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1

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program DOE, NREL, and ORNL Team Presented by Keith Knoll Work supported by DOEEERE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

2

PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

CERTA, P.J.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

3

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

2009 -- Washington D.C. ft05knoll.pdf More Documents & Publications Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status Biofuels Quality Surveys...

4

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Blends Test Program Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 --...

5

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

New New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing

6

JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

7

Europe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In Europe during 1980, the need to find more oil caused an intensification of exploration activity into producing basins and even into producing zones for existing plays. The high-risk nature of many of the prospects tested is expressed in the low success ratios for several countries. The success rate continued to rise, however, in the North Sea, where many more appraisal wells were drilled and many wells tested fault blocks adjacent to existing oil fields. There were increases in development drilling almost everywhere and further application of fracturing techniques to existing fields. Development drilling began to decline in the North Sea, a trend likely to continue as government-enforced depletion policies are introduced. In the onshore producing areas, many new exploration licenses were awarded. The new exploration areas are likely to increase in importance. There were some encouraging results in these areas during 1980. The offshore zones of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean proved equally exciting. However, the quickest returns will be gained from onshore discoveries; the reexamination of hydrocarbon-bearing areas not so far developed proved highly successful. The Swiss Entlebuch 1 gas discovery opens up a new exploration tract of the deep autochthon of central Europe. It is just this area where oil production has been declining. Gas production continues to decline in nearly all areas except the North Sea. 20 figures, 24 tables.

Kat, C.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Europe  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2011 oil 2011 oil production (2) January 1, 2013 estimated proved oil reserves (3) 2013 EIA/ARI unproved shale oil technically recoverable resources (TRR) 2012 USGS conventional unproved oil TRR, including reserve growth (4) Total technically recoverable crude oil resources Europe 1,537 11,748 12,900 14,638 39,286 Bulgaria 1 15 200 Denmark 83 805 0 France 28 85 4,700 Germany 51 254 700 Netherlands 21 244 2,900 Norway 733 5,366 0 Poland 10 157 3,300 Romania 38 600 300 Spain 10 150 100 Sweden 4 - 0 United Kingdom 426 3,122 700 Former Soviet Union 4,866 118,886 77,200 114,481 310,567 Lithuania 3 12 300 Russia 5 3,737 80,000 75,800 Ukraine 29 395 1,100 North America 6,093 208,550 80,000 305,546 594,096 Canada 1,313 173,105 8,800 Mexico 1,080 10,264 13,100 United States 6 3,699 25,181 58,100 139,311 222,592 Asia and Pacific 2,866 41,422 61,000 64,362 166,784

9

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Differences in the Physical Characteristics of Diesel PM with Increasing Biofuel Blend Level  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Measure physical characteristics, carbon state, and surface bound oxygen of soot from biodiesel blends.

11

Powertrain Component Inspection from Mid-Level Blends Vehicle Aging Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls on the nation to significantly increase its use of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law expands the renewable fuel standard to require use of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Given that ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the U.S. market, ethanol will likely make up a significant portion of the 36-billion-gallon requirement. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10-gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85 - a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). Consumption of E85 is at present limited by both the size of the FFV fleet and the number of E85 fueling stations. Gasoline consumption in the United States is currently about 140 billion gallons per year; thus the maximum use of ethanol as E10 is only about 14 billion gallons. While the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market represented less than 1% of the ethanol consumed in 2010 and will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Because of these factors, DOE and others have been assessing the viability of using mid-level ethanol blends (E15 or E20) as a way to accommodate growing volumes of ethanol. The DOE Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program has been under way since 2007, supported jointly by the Office of the Biomass Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program. One of the larger projects, the Catalyst Durability Study, or Vehicle Aging Study, will be completed early in calendar year 2011. The following report describes a subproject of the Vehicle Aging Study in which powertrain components from 18 of the vehicles were examined at Southwest Research Institute under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

Shoffner, Brent [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Johnson, Ryan [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Heimrich, Martin J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Lochte, Michael [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blends to Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends E15 E85 Specifications Production & Distribution Feedstocks Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Blends Ethanol is blended with gasoline in various amounts for use in vehicles. E10 E10 is a low-level blend composed of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline. It is

13

Comparison of blends of conventional diesel fuel and CRBO containing high levels of FFA in a DI diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work attempts to analyse the ability of high free fatty acid (FFA) crude rice bran oil (CRBO) in replacing diesel partially in a compression ignition (CI) engine. It was observed that the delay period and the maximum rate of pressure rise for CRBO blends are lower than diesel and is almost inversely proportional to FFA content. Maximum heat release rate for CRBO blends are lower and occur earlier than that of diesel. CRBO blends require longer duration to release 90% of heat than diesel and it decreases with increase in FFA content of CRBO. When operating with CRBO blends, all emission parameters were decreased significantly with a marginal increase in CO emission than that of diesel without affecting the brake thermal efficiency of the engine. It is concluded that higher FFA of CRBO blends does not inhibit its ability to be utilised as a fuel in CI engines.

S. Saravanan; G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao; S. Sampath; G. Nagarajan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO{sub 3}, quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite.

Kruger, A.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials] [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blend Mandate Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Mandate Within one year after the Montana Department of Transportation has certified that ethanol producers in the state have produced a total of 40 million gallons of denatured ethanol and have maintained that level of

16

Sea-level change, glacial rebound and mantle viscosity for northern Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......15 m for some of the higher basin thresholds levels were controlled...Petersen (1977) North Sea German Bight Linke (1979, 1982) Netherlands...Finland about from isolation basins, and the methodologies used...the pollen evidence; Baltic basin was isolated to form a lake......

Kurt Lambeck; Catherine Smither; Paul Johnston

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Holocene glacial rebound and sea-level change in NW Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......possible from this data. For the Helgoland Bight sites the thick lithosphere models also...Sea-level changes in the North Sea basin, in The Quaternary History of the North...the Netherlands and adjacent North Sea basin, in Earth Rheology, Isostasy and Eustasy......

Kurt Lambeck; Paul Johnston; Masao Nakada

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Fukushima-derived radionuclides in ground-level air of Central Europe: a comparison with simulated forward and backward trajectories  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results of forward and backward modeling of air mass transport from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to Slovakia were...131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) were observed in the Bratislava ground-level air in March–April ...

P. P. Povinec; I. Sýkora; M. Gera; K. Holý…

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Truck loading rack blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blending, the combining of two or more components to make a single product, has become widely used in most loading rack applications. Blending should not be confused with additive injection, which is the injection of very small doses of enhancers, detergents and dyes into a product stream. Changes in the environmental protection laws in the early 90`s have put increasing demands on marketing terminals with regards to reformulated fuels and environmental protection concerns. As a result of these new mandates, terminals have turned to blending at the loading rack as an economical and convenient means in meeting these new requirements. This paper will discuss some of these mandates and how loading rack blending is used for different applications. Various types of blending will also be discussed along with considerations for each method.

Boubenider, E. [Daniel Flow Products, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Smith P, Powlson DS, Smith JU, Falloon P, and Coleman K. 2000. Meeting Europe's climate change commitments: Quantitative estimates of the potential for carbon mitigation by agriculture. Global Climate Change 6:525-539. Abstract Under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union is committed to a reduction in CO2 emissions to 92% of baseline (1990) levels during the first commitment period (2008-2012). The Kyoto Protocol allows carbon emissions to be offset by demonstrable removal of carbon from the atmosphere. Thus, land-use / land-management change and forestry activities that are shown to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels can be included in the Kyoto targets. These activities include afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (article

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Sandia National Laboratories: blending feedstock varieties  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

blending feedstock varieties Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks On February 26, 2013, in Biofuels,...

22

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blends to Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Blends Production & Distribution Specifications Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Blends Biodiesel can be blended and used in many different concentrations, including B100 (pure biodiesel), B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel),

23

Ethanol-blended Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ethanol-Blended Ethanol-Blended Fuels A Study Guide and Overview of: * Ethanol's History in the U.S. and Worldwide * Ethanol Science and Technology * Engine Performance * Environmental Effects * Economics and Energy Security The Curriculum This curriculum on ethanol and its use as a fuel was developed by the Clean Fuels Development Coalition in cooperation with the Nebraska Ethanol Board. This material was developed in response to the need for instructional materials on ethanol and its effects on vehicle performance, the environment, and the economy. As a renewable alternative energy source made from grain and other biomass resources, ethanol study serves as an excellent learning opportunity for students to use in issue clarification and problem-solving activities. Ethanol illustrates that science and technology can provide us with new

24

Ethers have good gasoline-blending attributes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of their compatibility with hydrocarbon gasoline-blending components, their high octane blending values, and their low volatility blending values, ethers will grow in use as gasoline blending components. This article discusses the properties of ethers as blending components, and environmental questions.

Unzelman, G.H.

1989-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

25

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blend Blend Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Definition An ethanol blend is defined as a blended motor fuel containing ethyl alcohol that is at least 99% pure, derived from agricultural products, and

26

Missile Deployments Roil Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reductions in the nuclear arma-ments...Europe-an terrorism. In Europe...existing overall nuclear balance between...INATO's plant to deploy...preemptive attack in the midst...of a Soviet attack on Western...few Soviet nuclear weapons were...cities at risk in or-der...other superior power, but also...

R. JEFFREY SMITH

1984-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

27

Missile Deployments Roil Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...install new nuclear missiles in...reductions in the nuclear arma-ments...Europe-an terrorism. In Europe...existing overall nuclear balance between...INATO's plant to deploy...preemptive attack in the midst...international security affairs office...cities at risk in or-der...other superior power, but also...

R. JEFFREY SMITH

1984-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

28

Synthesis of grafted polyamide/polyglutarimide blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyglutarimides are high Tg thermoplastics, prepared by a reactive extrusion process involving polymethylmethacrylate and primary amines in a plasticating extruder at high pressures and temperatures. The resulting polymers can be synthesized with various levels of carboxylic acid and/or anhydride functionality as part of the polyglutarimide polymer. In a recent discovery, these polymers can be grafted to polyamides in a highly efficient manner by means of a reactive extrusion process. This talk will discuss the synthesis of these blends and techniques for their analysis. Partial fractionation, and spectroscopic analysis of these materials was used to monitor the reaction. The effects of extrusion temperature and catalyst level will be presented.

Hallden-Abberton, M. [Rohm and Haas Corp., Bristol, PA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Intermediate Ethanol Intermediate Ethanol Blends to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Fuels & Lubricants Fuel Effects on Combustion Lubricants Natural Gas Research Biofuels End-Use Research

30

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Standards to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Standards Biodiesel blends are considered compliant with Texas Low Emissions Diesel Fuel (TxLED) regulations if the diesel fuel is compliant with TxLED

31

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blending Ethanol Blending Regulation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blending Regulation Gasoline suppliers who provide fuel to distributors in the state must offer gasoline that is suitable for blending with fuel alcohol. Suppliers may not

32

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Requirement Suppliers that import gasoline for sale in North Carolina must offer fuel that is not pre-blended with fuel alcohol but that is suitable for future

33

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Mandate Ethanol Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Mandate All gasoline offered for sale at retail stations within the state must contain 10% ethanol (E10). This requirement is waived only if a distributor is unable to purchase ethanol or ethanol-blended gasoline at the same or

34

Method to blend separator powders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

35

Geysir Europe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geysir Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name: Geysir Europe Place: Germany Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Germany-based European subsidiary of Geysir Green Energy focusing on...

36

Sandia National Laboratories: Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends...

37

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blend Mandate Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blend Mandate All Gasoline sold or offered for sale in Minnesota must contain at least: 10% corn-based ethanol by volume or the maximum percent by volume of corn-based ethanol authorized in a waiver issued by the U.S. Environmental

38

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate All diesel fuel sold to state agencies, political subdivisions of the state, and public schools for use in on-road motor vehicles must contain at

39

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate In September 2013, the commissioners of the Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, and Pollution Control Agency determined that all conditions had been satisfied to implement a 10%

40

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate Pursuant to state law, all diesel motor vehicle fuel and all other liquid fuel used to operate motor vehicle diesel engines in Massachusetts must

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Wiring Up Europe's Coastline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...subsea electricity grid linking offshore wind farms all around the coasts of Europe...up with the idea of a European Offshore Supergrid in 2001. There are now many offshore wind farms built or planned along the coasts...

Daniel Clery

2007-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

42

How Europe is Changing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Doves Fly Away The Nuclear Power Plant Auschwitz The BlogsEurope is Changing The Nuclear Power Plant What should I doof Iranians to have a nuclear power plant if they so choose,

Abdolah, Kader

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Interaction blending equations enhance reformulated gasoline profitability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction approach to gasoline blending gives refiners an accurate, simple means of re-evaluating blending equations and increasing profitability. With reformulated gasoline specifications drawing near, a detailed description of this approach, in the context of reformulated gasoline is in order. Simple mathematics compute blending values from interaction equations and interaction coefficients between mixtures. A timely example of such interactions is: blending a mixture of catalytically cracked gasoline plus light straight run (LSR) from one tank with alkylate plus reformate from another. This paper discusses blending equations, using interactions, mixture interactions, other blending problems, and obtaining equations.

Snee, R.D. (Joiner Associates, Madison, WI (United States)); Morris, W.E.; Smith, W.E.

1994-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

44

Purification Testing for HEU Blend Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is working to dispose of the inventory of enriched uranium (EU) formerly used to make fuel for production reactors. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has agreed to take the material after blending the EU with either natural or depleted uranium to give a {sup 235}U concentration of 4.8 percent low-enriched uranium will be fabricated by a vendor into reactor fuel for use in TVA reactors. SRS prefers to blend the EU with existing depleted uranium (DU) solutions, however, the impurity concentrations in the DU and EU are so high that the blended material may not meet specifications agreed to with TVA. The principal non-radioactive impurities of concern are carbon, iron, phosphorus and sulfur. Neptunium and plutonium contamination levels are about 40 times greater than the desired specification. Tests of solvent extraction and fuel preparation with solutions of SRS uranium demonstrate that the UO{sub 2} prepared from these solutions will meet specifications for Fe, P and S, but may not meet the specifications for carbon. The reasons for carbon remaining in the oxide at such high levels is not fully understood, but may be overcome either by treatment of the solutions with activated carbon or heating the UO{sub 3} in air for a longer time during the calcination step of fuel preparation.Calculations of the expected removal of Np and Pu from the solutions show that the specification cannot be met with a single cycle of solvent extraction. The only way to ensure meeting the specification is dilution with natural U which contains no Np or Pu. Estimations of the decontamination from fission products and daughter products in the decay chains for the U isotopes show that the specification of 110 MEV Bq/g U can be met as long as the activities of the daughters of U- 235 and U-238 are excluded from the specification.

Thompson, M.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Pierce, R.A.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

On-line RVP analysis improves gas blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New government regulations on gasoline quality are making gasoline blending an increasingly important aspect of refining. The Environmental Protection Agency volatility regulations that establish maximum summertime commercial gasoline volatility levels provide that gasoline Reid Vapor Pressor starting in 1989 may not exceed 10.5, or 9.0 psi. Additionally, beginning in 1992, it may not exceed either 9.0 or 7.8 psi, depending on the area of the country and the month. This article discusses the on-line analysis of gas blending to minimize the volatile organic compounds released to the air.

Lo, P.T. [BP Oil Alliance Refinery, Belle Chasse, LA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Hybrid Time Formulation for Diesel Blending and Distribution Scheduling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hybrid Time Formulation for Diesel Blending and Distribution Scheduling ... Schematic of diesel in-line blending and distribution infrastructure. ...

Sérgio M. S. Neiro; Valéria V. Murata; José M. Pinto

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

47

The Fusibility of Blended Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) of coal ash are found at temperatures below the predicted liquidus temperature and, for ashes from blended coals, are generally nonlinear with respect to the blend proportion. ... ashing. ...

G. W. Bryant; G. J. Browning; H. Emanuel; S. K. Gupta; R. P. Gupta; J. A. Lucas; T. F. Wall

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

48

Coastal sea level trends in Southern Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......always consistent with global values, in particular...mm yr1 compared to the global average (mostly attributed to higher warming). The atmospheric and...anthropogenic (like coal mine collapses or extraction...Mediterranean referred to a global reference system to determine......

Marta Marcos; Michael N. Tsimplis

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Synthesizing Optimal Waste Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vitrification of tank wastes to form glass is a technique that will be used for the disposal of high-level waste at Hanford. ... Durability restrictions ensure that the resultant glass meets the quantitative criteria for disposal/long-term storage in a repository. ... If glasses are formulated to minimize the volume of glass that would be produced, then the cost of processing the waste and storing the resultant glass would be greatly reduced. ...

Venkatesh Narayan; Urmila M. Diwekar; Mark Hoza

1996-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

50

Europe — A pioneer in greenhouse gas emissions trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The decision on the EU directive for emissions trading in June 2003 makes Europe a pioneer ... . The timetable for the enforcement of the emissions trading directive at the national level seems very...

Sonja Butzengeiger; Axel Michaelowa

51

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biofuel Blend Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement

52

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Fuel Blend Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations

53

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blend Blend Purchase Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement Diesel fuel that the New Hampshire Department of Transportation

54

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program

55

Radiation effects on polypropylene/polybutylene blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polymer blends of polypropylene and polybutylene have been found to exhibit substantial maintenance of structural integrity after exposure to ionizing radiation. This radiation resistance has been found to be related to processing conditions and the resulting morphology of the blend. This article discusses (a) the processing conditions and the resulting mechanical properties after irradiation and (b) the role of morphology in this unexpected blend property.

Rolando, R.J. (3M Engineering Systems and Technology, St. Paul, MN (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Complete 4 Relevance Objective: Solve technical problems that are preventing expanded markets for current and future biofuels and biofuel blends Necessary to achieve MYPP...

57

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties ... National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States ... Energy Fuels, 2011, 25 (10), ...

Earl Christensen; Janet Yanowitz; Matthew Ratcliff; Robert L. McCormick

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

58

Chapter 6 - Eastern Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the library and information systems of four Eastern European countries. In a survey described in the chapter, four libraries in Eastern Europe returned the questionnaires on the role of national libraries in national and international information systems: (1) Bulgaria, (2) the Czech Socialist Republic, (3) Hungary, and (4) Poland. The USSR was regularly present at the meetings of the Conference and made contributions to the discussions but did not return replies to the questionnaires. As in the case of the British Library, answers were given to the questions from personal experience. A study of the Soviet Library system appeared in 1972 under the title Libraries, Documentation and Bibliography in the USSR, which, despite its inadequacies, is the only survey in English of the Russian library and information system as a whole. The influence of the Lenin Library as a library planning center is very strong throughout Eastern Europe, while the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance has strongly influenced the structure and services in the field of scientific and technical information.

GEORGE CHANDLER

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biofuel Blending Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on AddThis.com... More in this section...

60

EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

ctsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf More Documents & Publications Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status | Department of...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008...

62

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

63

Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B: End Use and Fuel...

64

Advancing Biorefining of Distiller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advancing Biorefining of Distiller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends Advancing Biorefining of Distiller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of...

65

Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007)....

66

Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Siclovan, Oltea Puica (Rexford, NY); Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar (Bangalore, IN); Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao (Bangalore, IN); Porob, Digamber G. (Goa, IN); Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi (Bangalore, IN); Heward, William Jordan (Saratoga Springs, NY); Radkov, Emil Vergilov (Euclid, OH); Briel, Linda Jane Valyou (Niskayuna, NY)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

67

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Tax Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit Licensed biodiesel blenders are eligible for a tax credit for special fuel, including diesel, blended with biodiesel to create a biodiesel blend. The

68

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blended Fuel Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition Ethanol blended fuel, such as gasohol, is defined as any gasoline blended with 10% or more of anhydrous ethanol. (Reference Idaho Statutes 63-240

69

Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended Gasoline Dataset Summary Description These data files contain volume, mass, and hardness changes of elastomers and plastics representative exposed to gasoline containing various levels of ethanol. These materials are representative of those used in gasoline fuel storage and dispensing hardware. All values are compared to the original untreated condition. The data sets include results from specimens exposed directly to the fuel liquid and also a set of specimens exposed only to the fuel vapors. Source Mike Kass, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Date Released August 16th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated August 16th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords compatibility elastomers ethanol gasoline

70

Unit Energy Europe AG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydro, Wind energy Product: Unit Energy develops and operates wind parks and hydroelectric power plants all across Europe. References: Unit Energy Europe AG1 This article...

71

A Blended Space for Tourism: Genesee Village Country & Museum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Blended Space for Tourism: Genesee Village Country & Museum Abstract Blended spaces are spaces on this enables us to provide general guidance and framework on the design of blended spaces for digital tourism. Author Keywords Design, Tourism, Blended Spaces, User Experience ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2 User

Deussen, Oliver

72

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State

73

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biofuels Blend Use Biofuels Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Blend Use Requirement Whenever possible, governmental entities and state educational institutions must fuel diesel vehicles with biodiesel blends containing at least 2%

74

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blending Tax Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit A biodiesel blender located in Indiana may receive a credit of $0.02 per gallon of blended biodiesel produced at a facility located in Indiana. The

75

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption The biodiesel or ethanol portion of blended fuel containing taxable diesel

76

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Tax Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption Biodiesel blends of at least 20% (B20) that are used for personal, noncommercial use by the individual that produced the biodiesel portion of

77

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement An ethanol retailer selling a blend of 10% ethanol by volume or higher must

78

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blending Tax Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit Businesses and individuals are eligible for a tax credit of up to 15% of the cost of qualified equipment used for storing or blending biodiesel with

79

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit Retailers whose total diesel sales consist of at least 50% biodiesel blends

80

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Labeling Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements Pumps that dispense ethanol-blended gasoline available for purchase must be

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blending Blending Equipment Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption Qualified equipment used for storing and blending petroleum-based fuel with

82

BLENDING PROBLEM A refinery blends four petroleum components into three grades of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BLENDING PROBLEM A refinery blends four petroleum components into three grades of gasoline/day $/barrel #1 5,000 $9.00 #2 2,400 7.00 #3 4,000 12.00 #4 1,500 6.00 Blending formulas and selling price 4,000 x4R + x4P + x4L 1,500 #12;blending: (1) x1R / (x1R + x2R + x3R + x4R) .40 or x1R .40(x1R

Shier, Douglas R.

83

Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels ? Implementation Perspectives  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Wall" * E15 is the answer to the question nobody asked * E85 has no market penetration * GHG Rulemaking removes incentives for OEMs to produce FFV vehicles Page 15 Mid Blend...

84

Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status  

Energy Savers [EERE]

* 60,000 E85 stations vs 1,200 today. Background * DOE intermediate ethanol blend test plan development began March 2007 - DOE funding: 14.6M (2007 & 2008) - Organizational...

85

Imaginative play with blended reality characters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The idea and formative design of a blended reality character, a new class of character able to maintain visual and kinetic continuity between the fully physical and fully virtual; the technical underpinnings of its unique ...

Robert, David Yann

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against the corporation income tax imposed under KRS 141.040 and/or the limited liability entity tax (LLET) imposed under KRS...

