below 5% U-235. This preliminary assessment concludes that several facility/process options appear cost-effective. Finally, SRS is a secure DOE site with all requisite security and safeguard programs, personnel skills, nuclear criticality safety controls, accountability programs, and supporting infrastructure to handle large quantities of special nuclear materials (SNM).

Bickford, W.E.; McKibben, J.M.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Formulation Efforts for Direct Vitrification of INEEL Blend Calcine Waste Simulate: Fiscal Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of glass formulation efforts for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) high level waste (HWL) calcine. Two waste compositions were used during testing. Testing started by using the Run 78 calcine composition and switched to simulated Blend calcine composition when it became available. The goal of the glass formulation efforts was to develop a frit composition that will accept higher waste loading that satisfies the glass processing and product acceptance constraints. 1. Melting temperature of 1125 ? 25?C 2. Viscosity between 2 and 10 Pa?s at the melting temperature 3. Liquidus temperature at least 100?C below the melting temperature 4. Normalized release of B, Li and Na each below 1 g/m2 (per ASTM C 1285-97) Glass formulation efforts tested several frit compositions with variable waste loadings of Run 78 calcine waste simulant. Frit 107 was selected as the primary candidate for processing since it met all process and performance criteria up to 45 mass% waste loading. When the simulated Blend calcine waste composition became available Frits 107 and 108 compositions were retested and again Frit 107 remained the primary candidate. However, both frits suffered a decrease in waste loading when switching from the Run 78 calcine to simulated Blend calcine waste composition. This was due to increase concentrations of both F and Al2O3 along with a decrease in CaO and Na2O in the simulate Blend calcine waste all of which have strong impacts on the glass properties that limit waste loading of this type of waste.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.; Reamer, I. A.

2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

402

In-cylinder pressure characteristics of a CI engine using blends of diesel fuel and methyl esters of beef tallow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Cummins N14-410 diesel engine was operated on 12 fuels produced by blending methyl tallowate, methyl soyate, and ethanol with no. 2 diesel fuel. Engine in-cylinder pressure data were used to evaluate engine performance. Peak cylinder pressures for each fuel blend at all engine speeds were lower than peak pressure for diesel fuel with the exception of the 80% diesel, 13% methyl tallowate, and 7% ethanol; and the 80% diesel, 6.5% methyl tallowate, 6.5% methyl soyate and 7% ethanol blends. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) values for all fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. The differences in IMEP values correlated with differences in power output of the engine. Similarly, maximum rates of pressure rise for most fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. It was concluded that the fuel blends used in this study would have no detrimental long-term effects on engine performance, wear, and knock. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A.; Borg, J.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Fuel Cell School Buses: Report to Congress  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and power equipment manufacturers, energy and chemical companies, electric and natural gas utilities, building designers, standards development organizations, other Federal...

404

High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing EnerDel technology, and helps DOE to evaluate the merits of underlying technology. The successful completion of this program demonstrated the capability of EnerDel battery packs to satisfactorily supply all power and energy requirements of a real-world HEV-Bus drive profile. This program supports green solutions to metropolitan public transportation problems by demonstrating the effectiveness of EnerDel lithium ion batteries for HEV-Bus applications.

Bruce Lu

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems.

James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

406

Economic Analysis of Alternative Fuel School Buses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Clean Cities final report provides a general idea of the potential economic impacts of choosing alternative fuels for school bus fleets. It provides information on different school bus types, as well as analysis of the three main types of alternative fuel used in school bus fleets today (natural gas, propane, and biodiesel).

Laughlin, M.