87

Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

Pernenkil, Lakshman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Storage Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Storage Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends ... The biodiesels were selected to represent unstable material (D) with an induction time of 0.5 h and moderately stable material (B) with an induction time of 3.1 h. ...

Robert L. McCormick; Steven R. Westbrook

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

89

Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

90

MFCF in Europe and Elsewhere  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MFCF in Europe MFCF in Europe MFCF in Europe MFCF in Europe (and elsewhere (and elsewhere ... ... ) ) J. Robert Selman Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, IL Work MCFC-PAFC R&D Palm Springs, CA Nov, 2009 Outline 1. Status of technology, players 2. Life time, performance decay, failure 3. R&D priorities 4. Fundamental research 5. Concluding remarks 1. Status of technology, players Developer Operating pressure (atm) Reforming Manifolding Module Plant size/target (kW) FCE (USA) 1.0 Internal External Single or multistacks 300-3,000 GenCell (USA) 1.0 Internal (indirect) Internal Single stack 40-120 CFC Solutions/MT U (Germany) 1.0 Internal External Hotmodule (horizontal stack) 250-1,000 AFCo (Italy) 3.5 External External Twin-stack (two 125-cell stack integrated with reformer in a can) 125-1,000 KEPRI (Korea)

91

WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Wisconsin State Energy Office�¢����s (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost�¢���effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally�¢���friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement State government agencies and universities owning or operating motor

93

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Use Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement Any diesel-powered vehicle the state, county or local government, school district, community college, public college or university, or mass transit

94

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate All state-owned diesel fueling facilities must provide fuel containing at

95

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate The tax rate on fuel containing ethanol is $0.06 per gallon less than the tax rate on other motor fuels in certain geographic areas. This reduced

96

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Retailer Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit The Ethanol Promotion Tax Credit is available to any fuel retailer for up

97

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biofuel Blending Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation Any provision in a contract between a fuel wholesaler and a refiner or

98

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Fuel Blend Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard At least 85% of gasoline supplied to a retailer or sold in Hawaii must contain a minimum of 10% ethanol (E10), unless the Director determines that

99

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement A retail motor fuel dispenser that dispenses fuel containing more than 10%

100

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blending Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit A tax credit is available for up to 30% of the cost of purchasing or

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

HTR Fuel Development in Europe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the frame of the European Network HTR-TN and in the 5. EURATOM RTD Framework Programme (FP5) European programmes have been launched to consolidate advanced modular HTR technology in Europe. This paper gives an overall description and first results of this programme. The major tasks covered concern a complete recovery of the past experience on fuel irradiation behaviour in Europe, qualification of HTR fuel by irradiating of fuel elements in the HFR reactor, understanding of fuel behaviour with the development of a fuel particle code and finally a recover of the fuel fabrication capability. (authors)

Languille, Alain [CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance BP1 (France); Conrad, R. [CEC/JRC/IE Petten (Netherlands); Guillermier, P. [Framatome-ANP/ Lyon (France); Nabielek, H. [FZJ/Juelich (Germany); Bakker, K. [NRG/Petten (Netherlands); Abram, T. [BNFL UK (United Kingdom); Haas, D. [JRC/ITU/Karlsruhe (Germany)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends The results of a quality survey of B20 fuel in the United States were...

103

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues The United States has 11...

104

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit

105

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Advanced Ethanol Fuel Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants

106

The viscoelastic properties of linear-star blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to understand the nature of polydispersity and characterize the effect of branching architecture, the model blend of linear and star polymer, which is the simplest branched polymer, is contrived. In this blend system, chain dynamics...

Lee, Jung Hun

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Effect of idling on fuel consumption and emissions of a diesel engine fueled by Jatropha biodiesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An engine running at low load and low rated speed is said to be subject to high idling conditions, a mode which represents one of the major problems currently the transport industry is facing. During this time, the engine can not work at peak operating temperature. This leads to incomplete combustion and emissions level increase due to having fuel residues in the exhaust. Also, idling results in increase in fuel consumption. The purpose of this study is to evaluate fuel consumption and emissions parameters under high idling conditions when diesel blended with Jatropha curcas biodiesel is used to operate a diesel engine. Although biodiesel–diesel blends decrease carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions, they increase nitrogen oxides emissions in high idling modes. Compared to pure diesel fuel, fuel consumption also increases under all high idling conditions for biodiesel–diesel blends, with a further increase occurring as blend percentage rises.

S.M. Ashrafur Rahman; H.H. Masjuki; M.A. Kalam; M.J. Abedin; A. Sanjid; S. Imtenan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

December 2003 SIMULATION NEWS EUROPE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulating High Energy Ball Mills using Discrete Events ­ page 3 Transport Logistics Study Discrete Event, CP, C10, C11, C15 11 Comparison Solutions Comparisons of Modelling and Simulation Techniques Europe, comparisons on simulation techniques Editor-in-Chief: Felix Breitenecker, TU Vienna - ARGESIM, c

Kuzmanov, Georgi

109

Birds and people in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...that the slope of the latter relationship does not differ from unity (spatial model 1...rapidly with human population density than does avian biomass, the regressions have steeper...Perrins, C. M. (eds) 1977 1994 In Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Emission of Nanosize Particles in the Process of Nanoclay Blending  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Blending is one of the dustiest operations in the process of developing new fire-safe polyurethane foams. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the emission of nanosize particles released Nanofil®5 nanoclay is blended. Ten 5–20 ... Keywords: nanoclay, blending, emission of nanosize particles

Elzbieta Jankowska; Wojciech Zatorski

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. I. INTRODUCTION Blending processes arise in a wide range of industries, for example gasoline1 Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Process Tor A. Johansen£ , Daniel Sb. ££ Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Concepci´on, Concepci´on, Chile. Abstract Blending

Johansen, Tor Arne

112

Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes arise in a wide range of industries, for example gasoline blending [1], [2], [3], [4], food1 Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Processes Tor A. Johansen , Daniel Sb. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Concepci´on, Concepci´on, Chile. Abstract Blending

Johansen, Tor Arne

113

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Decision time for Europe's hot rock project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Paris. Geothermal energy research in Europe faces a make-or-break point next month, when participants ... ministry of industry.

Declan Butler

1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

115

Decomposition method for the Multiperiod Blending Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Flows between which tanks in which time periods · Inventories/concentrations for tanks in each period for many applications 4 · Gasoline and crude oil blending · Raw material feed scheduling · Storage. "no bounds" on concentration total inventory mass balance in tanks inventory mass balance by component

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

116

Decomposition method for the Multiperiod Blending Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

problem is a general model for many applications, and it is difficult to solve · Gasoline and crude oil tanks in which time periods · Inventories/concentrations for tanks in each period · Maximum total profit total inventory mass balance in tanks inventory mass balance by component in blending tanks

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

117

BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

KRISHNA,C.R.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Exciting careers blending engineering, science, and ecology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exciting careers blending engineering, science, and ecology New Opportunities Making the world://bee.oregonstate.edu/ecoe Ecological Engineering is: · Ecosystem restoration and habitat design at multiple scales · Watershed · Phytoremediation and bioremediation · Industrial ecology · Constructed wetlands and tidal marshlands · Mitigation

Tullos, Desiree

119

Table S1. Fuel Properties. JP-8 Blend-1 FT-1 Blend-2 FT-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

58 45 51 H Content (% mass) 13.6 14.5 15.5 14.3 15.1 Heat of Combust. (MJ/kg) 43.3 43.8 44.4 43.8 441 Table S1. Fuel Properties. JP-8 Blend-1 FT-1 Blend-2 FT-2 Feedstock Petroleum Petroleum & Natural Gas Natural Gas Petroleum & Coal Coal Sulfur (ppm by mass) 1148 699 19 658 22 Alkanes (% vol.) 50

Meskhidze, Nicholas

120

Analysis of major failures in Europe’s power grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power grids are prone to failure. Time series of reliability measures such as total power loss or energy not supplied can give significant account of the underlying dynamical behavior of these systems, specially when the resulting probability distributions present remarkable features such as an algebraic tail, usually considered the footprint of self-organization and the existence of critical points. In this paper, 7 years (from 2002 to 2008) of Europe’s transport of electricity network failure events have been analyzed and the best fit for this empirical data probability distribution is presented. With the actual span of available data and although there exists a moderate support for the power-law model, the relatively small amount of events contained in the function’s tail suggests that causal factors other than self-organization or a critical state might be significantly ruling these systems’ dynamics.

Martí Rosas-Casals; Ricard Solé

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Sustainable Heat Power Europe GmbH formerly Solar Heat Power Europe GmbH |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat Power Europe GmbH formerly Solar Heat Power Europe GmbH Heat Power Europe GmbH formerly Solar Heat Power Europe GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name Sustainable Heat & Power Europe GmbH (formerly Solar Heat & Power Europe GmbH) Place Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Sector Solar Product Engineering company involved in the project development, design and construction of solar thermal, PV and biogas power plants. References Sustainable Heat & Power Europe GmbH (formerly Solar Heat & Power Europe GmbH)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Sustainable Heat & Power Europe GmbH (formerly Solar Heat & Power Europe GmbH) is a company located in Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany .

122

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Supply of Petroleum Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

123

Europe's last chance to restructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Looking back over the year, there has been remarkably little sign of restructuring in the chemical industry in view of the current financial crisis in most companies. But the apparent paralysis in terms of plant closures or ownership changes may be disguising much behind-the-scenes activity. But the pain threshold of companies is proving surprisingly high. Looking at ethylene plants, Shell's Peter Kwant notes that almost half the steam crackers operating in Europe are 20 years old or more. They amount to one-third of capacity, or twice current underutilization. No steps have been taken to close any unit. Meanwhile, five producers collectively will have introduced 2 million m.t./year of extra ethylene capacity between 1991 and 1994. One factor hampering closure is that 40% of ethylene capacity in Europe is at isolated sites not connected to either the Benelux/Germany ARG pipeline or a local network such as those in the UK or France. BP Chemicals chief Bryan Sanderson raised that point at a recent Wertheim Schroder/Chemical Week/Chem Systems conference in New York, arguing that steep price falls occur in times of demand slump because of the inelastic supply curve for monster chemical plants. The industry could manage cycles better, he suggests, if rather than closing its incremental capacity, small, flexible plants were available to open and close as demand warrants, thus flattening the supply curve. In addition, following the US example - where 90% of ethylene capacity is connected to pipeline system should be available in Europe, giving companies greater flexibility to take plants on- and offline. The latter solution, of course, would not work for Europe's 18 loss-making polyethylene (PE) producers, and here straight closures or merging of businesses are the only solution.

Tattum, L.

1992-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

124

In situ bioremediation in Europe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

Porta, A. [Battelle Europe, Geneva (CH); Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Europe  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

1, 2013 estimated proved natural gas reserves (3) 2013 EIAARI unproved wet shale gas technically recoverable resources (TRR) 2012 USGS conventional unproved wet natural gas...

126

Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effects of Intermediate Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Digg

127

Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends October 7, 2008 - 4:14pm Addthis In August 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to assess the potential impacts of higher intermediate ethanol blends on conventional vehicles and other engines that rely on gasoline. The test program focuses specifically on the effects of intermediate blends of E15 and E20-gasoline blended with 15 and 20 percent ethanol, respectively-on emissions, catalyst and engine durability, drivability or operability, and materials associated with these vehicles and engines. This DOE test program includes technical expertise from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

128

Report on intermediate ethanol blends research published | ornl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Final report on intermediate ethanol blends research published February 01, 2012 Mileage accumulation dynamometers at subcontractor facilities were used to "age" many of the...

129

Water Content in Biodiesel, Diesel, and Biodiesel–Diesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water Content in Biodiesel, Diesel, and Biodiesel–Diesel Blends ... In what concerns road transportation, biodiesel is being considered a good alternative to conventional diesels. ...

Patricia Bogalhos Lucente Fregolente; Leonardo Vasconcelos Fregolente; Maria Regina Wolf Maciel

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

130

Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Applications Blends of Phytol and diesel (by volume) were compared against baseline diesel experiments and simulations p-21ramirez.pdf More Documents & Publications HD...

131

Meet changing fuel requirements with online blend optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compania Espanola de Petroleos (CEPSA) embarked on an overall refinery automation program, with state-of-the-art gasoline blending being one of the highest priorities. The result of this effort is a sophisticated computerized gasoline blending system using offline LPs for initial optimal recipe calculation, an online LP for real-time blend recipe reformulation using online analyzers for blending model adjustment, complete automation of blending sequence startup and shutdown, generation of end of blend quality performance reports, and real-time integration between lab, tank gauging, plant information, and blending systems. The entry of Spain in the EEC brought with it the need to quickly adapt to the requirements of an openly competitive marketplace emphasizing no lead, oxygenated, high performance gasolines and ISO 9000 quality standards. The blending system allowed CEPSA to produce lowest cost, minimum giveaway gasolines, while having the flexibility to produce a wide variety of modern gasolines serving the Western European market. The paper describes the blender architecture, optimizer linear programming, man machine interface, and results from the blending system.

Diaz, A. [Compania Espanola de Petroleos, S.A., Cadiz (Spain). Algeciras Refinery; Barsamian, J.A. [ABB Simcon Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understanding… (more)

Eslami, Farshad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATEREPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATEREPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice The 13th Haskell & White Corporate Reporting & Governance conference is intended to provide opportunities

de Lijser, Peter

134

USAID Europe and Eurasia Climate Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Eurasia Climate Program and Eurasia Climate Program Jump to: navigation, search Name USAID Europe and Eurasia Climate Program Agency/Company /Organization U.S. Agency for International Development Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Website http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/ Country Armenia, Republic of Macedonia, Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Kazakhstan, Hungary, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan Western Asia, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, Eastern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Western Asia, Central Asia, Central Asia, Northern Europe, Northern Europe, Northern Europe, Western Asia, Central Asia References USAID Regional Climate Programs[1]

135

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization deer12szybist.pdf More Documents &...

136

Proton NMR characterization of gasoline–ethanol blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be conveniently used for accurate measurement of water and ethanol concentrations in gasoline–ethanol fuel blends. The spectra also contain information on proton exchange rates. In addition, NMR pulsed-field-gradient diffusion measurement allows estimation of ethanol–water clusters and viscosity of the fuel blends.

A. Turanov; A.K. Khitrin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Effect of Ethanol on Blending Stability and Diesel Engine Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Ethanol on Blending Stability and Diesel Engine Emissions ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research2013 52 (44), 15504-15508 ... This article describes the effects of hydroxylated biodiesel (castor oil methyl ester – COME) on the properties, combustion, and emissions of butanol–diesel blends used within compression ignition engines. ...

Magín Lapuerta; Octavio Armas; Reyes García-Contreras

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

138

Blend lines in the polarized spectrum of the Sun  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......July 2012 research-article Papers Blend lines in the polarized spectrum of the Sun K...Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034, India Blend lines form an integral part of the theoretical...Their interaction with other spectral lines needs to be explored and understood before......

K. Sowmya; K. N. Nagendra; M. Sampoorna

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

First International Conference on E-Learning and Blended Education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the conference will appear in its proceedings. The Conference's academic committee will also select some highFirst International Conference on E-Learning and Blended Education as a Strategic Choice for Arab Universities ICELBE 2012 : 13­11 ()2112 #12;First International Conference on E-Learning and Blended

140

Blended language learning in tertiary education  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines the supporting and enhancing role of technology in language learning and teaching in a higher education institution in Slovenia. Despite the fact that the vast majority of foreign language teaching is still carried out in face-to-face environments, a growing extent of foreign language teaching in a number of tertiary education institutions has moved, at least partly, online. In this paper, the development of e-learning practices in Slovenia is described first, together with the evolution of computer technologies – from multimedia to the internet – and their potential for language learning and teaching purposes. Against this background, the practical application of the Blended Language Learning (BLL) experience at the Faculty of Management Koper is discussed. The paper also addresses the changing role of teachers in blended language teaching/learning environments and analyses the opinions of students who participated in a combination of Face-to-Face (F2F) and Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) courses and expressed their opinions on the BLL experience in a questionnaire.

Igor Riznar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Experimental study on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of rubber seed oil-diesel blends in a DI diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work, experiments have been carried out to assess the suitability of rubber seed oil and its blends with diesel in a diesel engine. Tests were conducted with different blends of R80-D20 (80% of rubber seed oil and 20% of diesel by volume) and R70-D30 (70% of rubber seed oil and 30% of diesel by volume). Experimental results indicate that the brake thermal efficiency increases from 26.5% to 27.7% with the optimum blend of R70-D30. There is a reduction in emissions is also observed except NOx level at all loads. Smoke emission reduces drastically from 6.1 to 4.7 BSU. Combustion parameters indicated a decrease in ignition delay and combustion duration compared with neat RSO. This will also contribute to higher heat release rate in the premixed combustion phase. Current investigations reveal that the performance of R70-D30 blend is closer to diesel.

V. Edwin Geo; G. Nagarajan; B. Nagalingam

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Impact of Biofuel Blending on Diesel Soot Oxidation: Implications for Aftertreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Control strategies for diesel particulate filters (DPFs) remain one of the most important aspects of aftertreatment research and understanding the soot oxidation mechanism is key to controlling regeneration. Currently, most DPF models contain simple, first order heterogeneous reactions oxidation models with empirically fit parameters. This work improves the understanding of fundamental oxidation kinetics necessary to advance the capabilities of predictive modeling, by leading to better control over regeneration of the device. This study investigated the effects of blending soybean-derived biodiesel fuel on diesel particulate emissions under conventional combustion from a 1.7L direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five biofuel blend levels were investigated and compared to conventional certification diesel for the nanostructure, surface chemistry and major constituents of the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of diesel particulate matter (PM), and the relationship between these properties and the particulate oxidation kinetics.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Foster, David [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin; Vander Wal, Dr. Randy [NASA-Glenn Research Center, Cleveland

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Air and oxy-fuel combustion behaviour of petcoke/lignite blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of a petroleum coke (petcoke), an indigenous lignite and their 70/30 wt.% blend in air and oxy-fuel conditions were investigated by using non-isothermal thermo-gravimetric method (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Blend samples were prepared by mixing lignite, which has low calorific value, high ash and moisture contents with petcoke that has high calorific value, low ash and moisture content, in the proportion of 70:30. Pyrolysis tests were carried out in nitrogen and carbon dioxide environments which are the main diluting gases of air and oxy-fuel environments, respectively. Pyrolysis curves of parent fuels and their blend reveal close resemblance up to 700 °C in both N2 and CO2 environments. At higher temperatures, further weight loss taking place in N2 and CO2 atmospheres is attributed to calcite decomposition and CO2-char gasification reaction, respectively. Gasification reaction leads to significant increase in CO and COS formation as observed in FTIR evolution profiles. Almost identical experimental and theoretical pyrolysis profiles of the blend samples show that there is no synergy between the parent fuels of the blend in both pyrolysis environments. Combustion experiments were carried out in four different atmospheres; air, oxygen-enriched air environment (30% O2–70% N2), oxy-fuel environment (21% O2–79% CO2) and oxygen-enriched oxy-fuel environment (30% O2–70% CO2). Combustion experiments show that replacing nitrogen in the gas mixture by the same concentration of CO2 leads to delay in combustion (lower maximum rate of weight loss and higher burnout temperatures). Overall comparison of derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) profiles shows that effect of oxygen content on combustion characteristics is more significant than that of diluting gas in the combustion environment. At elevated oxygen levels, profiles shift through lower temperature zone, peak and burnout temperatures decrease, weight loss rate increases significantly and complete combustion is achieved at lower temperatures and shorter times. Theoretical and experimental combustion profiles of the blend mainly display different trends, which indicate synergistic interactions between lignite and petcoke during their combustion in different environments.

Nur Sena Yuzbasi; Nevin Selçuk

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Free Energy Europe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Europe Europe Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Free Energy Europe Name Free Energy Europe Place Lens, France Sector Solar Product Solar electric systems Year founded 1986 Phone number +33 (0)3 2179 3060 Website http://www.freeenergyeurope.co Coordinates 50.4330347°, 2.8279951° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":50.4330347,"lon":2.8279951,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

146

Europe's Energy Portal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Europe's Energy Portal Europe's Energy Portal Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Europe's Energy Portal Name Europe's Energy Portal Address Square de Meeus 38/40 Place Brussels, Belgium Year founded 2006 Coordinates 50.8403809°, 4.3688414° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":50.8403809,"lon":4.3688414,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

147

Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) Jump to: navigation, search Name Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) Agency/Company /Organization European Commission Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics Finance, Market analysis, Background analysis Website http://ec.europa.eu/energy/int UN Region Northern Europe References IEE[1] Overview "Set up by the EU and managed by the Executive Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation (EACI), the IEE is the EU's means of funding action to improve market conditions so as to encourage the use of renewable energy sources and improve energy efficiency. The IEE funds: project which aim to have a significant impact on the market, including areas such as knowledge transfer between areas of the EU, assisting different organizations in gaining a better understanding of each

148

The Potential for Photovoltaics in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There has been considerable investment worldwide in photovoltaic technology, by both private and public agencies. In Europe, there is a major photovoltaic research and development programme co-ordinated and fi...

M. R. Starr

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

The Development of Energy Markets in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Europe has been engaged in a debate aimed at building an integrated and competitive energy market since the early 1990s. The European Union ... truly competitive, single European electricity and gas market is exp...

Mehmet Baha Karan; Hasan Kazda?li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Meeting targets Eastern Europe investment fears  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Increased cooperation in environment, markets, and investment between Western European and Eastern European chemical industries will lead to sustainable economic development in Eastern Europe, according to speakers at a conference sponsored by the United ...

PATRICIA LAYMAN

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

151

The Future of Photovoltaics in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, photovoltaic conversion has gained a considerable importance in renewable energy technology. Private capital investment has been higher than in most other solar energy sectors, and in-Europe, ...

G. Schuster

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Sending African Sunlight to Europe, Special Delivery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...solar and other renewable energy projects in North...of Europe's energy by 2050. SOURCE...Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, and Jordan...certain amount of renewable power. Recently...Department of Energy's Sandia National...

Daniel Clery

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

153

T O Green Europe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

T-O Green Europe Place: Czech Republic Sector: Biomass, Solar, Wind energy Product: Czech-based JV company established by Theolia and Orco Property Group for the development,...

154

The Operational Weather Radar Network in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The operational weather radar network in Europe covers more than 30 countries and contains more than 200 weather radars. The radar network is heterogeneous in hardware, signal processing, transmit/receive frequency, and scanning strategy, thus making it ...

Asko Huuskonen; Elena Saltikoff; Iwan Holleman

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition Engine Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Blends of Phytol and diesel (by volume) were compared against baseline diesel experiments and simulations

156

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

157

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on February 12, 2013. EZFeed Policy Place Kentucky Name Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Policy Category Financial Incentive Policy Type Corporate Tax Incentive Affected Technologies Biomass/Biogas Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector State/Province Primary Website http://energy.ky.gov/biofuels/Pages/biofuelsIncentives.aspx Summary blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against the corporation income tax imposed under KRS 141.040 and/or the limited liability entity tax (LLET) imposed under KRS 141.0401. The amount

158

Time phased alternate blending of feed coals for liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method for reducing process performance excursions during feed coal or process solvent changeover in a coal hydroliquefaction process by blending of feedstocks or solvents over time. ,

Schweigharett, Frank (Allentown, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Garg, Diwaker (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Settling of rubber particles in asphalt-rubber blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Traditional asphalt-rubber binders have faced problems ics. in pavement compaction, due to phase separation or sedimentation of undissolved rubber. A homogeneous asphalt-rubber binder is desirable for alleviating this problem. In addition, a blend...

Wattanachai, Piyachat

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Toughened blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) and BPA polycarbonate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The morphologies of melt blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) toughened with a core/shell impact modifier have been characterized by transmission and scanning electro...

S. Y. Hobbs; M. E. J. Dekkers; V. H. Watkins

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Toughened blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) and BPA polycarbonate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The toughening mechanisms of blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) toughened with core/shell impact modifier have been studied by transmission electron microscopy, not...

M. E. J. Dekkers; S. Y. Hobbs; V. H. Watkins

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert October 7, 2010 - 11:58am Addthis Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy What does this project do? Rooftop solar panels provide 27 percent of the facility's energy. Maricopa County officials estimate the complex is 42 percent more energy efficient than many modern day buildings. Next month, hikers marveling at the sun bathed canyons and ridges of White Tank Mountain in the Sonoran Desert will see something on the horizon - if they look hard. Built to blend into the desert landscape, the new 29,000 square-foot White Tank Library and Nature Center in Surprise, Ariz., is set to open on Nov. 13. Rooftop solar panels provide 27 percent of the facility's energy.

163

Droplet combustion studies of hydrocarbon-monopropellant blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An experimental investigation was conducted to characterize the monopropellant droplet combustion of pure and blended isopropyl nitrate (IPN), suspended on quartz fibers in a quiescent atmosphere. The blends were prepared by mixing varying percentages by weight of IPN with less viscous n-heptane, as well as highly viscous desensitizer dibutyl sebacate (DBS). Ignition was achieved by using a heated 60 ?m Nichrome wire. The dependence of the burning rate constant of pure IPN on initial droplet diameter was investigated in the droplet size range of 0.79–1.97 mm. The blended IPN studies were carried out with initial droplet diameters of 2 and 1.5 mm for IPN-n-heptane and IPN-DBS blends respectively, to characterize the effect of gravimetric composition. The experiments revealed a strong dependence of IPN burning rate on droplet size. The IPN-DBS blends were characterized by severe micro-explosions, further atomizing the droplet, governed by the preferential evaporation of IPN over DBS. However, micro-explosions were conspicuously absent in case of IPN-n-heptane blends due to simultaneous gasification of both components.

Anirudha Ambekar; Arindrajit Chowdhury; Suryanarayana Challa; D. Radhakrishna

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Itochu Europe Plc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Itochu Europe Plc Itochu Europe Plc Jump to: navigation, search Name Itochu Europe Plc Place London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip EC4A 3PJ Sector Efficiency, Solar Product European HQ of Itochu Corporation; invests in solar and is interested in energy efficiency sectors. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

166

Energie Europe Service | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energie Europe Service Energie Europe Service Jump to: navigation, search Name Energie Europe Service Place Paris, France Zip 75017 Sector Biomass Product Paris-based firm that develops, finances and operates PV systems as well as biomass and biogas projects. Coordinates 48.85693°, 2.3412° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.85693,"lon":2.3412,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

167

Vestas Central Europe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vestas Central Europe Vestas Central Europe Place Husum, Germany Zip 25813 Sector Wind energy Product Husum-based subsidiary of Vestas Wind Systems, operating their sales and marketings division in Germany, Austria, Russia and Eastern Europe in addition to installing and servicing of these systems. Coordinates 45.799479°, -121.486901° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.799479,"lon":-121.486901,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

168

Eurus Energy Europe BV | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Europe BV Europe BV Jump to: navigation, search Name Eurus Energy Europe BV Place London, United Kingdom Zip SW1Y 4QT Sector Wind energy Product European arm of Japanese wind power project developer. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

169

Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

171

Towards a policy convergence in Europe? General approaches in the Netherlands, Switzerland and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- 1 - Towards a policy convergence in Europe? General approaches in the Netherlands, Switzerland Engineering Rm 305 PO Box 5048 DELFT 2600 GA The Netherlands 31 15 278 4672 31 15 278 3179 e - The policies of three European countries (France, the Netherlands and Switzerland) are compared at the level

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

Europe pays the price for spending less  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... insouciance when Europe's political leaders bemoan the European Union's growing problem of international competitiveness. The difficulty they have in relating cause to effect is, I suppose, an ... minister. I spent five years in Asia, presiding over a colony in which the provision of higher education grew exponentially — underpinning the transition from a low- to a ...

Lord Patten

2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

173

Heat Pump Markets UK in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat Pump Markets UK in Europe IEA Heat Pump Workshop 13. November 2012 Zoltan Karpathy #12;2 Excellence in Market Intelligence Agenda About BSRIA WMI UK in the European Heat Pump Market Heating BSRIA WMI UK in the European Heat Pump Market Heating Technologies in New and Existing Buildings Hybrid

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

174

RENEXPO Central Europe International brokerage event  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar energy Geothermal energy Biomass Others Target groups: Companies Universities, research - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Exhibition on the 12- 13 March 2014 in Budapest, Hungary at the SYMA on East- Central Europe and Hungary's innovative-, high quality renewable energies and future energy

Hasýrcý, Vasýf

175

Japan, Europe lobby US over space station  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the fate of the planned US Space Station this week, scientists and government officials from Japan and Europe were doing their best to see that the ambitious pro-gramme stays on ... were doing their best to see that the ambitious pro-gramme stays on track.

David Swinbanks; Peter Aldhous; Steven Dickman

1991-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

176

Council of Europe guidelines for child friendly health care  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The “child friendly health care” guidelines [1] were recently produced by the Council of Europe (CoE) and endorsed by the ministers of 47 European nations attending the 9th Council of Europe Conference of Health ...

Dr. S. Lenton; S.O. Lie

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Spomenka Kobe, Jozef Stefan Institut, Rare Earth Magnets in Europe...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Spomenka Kobe, Jozef Stefan Institut, Rare Earth Magnets in Europe Spomenka Kobe, Jozef Stefan Institut, Rare Earth Magnets in Europe SessionB4Kobe-JosefStefanInstitut.pdf...

178

Energy Choices That Europe Faces: A European View of Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...difference between the energy situation in the United...do-mestic product (GDP) per capita in Western Europe...2. Consumption of energy (as kilowatt per capita) in Europe and the...Prospects of primary energy demand in the community...

Wolf Häfele

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

179

Monthly Mean Pressure Reconstructions for Europe (1780-1980) and North  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Monthly Mean Pressure Reconstructions for Europe (1780-1980) and North Monthly Mean Pressure Reconstructions for Europe (1780-1980) and North America (1858-1980) (1987) (NDP-025) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.ndp025 image Data Investigators P. D. Jones, T. M. L. Wigley, and K. R. Briffa Real and reconstructed measurements of monthly mean pressure data have been constructed for Europe for 1780 through 1980 and North America for 1858 through 1980. The reconstructions use early pressure, temperature, and precipitation data from a variety of sources including World Weather Records, meteorological and national archives, circulation maps, and daily chart series. Each record contains the year, monthly mean pressure, quality code, and annual mean pressure. These reconstructed gridded monthly pressures provide a reliable historical record of mean sea-level pressures

180

Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.

Wilson III, George R. (Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin (United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)); Freerks, Robert L. (Rentech, Incorporated, 1331 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States))

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation andEngine...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen and...

182

Behaviour and effects of alcohol-blended petrol in the subsurface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Science of the Total Environment , 339 , 117-126...blends. Biomass and Bioenergy , 33 , 1175-1181...C.A. 2001. A review of the environmental...ethanol-blended gasoline in the environment. A literature review and transport modeling...

Philip Morgan; Simon Firth; Beate Hildenbrand

183

Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric studies on nanoclay-filled TPU/PP blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal stability of ester-thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/polypropylene (PP) and ether-TPU/PP blends was evaluated by thermogravimetric studies. Thermal studies were made as a function of blend ratio. Effect...

Murugasamy Kannan; S. S. Bhagawan…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Nanoclay effect on transport properties of thermoplastic polyurethane/polypropylene (TPU/PP) blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the diffusion of water through the nanoclay filled TPU/PP blends was investigated at ... The effect of blend ratio, compatibilisation and nanoclay addition on the transport properties was studied .....

Murugasamy Kannan; S. S. Bhagawan; Sabu Thomas…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

A Review of Chromatographic Characterization Techniques for Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......determination of the biodiesel content of...blends of biodiesel in conventional...Sciences and Engineering Division...characterization of biodiesel and its blends...addressed. Introduction Biodiesel...commercial fuels. These fuels......

R. E. Pauls

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Characterization of the Solar Power Resource in Europe and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;1 Characterization of the Solar Power Resource in Europe and Assessing Benefits of Co-Location with Wind Power Europe from a companion assessment, we assess the benefits of co-location of solar and wind powerCharacterization of the Solar Power Resource in Europe and Assessing Benefits of Co

187

Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

188

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up to 85% ethanol for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

189

A Fast Spatial Patch Blending Algorithm for Artefact Reduction in Pattern-based Image Inpainting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Fast Spatial Patch Blending Algorithm for Artefact Reduction in Pattern-based Image Inpainting Mar´echal Juin, 14050 Caen/France Figure 1: Illustration of our proposed spatial patch blending propose a fast and generic spatial patch blending technique that can be embedded within any kind

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU UNH for commercial use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form that is more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UNH blending HEU disposition option. Process requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste/emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Sustainable Europe Research Institute | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Logo: Sustainable Europe Research Institute Name Sustainable Europe Research Institute Address Garnisongasse 7/21 A -1090 Place Vienna, Austria Year founded 1999 Phone number +43-1-969 07 28 - 0 Coordinates 48.215941°, 16.356562° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.215941,"lon":16.356562,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

193

100% Pet coke or pet coke blends combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is outlined on the combustion of 100 percent petroleum coke or petroleum coke blends. Data are presented on NISCO overviews; fuel (coke) characteristics; delayed coke analysis (1995-96); limestone characteristics/effects; limestone preparation; ash characteristics; vortex finders; agglomerization; and NISCO performance results.

Swindle, D.L.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

194

Blending world map projections with Flex Projector Bernhard Jennya  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Projector and then documents the new approaches to projection blending. The integration of the three methods into Flex Projector makes creating new projections simple and easy to control and allows the user.flexprojector.com) is a free, open- source, cross-platform application with a graphical user interface for designing world map

Jenny, Bernhard

195

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

196

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #752: November 5, 2012 Western Europe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2: November 5, 2: November 5, 2012 Western Europe Plug-in Car Sales, 2012 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #752: November 5, 2012 Western Europe Plug-in Car Sales, 2012 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #752: November 5, 2012 Western Europe Plug-in Car Sales, 2012 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #752: November 5, 2012 Western Europe Plug-in Car Sales, 2012 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #752: November 5, 2012 Western Europe Plug-in Car Sales, 2012 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #752: November 5, 2012 Western Europe Plug-in Car Sales, 2012 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #752: November 5, 2012 Western Europe Plug-in Car Sales, 2012 on AddThis.com...

197

Diesel vehicle performance on unaltered waste soybean oil blended with petroleum fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interest in using unaltered vegetable oil as a fuel in diesel engines has experienced an increase due to uncertainty in the crude oil market supply and the detrimental effects petroleum fuels have on the environment. Unaltered vegetable oil blended with petroleum fuels is less expensive, uses less energy to produce and is more environmentally friendly compared to petroleum diesel or biodiesel. Here we investigate the engine performance of unaltered waste soybean oil blended with petroleum diesel and kerosene for three vehicles. Five biofuel blends ranging from 15% to 50% oil by volume were tested on a 2006 Jeep Liberty CRD, a 1999 Mercedes E300 and a 1984 Mercedes 300TD. A DynoJet 224x chassis dynamometer was used to test vehicle engine performance for horsepower and torque through a range of RPMs. Results for the Jeep showed a modest decrease in horsepower and torque compared to petroleum diesel ranging from 0.9% for the 15% oil blend to 5.0% lower for the 50% oil blend. However, a 30% oil blend showed statistically better performance (P < 0.05) compared to petroleum diesel. For the 1999 Mercedes, horsepower performance was 1.1% lower for the 15% oil blend to 6.4% lower for the 50% oil blend. Engine performance for a 30% blend was statistically the same (P < 0.05) compare to diesel. Finally, horsepower performance was 1.1% lower for the 15% oil blend to 4.7% lower for the 50% oil blend for the 1984 Mercedes. Overall, the performance on these oil blended fuels was excellent and, on average 1.1% lower than petroleum diesel for blends containing 40% or lower waste soybean oil content. The more significant decrease in power between the 40% and 50% oil blends indicates that oil content in these blended fuels should be no more than 40%.

Eugene P. Wagner; Patrick D. Lambert; Todd M. Moyle; Maura A. Koehle

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

HIGH PERFORMANCE BLENDS AND COMPOSITES: PART (I) CLAY AEROGEL/POLYMER COMPOSITES PART (II) MECHANISTIC INVESTIGATION OF COLOR GENERATION IN PET/MXD6 BARRIER BLENDS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??High performance in polymer blends and composites can be achieved through the addition of a strong filler component into a polymer matrix. The overall physical… (more)

Bandi, Suneel A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Verifying conventional stability in Europe: An overview. Interim report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Verifying the obligations in the prospective Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty will be far harder and more expensive than verifying those in the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty, or in other previous arms control agreements. This Note presents a qualitative overview of conventional arms control verification issues, including (1) monitoring force levels calibrated in major items of equipment and personnel, in a large production area that makes concealment possible; (2) watching force withdrawals, restructuring, or disbandments involving removal, reexport, or destruction of thousands of heavy equipment items; (3) monitoring the post-agreement status of the largest and most complex force concentration in peacetime history; and (4) meshing these observations with the concurrent need to monitor unilateral Warsaw Pact force reductions and force changes on a massive scale.

Hirschfeld, T.J.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

202

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Prohibition of the Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

203

Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 ?m diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 ?m in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations; Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction; Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign; o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks; o Blends from the qualification tanks; Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation experience). As experience is ga

Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

204

DOE Solar Decathlon: News Blog » Solar Decathlon Europe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Europe Europe Below you will find Solar Decathlon news from the Solar Decathlon Europe archive, sorted by date. Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences Wins Innovation Contest at Solar Decathlon Europe Friday, June 25, 2010 Photo of people waiting and relaxing on the decks of the Stuttgart house. The Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences won Solar Decathlon Europe's Innovation contest. Congratulations to the Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences team for filling its house full of innovative technology. Today, points were awarded by all the juries at Solar Decathlon Europe for innovation. These points were added up to determine the winners of the Innovation contest. At this afternoon's award ceremony, the first-, second-, and third-place teams were announced. However, the points are being kept secret until

205

Application of the distributed activation energy model to blends devolatilisation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, an investigation was carried out into the thermal behaviour of coal, petcoke and their blend as a generic feedstock in combustion and IGCC plants for energy production. The samples were pyrolysed in a TG analyzer in nitrogen atmosphere (constant flow of 0.0335 m/s) at several heating rates with temperatures ranging from 300 to 1223 K. The distributed activation energy model was applied to study the effects of heating rates on the reactions of single solids. The results obtained were used in the calculation of curves mass loss vs. temperature at more realistic heating rates. The algorithm used to obtain the distribution of reactivities for single solids was successfully implemented to allow the prediction of blends performance.

M.V. Navarro; A. Aranda; T. Garcia; R. Murillo; A.M. Mastral

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Sulfur meter for blending coal at Plant Monroe: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An on-line sulfur analyzer, installed at the Detroit Edison, Monroe Power station, was placed into service and evaluated for coal blending optimization to minimize the cost of complying with changing stack gas sulfur dioxide regulations. The project involved debugging the system which consisted of an /open quotes/as-fired/close quotes/ sampler and nuclear source sulfur analyzer. The system was initially plagued with mechanical and electronic problems ranging from coal flow pluggages to calibration drifts in the analyzer. Considerable efforts were successfully made to make the system reliable and accurate. On-line testing showed a major improvement in control of sulfur dioxide emission rates and fuel blending optimization equivalent to as much as $6 million in fuel costs at the time of the evaluation. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

Trentacosta, S.D.; Yurko, J.O.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Course redesign for blended learning: modern optics for technical professionals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Philips Centre for Technical Training (CTT) is responsible for the on-going professional education of scientific staff in Philips Research Laboratories worldwide. This article addresses the ''why'' and ''how'' of an evolution toward more flexible learning at the CTT in which various models for blended learning supported by a web-based course-management system are being piloted and evaluated, and describes one of the courses in more detail. The ''why'' relates to CTT's challenge to give more participants at distant locations access to its courses. The ''how'' has to be appropriate to the very specific situation in which CTT functions the transfer of Philips' highly technical knowledge and experience to relatively small numbers of scientific staff within Philips. This knowledge and experience is being refreshed continuously so the contents of the learning also are in steady change. The blended learning models evolving at the CTT are grounded in these characteristics.

Betty Collis; Huib Bruijstens; Jan Kees van der Veen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Effect of n-Butanol Blending with a Blend of Diesel and Biodiesel on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of n-Butanol Blending with a Blend of Diesel and Biodiesel on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine ... Mechanical Engineering, Batman University, Batman 72100, Turkey ... Diesel engines are widely used for transportation, energy production, and agricultural and industrial applications because of their high fuel conversion efficiencies and durability. ...

S?ehmus Altun; Cengiz O?ner; Fevzi Yas?ar; Hamit Adin

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

209

Research in Science Education in Europe: Current Issues and Themes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In April 1995 the first European Conference on Research in Science Education was held in Leeds. The conference was attended by 144 participants and marked the start of the new European Science Education Research Association (ESERA), which has as one of its aims to strengthen contacts between European individuals and groups investigating science education. This book contains a selection of 32 papers presented at this conference. The papers are classified in seven sections: dealing with a variety of topics such as Teaching and Learning, Approaches to Science Instruction, Social Interactions in Science Classrooms and Science Education Research in Europe. The parts vary considerably in length: some contain only two or three papers, others six or even ten. Such an imbalance is understandable from the viewpoint that the editors had to select from the 126 posters and papers presented at the conference. This is not the type of volume you would consult in preparing the next day's physics lessons. However, the book offers good reading for those interested in current trends in science education research in Europe. It shows that many investigations focus on small case studies, that papers about children's understanding of scientific concepts have not been rated highly, and that only a few studies are going on in the important areas of practical work, science teacher training, multicultural science education and the implementation of results of science education research. One may also conclude from the book that European cooperation in this field has made a start by organizing PhD summer schools but that much more could be done to develop programmes of research on common themes. A majority of papers have been produced by authors working in the UK. The editors discuss this point at length in their Editorial, suggesting a number of plausible reasons for this outcome. I am not convinced by the strength of all of these. In fact, the contents of many of the British papers should not be unfamiliar to those reading the literature. This is a very sensitive issue, certainly in view of the interesting debates during the conference about cultural differences between the educational traditions in various parts of Europe. Sjoeberg's paper at the end of the volume reflects on these discussions, ending with a plea to conserve this cultural diversity and use it to learn from each other. Maybe most interesting is the gateway the book opens to research in science education at Continental institutions, results which have quite often been locked in journals and books that cannot be read by most British and American colleagues. The editors have done an excellent job in transforming many of these papers into good English. For the readers of this journal it might be interesting to notethat many papers dealing with aspects of physics teaching have been included, the topic of electricity is especially well represented. Almost half of the papers are devoted partly or fully to the teaching and learning of junior secondary pupils, eight to primary science education, six to A-level education and only one to science education at university level. The book is attractively produced and should find its way to all those who are involved in science education research or would like to know more about the use of its results in improving science curricula and teacher training, even outside Europe.

Harrie Eijkelhof

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Achieving High Chilled Water Delta T Without Blending Station  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Achieving High Chilled Water Delta T without Blending Station Zhan Wang, Gang Wang, Ke Xu, Yuebin Yu and Mingsheng Liu Energy System Laboratory, Department of Architectural Engineering University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, NE 68182, USA...-12?C) after all 3-way control valves in the system were converted to 2-way valves. It seems that the use of 3-way control valves is accused of the lower chilled water temperature differential. Wang [2006] investigated the cooling coil performance...

Wang, Z.; Wang, G.; Xu, K.; Yu, Y.; Liu, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Properties and Performance of Levulinate Esters as Diesel Blend Components  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The esters were treated with the cetane-enhancing compound 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate and were tested as blends with diesel fuel in a 2008 model year Cummins ISB engine with the measurement of regulated pollutant emissions over the federal heavy duty diesel transient cycle. ... The various approaches to biomass conversion can be divided into two general types: thermochemical (gasification, pyrolysis, acid hydrolysis, combustion, and liquefaction) and biochemical (fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis, and anaerobic and aerobic digestion). ...

Earl Christensen; Aaron Williams; Stephen Paul; Steve Burton; Robert L. McCormick

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

212

Effect of use of low oxygenate gasoline blends upon emissions from California vehicles. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to investigate the emissions effects of low-oxygenate gasoline blends on exhaust and evaporative emissions from a test fleet of California certified light-duty autos. Thirteen vehicles were procured and tested using four gasoline-oxygenate blends over three test cycles. The four gasoline blends were: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and 'match' and 'splash' blends of ethanol (in the 'match' blend the fuel Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) is held constant, while in the 'splash' blend the fuel RVP is allowed to increase). Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions were generally reduced for the oxygenated blends, the exception being the 'splash-blended' ethanol gasoline which showed mixed results. Older technology vehicles (e.g., non-catalyst and oxidation catalyst) showed the greatest emissions reductions regardless of gasoline blend, while later technology vehicles showed the smallest reductions. Evaporative emissions and toxics were generally reduced for ETBE, while results for the other blends were mixed.