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Concerted Allosteric Transition Highlight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combined use of x-ray crystallography and solution small angle x-ray scattering has enabled a research collaboration involving scientists from Boston College and SSRL to provide structural evidence supporting a 30-year old model accounting for the cooperative binding of ligands to allosteric proteins and enzymes - a function central to physiology and cellular processes. combined use of x-ray crystallography and solution small angle x-ray scattering has enabled a research collaboration involving scientists from Boston College and SSRL to provide structural evidence supporting a 30-year old model accounting for the cooperative binding of ligands to allosteric proteins and enzymes - a function central to physiology and cellular processes. Over 30 years ago, two major models were developed to account for the cooperativity observed in oligomeric allosteric proteins such as hemoglobin, the oxygen carrier protein in blood: the concerted model, in which a protein has only two ”all-or-none” global states, vs. the sequential model that allows a number of different global conformational/energy states. Both, however, are based on just two local states of building blocks (subunits) in close analogy to magnetic spin states. In either model, a transition of one or more protein subunits leads to the global transition, in the case of hemoglobin, from the oxygen-releasing form to the oxygen-binding form, depending on the oxygen level in the blood stream. The concerted model, based on highly positive cooperativity, resembles the ferromagnetic phase transition, in which only two spin states account for the sharp phase transition between two global states. The sequential model, on the other hand, permits mixture of active and inactive subunits. Macol et al., constructed a version of an allosteric enzyme E. coli aspartate transcarbamoylase, which is composed of six equivalent catalytic monomers and six equivalent regulatory monomers in its native form, in such a way that only one of the six catalytic monomers could bind a substrate analog. Using solution x-ray scattering data recorded at BL4-2 to monitor the global structural state, they provided the first structural evidence that the transition of only one catalytic monomer is sufficient to transform the entire enzyme into the highly active state, lending strong support to the concerted model.

408

Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

409

Measuring the Effect of Fuel Structures and Blend Distribution on Diesel Emissions Using Isotope Tracing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon atoms occupying specific positions within fuel molecules can be labeled and followed in emissions. Renewable bio-derived fuels possess a natural uniform carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) tracer several orders of magnitude above petroleum-derived fuels. These fuels can be used to specify sources of carbon in particulate matter (PM) or other emissions. Differences in emissions from variations in the distribution of a fuel component within a blend can also be measured. Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), we traced fuel components with biological {sup 14}C/C levels of 1 part in 10{sup 12} against a {sup 14}C-free petroleum background in PM and CO{sub 2}. Different carbon atoms in the ester structure of the diesel oxygenate dibutyl maleate displayed far different propensities to produce PM. Homogeneous cosolvent and heterogeneous emulsified ethanol-in-diesel blends produced significantly different PM despite having the same oxygen content in the fuel. Emulsified blends produced PM with significantly more volatile species. Although ethanol-derived carbon was less likely to produce PM than diesel fuel, it formed non-volatile structures when it resided in PM. The contribution of lubrication oil to PM was determined by measuring an isotopic difference between 100% bio-diesel and the PM it produced. Data produced by the experiments provides validation for combustion models.

Cheng, A S; Mueller, C J; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

2004-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

410

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: RECOVERY AND DOWN BLEND URANIUM FOR BENEFICIAL USE  

SciTech Connect

For over fifty years, the H Canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has performed remotely operated radiochemical separations of irradiated targets to produce materials for national defense. Although the materials production mission has ended, the facility continues to play an important role in the stabilization and safe disposition of proliferable nuclear materials. As part of the US HEU Disposition Program, SRS has been down blending off-specification (off-spec) HEU to produce LEU since 2003. Off-spec HEU contains fission products not amenable to meeting the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) commercial fuel standards prior to purification. This down blended HEU material produced 301 MT of ~5% enriched LEU which has been fabricated into light water reactor fuel being utilized in Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) reactors in Tennessee and Alabama producing economic power. There is still in excess of ~10 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for beneficial use as either ~5% enriched LEU, or for use in subsequent LEU reactors requiring ~19.75% enriched LEU fuel.

Magoulas, V.