Born, G.L.; Lucas, S.V.; Scott, R.D.; DeFries, T.H.; Kishan, S.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends. September 2013. A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends. September 2013. Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends Manufacturer Compatibility Statement Fiberglass 1 Containment Solutions Tanks manufactured after January 1, 1995 are all compatible with ethanol blends up to 100% (E100) (UL Listed) Owens Corning Single Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and 1994 are approved to store up to 10% ethanol (E10) Double Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and July 1, 1990 are approved to store up to 10% ethanol (E10) Tanks manufactured between July 2, 1990 and December 31, 1994 were warrantied to store any ethanol blend Xerxes Single Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured prior to 1981 are not compatible with ethanol blends Tanks manufactured from February 1981 through June 2005 are

214

PUBLIC AND REGULATORY ACCEPTANCE OF BLENDING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE VS DILUTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On April 21, 2009, the Energy Facilities Contractors Group (EFCOG) Waste Management Working Group (WMWG) provided a recommendation to the Department of Energy's Environmental Management program (DOE-EM) concerning supplemental guidance on blending methodologies to use to classify waste forms to determine if the waste form meets the definition of Transuranic (TRU) Waste or can be classified as Low-Level Waste (LLW). The guidance provides specific examples and methods to allow DOE and its Contractors to properly classify waste forms while reducing the generation of TRU wastes. TRU wastes are much more expensive to characterize at the generator's facilities, ship, and then dispose at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) than Low-Level Radioactive Waste's disposal. Also the reduction of handling and packaging of LLW is inherently less hazardous to the nuclear workforce. Therefore, it is important to perform the characterization properly, but in a manner that minimizes the generation of TRU wastes if at all possible. In fact, the generation of additional volumes of radioactive wastes under the ARRA programs, this recommendation should improve the cost effective implementation of DOE requirements while properly protecting human health and the environment. This paper will describe how the message of appropriate, less expensive, less hazardous blending of radioactive waste is the 'right' thing to do in many cases, but can be confused with inappropriate 'dilution' that is frowned upon by regulators and stakeholders in the public. A proposal will be made in this paper on how to communicate this very complex and confusing technical issue to regulatory bodies and interested stakeholders to gain understanding and approval of the concept. The results of application of the proposed communication method and attempt to change the regulatory requirements in this area will be discussed including efforts by DOE and the NRC on this very complex subject.

Goldston, W.

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

215

Comparative Study of Thermomechanical Properties of Indigenous Blended Clay and Clay of Ukraine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the particle size distribution chemical composition fired modulus of rupture (MOR) and apparent porosity of blended clay utilizing clays available in Bikaner region and comparison with a imported Ukrainian clay. The blended clay B2 presents good white buff fired colour higher fired modulus of rupture and low porosity. The blend is suitable for Traditional Indian ceramic industries and a substitute of Ukrainian clay in India.

M. S. Shekhawat; S. K. Tak; R. Mangal; A. K. Gupta

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

A new blending agent and its effects on methanol-gasoline fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major difficulty encountered with the use of methanol-gasoline blends as SI engine fuel is their tendency to phase separation due to the hydrophilic properties of methanol. Phase separation can lead to some utilization problems. Using a blending agent for the methanol-gasoline system is the common approach taken towards solving the phase separation problem. In this study introduces fraction of molasses fuel oil as an effective new blending agent for methanol-gasoline fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

The prehistoric and preindustrial deforesta2on of Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

l First agricultural socie2es in Europe : mid-Holocene (Price, 2000) l Land agricultural socie2es in Europe : mid-Holocene (Price, 2000) l Land Cover and Land Use relationship Historical forest cover estimates for each region (1000 BC ­ AD 1850) Historical forest cover maps

Chave, Jérôme

218

Germany Inspires Innovation --Welcome to Europe's Leader in Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Germany Inspires Innovation -- Welcome to Europe's Leader in Science #12;Welcome to the Land of Ideas Excellence in research and development Germany is the number one location for research in Europe. Germany's unique scientific tradi- tion and great variety of research offer ideal conditions--not only

Kersting, Kristian

219

Internet, a Political Issue for Europe (1970s-2010s)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internet, a Political Issue for Europe (1970s-2010s) Draft paper The final version of this paper will be published in Bishop J. & Solo A.M.G, Politics and Policy in the Information Age, Springer, in 2013. Romain in Europe? How did the "network of networks" and ICTs become political stakes for EU institutions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternatives blending private Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for mixing as polymer feedstock. This feedstock was melt-blended with high- density polyethylene... mechanical properties and thermal properties of paintHDPE and paintPMMA...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-d rh1 blend Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Metallocene Summary: -Natta and Metallocene Hexene Linear Low-Density Polyethylene Blends with Low-Density Polyethylene Ibnelwaleed A. Hussein... and mechanical...

222

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydride ternary blend Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

13 Phase Structure and Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)High-Density Polyethylene Based on Summary: 1 (NCO stretching) disappeared in the blends,...

223

Effects of bio-diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of diesel engine.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study presents an experimental investigation into the effects of running biodiesel fuel blends on conventional diesel engines. Bio fuels provide a way to produce… (more)

Bastiani, Sergio.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Multi-scale analysis and simulation of powder blending in pharmaceutical manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Multi-Scale Analysis methodology was developed and carried out for gaining fundamental understanding of the pharmaceutical powder blending process. Through experiment, analysis and computer simulations, microscopic ...

Ngai, Samuel S. H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Evaluation of the Effects of Nanofil® Nanoclays in the Blending of Polypropylene and Polystyrene.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study evaluated the effects of Nanofil® nanoclay on morphology development of an immiscible polymer blend of polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). The hypothesis that… (more)

Opalko, Robert J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATE REPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATE REPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice Pinnell, Managing Partner of Haskell & White. GUIDELINES FOR PAPER SUBMISSION Papers are invited from

de Lijser, Peter

227

Effect of PCI blending on combustion characteristics for iron-making.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The PCI technology is well established for reducing the consumption of economic and environmentally expensive coke in blast furnace iron-making. Often, coal blends show unexpected… (more)

Gill, Trilochan Singh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Effects of Ethanol/Gasoline Blends on Advanced Combustion Strategies in Internal Combustion Engines.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation presents the effects of blending ethanol with gasoline on advanced combustion strategies in internal combustion engines. The unique chemical, physical and thermal properties… (more)

Fatouraie, Mohammad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

ECF-Europe-Roadmap 2050 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ECF-Europe-Roadmap 2050 ECF-Europe-Roadmap 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Name Europe - Roadmap 2050 Agency/Company /Organization European Climate Foundation Partner ClimateWorks Sector Energy Topics Low emission development planning, -Roadmap, Pathways analysis Resource Type Case studies/examples Website http://www.roadmap2050.eu/ Program End 2011 References Roadmap 2050[1] Europe - Roadmap 2050 Screenshot "The mission of Roadmap 2050 is to provide a practical, independent and objective analysis of pathways to achieve a low-carbon economy in Europe, in line with the energy security, environmental and economic goals of the European Union. The Roadmap 2050 project is an initiative of the European Climate Foundation (ECF) and has been developed by a consortium of experts

230

DOE Solar Decathlon: News Blog » Solar Decathlon Europe 2010  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Europe 2010 Europe 2010 Below you will find Solar Decathlon news from the Solar Decathlon Europe 2010 archive, sorted by date. Congratulations to Virginia Tech and Solar Decathlon Europe Sunday, June 27, 2010 Virginia Tech took top honors to a standing ovation at the Solar Decathlon Europe awards ceremony today in Madrid, Spain. The decathletes were ecstatic to finally win after participating in four Solar Decathlons. And this was the closest margin of victory in a Solar Decathlon. Virginia Tech won by less than a point! Rank Team Score 1 Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University 811.83 2 University of Applied Sciences Rosenheim 810.96 3 Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences 807.49 4 Ecole National Supérieure d'architecture de Grenoble 793.84

231

Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Community Wind Power Ownership in Europe..46 4.3 Factorsof Community Wind Power Ownership in Europe More than halfCommunity Wind Power Ownership Schemes in Europe and their

Bolinger, Mark

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Preprint from: 2012 3rd IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT Europe) Copyright 2012, IEEE Preprint page 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preprint from: 2012 3rd IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT Europe) Copyright electrical grid integration Willett Kempton Francesco Marra Peter Bach Andersen Rodrigo Garcia-Valle A liquid of refueling, see Fig. 1. Together, the vehicle characteris- tics, the grid-connection or electric vehicle

Firestone, Jeremy

233

Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

234

Experimental Study of Biodiesel Blends’ Effects on Diesel Injection Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It can be said that a lot of studies performed with biodiesel are mere emissions and performances comparisons against a standard diesel fuel using multicylinder engines and fundamental combustion and overall injections aspects are not being completely addressed yet. ... Emissions variations from 2 different engine models and 2 driving cycles were also obsd. ... Lujan, J. M.; Tormos, B.; Salvador, F. J.; Gargar, K. Comparative analysis of a DI diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel blends during the European MVEG-A cycle: Preliminary study (I). ...

José M. Desantes; Raúl Payri; Antonio García; Julien Manin

2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

235

Emissions mitigation of blended coals through systems optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For coal fired power stations, such as those located in the US, that have installed NOx and SOx emissions abatement equipment substantial carbon dioxide reduction could be achieved by shifting from pure PRB coal to blended coals with local bituminous coal. Don Labbe explains how. The article is based on a presentation at Power-Gen Asia 2009, which takes place 7-9 October in Bangkok, Thailand and an ISA POWID 2009 paper (19th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controlls and Instrumentation Conference, Chicago, Illinois, May 2009). 4 refs., 3 figs.

Don Labbe [IOM Invensys Operations Management (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Eastern Europe Research Reactor Initiative nuclear education and training courses - Current activities and future challenges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Europe Research Reactor Initiative was established in January 2008 to enhance cooperation between the Research Reactors in Eastern Europe. It covers three areas of research reactor utilisation: irradiation of materials and fuel, radioisotope production, neutron beam experiments, education and training. In the field of education and training an EERRI training course was developed. The training programme has been elaborated with the purpose to assist IAEA Member States, which consider building a research reactor (RR) as a first step to develop nuclear competence and infrastructure in the Country. The major strength of the reactor is utilisation of three different research reactors and a lot of practical exercises. Due to high level of adaptability, the course can be tailored to specific needs of institutions with limited or no access to research reactors. (authors)

Snoj, L. [Josef Stefan Inst., Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sklenka, L.; Rataj, J. [Dept. of Nuclear Reactor, Czech Technical Univ. in Prague, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Boeck, H. [Vienna Univ. of Technology/Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Pepsico Research Travel Fellowships for Russia, Eurasia, and East-Central Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pepsico Research Travel Fellowships for Russia, Eurasia, and East-Central Europe Pepsi travel to Russia, Eurasia, and East-Central Europe, for the purposes of conducting research

Qian, Ning

238

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 ? Updated Feb 2009  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 ? Updated Feb 2009

239

Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung-ho Ahn, Anna G. Stefanopoulou, and Mrdjan Jankovic Abstract--Ethanol is being increasingly flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up

Stefanopoulou, Anna

240

Exhaust emissions and mutagenic effects of diesel fuel, biodiesel and biodiesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The replacement of petroleum-derived fuels by renewable biogenic fuels has become of worldwide interest with the environmental effects being scientifically investigated. Biodiesel has been proven to be a suitable alternative to petrodiesel and blending up to 20% biodiesel with petrodiesel is policy promoted in the USA and the EU. To investigate the influence of blends on the exhaust emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) using blends of rapeseed-derived biodiesel and petrodiesel. Regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds were measured and their mutagenic effects were determined using the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay (Ames-Test) according to OECD Guideline 471. Exhaust emissions of blends were approximately linearly dependent on the blend composition, particularly when considering regulated emissions. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust emissions. In detail, an increase of the mutagenic potential was found for blends with the maximum observed for B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend when petrodiesel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures.

Olaf Schröder; Jürgen Bünger; Axel Munack; Gerhard Knothe; Jürgen Krahl

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Aerodynamically Optimal Regional Aircraft Concepts: Conventional and Blended Wing-Body Designs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aerodynamically Optimal Regional Aircraft Concepts: Conventional and Blended Wing-Body Designs aircraft such as those that serve regional routes. We thus explore the optimal aerodynamic shape of both a blended wing-body and conventional tube-and-wing regional aircraft through high-fidelity aerodynamic shape

Zingg, David W.

242

Shear-induced shift of spinodal line in entangled polymer blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the shear-flow effects on phase separation of entangled polymer blends by incorporating into the chemical potential a nonequilibrium contribution due to the flow. The results are compared with those of a previous analysis by other authors which did not modify the chemical potential but used a different assumption for the stress tensor of the blend.

M. Criado-Sancho; D. Jou; J. Casas-Vázquez; L. F. del Castillo

2002-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

243

"Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Xibin Wang "Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends" Abstract : Combustion, performance and emission were studied for DI diesel engine fuelled with DMM/diesel fuel blends for DMM content from 0 to 50%. Results showed that, for diesel engine with fuel

244

Enhanced Miscibility of Low-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene/Polyisoprene Blends in Supercritical CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with nitrogen decouple the plasticization efficacy of CO2 from free-volume compression due to hydrostaticEnhanced Miscibility of Low-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene/Polyisoprene Blends in Supercritical CO2 solution temperature (UCST) polymer blend in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2

Raghavan, Srinivasa

245

Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Combustion Characteristics of Coal and Biomass Blends and Thermal Dynamic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By using TGA technology, the combustion characteristics under different conditions of hard coal and biomass blends has been discussed. The combustion curves of blends exhibited the characteristics with two peaks. Results also exhibited that there was ... Keywords: coal, biomass, thermal analysis, combustion characteristics

Haizhen Huang; Haibo Chen; Guohua Wang; Jun Liu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Compatibilizing Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Nylon-6 Blends with Nanoclay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/nylon-6 (PVDF/N6) 30:70 were melt compounded with various organoclays directly or sequentially. The morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties of the blend nanocomposites were investigated. It was determined that ...

Loan T. Vo; Emmanuel P. Giannelis

2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

249

Conformational properties of blends of cyclic and linear polymer melts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An adapted version of the annealing algorithm to identify primitive paths of a melt of ring polymers is presented. This algorithm ensures that the primitive path length becomes zero for nonconcatenated rings, and that no entanglements are observed. The bond-fluctuation model was used to simulate ring-linear blends with N=150 and 300 monomers. The primitive path length and the average number of entanglements of the linear component were found to be independent of the blend composition. In contrast, the primitive path length and the average number of entanglements on a ring molecule increased approximately linearly with the fraction of linear chains, and for large N, they approached values comparable with linear chains. Threading of ring molecules by linear chains, and ring-ring interactions were observed only in the presence of linear chains. It is conjectured that for large N, these latter interactions facilitate the formation of a percolating entangled network, thereby resulting in a disproportionate retardation of the dynamical processes.

Gopinath Subramanian and Sachin Shanbhag

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

250

Wind Resource Assessment in Europe Using Emergy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In context of increasing use of renewable sources, it is of importance to correctly evaluate the actual sustainability of their implementation. Emergy analysis is one of the possible methods useful for such an assessment. This work aims to demonstrate how the emergy approach can be used to assess the sustainability of wind energy resource in Europe. The Emergy Index of Sustainability (EIS) and the Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) are used to analyze 90 stations of European regions for three types of wind turbines. To do so, the simplified Chou wind turbine model is used for different set of parameters as: nominal power and size of the wind turbines, and cut-in and cut-out wind speeds. Based on the calculation of the emergy indices, a mapping is proposed to identify the most appropriate locations for an implementation of wind turbines in European regions. The influence of the wind turbine type on the sustainability is also analyzed, in link with the local wind resource. Thus, it is concluded that the emergy sustainabi...

Paudel, Subodh; Martin, Viktoria; Lacarriere, Bruno; Corre, Olivier Le

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and Tractors Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and Tractors Project Summary Full Title: Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emission Impacts of Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Urban Buses and Farming Tractors Project ID: 86 Principal Investigator: Michael Wang Brief Description: This project studied the full fuel-cycle energy and emissions effects of ethanol-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in urban transit buses and farming tractors. Keywords: Ethanol; diesel; emissions; well-to-wheels (WTW) Purpose Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark- ignition engine vehicles. Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of

252

Relationship between coking pressure generated by coal blends and the composition of their primary tars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four coals that develop different pressures during the coking process were selected together with 10 blends (7 binary and 3 ternary) prepared with the same coals. Their semicoke contraction/expansion was measured by means of two tests (the Koppers-INCAR and the sole heated oven) and the variation in coking pressure during coking was determined in a movable wall oven. The coals and blends were then pyrolysed and the tars were analysed by gas chromatography (GC-FID–MS). The additivity law was applied to the properties used to evaluate the dangerousness of the blends and to the composition of the tar produced from the blends. Afterwards, the composition of the tar was studied in relation to contraction/expansion and the coking pressure generated by the coals and blends.

C. Barriocanal; M.A. Díez; R. Alvarez; M.D. Casal

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Effect of compatibilizer on impact and morphological analysis of recycled HDPE/PET blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blends based on recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. PET and HDPE are incompatible polymers and their blends showed poor properties. Compatibilization is a step to obtain blends with good mechanical properties and in this work, ethylene glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (E-GMA) was used as a compatibilizing agent. The effect of blends based on rHDPE and rPET with and without a compatibilizer, E-GMA were examined. From the studies clearly showed that the addition of 5% E-GMA increased the impact strength. SEM analysis of rHDPE/rPET blends confirmed the morphological interaction and improved interfacial bonding between two phases.

Salleh, Mohd Nazry [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Chen, Ruey Shan [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

254

Chapter 30 - Biofuel Economics and Policy: The Renewable Fuel Standard, the Blend Wall, and Future Uncertainties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biofuels are currently in a state of flux. The main operative policy for biofuels in the United States is the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It specifies a minimum quantity of four different types of biofuels that must be blended each year in the United States through 2022. However, the United States also faces what is called the blend wall, which is a physical limit on blending given that the United States blends at a 10% rate. The blend wall upper limit is now below the RFS lower limit for corn ethanol, and that is causing problems with the administration of the RFS. This chapter explains how the RFS functions and then examines alternatives to the current administration of the RFS. The RFS is critical for cellulosic biofuels and biodiesel, and its elimination would likely end use of those fuels. Corn ethanol, however, is now much less expensive than gasoline and would continue.

Wallace E. Tyner

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Insight into the Molecular Arrangement of High-Density Polyethylene Polymer Chains in Blends of Polystyrene/High-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Insight into the Molecular Arrangement of High-Density Polyethylene Polymer Chains in Blends of Polystyrene/High- Density Polyethylene from Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Raman Techniques JAYANT/high-density polyethylene (PS/HDPE) blends were synthe- sized by melt blending in a single screw extruder. Co

256

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Europe Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Address UN Economic Commission for Europe Information Service Palais des Nations Place Geneva, Switzerland Year founded 1947 Phone number +41 (0) 22 917 44 44 Website http://www.unece.org/Welcome.h Coordinates 46.2266748°, 6.1404115° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":46.2266748,"lon":6.1404115,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

257

Seismic retrofit of precast panel buildings in Eastern Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many countries in Eastern Europe, particularly ones from the former Soviet Bloc, are facing a potential crisis regarding their deteriorating precast panel apartment buildings. These complexes were built using industrial ...

Tzonev, Tzonu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Evolution of the financial services industry in Europe and US  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thesis aims to address the long lasting phenomena of evolution of financial services industry both in US and Europe. The topic has never been more emphasized since the Great Depression. The dramatic fact of cost cutting ...

Boyar, Pinar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and biomass minerals.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Flow boundary conditions for chain-end adsorbing polymer blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the phenol-terminated polycarbonate blend as an example, we demonstrate that the hydrodynamic boundary conditions for a flow of an adsorbing polymer melt are extremely sensitive to the structure of the epitaxial layer. Under shear, the adsorbed parts (chain ends) of the polymer melt move along the equipotential lines of the surface potential whereas the adsorbed additives serve as the surface defects. In response to the increase of the number of the adsorbed additives the surface layer becomes thinner and solidifies. This results in a gradual transition from the slip to the no-slip boundary condition for the melt flow, with a non-monotonic dependence of the slip length on the surface concentration of the adsorbed ends.

X. Zhou; D. Andrienko; L. Delle Site; K. Kremer

2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

262

HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UF{sub 6} blending alternative to produce LEU UF{sub 6} for commercial use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials; the nuclear material will be converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed; blending as UF{sub 6} to produce a UF{sub 6} product for commercial use is one of them. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UF{sub 6} blending HEU disposition option. Resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Micro-level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African Small-scale  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African Small-scale level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African Small-scale Farmers Jump to: navigation, search Name Micro-level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African Small-scale Farmers Agency/Company /Organization International Food Policy Research Institute Sector Land Focus Area Agriculture Topics Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Pathways analysis Resource Type Publications, Lessons learned/best practices Website http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/u UN Region "Western Asia & North Africa" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property., "Sub-Saharan Africa" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

264

Melt blend studies of nanoclay-filled polypropylene (PP)–high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to study how the rheological factors of unfilled and nanoclay-filled HDPE–PP blend series influence the ... 100 wt % HDPE), with and without nanoclay, was prepared by using melt-mixi...

T. P. Mohan; K. Kanny

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Morphology development in nanoclay filled rubber compounds and rubber blends detected by online measured electrical conductance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The online measured electrical conductance (OMEC) during the rubber mixing process has been used as a novel method to characterize the dispersion of organoclay in rubber compounds and blends. This method was a...

Z. Ali; H. H. Le; S. Ilisch; H.-J. Radusch

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

A Design Experiment for Blending Knowledge Community And Inquiry in Secondary School Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Design Experiment for Blending Knowledge Community And Inquiry:00-1:15 Education Building 2010 Abstract. This presentation describes a design experiment objectives. Drawing on data from two design cycles, I examine the validity

Stanford, Kyle

267

Solid State Blending of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) with Polystyrene: Extent of PET Amorphization and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

state via cryogenic mechanical attrition (CMA) and in the melt through conventional twin-screw extrusion of compatibilization was previously deter- mined to be both higher than that of extruded blends and also dependent upon

Mitchell, Brian S.

268

The morphology and deformation behavior of poly(butylene terephthalate)/BPA polycarbonate blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this communication the results of a series of recent studies of the morphology and deformation behavior of toughened poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)/BPA polycarbonate (PC) blends are briefly summarized....

S. Y. Hobbs; M. E. J. Dekkers; V. H. Watkins

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

A Blended Soundproof-to-Compressible Numerical Model for Small- to Mesoscale Atmospheric Dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A blended model for atmospheric flow simulations is introduced that enables seamless transition from fully compressible to pseudo-incompressible dynamics. The model equations are written in nonperturbation form and integrated using a well-balanced ...

Tommaso Benacchio; Warren P. O’Neill; Rupert Klein

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

E-Print Network 3.0 - administration blending initiative Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TPW.... 2 History Began with a 1998 grant to CIRA to use AMSU... Microwave Sounding Unit. Weather and Forecasting, 15, 476-483. 12;22 Jan 2007 Blended TPW.... 3 ... Source:...

271

A Review of Chromatographic Characterization Techniques for Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......June 2011 385 I. General References Several...presence can impact engine performance and emissions...method Outline I. General References. II...of B100 Content of Diesel Blends VI. Determination...esters (FAME) for diesel engines--Requirements......

R. E. Pauls

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Blended Straight-Run Gasolines with Composite Additives Containing Watery Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cranking and antiknock properties of gasoline-alcohol blends based on straight-run gasoline with additives containing watery ethanol and other ... components are studied. The composition of the gasoline-alcohol b...

Yu. O. Beiko; A. P. Pavlovskii; O. A. Beiko

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

UNECE-Annual Bulletin of Transport Statistics for Europe and North America  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » UNECE-Annual Bulletin of Transport Statistics for Europe and North America Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: UNECE-Annual Bulletin of Transport Statistics for Europe and North America Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Focus Area: Transportation Resource Type: Dataset, Publications Website: live.unece.org/trans/main/wp6/transstatpub.html UN Region: Northern America, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe UNECE-Annual Bulletin of Transport Statistics for Europe and North America Screenshot "This annual publication presents statistics and brief studies on transport along with tables on energy consumption for transport. Data covers Europe,

274

Good Practice Guidance on the Sustainable Mobilisation of Wood in Europe |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Good Practice Guidance on the Sustainable Mobilisation of Wood in Europe Good Practice Guidance on the Sustainable Mobilisation of Wood in Europe Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Good Practice Guidance on the Sustainable Mobilisation of Wood in Europe Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Partner: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector: Land Focus Area: Biomass, Forestry Topics: Implementation, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.unece.org/publications/oes/Timber_wood-mobilization-good_practice- UN Region: "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

275

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

276

Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

A Study on Coal Properties and Combustion Characteristics of Blended Coals in Northwestern China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of the tight supply situation and rising price of coals, the actual coals used in coal-fired power plants of China are usually significantly different from the design coal, which may seriously deteriorate the safety and economy of power plants. ... Accurate prediction of coal characteristics of blended coals from those of individual coals is quite significant to ensure the reliable and economic operation of a blended-coal-fired power plant. ...

Chang’an Wang; Yinhe Liu; Xiaoming Zhang; Defu Che

2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

278

DOE Solar Decathlon: News Blog » Solar Decathlon Europe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Europe Europe Below you will find Solar Decathlon news from the Solar Decathlon Europe archive, sorted by date. Solar Decathlon Goes International Saturday, October 1, 2011 By Richard King The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon's influence is expanding around the world. This competition, we have international teams from Belgium, Canada, China, and New Zealand that bring different perspectives and add to the debate about how to design sustainable homes. We love their fresh approaches and cultural influences. Even the cricket games in New Zealand's side yard, which just happens to be a softball diamond, adds a twist to the neighborhood. Photo of a group of people from around the world. Representatives of several countries met to discuss international Solar Decathlon competitions. (Credit: Richard King/U.S. Department of Energy

279

Sharp Electronics Europe GmbH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Europe GmbH Europe GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name Sharp Electronics (Europe) GmbH Place Hamburg, Germany Zip 20097 Sector Solar Product German-based company Sharp Electronics GmbH is an electric appliance maker and a manufacturer of solar photovoltaic materials and systems. Coordinates 53.553345°, 9.992455° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":53.553345,"lon":9.992455,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

280

The Office of Nuclear Energy Announces Central Europe Nuclear Safety  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The Office of Nuclear Energy Announces Central Europe Nuclear The Office of Nuclear Energy Announces Central Europe Nuclear Safety Workshop in Prague The Office of Nuclear Energy Announces Central Europe Nuclear Safety Workshop in Prague October 3, 2011 - 2:04pm Addthis The Office of Nuclear Energy, in partnership with Czech Republic Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the State Agency for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic, and Argonne National Laboratory, is conducting a regional Nuclear Safety Workshop on Trends in Nuclear Power Plant Safety for Robust Civil Nuclear Programs on Oct. 10-13, 2011 in Prague. U.S. Ambassador Norman Eisen and Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Dr. Pete Lyons will deliver speeches welcoming participants. Representatives from the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Lithuania,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Does nuclear energy have a future in Europe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Half of the world's nuclear-generated electricity is consumed in Europe. If only Western Europe is considered, the figure is 36%. Obviously, nuclear energy is an important source of energy in Europe. However, this situation varies from one country to another. Using the percentage of nuclear energy in total electricity generation as an indicator, nuclear energy represents 75% of the total electricity generation in France and 61% in Belgium, but 0% in several countries such as Austria, Italy, and Poland. The reasons for this variance result from several different circumstances, including the economy, energy resources, politics, the decision-making process, the environment, and public opinion. These few considerations show that electrical utilities and all the parties concerned with nuclear energy have to support public relations campaigns on nuclear topics to help and favor the development of this source of energy, guaranteeing each country a greater energy independence and a reasonable impact on the environment.

Pollier, P.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Reducing hazardous waste incinerator emissions through blending: A study of 1,1,1-trichloroethane injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate whether blending liquid hazardous wastes with hydrocarbons such as alkanes can improve the destruction efficiency and reduce the combustion byproduct levels in the post-flame region of a laboratory scale combustor. Outlet species concentrations are measured with an FTIR spectrometer for mixtures of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 25% (by volume) dodecane or heptane injected as a spray of droplets. We also inject sprays of liquid pure 1,1,1-trichloroethane, gaseous pure 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and gaseous 1,1,1-trichloroethane with 25% (by volume) heptane. Once vaporized, the 1,1,1-trichloroethane decomposes to form CO{sub 2} and HCl through the intermediates 1,1-dichloroethylene, phosgene, acetylene, and carbon monoxide. The 1,1,1-trichloroethane/alkane mixtures also form the intermediate ethylene. No significant differences are observed between injecting the compounds as a droplet spray or as a gaseous jet, not as unexpected result as the mixing time of the gas jet is longer than the vaporization time of the droplets. The addition of heptane or dodecane to 1,1,1-trichloroethane produces two principal effects: an increase in ethylene, acetylene and carbon monoxide levels for injection temperatures between 950 to 1040 K, and a decrease in 1,1-dichloroethylene, phosgene, acetylene, and carbon monoxide levels for injection temperatures greater than 1050 K. Reaction of the injected alkane causes the former effect, while the additional heat of combustion of the alkane additives causes the latter. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Thomson, M.; Koshland, C.P.; Sawyer, R.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

BY DAVID CYRANOSKI neofEurope'smostprestigiousmedical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were considered a great leap for their nascent field because tracheas demand a high level of biological David Mooney, a bioengineering specialist at Harvard Univer- sity in Cambridge, Massachusetts. One, all of which involve artificial tracheas. The investigation comes in response to a report filed

Napp, Nils

284

Profit and policy implications of producing biodiesel–ethanol–diesel fuel blends to specification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A nonlinear optimization model is developed in this work to analyze biodiesel–ethanol–diesel (BED) ternary blending processes. The model establishes optimal blends to improve the system profitability given production costs, market demand, and fuel prices while meeting multiple property criteria such as kinematic viscosity, density, lower heating value, cloud point, cetane number, fuel stability and sulfur content. Pertinent fuel mixing rules for predicting the fuel properties of BED blends were extrapolated from previous works and applied as constraints to the present model. Several dynamic and/or uncertainty factors were explored in further depth to quantify their impacts on the fuel composition of BED blends including petro-diesel supply reduction, diesel production cost, diesel blends market retail price, and policy changes on bio-fuel subsidies. By examining key optimization sensitivity analysis such as shadow prices and opportunity costs, the crucial limits or constraints on fuel specifications can be identified and used to proactively identify and promote the development of potential additives. The model also suggests the government policy of simultaneously implementing bio-fuel tax credits and mandates may not have a higher contribution to promoting bio-fuel production than the case only with tax credits for the firms with the goal of profit maximization. The firms enable 5–8% increase of the optimal profit from BED blends by utilizing ethanol derived from food waste feedstocks instead of edible biomass.

Jiefeng Lin; Gabrielle Gaustad; Thomas A. Trabold

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Category:Smart Grid Projects in Europe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Smart Grid Projects in Europe Smart Grid Projects in Europe Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":500,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":false,"title":"","label":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"locations":[{"text":"

286

Hybrid Dynamic Density Functional Theory for Polymer Melts and Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a high-speed and accurate hybrid dynamic density functional theory for the computer simulations of the phase separation processes of polymer melts and blends. The proposed theory is a combination of the dynamic self-consistent field (SCF) theory and a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau type theory with the random phase approximation (GRPA). The SCF theory is known to be accurate in evaluating the free energy of the polymer systems in both weak and strong segregation regions although it has a disadvantage of the requirement of a considerable amount of computational cost. On the other hand, the GRPA theory has an advantage of much smaller amount of required computational cost than the SCF theory while its applicability is limited to the weak segregation region. To make the accuracy of the SCF theory and the high-performance of the GRPA theory compatible, we adjust the chemical potential of the GRPA theory by using the SCF theory every constant time steps in the dynamic simulations. The performance of the GRPA and the hybrid theories is tested by using several systems composed of an A/B homopolymer, an AB diblock copolymer, or an ABC triblock copolymer. Using the hybrid theory, we succeeded in reproducing the metastable complex phase-separated domain structures of an ABC triblock copolymer observed by experiments.

Takashi Honda; Toshihiro Kawakatsu

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

287

Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL] [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Foster, Prof. Dave [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

AN UPDATE ON REFORM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN UPDATE ON REFORM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA Jeffrey Sachs ABSTRACT: The paper reviews the experience of Poland and Russia with economic reform, with occasional comparison to China's experience. The author argues that macroeconomic chaos in Poland and Russia preceded reform and was allayed by reform

289

Horizon 2020 Societal Challenge 6 Europe in a changing world  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research and the Bioeconomy 3. Secure, Clean and Efficient Energy 4. Smart, Green and Integrated Transport and reflective societies is a prerequisite for a sustainable European integration 10 Crisi Integrazione+ Horizon 2020 ­ Societal Challenge 6 Europe in a changing world ­ Inclusive, Innovative

Schettini, Raimondo

290

Characterization of the Wind Power Resource in Europe and its  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterization of the Wind Power Resource in Europe and its Intermittency Alexandra Cosseron, C for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR processes of policy development and implementation, climate change research needs to focus on improving

291

BRYANT UNIVERSITY-2013 Sophomore International Experience Program (SIEP) -Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5/1/2012 BRYANT UNIVERSITY- 2013 Sophomore International Experience Program (SIEP) - Europe/DATE ACTIVITY LODGING Friday, January 4 Campus activity in AM 6:20 PM: Depart Boston Flight for Madrid Iberia. Munich Thursday, January 10 9:00 AM: Depart the hotel for the airport by coach 12:05 PM: Depart Munich

Blais, Brian

292

BRYANT UNIVERSITY--2013 Sophomore International Experience Program (SIEP) -Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Depart Boston Airplane Tuesday, May 21 AM: Arrive London LHR T4 with airport pickup Split visit to OxfordBRYANT UNIVERSITY--2013 Sophomore International Experience Program (SIEP) - Europe May 20, 2013's tomb. Meet back at the hotel for luggage loading Depart for the Paris Airport by coach PM: Flight

Blais, Brian

293

Hardwood Markets and Marketing AHEC American Hardwood in Europe Convention  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hardwood Markets and Marketing AHEC American Hardwood in Europe Convention Venice, Italy 20-22 October 2004 Hardwood Markets in 2003-2005 American Hardwood Export Council 12th Annual Convention Venice, Italy 20-22 October 2004 by Ed Pepke, Project Leader Forest Products Marketing Programme UN Economic

294

Seasonal Forecasting of Extreme Wind and Precipitation Frequencies in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seasonal Forecasting of Extreme Wind and Precipitation Frequencies in Europe Matthew J. Swann;Abstract Flood and wind damage to property and livelihoods resulting from extreme precipitation events variability of these extreme events can be closely related to the large-scale atmospheric circulation

Feigon, Brooke

295

Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009 | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009 Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009 Agency/Company /Organization: European Environment Agency Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type: Maps Website: www.eea.europa.eu/publications/eea_report_2009_9 Country: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Ireland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom UN Region: "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

296

Linking the emissions trading schemes of Europe and China - Combining climate and energy policy instruments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Both Europe and China have announced targets for greenhouse gas emissions reduction and renewable energy development. To achieve their emissions targets, Europe has introduced emissions trading scheme (ETS) since...

Yang Liu; Taoyuan Wei

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

PEPSICO Fellowships for Research Travel in Russia, Eurasia, and East Central Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PEPSICO Fellowships for Research Travel in Russia, Eurasia, and East Central Europe Pepsi to Russia, Eurasia, and East Central Europe, for the purposes of conducting research. In exceptional cases

Qian, Ning

298

Energy Outlook in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Outlook in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region Energy Outlook in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Outlook in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region Agency/Company /Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy Topics: Market analysis, Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access, - Energy Security Resource Type: Publications Website: web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/ECAEXT/0,,contentMDK:22497 UN Region: Central Asia, "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

299

Tailoring key fuel properties of diesel–biodiesel–ethanol blends for diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alternative fuel research for the profusely growing number of diesel run automotive has intensified due to environmental reasons and turmoil in petroleum market. Government initiatives all around the world, their energy policies and steps to emphasis the use of biodiesel; proved biodiesel as a number one renewable substitute for No. 2 diesel fuels. Among all biodiesel feedstock, palm oil is a potential source with higher yield rate without much fertilizer use especially in tropical region. However, the application of transesterified palm biodiesel is objected by many auto-manufacturers due to adverse effects on engine in long term operation. The aim of this study was to modify the key fuel properties of palm biodiesel which causes engine fouling in long term operation. A significant amount of work is devoted to mix biodiesel and diesel at arbitrary percentages and test engine performance. Numerous fuel additives are developed for biodiesels automotive use. In this study, chemical properties of biodiesel are tailored by ethanol and an optimum formulation is derived mathematically. Ethanol is used at a controlled proportion (6%) with palm oil methyl ester (POME) as additive to reduce the higher viscosity of POME. This optimum palm biodiesel–ethanol blend was mixed at varying proportions (i.e. 0–30%) with No. 2 diesel to produce ternary blends of diesel–palm biodiesel–ethanol. Cold flow properties (such as, could point, pour point) of these ternary blends has improved and minute percentage of ethanol adding did not adversely affect the oxidation stability and corrosiveness of the fuel blend. Ethanol has significantly reduces the flash point, but the flammability of ternary blends is classified as Class II; similar to that of diesel. Cetane number is reduced in ternary blends by ethanol. So, palm biodiesel with minute percentage of anhydrous ethanol as additive in the ternary blend significantly improved key fuel properties significantly.

Md. Jayed Hussan; Masjuki Hj. Hassan; Md. Abul Kalam; Liaquat Ali Memon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Degradation studies on acid–base blends for both LT and intermediate T fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study the ex-situ and in-situ behavior of acid–base blend membranes from sulfonated polyethersulfone and a partially fluorinated sulfonated polymer (prepared by condensation of decafluorobipenyl with bisphenol AF, followed by sulfonation of the obtained polymer) and two different polybenzmidazoles (F6-PBI and PBIOO®) was investigated. Two types of acid–base blend membranes from the abovementioned polymers were prepared and characterized: acid–base blend membranes with a molar excess of acidic blend component for low-T H2 fuel cells (LT-FC) where the proton conductivity is overtaken by the sulfonic acid groups, and blend membranes comprising a molar excess of basic blend component which were subsequently doped with phosphoric acid for the usage in intermediate-T H2 fuel cells (IT-FC) where the network of phosphoric acid molecules in the membrane provides the proton conduction. For elucidation of the radical stability of the membranes, the membranes were subjected to Fenton's Reagent and were operated in a H2-PEMFC. After these tests, the membranes were investigated via SEC for molecular weight degradation. As a result, correlations could be found between degradation of the blend membranes in the fuel cell and after Fenton's test. Moreover, at IT-FC membranes, a correlation could be found between doping degree and fuel cell performance which are discussed in this paper. One of the membranes, a H3PO4-doped base-excess membrane from sPSU and PBIOO showed an excellent performance in an IT-FC at 180 °C of 0.85 A/cm2@0.5 V without pressurization of the reactant gases.

A. Chromik; J.A. Kerres

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Synthesis and Characterization of Surface Relaxations of Macrocyclic Polystyrenes and Interfacial Segregation in Blends with Linear Polystyrenes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The effects of a topology with no chain ends on interfacial segregation in binary polymer blends and the surface fluctuations of films of macrocycles were… (more)

Wang, Shih-fan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Hypersonic test facilities available in Western Europe for aerodynamic/aerothermal and structure/material investigations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of several new facilities in Western Europe. (a) Basic layout...addition to the TPS facilities in Western Europe, a complete test...3. TPS test facilities in Western Europe facility country type...Aerospace Ground Testing Conf., Colorado Springs, CO, USA, June 2023...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Characterization of the wind power resource in Europe and its intermittency*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterization of the wind power resource in Europe and its intermittency* Alexandra Cosseron Characterization of the wind power resource in Europe and its intermittency Alexandra Cosseron a, *, Udaya Bhaskar-4307, USA Abstract Wind power is assessed over Europe, with a special care given to the quantification

304

Effects of large-scale distribution of wind energy in and around Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of large-scale distribution of wind energy in and around Europe Gregor Giebel Niels Gylling energy in Europe? · Distribution of wind energy all over Europe leads to smoothing of the wind power energy can easily supply up to ~20% of the European demand. At this stage, · Less than 13% of the wind

305

AN OVERVIEW OF TODAY'S AND TOMORROW'S M-COMMERCE IN THE NETHERLANDS AND EUROPE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN OVERVIEW OF TODAY'S AND TOMORROW'S M- COMMERCE IN THE NETHERLANDS AND EUROPE Hong-Vu Dang BMI Paper #12;#12;AN OVERVIEW OF TODAY'S AND TOMORROW'S M- COMMERCE IN THE NETHERLANDS AND EUROPE Hong's And Tomorrow's M-Commerce In The Netherlands And Europe PREFACE A part of the masters programme of the study

Bhulai, Sandjai

306

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

307

Pilot plant assessment of blend properties and their impact on critical power plant components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of blending eastern bituminous coals with western subbituminous coals on utility boiler operation. Relative to the baseline bituminous coal, the testing reported here indicated that there were significant impacts to boiler performance due to the blending of the eastern and western coals. Results indicated that fuel blending can be used to adequately control flue gas emissions of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} at the expense of reduced milling efficiency, increased sootblowing in the high-temperature and low-temperature regions of the boiler and, to a lesser extent, decreased collection efficiency for an electrostatic precipitator. The higher reactivity of the subbituminous coal increased the overall combustion efficiency, which may tend to decrease the impact of milling efficiency losses. The extent of these impacts was directly related to the percentage of subbituminous coal in the blends. At the lowest blend ratios of subbituminous coal, the impacts were greatly reduced.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Concentration fluctuations in miscible polymer blends: Influence of temperature and chain rigidity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In contrast to binary mixtures of small molecule fluids, homogeneous polymer blends exhibit relatively large concentration fluctuations that can strongly affect the transport properties of these complex fluids over wide ranges of temperatures and compositions. The spatial scale and intensity of these compositional fluctuations are studied by applying Kirkwood-Buff theory to model blends of linear semiflexible polymer chains with upper critical solution temperatures. The requisite quantities for determining the Kirkwood-Buff integrals are generated from the lattice cluster theory for the thermodynamics of the blend and from the generalization of the random phase approximation to compressible polymer mixtures. We explore how the scale and intensity of composition fluctuations in binary blends vary with the reduced temperature ? ? (T ? T{sub c})/T (where T{sub c} is the critical temperature) and with the asymmetry in the rigidities of the components. Knowledge of these variations is crucial for understanding the dynamics of materials fabricated from polymer blends, and evidence supporting these expectations is briefly discussed.

Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Douglas, Jack F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States) [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

309

Review of trend analysis and climate change projections of extreme precipitation and floods in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Summary This paper presents a review of trend analysis of extreme precipitation and hydrological floods in Europe based on observations and future climate projections. The review summaries methods and methodologies applied and key findings from a large number of studies. Reported analyses of observed extreme precipitation and flood records show that there is some evidence of a general increase in extreme precipitation, whereas there are no clear indications of significant trends at large-scale regional or national level of extreme streamflow. Several studies from regions dominated by snowmelt-induced peak flows report decreases in extreme streamflow and earlier spring snowmelt peak flows, likely caused by increasing temperature. The review of likely future changes based on climate projections indicates a general increase in extreme precipitation under a future climate, which is consistent with the observed trends. Hydrological projections of peak flows show large impacts in many areas with both positive and negative changes. A general decrease in flood magnitude and earlier spring floods are projected for catchments with snowmelt-dominated peak flows, which is consistent with the observed trends. Finally, existing guidelines in Europe on design flood and design rainfall estimation are reviewed. The review shows that only few countries have developed guidelines that incorporate a consideration of climate change impacts.

H. Madsen; D. Lawrence; M. Lang; M. Martinkova; T.R. Kjeldsen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

The Bologna Process and Its Impact on University-Level Chemical Education in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Basic implications in the European system for chemistry education are summarized, including information about a framework bachelors degree program in chemistry called the European Eurobachelor, which is intended to set a standard for chemistry higher education. ... The definition of credits (systematic ways of describing educational programs by attaching units of value to their components) in higher education systems is based on different parameters, such as student workload, learning outcomes, and contact hours. ... Active-learning techniques include cooperative learning, hands-on activities, real-world applications, and engaging technology. ...

Gabriel Pinto

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

311

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Alan Cisar, Lynntech  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries DOE Grant No: DE-SC0006306 Alan Cisar* and Chris Rhodes Lynntech, Inc., 2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South, College Station, TX 77845 *E-mail: alan.cisar@lynntech.com, Phone: 979.764.2311 Prof. Arumugam Manthiram University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 Prof. Fuqiang Liu University of Texas Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 Conclusions Lynntech, in conjunction with the University of Texas and the University of Texas at Arlington, developed a new series of low-cost polymer blend membranes with high proton conductivity and ultralow vanadium ion permeability. The proton conductivity and physical properties of these membranes are tunable by adjusting the ratio of acid and base components. Membrane conductivity was found to be more critical to

312

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of recycling. Young is chairman of the Paducah Citizens Advisory Board, which advises the Department of Energy regarding cleanup issues at the Paducah site. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of

313

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Blending Hydrogen into Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Prepared under Task No. HT12.2010 Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

314

The effects of blending hydrogen with methane on engine operation, efficiency, and emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-01-0474 -01-0474 The effects of blending hydrogen with methane on engine operation, efficiency, and emissions Thomas Wallner and Henry K. Ng Argonne National Laboratory Robert W. Peters University of Alabama at Birmingham Copyright © 2007 SAE International ABSTRACT Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers and transportation fuels. Because of the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations, widespread introduction of vehicles powered by pure hydrogen is not likely in the near future. Blending hydrogen with methane could be one solution. Such blends take advantage of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and, at the same time, reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. In this paper, the authors analyze the combustion properties of hydrogen/methane

315

Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Performance of a direct diesel engine using aviation fuels blended with biodiesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, jet fuel (JF) and railroad fuel (D2) with SME blends (5%, 20%, 50%) were used in a four-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct (DI) diesel engine. The engine was operated under full load and tested at various speeds to determine the engine's performance and exhaust emission characteristics. The experimental results show that as the SME ratio of the fuels increases, the break specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust temperature increase; the SME and its blends show a slight drop in engine performance. In this experiment, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke opacity values were measured for each fuel. The results of the emission tests revealed that the oxygen content of SME provided a significant reduction in CO and smoke opacity emissions. However, when the test engine was fuelled by SME and its blends, NOx emissions increased.