2013-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

411

50,000 mile methanol/gasoline blend fleet study: a progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Seven current production automobiles are being used in a fleet study to obtain operational experience in using 10% methanol/90% gasoline blends as an automotive fuel. Data from chassis dynamometer tests (run according to the 1975--1978 Federal test procedure) have been obtained, showing fuel economy and exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, unburned fuel, methanol, and aldehydes. These data are shown for each of the vehicles when operated on the 10% methanol blend, and on unleaded low octane Indolene. Chassis dynamometer tests were run at 5,000-mile intervals during the 35,000 miles accumulated on each of the four 1977 model-year vehicles and at 5,000 and 10,000 mile accumulation levels for each of the three 1978 model-year vehicles. These data show an average decrease in volumetric fuel economy (approx. = 5%) and a reduction in carbon monoxide emissions associated with the use of the 10% methanol blend. Exhaust emission deterioration factors are projected from the Federal test procedure urban cycle data. The most severe driveability problems that have been encountered thus far into the program are related to operating on a phase separated fuel and materials compatibility problems with an elastomer in the air-fuel control hardware of one vehicle.

Stamper, K R

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Process Upon Cleanup Completion Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion More...

413

Transit Infrastructure Finance Through Station Location Auctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the primary transit infrastructure finance method.Paper 2009-04 Transit Infrastructure Finance Through StationWP-2009-04 Transit Infrastructure Finance Through Station

Ian Carlton

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Evaluation Methods for Rail Transit Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation Methodsfor Rail Transit Projects Robert AEvaluation Methods for Rail Transit Projects Robert A.pie EVALUATION METHODS FOR RAIL TRANSIT PROJECTS ROBERT

Johnston, Robert A.; DeLuchi, Mark A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transition Zone Geothermal Region (Redirected from Transition Zone) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Transition Zone Geothermal Region edit Details...

416

Transition of Sites from Environmental Management Memorandum...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transition of Sites from Environmental Management Memorandum of Understanding Transition of Sites from Environmental Management Memorandum of Understanding Transition of Sites from...

417

X-ray Transition Energies Search Form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

[skip navigation] X-ray Transition Energies Database Main Page Search for X-ray transition energies by element(s), transition ...

418

NMOG Emissions Characterizations and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

Not Available

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Transit, Employment and Women on Welfare  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reported transit and car usage and on the numberof timescar as an Important factor m determining transit usage Forcar and higher levels of transit access Theestimated coefficients of the multlvanateloglt regressions for transit usage

Ong, Paul M.; Houston, Douglas

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Transit, Employment and Women on Welfare  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reported transit and car usage and on the numberof timescar as an Important factor m determining transit usage Forcar and higher levels of transit access Theestimated coefficients of the multlvanateloglt regressions for transit usage

Ong, Paul M.; Houston, Douglas

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Stripe Disordering Transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We have recently begun Monte Carlo simulations of the dynamics of stripe phases in the cuprates. A simple model of spinodal decomposition of the holes allows us to incorporate Coulomb repulsion and coherency strains. We find evidence for a possible stripe disordering transition, at a temperature below the pseudogap onset. Experimental searches for such a transition can provide constraints for models of stripe formation. The relationship between stripe phases and the pseudogap in underdoped cuprates is not well understood. In our model [1–3] the pseudogap is primary. It represents an instability of the hole Fermi liquid driven by Van Hove nesting [4]. However, there is a competition of instabilities, with an antiferromagnet (or flux phase [5–7]) at half filling and a charge-density wave (CDW) at the bare Van Hove singularity (VHS) near optimal doping. This competition leads to a classical phase separation of the holes – two minima in the free energy [8,1]. This is restricted to a nanoscopic scale by long-range Coulomb effects, leading to phases similar to the experimentally observed stripe phases [9].

R. S. Markiewicz; M. T. Vaughn

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

309 Building transition plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (transition) of the 309 Building is projected to be completed by the end of the fiscal year (FY) 1998. The major stabilization and decontamination efforts include the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), fuel storage and transfer pits, Transfer Waste (TW) tanks and the Ion Exchange Vaults. In addition to stabilizing contaminated areas, equipment, components, records, waste products, etc., will be dispositioned. All nonessential systems, i.e., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, monitoring, fluids, etc., will be shut down and drained/de-energized. This will allow securing of the process, laboratory, and office areas of the facility. After that, the facility will be operated at a level commensurate with its surveillance needs while awaiting D&D. The implementation costs for FY 1995 through FY 1998 for the transition activities are estimated to be $1,070K, $2,115K, $2,939K, and $4,762K, respectively. Costs include an assumed company overhead of 20% and a 30% out year contingency.