Burak Gökalp; Hakan Serhad Soyhan; Halil ?brahim Sarac

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

The relationship between the thermoplastic behavior of blends and their component coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermoplastic behaviors of a number of coking coal blends were measured using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) to determine to what extent they were affected by interactions between the component coals. Most blends showed evidence that at temperatures near their temperatures of maximum fluidity the extent to which they fused was different to that expected if the coals did not interact. Only blends of coking coals of different rank fused to a greater extent than expected in the absence of interactions. Semi-anthracite, low rank coals and charcoal reduced the extent of fusion of coking coals to values below those expected if they were acting as inert diluents. These interactions are interpreted as being mediated by transfer of volatile material between the coals on heating.

Sakurovs, R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of recycling. Young is chairman of the Paducah Citizens Advisory Board, which advises the Department of Energy regarding cleanup issues at the Paducah site. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of

319

Nitrogen Deposition onto the United States and Western Europe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ORNL DAAC Data Set Change Information ORNL DAAC Data Set Change Information Data Set: Nitrogen Deposition onto the United States and Western Europe Effective Date of Revision: May 2, 2005 Data Set Citation: Holland, E. A., B. H. Braswell, J. M. Sulzman, and J. -F. Lamarque. 2005. Nitrogen Deposition onto the United States and Western Europe. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. Revision Summary: The investigator advised us that data in two of the deposition files were a factor of 100 too large and the order of the records was reversed from the description in the documentation. NADP_wet_deposition_no3_0.5x0.5_grid_annual.txt NADP_wet_deposition_nh4_0.5x0.5_grid_annual.txt Data File Changes:

320

Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Small-Angle X-ray Scattering from Blends of PE and SBS. Observation of a Novel Kind of Deviation from Porod's Law  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the SAXS of modified poly(ethylene) (blends) a peculiar and reproducible deviation from Porod's law is found. The strength of this effect is a function of blend composition.

Stribeck, N.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Properties Investigation of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone)/Polyacrylonitrile Acid–Base Blend Membrane for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acid–base blend membrane prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was detailedly evaluated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. SPEEK/PAN blend membrane exhibited dense and homogeneous cross-...

Zhaohua Li; Wenjing Dai; Lihong Yu; Le Liu; Jingyu Xi; Xinping Qiu; Liquan Chen

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Planning and Strategic Business Development Div.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S. [Columbia Environmental Services, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Numerical Model Investigation for Potential Methane Explosion and Benzene Vapor Intrusion Associated with High-Ethanol Blend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Associated with High-Ethanol Blend Releases Jie Ma, Hong Luo, George E. DeVaull,§ William G. Rixey, and Pedro ABSTRACT: Ethanol-blended fuel releases usually stimulate methanogenesis in the subsurface, which could conditions exist. Ethanol- derived methane may also increase the vapor intrusion potential of toxic fuel

Alvarez, Pedro J.

325

Effects of the blends containing low ratios of alternative fuels on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effects of blends containing various alternative fuels and diesel fuel on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine. The considered parameters are brake power, specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency as well as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. Blends of biodiesel, ethanol, methanol and vegetable oil with diesel fuel, each containing 15% alternative fuel in volume, were prepared. Then, these blends were tested in a naturally aspirated, direct injection diesel engine. The test results obtained with these blends were compared with those obtained with diesel fuel. It was found that the tested blends yielded usually different performance and emission characteristics compared to diesel fuel. The biodiesel blend resulted in performance parameters very close to those obtained in the use of diesel fuel. Ethanol and methanol blends yielded lower brake power, while they resulted in higher specific fuel consumption and lower carbon monoxide emissions. On the other hand, the vegetable oil blend yielded lower carbon monoxide emissions, while it caused only slight changes in the performance parameters.

Murat Karabektas; Gokhan Ergen; Murat Hosoz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Photo-Curable Polymer Blend Dielectrics for Advancing Organic Field-Effect Transistor Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solution method of photo-curable and -patternable polymer gate dielectrics was introduced by using blend solutions of poly(4-dimethylsilyl styrene) (PDMSS) and poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde) acrylate (PMFA). The fabrication was optimized to produce a smooth hydrophobic gate dielectric with good insulating and solvent-resistant properties. On the optimized PDMSS/PMFA blend gate dielectric, pentacene could grow into highly ordered structure, showing high electric performances for the resulting OFETs, as well as PTCDI-C13 and TES-ADT.

S Kim; K Hong; M Jang; J Jang; J Anthony; H Yang; C Park

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Surface-induced First Order Transition in Athermal Polymer/Nanoparticle Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the phase behavior of athermal polymer/nanoparticle blends near a hard substrate. We apply the density functional theory of Tripathi and Chapman to these blends. We find a first order phase transition where the nanoparticles expel the polymer from the surface to form a monolayer. The transition density depends on the polymer length and the system bulk density. The effect is due to the packing entropy of the species and configurational entropy of the polymer. The simplicity of the system allows us to understand the so-called ``entropic-push'' observed in experiments.

E. S. McGarrity; A. L. Frischknecht; L. J. D. Frink; M. E. Mackay

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

328

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Thermochemical and trace element behavior of coal gangue, agricultural biomass and their blends during co-combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The thermal decomposition behavior of coal gangue, peanut shell, wheat straw and their blends during combustion were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. The coal gangue/agricultural biomass blends were prepared in four weight ratios and oxidized under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C by various heating rates. Kinetic models were carried out to evaluate the thermal reactivity. The overall mass balance was performed to assess the partition behavior of coal gangue, peanut shell and their blends during combustion in a fixed bed reactor. The decomposition processes of agricultural biomass included evaporation, release of volatile matter and combustion as well as char oxidation. The thermal reactivity of coal gangue could be improved through the addition of agricultural biomass in suitable proportion and subsequent appropriate heating rate during combustion. In combination with the heating value and base/acid ratio limitations, a blending ratio of 30% agricultural biomass is conservatively selected as optimum blending.

Chuncai Zhou; Guijian Liu; Siwei Cheng; Ting Fang; Paul Kwan Sing Lam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Combustion and emissions characteristics of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend in a heavy-duty diesel engine and EGR impact  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, the combustion and emission fundamentals of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend with 40% butanol (i.e., Bu40) in a heavy-duty diesel engine were investigated by experiment and simulation at constant engine speed of 1400 rpm and an IMEP of 1.0 MPa. Additionally, the impact of EGR was evaluated experimentally and compared with neat diesel fuel (i.e., Bu00). The results show that Bu40 has higher cylinder pressure, longer ignition delay, and faster burning rate than Bu00. Compared with Bu00, moreover, Bu40 has higher \\{NOx\\} due to wider combustion high-temperature region, lower soot due to local lower equivalence ratio distribution, and higher CO due to lower gas temperature in the late expansion process. For Bu40, EGR reduces \\{NOx\\} emissions dramatically with no obvious influence on soot. Meanwhile, there is no significant change in HC and CO emissions and indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) with EGR until EGR threshold is reached. When EGR rate exceeds the threshold level, HC and CO emissions increase dramatically, and ITE decreases markedly. Compared with Bu00, the threshold of Bu40 appears at lower EGR rate. Consequently, combining high butanol/diesel ratio blend with medium EGR has the potential to achieve ultra-low \\{NOx\\} and soot emissions simultaneously while maintaining high thermal efficiency level.

Zheng Chen; Zhenkuo Wu; Jingping Liu; Chiafon Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Outline of an on-site inspection regime for conventional arms control in Europe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The complexity of the negotiations on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) was emphasized recently by General John R. Galvin, SACEUR, when he stated, {open_quotes}The difficulties of comparing the relative strengths of strategic or intermediate-range nuclear arsenals pale in comparison with the problems of assessing the relative capabilities of opposing conventional forces.{open_quotes} Throughout this process, intensive and rigorous verification measures must be developed and enforced to ensure an acceptable degree of reliability. The eventual agreement will require a complex verification monitoring process covering a vast geographical area. The long-term success of the agreement to a large extent will depend on the level of confidence achieved by the verification process and the effective deployment of technological means will be essential to that process.

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Differential volatile emissions and salicylic acid levels from tobacco  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pv. tabaci (Pstb), with tobacco plants resulted in a different volatile blend, consisting of MeORIGINAL ARTICLE Differential volatile emissions and salicylic acid levels from tobacco plants / Published online: 24 April 2003 Ã? Springer-Verlag 2003 Abstract Pathogen-induced plant responses include

Raina, Ramesh

333

Behaviour and effects of alcohol-blended petrol in the subsurface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and gasoline blends. Biomass and Bioenergy , 33 , 1175-1181. McDowell...93-104. Staples, C.A. 2001. A review of the environmental fate and aquatic...gasoline in the environment. A literature review and transport modeling . Report...

Philip Morgan; Simon Firth; Beate Hildenbrand

334

Rapid Monitoring of Hydrocarbon Blending Stocks in Modified Aviation Turbine Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......JP-4 jet fuel. For JP-4 turbine fuel, the analysis is relatively...blending stocks in JP-4 aviation turbine fuel. Introduction High resolution...principal Air Force aviation turbine fuel, and the incorporation...Scientific). The column's efficiency was measured and found to be......

P.C. Hayes; Jr.; E.W. Pitzer

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1 Department; accepted 6 June 2000 Abstract This paper reviews literature on co-firing of coal with biomass fuels. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal

Wooldridge, Margaret S.

336

Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene January 2010 Keywords: Wood plastic composites Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Polyethylene Extrusion a b into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre

337

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, T.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

338

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. ResearchRelatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10

339

Combined Impact of Branching and Unsaturation on the Autoignition of Binary Blends in a Motored Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From this test condition, a homogeneous charge of fuel and intake air can be achieved. ... The test fuels were prepared by addition of 5–20 vol % diisobutylene into n-heptane and isooctane. ... The 15 and 20 vol % blends of diisobutylene in isooctane were not able to reach high temperature heat release in the CFR engine system under these test conditions. ...

Dongil Kang; Stephen Kirby; John Agudelo; Magín Lapuerta; Khalid Al-Qurashi; André L. Boehman

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

340

Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black-based materials that have good catalytic activity, but the electrical conductivity of the AC is poor compared as a binder, as opposed to Nafion with Pt, which greatly reduces the cost of the cathode materials. AC

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

NO Reduction in Decoupling Combustion of Biomass and Biomass?Coal Blend  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NO Reduction in Decoupling Combustion of Biomass and Biomass?Coal Blend ... Biomass is a form of energy that is CO2-neutral. ... However, NOx emissions in biomass combustion are often more than that of coal on equal heating-value basis. ...

Li Dong; Shiqiu Gao; Wenli Song; Jinghai Li; Guangwen Xu

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

342

Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases biodegradation potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases 2013 Accepted 28 March 2013 Keywords: Pyrosequencing Ethanol Microbial diversity Temperature a b s t r a pilot- scale continuous release (10 months) of a 10% v:v ethanol solution mixed with benzene and toluene

Alvarez, Pedro J.

343

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Spatial patch blending for artefact reduction in pattern-based inpainting techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial patch blending for artefact reduction in pattern-based inpainting techniques Maxime Daisy Juin, 14050 Caen/France, {maxime.daisy,david.tschumperle,olivier.lezoray}@ensicaen.fr Abstract. Patch regions in images, by iteratively du- plicating blocks of known image data (patches) inside the area

Lezoray, Olivier

345

Hypocholesterolemic effect of some plants and their blend as studied on albino rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work was carried out to evaluate the hypocholesterolemia effect of esparto grass leaves, fenugreek seeds powder, myrrh resin and their blend (prepared using equal amounts of each) on albino rats. Half, fenugreek and the blend were added to basal diet at 5% and 10%, while myrrh added at 2.5% and 5% hypercholesterolemia raised serum TC, TG, LDL and VLDL while HDL declined. Feeding on mentioned plants reversed the mentioned change provided that efficacy was different where the blend mostly came first, being of highest effect (indicating a synergistic action) and fenugreek of lowest effect. Fenugreek seeds powder showed 34.50-43.75% decrease of AI compared to control (+). Serum glucose showed 31.25% increase due to hypercholesterolemia, and decreased from 141.13 mg dl?1 (control+) to 97.1-127.0 mg dl?1 by experimental diets; in this concern the blend diet was of highest effect. More studies are needed to confirm the effect of myrrh as overweight and obesity controller agent.

Nadia Saleh Al-Amoudi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Interfacial morphology and friction properties of thin PEO and PEO/PAA blend films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The scanning force microscope (SFM) was used to investigate morphology of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) blend. The effect of solvent and dewetting in surface structure of PEO film was reported. The results manifested that the crystallization of PEO could be suppressed completely in ultrathin region via using chloroform as a solvent, and the branched-like crystallization was recovered after dewetting. Also, the effect of thickness, the ratio of PEO/PAA and dewetting in surface morphology of PEO–PAA blend films were investigated. These results showed that the crystallization was highly dependent on the ratio of PEO/PAA and the thickness of blend film. Furthermore, we assembled the PEO/PAA layer-by-layer film by spin-casting method for the first time, which exhibited highly efficiency. As a complementary tool, we also used lateral force microscopy (LFM) to explore surface information of these films. The result was indicative of interfacial constraints in ultrathin region, and also was supported by the results showing the spin-casting PEO/PAA blends rather than heterogeneous mixture.

Xianke Gu; Guojian Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Improvement of the Coal Ash Slagging Tendency by Coal Washing and Additive Blending with Mullite Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four typical coals and two pretreatment methods were investigated to prevent slagging by facilitating mullite formation in coal ash at a high temperature. ... Both security and economy in power plant can be improved substantially as long as ash deposition and slagging tendency alleviated. ... Pilot-projects about coal washing and coal blending economic benefit are looking forward to put into practice. ...

Zhenyu Huang; Yan Li; Dan Lu; Zhijun Zhou; Zhihua Wang; Junhu Zhou; Kefa Cen

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

348

Behaviour and effects of alcohol-blended petrol in the subsurface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Lahvis, M.A. 2003. Evaluation of small-volume releases...J.J. 2013 a. Microbial processes influencing the transport...B. 1999. Screening model evaluation of the effects of ethanol...groundwater contaminated with a biodiesel blend (B20). Biodegradation...

Philip Morgan; Simon Firth; Beate Hildenbrand

349

Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide, UO{sub 3}, was used in the testing. Next, NU made up of UO{sub 3} and DU made up of UO{sub 2} was used in the test work. In every test, the blend achieved was characterized by spatial sampling of the ground product and analyzing for {sup 235}U concentration. The test work proved that these uranium oxide materials can be blended successfully. The spatial concentration was found to be uniform. Next, sintered thorium oxide pellets were used as surrogate for light water breeder reactor pellets (LWBR). To simulate LWBR pellet dispositioning, the thorium oxide pellets were first ground to a powder form and then the powder was blended with NU. In these tests also the concentration of {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th in blended products fell within established limits proving the success of RM-2 milling technology. RM-2 milling technology is applicable to any dry radioactive waste, especially brittle solids that can be ground up and mixed with the non-radioactive stock.

Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

BLENDING LOW ENRICHED URANIUM WITH DEPLETED URANIUM TO CREATE A SOURCE MATERIAL ORE THAT CAN BE PROCESSED FOR THE RECOVERY OF YELLOWCAKE AT A CONVENTIONAL URANIUM MILL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex, there are a number of streams of low enriched uranium (LEU) that contain various trace contaminants. These surplus nuclear materials require processing in order to meet commercial fuel cycle specifications. To date, they have not been designated as waste for disposal at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Currently, with no commercial outlet available, the DOE is evaluating treatment and disposal as the ultimate disposition path for these materials. This paper will describe an innovative program that will provide a solution to DOE that will allow disposition of these materials at a cost that will be competitive with treatment and disposal at the NTS, while at the same time recycling the material to recover a valuable energy resource (yellowcake) for reintroduction into the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. International Uranium (USA) Corporation (IUSA) and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS) have entered into a commercial relationship to pursue the development of this program. The program involves the design of a process and construction of a plant at NFS' site in Erwin, Tennessee, for the blending of contaminated LEU with depleted uranium (DU) to produce a uranium source material ore (USM Ore{trademark}). The USM Ore{trademark} will then be further processed at IUC's White Mesa Mill, located near Blanding, Utah, to produce conventional yellowcake, which can be delivered to conversion facilities, in the same manner as yellowcake that is produced from natural ores or other alternate feed materials. The primary source of feed for the business will be the significant sources of trace contaminated materials within the DOE complex. NFS has developed a dry blending process (DRYSM Process) to blend the surplus LEU material with DU at its Part 70 licensed facility, to produce USM Ore{trademark} with a U235 content within the range of U235 concentrations for source material. By reducing the U235 content to source material levels in this manner, the material will be suitable for processing at a conventional uranium mill under its existing Part 40 license to remove contaminants and enable the product to re-enter the commercial fuel cycle. The tailings from processing the USM Ore{trademark} at the mill will be permanently disposed of in the mill's tailings impoundment as 11e.(2) byproduct material. Blending LEU with DU to make a uranium source material ore that can be returned to the nuclear fuel cycle for processing to produce yellowcake, has never been accomplished before. This program will allow DOE to disposition its surplus LEU and DU in a cost effective manner, and at the same time provide for the recovery of valuable energy resources that would be lost through processing and disposal of the materials. This paper will discuss the nature of the surplus LEU and DU materials, the manner in which the LEU will be blended with DU to form a uranium source material ore, and the legal means by which this blending can be accomplished at a facility licensed under 10 CFR Part 70 to produce ore that can be processed at a conventional uranium mill licensed under 10 CFR Part 40.

Schutt, Stephen M.; Hochstein, Ron F.; Frydenlund, David C.; Thompson, Anthony J.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

352

Energy markets of Eastern Europe: impact of deregulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper considers the energy market of the (formerly) central planned economies in Eastern Europe (including the Soviet Union). More precisely, the analysis tries to relate the demand/supply for energy and fuels to the degree and the speed of the deregulation and the introduction of a market economy. Using a formal model, it will be shown that deregulation will lead to a substantial conservation such that this region can remain a net energy exporter over the next five years. On the other hand, continuation of the traditional allocation rules would either lead to energy imports, or more likely, to severe rationing.

Franz Wirl

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Influence of coal thermoplastic properties on coking pressure generation: Part 2 – A study of binary coal blends and specific additives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A number of coal blends and pitch/coal blends were evaluated using rheometry, thermogravimetric analysis and microscopy to confirm and further elucidate the coking pressure mechanism previously proposed by Duffy et al. (2007) [1]. We confirm that blending a low rank, high fluidity, low coking pressure coal, with a high rank, low fluidity, high coking pressure coal can significantly reduce the coking pressure associated with the latter. Interestingly, blending does not necessarily result in a fluidity that is midway between that of the two coals; sometimes the fluidity of the blend is less than that of the low fluidity coal, especially when the coals are significantly different in rank. This occurs because the increase in complex viscosity (?*) through resolidification of the low rank, high fluidity coal counteracts the reduction in ?* resulting from softening of the high rank, low fluidity coal. It has also been confirmed that the ?* of the resultant blend can be estimated from the ?* of each component coal using a logarithmic additivity rule commonly employed for polymer blends. Polarised light microscopy has indicated that the degree of mixing between coals of different rank is minimal, with fusion restricted to the particle surface. It is therefore inappropriate to think of such a coal blend in the same way as a single coal, since each component coal behaves relatively independently. This limited fusion is important for understanding the coking pressure mechanism for blends. It is proposed here that the lower rank coal, which softens at lower temperature, is able to expand into the interparticle voids between the high rank coal that is yet to soften, and these voids can create channels for volatiles to traverse. Then, and importantly, when the high rank coal begins to expand, the pore structure developed in the resolidified structures of the low rank coal can facilitate removal of volatiles, while the resolidified material may also act as a suitable sorbent for volatile matter. This is considered to be the primary mechanism by which coal blending is able to alleviate coking pressure, and applies to addition of inert material also. Addition of a coal tar pitch was found to increase fluidity but also to extend the thermoplastic range to lower temperatures. This caused an increase in the swelling range, which was accompanied by a long plateau in ?*, a feature which has previously been observed for certain high fluidity, high pressure coals. Elasticity and ?* at the onset of expansion were also higher for both the pitch impregnated coals and the high pressure blends, which supports previous findings for singly charged high pressure coals, and confirms the potential use of such criteria for identifying potentially dangerous coals/blends.

John J. Duffy; Merrick R. Mahoney; Karen M. Steel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Effects of Gasoline Blends on Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments presented in this study for gasoline blends and experiments of Bilgin et al. for ethanol blends have been performed in a single-cylinder diesel engine at Karadeniz Technical University, Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. ... However, to determine the most favorable blend ratio for any vehicle diesel engine, to achieve general results, and to give general recommendations, more systematic experimental and theoretical studies for actual vehicle diesel engines must be performed. ... Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects, Chamber of Mechanical Engineer, 1991; Vol. 383, pp 18? 29 (in Turkish). ...

Z. ?ahin

2008-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

355

Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of DI diesel engine running on blends of calophyllum inophyllum linn oil (honne oil)/diesel fuel/kerosene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kerosene (K)/diesel fuel (D)/honne oil (H) blends have a potential to improve the performance and emissions and to be alternatives to neat diesel fuel (ND) and has not been reported in the literature. Experiments have been conducted on DI diesel engine when fuelled with ND, H10 (10%H + 90%D, by volume) to H30, HK10 (10%H + 45%K + 45%D), HK20 (20%H + 40%K + 40%D) and HK30 (30%H + 35%K + 35%D). The emissions [CO, HC and smoke density (SD)] of fuel blend HK20 are found to be lowest, with CO and HC dropping significantly. The NOx level is higher with HK10 to HK30 compared to ND and H10 to H30. The brake thermal efficiency of HK10 to HK30 is almost the same and it is higher as compared to ND and H10 to H30. There is a good trade off between NOx and SD. Peak cylinder pressure and premixed combustion phase increases as kerosene content increases.

B.K. Venkanna; C. Venkataramana Reddy

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

E-Print Network 3.0 - ada-europe international conference Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Artificial Intelligence A+ Summary: European Simulation Multiconference B ESS European Simulation Symposium B EuAda Ada-Europe International... Intelligence A+ AAMAS...

357

Call for the SETAC Europe Young Scientist LCA Award nominations for young researchers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The SETAC Europe Young Scientist LCA Award recognizes exceptional achievements by a young ... a significant contribution to life cycle assessment (LCA) development and implementation.

Maud Collée; Almut Beate Heinrich

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

E-Print Network 3.0 - army europe 409th Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

army in western Saxony. Shortly after this vic- tory, Napoleon ordered... to preserve French dominance in Europe by closely scrutinizing his operations and strategy. Instead...

359

E-Print Network 3.0 - asm international europe Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Machines 19881998: Commented ASM Bibliography Summary: , The ASM Thesis, Remarks, Future Work. 75 Y. Gurevich. Logic Activities in Europe. ACM SIGACT News, 1994... Abstract...