Graves, C.E.

1994-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

425

Building America Expert Meeting Report: Transitioning Traditional...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors Building America Expert Meeting Report: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to...

426

Transits and Occultations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When we are fortunate enough to view an exoplanetary system nearly edge-on, the star and planet periodically eclipse each other. Observations of eclipses (transits and occultations) provide a bonanza of information that cannot be obtained from radial-velocity data alone, such as the relative dimensions of the planet and its host star, as well as the orientation of the planet's orbit relative to the sky plane and relative to the stellar rotation axis. The wavelength-dependence of the eclipse signal gives clues about the the temperature and composition of the planetary atmosphere. Anomalies in the timing or other properties of the eclipses may betray the presence of additional planets or moons. Searching for eclipses is also a productive means of discovering new planets. This chapter reviews the basic geometry and physics of eclipses, and summarizes the knowledge that has been gained through eclipse observations, as well as the information that might be gained in the future.

Winn, Joshua N

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Technical Issues Associated With the Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends (>E10) in the U.S. Legacy Fleet  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in assessing the impact of using intermediate ethanol blends (E10 to E30) in the legacy fleet of vehicles in the U.S. fleet. The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify the issues associated with intermediate ethanol blends with an emphasis on the end-use or vehicle impacts of increased ethanol levels; (2) assess the likely severity of the issues and whether they will become more severe with higher ethanol blend levels, or identify where the issue is most severe; (3) identify where gaps in knowledge exist and what might be required to fill those knowledge gaps; and (4) compile a current and complete bibliography of key references on intermediate ethanol blends. This effort is chiefly a critical review and assessment of available studies. Subject matter experts (authors and selected expert contacts) were consulted to help with interpretation and assessment. The scope of this report is limited to technical issues. Additional issues associated with consumer, vehicle manufacturer, and regulatory acceptance of ethanol blends greater than E10 are not considered. The key findings from this study are given.

Rich, Bechtold [Alliance Technical Services; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Timbario, Tom [Alliance Technical Services; Goodman, Marc [Alliance Technical Services

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Transit administration and planning research  

SciTech Connect

The 10 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Evaluation of demand-management strategies for Toledo's year 2010 transportation plan; Accommodating deaf and hard-of-hearing persons on public transportation systems in Massachusetts; Quick approach to compare highway and bus transit alternatives using the arterial analysis package; Panel survey approach to measuring transit route service elasticity of demand; UMTA and major investments: evaluation process and results; Using early performance to project transit route ridership: comparison of methods; Institutional requirements for competition: labor issues; Updating ride checks with multiple point checks; Producing section 15 service-consumed data: challenge for large transit; Parkrose targeted marketing campaign pass-incentive program.

de Corla-Souza; Gupta.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Transit, Density, and Residential Satisfaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Speed Rail," Fourteenth Australasian Transport ResearchRail Transit Stations and Property Values: A Hedonic Price Approach," in Transportation Research

Shaw, John G.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. This project complements another ongoing project titled ''Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project''. The objectives of that research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, they have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, the activities have covered two areas: development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

Elana M. Chapman; Andre L. Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees  

SciTech Connect

Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.; Jagerstad, M.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt.% additive of all viscosity and lubricity additives tested here to even approach the lower limit of the ASTM diesel fuel viscosity requirement. To treat neat DME sufficiently to make DME comply with the ASTM diesel fuel viscosity requirement would require a viscosity additive with 10{sup 45} cSt viscosity, which is not possible with current additive technologies.

Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Charge Separation of Wurtzite/Zinc-blende Heterojunction GaN Nanowires  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electronic properties of wurtzite/zinc-blende (WZ/ZB) heterostructure GaN are investigated using first-principles methods. A small component of ZB stacking formed along the growth direction in the WZ GaN nanowires does not show a significant effect on the electronic property, whereas a charge separation of electrons and holes occurs along the directions perpendicular to the growth direction in the ZB stacking. The later case provides an efficient way to separate the charge through controlling crystal structure. These results should have significant implications for most state of the art excitonic solar cells and the tuning region in tunable laser diodes.

Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Jingbo; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

438

Investment Busts, Reputation, and the Temptation to Blend in with the Crowd ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a real-options model of an industry in which agents time abandonment of their projects in an effort to protect their reputations. Agents delay abandonment attempting to signal their quality. When a public common shock forces abandonment of a small fraction of projects irrespective of agents ’ quality, many agents abandon their projects strategically even if they are unaffected by the shock. Such “blending in with the crowd ” effect creates an additional incentive to delay abandonment ahead of the shock, leading to accumulation of “living dead ” projects, which further amplifies the shock. The potential for moderate public common shocks often improves agents’values.

Steven R. Grenadier; Andrey Malenko; Ilya A. Strebulaev; Marc Martos-vila; Erwan Morellec; Kelly Shue; Youchang Wu (discussant

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Powertrain Component Inspection from Mid-Level Blends Vehicle Aging Study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls on the nation to significantly increase its use of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law expands the renewable fuel standard to require use of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Given that ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the U.S. market, ethanol will likely make up a significant portion of the 36-billion-gallon requirement. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10-gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85 - a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). Consumption of E85 is at present limited by both the size of the FFV fleet and the number of E85 fueling stations. Gasoline consumption in the United States is currently about 140 billion gallons per year; thus the maximum use of ethanol as E10 is only about 14 billion gallons. While the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market represented less than 1% of the ethanol consumed in 2010 and will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Because of these factors, DOE and others have been assessing the viability of using mid-level ethanol blends (E15 or E20) as a way to accommodate growing volumes of ethanol. The DOE Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program has been under way since 2007, supported jointly by the Office of the Biomass Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program. One of the larger projects, the Catalyst Durability Study, or Vehicle Aging Study, will be completed early in calendar year 2011. The following report describes a subproject of the Vehicle Aging Study in which powertrain components from 18 of the vehicles were examined at Southwest Research Institute under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

Shoffner, Brent [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Johnson, Ryan [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Heimrich, Martin J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Lochte, Michael [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Nanostructured Electrodes For Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Model Study Using Carbon Nanotube Dispersed Polythiophene-fullerene Blend Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We test the feasibility of using nanostructured electrodes in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells to improve their photovoltaic performance by enhancing their charge collection efficiency and thereby increasing the optimal active blend layer thickness. As a model system, small concentrations of single wall carbon nanotubes are added to blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester in order to create networks of efficient hole conduction pathways in the device active layer without affecting the light absorption. The nanotube addition leads to a 22% increase in the optimal blend layer thickness from 90 nm to 110 nm, enhancing the short circuit current density and photovoltaic device efficiency by as much as {approx}10%. The associated incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency for the given thickness also increases by {approx}10% uniformly across the device optical absorption spectrum, corroborating the enhanced charge carrier collection by nanostructured electrodes.

Nam, C.Y.; Wu, Q.; Su, D.; Chiu, C.-y; Tremblay, N.J.; Nuckolls, C,; Black, C.T.

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through -200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc.

Singh, S. [SS Energy Environmental International, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States); Scaroni, A.; Miller, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Water drives peptide conformational transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transitions between metastable conformations of a dipeptide are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation with explicit water molecules. The distribution of the surrounding water at different moments before the transitions and the dynamical correlations of water with the peptide's configurational motions indicate that water is the main driving force of the conformational changes.

Nerukh, Dmitry

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air v.2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J,N,AE,AO Tracks & Stations Rail Trains N N,X,AO F,H,J,N,P,Modern Tramway and Light Rail Transit, V47, N563, p373,2005. [FTA 2006] U.S. Non-Rail Vehicle Market Viability

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

A blended learning Approach to teaching foreign policy: Student experiences of learning through face-to-face and online discussion and their relationship to academic performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents research on students' experiences of learning through a blend of face-to-face and online discussion. The participants in our study were students enrolled in a foreign policy course at a major Australian university. Students' conceptions ... Keywords: Blended learning, Computer mediated communication, Learning through discussion, Phenomenography, Teaching/learning strategies

Ana-Maria Bliuc; Robert A. Ellis; Peter Goodyear; Leanne Piggott

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Sampling diffusive transition paths  

SciTech Connect

We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

446

Phase Transition of ZnxMn1-xS Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Nanoparticles under Ultra-high Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-pressure behavior of different doping content of ZnS nanocrystals has been investigated using angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction up to 45.1 GPa. A phase transformation from the zinc-blende(ZB) to the rock-salt (RS) structure is observed at pressures of about 17.7 and 18.3 GPa at room temperature, corresponding to the Mn{sup 2+} ion mole percent content solutions 0.85% and 1.26%, respectively. The obtained results indicate that the Mn{sup 2+} doping could obviously enhance the phase transition pressure of ZnS nanocrystal. The elevation of phase transition pressure could origin from the higher surface energy induced by ion doping.

Z Zong; Y Ma; T Hu; Q Cui; M Zhang; G Zou

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

HyLights wird gefrdert Europische Kommission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demand of vehicles and refuelling infrastructure in the transition from demo phase to first commercial in demo phase and first commercial market phase! Missing coherence of EU actors and different level stations Hydrogen refuelled 4 ICE buses, 1 FC bus 1 ICE car, 1 fork lift 3 FC buses 27 FC buses 5 in D & 3

448

Phase Transition in Reconstituted Chromatin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By observing reconstituted chromatin by fluorescence microscopy (FM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found that the density of nucleosomes exhibits a bimodal profile, i.e., there is a large transition between the dense and dispersed states in reconstituted chromatin. Based on an analysis of the spatial distribution of nucleosome cores, we deduced an effective thermodynamic potential as a function of the nucleosome-nucleosome distance. This enabled us to interpret the folding transition of chromatin in terms of a first-order phase transition. This mechanism for the condensation of chromatin is discussed in terms of its biological significance.

Tonau Nakai; Kohji Hizume; Shige. H. Yoshimura; Kunio Takeyasu; Kenichi Yoshikawa

2004-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

449

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Mass Transit to Mass Transit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Parts & Equipment Maintenance Driving Behavior Fleet Rightsizing System Efficiency Ridesharing Mass Transit Active Transit Multi-Modal Transportation Telework Mass Transit Passenger-Miles per Gallon Passenger-miles per gallon (pmpg) is a metric for comparing mass transit and rideshare with typical passenger vehicle travel. Transportation system

450

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Active Transit to Active Transit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Parts & Equipment Maintenance Driving Behavior Fleet Rightsizing System Efficiency Ridesharing Mass Transit Active Transit Multi-Modal Transportation Telework Active Transit Photo of people riding bikes. Active transit is human-powered transportation such as biking and walking. Active transportation eliminates vehicle miles traveled altogether, so this

451

Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size distribution remained approximately the same (50 nm) but the particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content in the fuel. In addition, increasing ethanol content significantly reduced the number concentration of 50 and 100 nm particles during gradual and WOT accelerations.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Prediction of early heat of hydration of plain and blended cements using neuro-fuzzy modelling techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a new approach based on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was presented for the prediction of early heat of hydration of plain and blended cements. Two different type of model is trained and tested using these data. The ... Keywords: ANFIS, Cement, Fuzzy logic, Hydration heat, Neural networks

Abdulhamit Subasi; Ahmet Serdar Yilmaz; Hanifi Binici

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. This report covers the first quarter`s progress. Major activities during this period were focused on finding the plants where a demo MTU column will be installed to prepare the samples needed to characterize the combustion behavior of slurry effluents. Also, a meeting was held at Penn State University to discuss the availability of the laboratory furnace for testing the plant coal/recovered coal fines blends.