360

Excerpt from The Transatlantic Century: Europe and America, 1890–2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interventions abroad. The transatlantic market gap, God gap,twenty-?rst century be transatlantic as the twentieth was.from Mary Nolan, The Transatlantic Century: Europe and

Nolan, Mary

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Research on viscosity-reduction technology by electric heating and blending light oil in ultra-deep heavy oil wells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the Tahe oilfield in China, heavy oil is commonly lifted using the light oil blending technology. However, due to the lack of light oil, the production of heavy oil has been seriously limited. Thus, a new c...

Mo Zhu; Haiquan Zhong; Yingchuan Li…

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Performance and Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Dimethyl Ether and Rapeseed Oil Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sorenson and Mikkelsen2 had studied DME in a modified diesel engine, and their results showed that the engine could achieve ultralow-emission prospects without a fundamental change in combustion systems. ... Meanwhile, these parameters are compared with those of pure diesel fuel in order to clarify the effect of blends on the combustion and emission of engines (a CI engine cannot run for much longer of a period with pure DME fuel, so a comparison is only made with pure diesel fuel). ... Moreover, owing to the lower calorific value of the blend compared to diesel fuel, the fuel supply amount per cycle for blend operation is enlarged by increasing the plunger stroke of the fuel pump in order to make the power and torque output of the blends approach those of the corresponding diesel engine. ...

Wang Ying; Zhou Longbao

2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

363

An integrated video- and weight-monitoring system for the surveillance of highly enriched uranium blend down operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated video-surveillance and weight-monitoring system has been designed and constructed for tracking the blending down of weapons-grade uranium by the US Department of Energy. The instrumentation is being used by the International Atomic Energy Agency in its task of tracking and verifying the blended material at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio. The weight instrumentation developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory monitors and records the weight of cylinders of the highly enriched uranium as their contents are fed into the blending facility while the video equipment provided by Sandia National Laboratory records periodic and event triggered images of the blending area. A secure data network between the scales, cameras, and computers insures data integrity and eliminates the possibility of tampering. The details of the weight monitoring instrumentation, video- and weight-system interaction, and the secure data network is discussed.

Lenarduzzi, R.; Castleberry, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Whitaker, M. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Combustion and emission characteristics of a turbo-charged common rail diesel engine fuelled with diesel-biodiesel-DEE blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion and emission characteristics of a turbo-charged, common rail diesel engine fuelled with diesel-biodiesel-DEE blends were investigated. The study reports that the brake-specific fuel consumption of ...

Ni Zhang; Zuohua Huang; Xiangang Wang; Bin Zheng

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intended for policymakers and others who make decisions about, and set guidelines for, the proper use of intermediate ethanol blends such as E20 in both vehicle engines and other engine types.

Knoll, K.; West, B.; Clark, W.; Graves, R.; Orban, J.; Przesmitzki, S.; Theiss, T.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Application and modeling of near-infrared frequency domain photon migration for monitoring pharmaceutical powder blending operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of blending. A simulation method was developed which consisted of (i) dynamic simulation for generating the powder structure; (ii) the completely-randommixture model for predicting the spatial distribution of API particles within the powder bed; and (iii...

Pan, Tianshu

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

367

Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

368

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0° C to 40° C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under ...

Dimou, Iason

369

Melt Strength Behaviour of Polyethylenes and Polyethylene Blends and its Relation to Bubble Stability in Film Blowing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Melt strength data are presented on the three major classes of commercial polyethylenes (LDPE, LLDPE and HDPE) and some of their binary blend systems. Melt strength was assessed from uniaxial tensile experiments ...

A. Ghijsels; J. J. S. M. Ente; J. Raadsen

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

An Experimental Study into the Ignition of Methane and Ethane Blends in a New Shock-tube Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY INTO THE IGNITION OF METHANE AND ETHANE BLENDS IN A NEW SHOCK-TUBE FACILITY A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH ERIK AUL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY INTO THE IGNITION OF METHANE AND ETHANE BLENDS IN A NEW SHOCK-TUBE FACILITY A Thesis...

Aul, Christopher Joseph Erik

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

371

Evaluation of Fuel Properties of Butanol?Biodiesel?Diesel Blends and Their Impact on Engine Performance and Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Values of specific fuel consumption of engine when fueled with different blends and pure diesel at different speeds are shown in Figure 4. ... Chandra, R.; Kumar, R. Fuel properties of some stable alcohol?diesel microemulsions for their use in compression ignition engines Energy Fuels 2007, 21, 3410– 3414 ... Liu, B.; Huang, Z.; Miao, H.; Di, Y.; Jiang, D.; Zeng, K. Combustion and emissions of a DI diesel engine fuelled with diesel?oxygenate blends Fuel 2008, 87, 2691– 2697 ...

Rakhi N. Mehta; Mousumi Chakraborty; Pinakeswar Mahanta; Parimal A. Parikh

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Effect of Bioethanol Blended Diesel Fuel and Engine Load on Spray, Combustion, and Emissions Characteristics in a Compression Ignition Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Yan et al.(8) investigated the combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with ethanol–diesel blended fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. ... Figure 11 shows the indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC) characteristics of diesel–bioethanol blended fuels at various engine loads. ... Tests on the engine fuelled with diesel only were made, and the performance evaluated to form a basis for comparison for those of ethanol-diesel dual fuelling. ...

Su Han Park; In Mo Youn; Yunsung Lim; Chang Sik Lee

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

373

Physical and chemical characteristics of an interesterified blend of butterfat and cottonseed oil with possible industrial applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: dilatometry, glyceride compositional analysis, thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. physical/Chemical properties of the Modified pats Use of official methods of the American Oil... butterfat, cottonseed oil, the blend, the interesterified blend, and cheese. The following tests were conducted: Free fatty acids A. O. C. S. official method Ca 5a-40 was used. The molten samples were well mixed and a sample size of 28. 2 g of each...

Rashidi, Nabil

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

374

Use of a predictive model for the impact of cofiring coal/biomass blends on slagging and fouling propensity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper describes an investigation of slagging and fouling effects when cofiring coal/biomass blends by using a predictive model for large utility boilers. This model is based on the use a zone computational method to determine the midsection temperature profile throughout a boiler, coupled with a thermo-chemical model, to define and assess the risk of elevated slagging and fouling levels during cofiring of solid fuels. The application of this prediction tool was made for a 618 MW thermal wall-fired pulverized coal boiler, cofired with a typical medium volatile bituminous coal and two substitute fuels, sewage sludge and sawdust. Associated changes in boiler efficiency as well as various heat transfer and thermodynamic parameters of the system were analyzed with slagging and fouling effects for different cofiring ratios. The results of the modeling revealed that, for increased cofiring of sewage sludge, an elevated risk of slagging and high-temperature fouling occurred, in complete contrast to the effects occurring with the utilization of sawdust as a substitute fuel. 30 refs., 9 figs.,1 tab.

Piotr Plaza; Anthony J. Griffiths; Nick Syred; Thomas Rees-Gralton [Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Centre for Research in Energy

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Polyethylene-supported polyvinylidene fluoride–cellulose acetate butyrate blended polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The polyethylene (PE)-supported polymer membranes based on the blended polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) are prepared for gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of lithium ion battery. The performances of the prepared membranes and the resulting \\{GPEs\\} are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear potential sweep, and charge–discharge test. The effect of the ratio of PVDF to CAB on the performance of the prepared membranes is considered. It is found that the GPE based on the blended polymer with PVDF:CAB = 2:1 (in weight) has the largest ionic conductivity (2.48 × 10?3 S cm?1) and shows good compatibility with anode and cathode of lithium ion battery. The LiCoO2/graphite battery using this GPE exhibits superior cyclic stability at room temperature, storage performance at elevated temperature, and rate performance.

Jiansheng Liu; Weishan Li; Xiaoxi Zuo; Shengqi Liu; Zhao Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Conformational free energy of melts of ring-linear polymer blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conformational free energy of ring polymers in a blend of ring and linear polymers is investigated using the bond-fluctuation model. Previously established scaling relationships for the free energy of a ring polymer are shown to be valid only in the mean-field sense, and alternative functional forms are investigated. It is shown that it may be difficult to accurately express the total free energy of a ring polymer by a simple scaling argument, or in closed form.

Gopinath Subramanian and Sachin Shanbhag

2009-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

377

The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co. Kemmerer Mine coal blending facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Company`s Kemmerer Mine recently completed a new coal processing facility for blending the mine`s low, medium, and high sulfur coals to meet the needs of our customers. This article will discuss the geology; mining and market conditions that led to the need for this facility; design considerations; the construction; and the system`s controls and performance.

Mulhall, K.; Crank, G. [Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co., Kemmerer, WY (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Ab initio study of phase transition of boron nitride between zinc-blende and rhombohedral structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boron nitride has polymorphs such as zinc-blende (c-BN), wurtzite (w-BN), rhombohedral (r-BN), and graphite-like (h-BN) forms. We simulate the direct conversion of r-BN to c-BN through electronic excitation. In our calculation, the conversion is made possible by increasing the hole concentration to over 0.06/atom. This conversion should be experimentally possible by hole-doping via an electric double layer transistor (EDLT) or capacitor.

Nishida, S.; Funashima, H.; Sato, K.; Katayama-Yoshida, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

379

Peer Evaluation of Video Lab Reports in a Blended Introductory Physics Course  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Georgia Tech blended introductory calculus-based mechanics course emphasizes scientific communication as one of its learning goals, and to that end, we gave our students a series of four peer-evaluation assignments intended to develop their abilities to present and evaluate scientific arguments. Within these assignments, we also assessed students' evaluation abilities by comparing their evaluations to a set of expert evaluations. We summarize our development efforts and describe the changes we observed in student evaluation behavior.

Douglas, Scott S; Aiken, John M; Thoms, Brian D; Greco, Edwin F; Caballero, Marcos D; Schatz, Michael F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Hydrothermal Treatment of a Sub-bituminous Coal and Its Use in Coking Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crucible coking determinations suggest that hydrothermal treatment can greatly increase the coke strength and the particle coke strength after reaction toward CO2 and decrease the coke reactivity when the hydrothermally treated coals were used in the coal blends instead of the raw coal. ... While the cokes from the crucible coking experiments were subjected to 800 rotations at a speed of 25 rpm, the weight percent of coke particles (>0.2 ... The coal charges were coked in the lab. ...

Hengfu Shui; Ye Wu; Zhicai Wang; Zhiping Lei; Changhui Lin; Shibiao Ren; Chunxiu Pan; Shigang Kang

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

In-cylinder pressure characteristics of a CI engine using blends of diesel fuel and methyl esters of beef tallow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Cummins N14-410 diesel engine was operated on 12 fuels produced by blending methyl tallowate, methyl soyate, and ethanol with no. 2 diesel fuel. Engine in-cylinder pressure data were used to evaluate engine performance. Peak cylinder pressures for each fuel blend at all engine speeds were lower than peak pressure for diesel fuel with the exception of the 80% diesel, 13% methyl tallowate, and 7% ethanol; and the 80% diesel, 6.5% methyl tallowate, 6.5% methyl soyate and 7% ethanol blends. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) values for all fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. The differences in IMEP values correlated with differences in power output of the engine. Similarly, maximum rates of pressure rise for most fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. It was concluded that the fuel blends used in this study would have no detrimental long-term effects on engine performance, wear, and knock. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A.; Borg, J.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Investigation on combustion characteristics of crude rice bran oil methyl ester blend as a heavy duty automotive engine fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work, an attempt was made to test the suitability of crude rice bran oil methyl ester (CRBME) blend as a heavy duty automotive engine fuel. A four stroke, six cylinder direct injection 117.6 kW turbo-charged compression ignition (CI) engine was used for the work. The operation of the engine with CRBME blend showed that the peak pressure increased with lower maximum rate of pressure rise and maximum heat release rate with shorter delay period. Burning rate of the CRBME blend was slower and required a higher crank angle to complete the combustion cycle when compared to diesel. The brake thermal efficiency of the CRBME blend was lower than that of diesel at all speeds except at 2300rpm. As the measured combustion and performance parameters for CRBME blend differs only by a smaller magnitude when compared with diesel, this investigation ensures the suitability of the CRBME blend as fuel for heavy duty automotive engine without any design modifications [Received: August 12, 2010; Accepted: August 29, 2010

S. Saravanan; G. Nagarajan; S. Sampath

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Cancer incidences in Europe related to mortalities, and ethnohistoric, genetic, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cancer incidences in Europe related to mortalities, and ethnohistoric, genetic, and geographic We have previously shown that geographic differences in cancer mortalities in Europe are related of 45 male and 47 female cancers. Differences in cancer incidences are correlated moder- ately, first

Rosenberg, Michael S.

384

Guiding Douglas-fir Seed Selection in Europe Under Changing Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Germany S. Germany Italy Central Europe Coastal Balkans Balkans Romania Turkey Planting Sites Spain 300 20(°C) 0.0001 0.001 0.1 1 Random forest class probability Turkey Romania Balkans Coastal Balkans Central Southern UK Scotland Norway Finland Turkey Romania Balkans Coastal Balkans Central Europe Poland Eastern

Hamann, Andreas

385

Alien Mammals of Europe Piero Genovesi, Sven Bacher, Manuel Kobelt, Michel Pascal,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 9 Alien Mammals of Europe Piero Genovesi, Sven Bacher, Manuel Kobelt, Michel Pascal and gone feral, like the Corsican mou- flon Ovis aries). Data on alien mammals have been collected from on Invasive Alien Species of the Council of Europe. Independent experts have verified each record, which

Richner, Heinz

386

Europe, Cutting Biofuel Subsidies, Redirects Aid to Stress Greenest Options -New York Times January 22, 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Europe, Cutting Biofuel Subsidies, Redirects Aid to Stress Greenest Options - New York Times January 22, 2008 Europe, Cutting Biofuel Subsidies, Redirects Aid to Stress Greenest Options By ELISABETH for biofuels, acknowledging that the environmental benefits of these fuels have often been overstated

387

Europe as a missed opportunity: looking backwards to modernity in France.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) The French route to modernity: specific features The literature on modernity generally takes a broad & Sophie Duchesne, Sciences Po IME book chapter proposal on Europe and modernity (the French case) ­ Dec the French have perceived Europe? More specifically, has it affected European integration and the possible

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

Recovery and Blend-Down Uranium for Beneficial use in Commercial Reactors - 13373  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 2001 the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) signed an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 33 MT of off-specification (off-spec) highly enriched uranium (HEU) from DOE to TVA for conversion to commercial reactor fuel. Since that time additional surplus off-spec HEU material has been added to the program, making the total approximately 46 MT off-spec HEU. The disposition path for approximately half (23 MT) of this 46 MT of surplus HEU material, was down blending through the H-canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HEU is purified through the H-canyon processes, and then blended with natural uranium (NU) to form low enriched uranium (LEU) solution with a 4.95% U-235 isotopic content. This material was then transported to a TVA subcontractor who converted the solution to uranium oxide and then fabricated into commercial light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This fuel is now powering TVA reactors and supplying electricity to approximately 1 million households in the TVA region. There is still in excess of approximately 10 to 14 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for use in either currently designed light water reactors, ?5% enriched LEU, or be made available for use in subsequent advanced 'fast' reactor fuel designs, ?19% LEU. (authors)

Magoulas, Virginia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

390

Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

A2: Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment). September 2013. A2: Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment). September 2013. Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment) Manufacturer Product Model Ethanol Compatibility Bravo Systems Fiberglass Fittings Series F, FF, FPE, FR, F Retrofit- S, RPE Retrofit-Si, F BLR, F D-BLR-S, TBF E0-E100 Bravo Systems Spill Buckets B3XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Tank Sumps & Covers B4XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Transition Sumps (planter, walkover, H-20 rated) B5XX, B6XX, B7XX, B8XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Transition Sumps B8XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Under Dispenser Contain- ment Sumps B7XXX, B8XXX, B9XXX E0-E100 Brugg Pipes FLEXWELL-HL, SECON-X, NIROFLEX, LPG E0-E100 KPS Petrol Pipe Systems Pipes and Associated Products All single- and double-wall plastic pipes, flexible

391

Role of dopant counter-anion functionality in polyaniline salts/blends and implications to morphology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, wide and small angle X-ray scattering techniques (i.e., WAXS and SAXS) and light microscopy are used to characterize the influence of the dopant`s structure on the morphology of both polyaniline salt and blend. In an attempt to modify the morphology of the PANI-ES, the authors have evaluated a number of doping acids (i.e., methane sulfonic acid (HMSA), butane sulfonic acid (HBSA), dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (HDBSA) and camphor sulfonic acid (HCSA)) that vary in size and polarity to better understand the role of the acid in PANI-ES`s morphology and the resulting electrical conductivity. These salts were solution blended with polycaprolactam using hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as a solvent. The other goal was to investigate the effect of the counter-anion structure on the nature of the phase separated PANI-ES network. The shape of the PANI-ES network in the host polycaprolactam has important implications on the nature of conduction behavior and the final electrical conductivity of the blend.

Hopkins, A.R.; Rasmussen, P.G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Basheer, R.A. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States). Polymers Dept.; Annis, B.K.; Wignall, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Assessment of the theoretical demand response potential in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract DR (Demand response) measures typically aim at an improved utilization of power plant and grid capacities. In energy systems mainly relying on photovoltaic and wind power, DR may furthermore contribute to system stability and increase the renewable energy share. In this paper, an assessment of the theoretical DR potential in Europe is presented. Special attention is given to temporal availability and geographic distribution of flexible loads. Based on industrial production and electricity consumption statistics, as well as periodic and temperature-dependent load profiles, possible load reduction and increase is estimated for each hour of the year. The analysis identifies substantial DR potentials in all consumer sectors. They add up to a minimum load reduction of 61 GW and a minimum load increase of 68 GW, available in every hour of the year. The overall potential features significant variations during the year, which are characteristic for specific consumers and countries.

Hans Christian Gils

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Verification of conventional arms-control agreements in Europe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study focuses on the verification conundrum and its manifestation in the European context - the CFE talks and agreement. It is based on the assumption that, in the foreseeable future, various types of verification regimes will be part of arms-control agreements all over the world: In Europe, where the Cold War has ended, but peace has yet to be established, and in volatile areas like Africa and the Middle East, where acute crises still rage. The main findings of the analysis are as follows: First, the puzzles of verification have to be addressed simultaneously within the prevailing political environment. In that way, the verification regime is able to handle the puzzles successfully. Second, the three main hypotheses of the dissertation, asserting the subordination of verification regimes to political environments, were supported by the analysis. Third, the theory was found helpful in explaining and predicting verification regimes of different political environments.

Lederman, I.I.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more components of the elastomers (by the solvent). This extraction of additives can negatively change the properties of the elastomer, leading to reduced performance and durability. For a seal application, some level of volume swell is acceptable, since the expansion will serve to maintain a seal. However, the acceptable level of swell is dependent on the particular application of the elastomer product. It is known that excessive swell can lead to unacceptable extrusion of the elastomer beyond the sealed interface, where it becomes susceptible to damage. Also, since high swell is indicative of high solubility, there is a heightened potential for fluid to seep through the seal and into the environment. Plastics, on the other hand, are used primarily in structural applications, such as solid components, including piping and fluid containment. Volume change, especially in a rigid system, will create internal stresses that may negatively affect performance. In order to better understand and predict the compatibility for a given polymer type and fuel composition, an analysis based on Hansen solubility theory was performed for each plastic and elastomer material. From this study, the solubility distance was calculated for each polymer material and test fuel combination. Using the calculated solubility distance, the ethanol concentration associated with peak swell and overall extent of swell can be predicted for each polymer. The bulk of the material discussion centers on the plastic materials, and their compatibility with Fuel C, CE25a, CE50a, and CE85a. The next section of this paper focuses on the elastomer compatibility with the higher ethanol concentrations with comparison to results obtained previously for the lower ethanol levels. The elastomers were identical to those used in the earlier study. Hansen solubility theory is also applied to the elastomers to provide added interpretation of the results. The final section summarizes the performance of the metal coupons.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

U.S. and Spain to Develop Solar Decathlon Europe | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Spain to Develop Solar Decathlon Europe Spain to Develop Solar Decathlon Europe U.S. and Spain to Develop Solar Decathlon Europe October 18, 2007 - 3:21pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Alexander Karsner and Spain's Undersecretary of Housing Fernando Magro Fernández signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to collaborate in the development of a Solar Decathlon Europe competition in 2010. The Solar Decathlon is a competition launched by DOE in 2002 which challenges university-led teams to build the most attractive and efficient solar-powered homes, held on the National Mall in Washington, DC. Under the MOU signed today, the DOE will assist in developing a similar event in Europe. "The twin challenges of increasing energy security and confronting climate

396

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

397

Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB {number_sign}2 diesel in a DCC 6V92TA MUI engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Detroit Diesel 6V92TA MUI engine was operated on several blends of EPA No. 2 diesel, California ARB No. 2 diesel, soya methyl ester (SME) and canola methyl ester (CME). Various fuels and fuel blend characteristics were determined and engine emissions from these fuels and blends were compared. Increasing percentages of SME and CME blended with either ARB or EPA diesels led to increased emissions of NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and soluble particulate matter. Also noted were reductions in total hydrocarbons, CO and insoluble particulate matter. Chassis dynamometer tests conducted on a 20/80 SME/ARB blend showed similar emissions trends. The data suggest that certain methyl ester/No. 2 diesel blends in conjunction with delays in engine timing and technologies that reduce the soluble fraction of particulate emissions merit further exploration as emissions reducing fuel options for North American mass transits (except in California, which mandates ARB diesel).

Spataru, A.; Romig, C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB No. 2 diesel in a DDC 6V92TA MUI engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Detroit Diesel 6V92TA MUI engine was operated on several blends of EPA No. 2 diesel, soya methyl ester (SME) and canola methyl ester (CME). Various fuels and fuel blend characteristics were determined and engine emissions from these fuels and blends were compared. Increasing percentages of SME and CME blended with either ARB or EPA diesels led to increased emissions of NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and soluble particulate matter. Also noted were reductions in total hydrocarbons, CO and insoluble particulate matter. Chassis dynamometer tests conducted on a 20/80 SME/ARB blend showed similar emission trends. The data suggest that certain methyl ester/No. 2 diesel blends in conjunction with technologies that reduce the soluble fraction of particulate emissions merit further exploration as emissions reducing fuel options for North American mass transit sectors (except California, which mandates ARB diesel).