Singh, Shyam

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

454

Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

Melaina, M. W.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Isotopic Tracing of Particulate Matter from a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Ethanol-in-Diesel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) was used to investigate the relative contribution to diesel engine particulate matter (PM) from the ethanol and diesel fractions of blended fuels. Four test fuels along with a diesel fuel baseline were investigated. The test fuels were comprised of {sup 14}C depleted diesel fuel mixed with contemporary grain ethanol (>400 the {sup 14}C concentration of diesel). An emulsifier (Span 85) or cosolvent (butyl alcohol) was used to facilitate mixing. The experimental test engine was a 1993 Cummins B5.9 diesel rated at 175 hp at 2500 rpm. Test fuels were run at steady-state conditions of 1600 rpm and 210 ft-lbs, and PM samples were collected on quartz filters following dilution of engine exhaust in a mini-dilution tunnel. AMS analysis of the filter samples showed that the ethanol contributed less to PM relative to its fraction in the fuel blend. For the emulsified blends, 6.4% and 10.3% contributions to PM were observed for 11.5% and 23.0% ethanol fuels, respectively. For the cosolvent blends, even lower contributions were observed (3.8% and 6.3% contributions to PM for 12.5% and 25.0% ethanol fuels, respectively).

Cheng, A.S.; Dibble, R.W.; Buchholz, B.

1999-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

456

Transitions between Baroclinic Flow Regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

we use truncated spectral Eady models with two Ekman layers of different strength to investigate the baroclinic flow transitions observed in annulus experiments. Our analysis is both analytical and numerical As the dissipation parameter is varied ...

H-Y. Weng; A. Barcilon; J. Magnan

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Nonisothermal Multifluid Transition to Equilibrium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nonisothermal Multifluid Transition to Equilibrium Nonisothermal Multifluid Transition to Equilibrium Processes of interest to the simulation of CH 4 production from gas hydrates in porous media include multifluid flow and heat transport along with complex phase transitions, including hydrate dissociation and formation. Before executing problems with the additional complexities involved with the gas hydrate phase, a base case problem has been designed to examine the numerical simulation of multifluid flow and heat transport processes with a single phase transition from aqueous saturated to unsaturated conditions for a water-CH 4 system outside the stability region for gas hydrate formation. The problem involves a horizontal one-dimensional closed domain (no flow boundary conditions), initialized with gradients in aqueous pressure, gas

458

SUBSIDY ENERGY EMPLOYEES TRANSIT (SEET)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SUBSIDY ENERGY EMPLOYEES TRANSIT (SEET) SUBSIDY ENERGY EMPLOYEES TRANSIT (SEET) Decrease in the Transit Subsidy Per The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, the maximum amount for the Transit Subsidy is due to decrease from $245 to $130 a month. This change is scheduled to take effect on January 1, 2014. Outlined below are actions that you must take to purchase your fare for January 2014. SmarTrip less than $130.00 Per Month No Action Required SmarTrip greater than $130.00 Per Month Action Required SmarTrip Participants The new amount of $130 will post to your Smart Benefits account the first time you touch your card to a SmarTrip target in January 2014. You must ensure that there is money in your personal account. Metro will deduct fare from your personal account once the Smart Benefits

459

Process for Transition of Responsibilities | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Responsibilities Process for Transition of Responsibilities Process for Transition of Responsibilities (Waste Management Conference 2006) Process for Transition of Responsibilities...

460

IEC 61850 Implementation and Transition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This IEC 61850 Implementation and Transition survey report summarizes results of an EPRI survey designed to understand adoption and usage of IEC 61850 within utilities as of 2011. Implementing IEC 61850 within a utility is not necessarily easy or straightforward. While transitioning electromechanical relays to microprocessors is a relatively straightforward process, taking advantage of the entire suite of benefits enabled by IEC-61850-enabled devices is another matter altogether. Utilities have to consid...

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend transit buses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Building Technologies Office: Transitioning Traditional HVAC...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Expert Meeting to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Transitioning Traditional HVAC...