Spataru, A.; Romig, C. [ADEPT Group, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Optimization of combustion bowl geometry for the operation of kapok biodiesel – Diesel blends in a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of this research work is to optimize the combustion bowl geometry of a single cylinder stationary diesel engine for the effective operation of KME (kapok methyl ester) – diesel blends. Considering that the reported design modification would render the benefit of adaptation of higher blends of KME, in this study, two different combustion chamber geometries such as TRCC (trapezoidal combustion chamber) and TCC (toroidal combustion chamber) were chosen in addition to the convention design of HCC (hemispherical combustion chamber). In the experimental investigation, suitable blends such as B25 (25% KME + 75% diesel), B50 (50% KME + 50% diesel), B75 (75% KME + 25% diesel) and B100 (100% KME) were tested in a diesel engine with various combustion chamber geometries as mentioned above. Based on the results obtained from this study, TCC was shown to exhibit better performance and emission than TRCC and HCC for all test blends. Further, when compared to diesel, B25 and B50 were found to be the optimum blends with HCC and TCC, respectively, while TRCC seldom evinced better engine characteristics for any of the blends. Categorically, B50 showed a 5.2% increase in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) than diesel with TCC, whereas emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were reduced by 15.7% and 7.8%, respectively, with a comparable NOX (nitrogen oxides) emission with diesel. Similarly, combustion for B50 with TCC was found to be better than diesel, manifesting an increase in maximum heat release rate that that of diesel. Conclusively, from the experimental study, TCC was recognized as an ideal choice of combustion chamber design for the operation of blends up to B50 in a diesel engine.

S. Vedharaj; R. Vallinayagam; W.M. Yang; C.G. Saravanan; P.S. Lee

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ignition Using Isooctane, Ethanol and Natural Gas - AModel for High Temperature Ethanol Oxidation," Internationalof Bio-Derived Carbon from Ethanol-in-Diesel Blends in the

Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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401

The medieval metal industry was the cradle of modern large-scale atmospheric lead pollution in northern Europe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is great concern for contamination of sensitive ecosystems in high latitudes by long-range transport of heavy metals and other pollutants derived from industrial areas in lower latitudes. Atmospheric pollution of heavy metals has a very long history, and since metals accumulate in the environment, understanding of present-day pollution conditions requires knowledge of past atmospheric deposition. The authors use analyses of lead concentrations and stable lead isotopes ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios) of annually laminated sediments from four lakes in northern Sweden to provide a decadal record of atmospheric lead pollution for the last 3000 years. There is a clear signal in the sediments of airborne pollution from Greek and Roman cultures 2000 years ago, followed by a period of clean conditions 400--900 A.D. From 900 A.D. there was a conspicuous, permanent increase in atmospheric lead pollution fallout, The sediments reveal peaks in atmospheric lead pollution at 1200 and 1530 A.D. comparable to present-day levels. These peaks match the history of metal production in Europe. This study indicates that the contemporary atmospheric pollution climate in northern Europe was established in Medieval time, rather than in the industrial period. Atmospheric lead pollution deposition did not, when seen in a historical perspective, increase as much as usually assumed with the Industrial Revolution.

Braennvall, M.L.; Bindler, R.; Renberg, I.; Emteryd, O.; Bartnicki, J.; Billstroem, K.

1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

A review of "Borders and Travellers in Early Modern Europe" edited by Thomas Betteridge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

worked from very similar assumptions about the need for hermeneutic stability. Thomas Betteridge, ed. Borders and Travellers in Early Modern Europe. Aldershot:: Ashgate, 2007. vi + 196 pp. $99.95. Review by Li n d a McJa n n e t , Be n t L e y un i v... e r s i t y . As described by editor Thomas Betteridge, Borders and Travellers in Early Modern Europe provides ?a trans-European interdisciplinary inter- rogation of borders and travel in early modern Europe? (12). Of the eleven essays...

McJannet, Linda

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering a waiver application for 15% by volume ethanol blended into gasoline (E15). Should the waiver be granted, service stations may be able to use their current equipment to dispense the new fuel. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

404

Selection of best biodiesel blend for IC engines: an integrated approach with FAHP-TOPSIS and FAHP-VIKOR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to select the best blend using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique. The six alternative fuel blends diesel, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 are prepared by varying the amount of diesel in biodiesel. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), smoke, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are considered as evaluation criteria. A single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine (4.4 kW) was used for exploratory analysis of evaluation criteria at different load conditions. Two models fuzzy analytical hierarchy process-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FAHP-TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (FAHP-VIKOR, in Serbian) are proposed to evaluate the best blend. Here, the FAHP is used to analyse the structure of best blend selection and to determine the weights of the criteria. The TOPSIS and VIKOR are used to obtain the final ranking of the blend. [Received: July 10, 2012; Accepted: October 16, 2012].

G. Sakthivel; M. Ilangkumaran; G. Nagarajan; P. Shanmugam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Platform for promoting a hydrogen economy in Southwest Europe: The HYRREG project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effective promotion of hydrogen technologies is best achieved when there is a strategy and a well defined and accepted plan for a hydrogen-based economy. The HYRREG project, funded by the Program of Cooperation of Southwest Europe (SUDOE), had as main objectives the development of a platform to generate hydrogen-related projects and a roadmap to enhance regional competitiveness and development of industry in this field in the SUDOE region which accounts for approximately 18% of the area and 12% of the population of the European Union. An analysis of the energy profiles in these regions reveals significant growth in capacity of renewable sources, principally from wind energy, yet the region has a high dependence on fossil fuels. The HYRREG consortium therefore believes that there is a good basis for supporting the development and introduction of hydrogen-based technologies in the region, especially with respect to the use of hydrogen for storage, to enhance security of supply and pave the way for a cleaner environment. The measures undertaken, in the form of platform activities and the preparation of a roadmap, were designed to increase collaboration between different institutions, at both national and international levels, and to raise awareness in society of the benefits of using such technologies. An online database of technologies and product opportunities in SUDOE and across Europe, as well as yearly catalogues listing profiles of companies or institutions working on hydrogen and fuel cells, their research lines and fields of interest and also including technology transfer profiles highlighting technologies offered and those sought in the region, were prepared to help companies in the region to access international markets and as an aid to establish links between entities. The SUDOE roadmap is mainly based on a qualitative analysis, focused on stakeholder preferences and region specific conditions, such as availability of resources as well as the characteristics of the current and future energy systems in the region. Several enquiries were conducted to systematically examine each component of the different hydrogen chains selected by the regions of France, Portugal and Spain. This exercise contributed to the identification of first user centres in the SUDOE region. The project concluded that hydrogen will play an important role in the energy context of SUDOE, namely in the transport sector, and its production will rely mainly on renewable energies – wind and solar being in the forefront.

T.R. Fernandes; R. Pimenta; L. Correas; J.M. García-Camús; A.M. Cabral; F.D. Reyes; B. Grano; R. Guerra; C. Couhert; E. Chacón

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased. (author)

Boehm, H. [Physikalische Chemie I, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Braun-Unkhoff, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Study on ash deposition under oxyfuel combustion of coal/biomass blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combustion in an O2/CO2 mixture (oxyfuel) has been recognized as a promising technology for CO2 capture as it produces a high CO2 concentration flue gas. Furthermore, biofuels in general contribute to CO2 reduction in comparison with fossil fuels as they are considered CO2 neutral. Ash formation and deposition (surface fouling) behavior of coal/biomass blends under O2/CO2 combustion conditions is still not extensively studied. Aim of this work is the comparative study of ash formation and deposition of selected coal/biomass blends under oxyfuel and air conditions in a lab scale pulverized coal combustor (drop tube). The fuels used were Russian and South African coals and their blends with Shea meal (cocoa). A horizontal deposition probe, equipped with thermocouples and heat transfer sensors for on line data acquisition, was placed at a fixed distance from the burner in order to simulate the ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces (e.g. water or steam tubes). Furthermore, a cascade impactor (staged filter) was used to obtain size distributed ash samples including the submicron range at the reactor exit. The deposition ratio and propensity measured for the various experimental conditions were higher in all oxyfuel cases. The SEM/EDS and ICP analyses of the deposit and cascade impactor ash samples indicate K interactions with the alumina silicates and to a smaller extend with Cl, which was all released in the gas phase, in both the oxyfuel and air combustion samples. Sulfur was depleted in both the air or oxyfuel ash deposits. S and K enrichment was detected in the fine ash stages, slightly increased under air combustion conditions. Chemical equilibrium calculations were carried out to facilitate the interpretation of the measured data; the results indicate that temperature dependence and fuels/blends ash composition are the major factors affecting gaseous compounds and ash composition rather than the combustion environment, which seems to affect the fine ash (submicron) ash composition, and the ash deposition mechanisms.

L. Fryda; C. Sobrino; M. Cieplik; W.L. van de Kamp

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Optical transitions in semiconductor superlattices with zinc-blende structure in the k?p approximation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transition-matrix elements for superlattices consisting of materials with the zinc-blende structure are presented in analytical form in the k?p approximation including the ?6, ?7, and ?8 bands. The resulting selection rules for cases where the magnetic field is absent, and where the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the superlattice layers, are discussed. The results can be used for type-I, -II, and -III superlattices. They can also be used for other systems, such as a single quantum well.

H. Luo and J. K. Furdyna

1990-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Combustion and Emissions Characterization of Biodiesel Blends in a City-Car Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Whereas in the available literature, most of the researches addressed the multicylinders diesel engine of large displacement;(7, 22-27) only some works have investigated the light duty engines, designed for agricultural purpose and mainly tested for a fixed value of the engine speed. ... Rakopoulos, C. D.; Antonopoulos, K. A.; Rakopoulos, D. C.; Hountalas, D. T.; Giakoumis, E. G.Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection Diesel engine using blends of diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins Energy Convers. ... Heywood, J. B. Internal combustion engine fundamentals; Mcgraw-Hill: New York, 1988. ...

Giancarlo Chiatti; Ornella Chiavola; Fulvio Palmieri; Stefano Albertini

2014-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

410

Preliminary report on blending strategies for inert-matrix fuel recycling in LWRs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various recycle strategies have been proposed to manage the inventory of transuranics in commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), with a particular goal of increasing the loading capacity of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes in the Yucca Mountain repository. Transuranic recycling in commercial LWRs can be seen as a viable means of slowing the accumulation of transuranics in the nationwide CSNF stockpile. Furthermore, this type of approach is an important first step in demonstrating the benefits of a nuclear fuel cycle which incorporates recycling, such as envisioned for Generation-IV reactor systems under development. Recycling strategies of this sort are not proposed as an attempt to eliminate the need of a geologic nuclear waste repository, but as a means to enhance the usefulness of the repository currently under construction in the U.S., perhaps circumventing the need for a second facility. A US-DOE Secretarial recommendation on the need for the construction of a second geologic repository is required by 2010. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) has supported a breadth of work to evaluate the ideal transuranic separation and recycle strategy. Previous AFCI studies of LWR-based transmutation have considered the benefits of homogeneously recycling plutonium, plutonium and neptunium, and all transuranic (TRU) species. A study of a wide range of hypothetical separation schemes (Pu, Pu+Np, Pu+Np+Am, etc.) with multi-recycling has also been performed, focusing on the proliferation resistance of the various fuel cycles and fuel handling issues. The direct recycle of the recovered TRU from spent inert-matrix fuel (IMF) into new IMF was found to be quite limited due to the rapid burndown of the fissile plutonium. The IMF is very effective at destroying the fissile fraction of the TRU with destruction rates in excess of 80% of the fissile material without recycling the IMF. Blending strategies have been proposed to mitigate the rapid burndown of the fissile plutonium by mixing high fissile feed from new sources (e.g., spent UO{sub 2} pins) with the low fissile material recovered from the recycled transmutation fuel. The blending of the fuels is anticipated to aid the multi-recycle of the transuranics. A systematic study of blending strategies (for both IMF and MOX) has been initiated and is currently ongoing. This work extends the previous study that considered separation strategies for plutonium, neptunium, and americium recycling in MOX, CORAIL, and IMF{sub 6} by considering blending schemes and approach to continuous recycle. Plutonium and americium are recycled in order to reduce the intermediate term (100 to 1500 years after spent fuel irradiation) decay heat of the disposed waste which accounts for the bulk of the repository heating. Since the long-term released dose from the repository is dominated by neptunium, it is sensible to consume it by transmutation in a reactor, as well. Curium accounts for {approx}0.6% of the TRU mass in spent UO{sub 2} fuel ({approx}0.008% of the heavy metal), but does constitute significantly higher fractions in spent transmutation fuels. This initial evaluation will focus on blending strategies for the multirecycling of Pu+Np+Am. The impact of curium recycle will be investigated as part of the systematic study of blending strategies. The initial study focuses on understanding a simple strategy for IMF recycle and blending. More complex strategies (i.e., heterogeneous assemblies) will be evaluated later in the year, including enriched uranium support options. Currently, a preliminary study of a serial blending strategy has been performed in order to evaluate the impact of blending on the performance of the IMF recycle and to evaluate the potential for continuous or infinite recycle. The continuous recycle of Pu+Np+Am in IMF would allow for complete destruction of all heat contributing actinides in the same LWRs that originally produced them. The only transuranics sent to the repository would be those lost in reprocessing and curium if it is not eventually recycled.

Hoffman, E. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

411

The Use of Triangular-Shaped PV Arrays to Better Blend into Historical Structures  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

When considering the installation of a solar PV array on a designated historical structure, placement of each solar panel requires extra attention to aesthetic considerations. If the solar array cannot be installed behind the structure or “hidden” on a roof plane that is not visible from the public street or sidewalk, it can sometimes be installed as an architectural feature that blends into the historical structure. One way to do this is to utilize triangular-shaped PV panels that conform with the building’s roof lines.

412

Phase identification and interfacial transitions in ternary polymer blends by ToF-SIMS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Phase identification and the study of the interphase region in multi-component polymer blends with a chemically similar structure using conventional techniques is a challenge. In this work, the detailed morphological analysis of such systems is examined. A ternary blend comprised of poly butylene succinate (PBS); poly lactic acid (PLA); and polycaprolactone (PCL) with a partial wetting morphology is carefully selected since all three components are polyesters with low interfacial tensions. It will be shown that a novel technique by applying multivariate analysis (MVA) on time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) data can effectively identify the complex phase structure, especially in blends with chemically similar components. Furthermore, for the first time for such systems, this technique provides detailed information about interfacial thicknesses and transitions. By employing the principal component analysis (PCA) method on the ToF-SIMS data of pure polymers, specific peaks with a certain molecular ion mass related to each polymer are determined. Using overlaid mappings on the surface of the blend by ToF-SIMS and selected ion masses to identify each polymer results in the differentiation of the various phases represented as a morphological image. In a second step, the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method is used as a “self modeling curve resolution” for the recovery of pure components from a multi-component mixture when little or no prior information is available. Total pseudo-color RGB images of PBS/PLA/PCL show that PLA droplets unambiguously partially wet the PBS and PCL phases. Since each pixel from the analysis in the high lateral resolution image represents a 200 nm diameter, the interfacial transitions can also be studied for both PLA/PBS and PLA/PCL interfaces. The results show the concentration variation of phases across the interfaces. A complete trace line across the two interfaces (PLA/PBS and PLA/PCL) allows for the quantitative determination of interfacial thickness for the first time for such systems.

Sepehr Ravati; Suzie Poulin; Konstantinos Piyakis; Basil D. Favis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Performance Synergies between Low-Temperature and High-Temperature Fischer?Tropsch Diesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With both LTFT and HTFT diesels being nontraditional, alternative diesel fuels that can be used directly in the current fuelling infrastructure, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential synergies in fuel properties with blends of LTFT diesel and HTFT DHT diesel. ... Regulated exhaust emissions measured over the engine dynamometer test cycle in grams of pollutant per unit of mechanical energy delivered by the engine (g/kW h) included total hydrocarbon (THC), generally referred to as HC, CO, carbon dioxide (CO2), NOx, and PM. ... However, the general consumer should most probably not be able to notice the difference in volumetric fuel consumption. ...

Delanie Lamprecht; Luis P. Dancuart; Kaveer Harrilall

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

414

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The maritime shipment of LNG to Europe: dynamics in markets, ships and terminal projects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to explore how the maritime shipment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to Europe has developed over the last decade, given the growing usage of natural gas and increasing seaborne trade volume of LNG over the world. This paper presents the current situation of the LNG trade flows in Europe and also investigates the dynamics of the LNG shipping market, fleet development and import terminal projects in Europe, which are all indispensable to transport LNG to the European market. It is found that Europe increases LNG imports largely in recent years in order to secure its gas supply for seasonal fluctuations. Responding to such rising import volume, many new facilities are being built and planned in the region, including the ordering of new ships and the construction of new regasification terminals.

Siyuan Wang; Theo Notteboom

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Factors Affecting the Feasibility of a Warsaw Pact Invasion of Western Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and termination of such a conflict in Central Europe. The argument will be made that NATO would have been able to hold onto most of West Germany in the event of such an attack....

Williamson, Corbin

2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

417

Fact #575: June 15, 2009 Diesel Car Sales in Europe Still Over 50% in 2008  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

More than half of all cars sold in Western Europe since 2006 are fueled by diesel. The overall share of diesel sales, however, declined slightly from 2007 to 2008. Belgium, France, and the United...

418

The logic of regionalism: a comparative study of regionalism in Europe and Asia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

....................................................................................................... 219 6-8 Tax Revenue, Direct Taxation and Economic Growth in Europe (1975-1997)... 223 6-9 The 1994 EU Referendums in Austria, Finland, Norway and Sweden.................. 224 6-10 Alternative Ordered Probit Regression Analyses...

Kim, Mi-Kyung

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

419

Fact #644: October 11, 2010 Share of Diesel Vehicle Sales Decline in Western Europe  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The share of new diesel vehicles sold in Western Europe rose steadily from 1999 to 2007. However, from 2007 to 2009, the share of diesel vehicle sales has begun to decline. Germany and Italy have...

420

Changes in Russia's gas exportation strategy: Europe versus Asia? Catherine Locatelli, Research Fellow,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Changes in Russia's gas exportation strategy: Europe versus Asia? Catherine Locatelli, Research policy. JEL classification: Industrial organization, International economics. Abstract: Russia's gas strategy is currently undergoing fundamental changes. The internationalisation of Russia's gas exchanges

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Upscale error growth in a high-resolution simulation of a summertime weather event over Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The growth of small amplitude, spatially uncorrelated perturbations has been studied in a weather forecast of a four day period in Summer 2007, using a large domain covering Europe and eastern Atlantic and with explicitly resolved deep convection. ...

Tobias Selz; George C. Craig

422

Vulnerability of the Netherlands and Northwest Europe to Storm Damage under Climate Change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Storms occasionally bring havoc to Northwest Europe. At present, a single storm may cause damage of up to 7 billion U.S.$, of which a substantial part is insured. One scenario of climate change indicates that ...

C. Dorland; R. S. J. Tol; J. P. Palutikof

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Challenging the Status Quo: The Rise and Consequences of Anti-Establishment Parties in Western Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on both the electoral success and the consequences of anti-establishment parties in Western Europe. Concerning electoral success, this dissertation offers a new approach to the literature by arguing that anti-establishment parties, regardless...

Smith, Jason

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

424

Implications of CO2 emissions trading for short-run electricity market outcomes in northwest Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine the short-run implications of CO2 trading for power production, prices, emissions, and generator profits in northwest Europe in 2005. Simulation results from a transmission-constrained oligopoly model ...

Yihsu Chen; Jos Sijm; Benjamin F. Hobbs; Wietze Lise

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Measuring Welfare Loss Caused by Air Pollution in Europe: A CGE Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To evaluate the socio-economic impacts of air pollution, we develop an integrated approach based on computable general equilibrium (CGE). Applying our approach to Europe shows that even there, where air quality is relatively ...

Paltsev, Sergey

426

The Transatlantic Dissent between Europe and the United States about GMO’s  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is no doubt that in the last few years there has been a growing dissent about various issues between the United States and Europe. Fifty years after the second world war and its very special circumstance...

Klaus Ammann

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Contributions from Particles in Europe (PiE) 2010, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France: an introduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters presents selected contributions from the international conference Particles in Europe (PiE) 2010 organized by Sequoia Scientific, Inc. ... Ole Mikkelsen, Malik Chami and D...

Ole A. Mikkelsen; Malik Chami; David Doxaran

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Monitoring technologies in conventional arms control verification: The CFE (Conventional Armed Forces in Europe) context  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document discusses the challenges of evaluating conventional military capabilities during the rapidly changing political conditions in Europe. Recommendations are made for the implement new technology to require and process date about current military conditions. (FSD)

Pounds, T.J.

1990-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

429

Characterization of the Wind Power Resource in Europe and its Intermittency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wind power is assessed over Europe, with special attention given to the quantification of intermittency. Using the methodology developed in Gunturu and Schlosser (2011), the MERRA boundary flux data was used to compute ...

Cosseron, A.

430

E-Print Network 3.0 - africa southern europe Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: africa southern europe Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 A 20-year initiative, AfricaArray promotes...

431

Syphilis in Renaissance Europe: rapid evolution of an introduced sexually transmitted disease?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...that of the myxoma virus in Australia and Europe (Fenner & Ratcliffe 1965; Fenner 1983; see also Escriu et al. 2003 for a more recent...severity. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 14, 465485. Fenner, F. 1983 Biological control, as exemplified by...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Les communauts marchandes de l'Europe du Nord dans les ports bretons au XVIIIe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Les communautés marchandes de l'Europe du Nord dans les ports bretons au XVIIIe siècle Pierrick Peter Voss, «Les communautés marchandes étrangères dans l'espace urbain bordelais (62075)», dans J ou moins grande fréquentation par les communautés marchandes des différents pays européens. Cet

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

433

Measurement of Turbulent Flame Speeds of Hydrogen and Natural Gas Blends (C1-C5 Alkanes) using a Newly Developed Fan-Stirred Vessel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in displacement speeds were observed for blends of NG2/H_(2) and CH_(4)/H_(2), thus validating the newly established experimental technique. Additionally, turbulent flame speeds of hydrogen and a generic, high-hydrogen-content syngas blend (50:50 H_(2):CO) were...

Ravi, Sankaranarayana

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

434

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Poly(lactide)s:? Effects of Molecular Weight, l-Lactide Content, and Enantiomeric and Diastereoisomeric Polymer Blending  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonblended poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) films having different molecular weights and nonblended poly(lactide) (PLA) films, enantiomeric blend films from PLLA and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA), and diastereoisomeric blend films of poly(dl-lactide) (PDLLA) with either ...

Hideto Tsuji; Shinya Miyauchi

2001-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

435

A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of feedstock; and a blender unit which blends feedstock and gasoline stock (at no loss). (Note that "ONA blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production in feedstock (maximum 200,000 bbl/day) and produces gasoline stock with 98 ON at a rate of .5 bbl per bbl

Galvin, David

436

Morphological origin for the stratification of P3HT:PCBM blend film studied by neutron reflectometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the origin for the film stratification of electron donor/acceptor blend is crucial for high efficiency organic photovoltaic cell. In this study, P3HT:PCBM blend is deposited onto hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrate to examine the film stratifications. The neutron reflectivity results show that, on the different surfaces, PCBM diffuses toward the two interfacial regions in an identical fashion during thermal annealing. This evidences that the film stratification is not affected by the substrates. Instead, since P3HT remains more amorphous in the interfacial regions and PCBM is miscible with amorphous P3HT, PCBM preferentially diffuses to the interfacial regions, resulting in the stratification.

Keum, Jong Kahk [Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States) [Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Browning, James F.; Halbert, Candice E. [Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Xiao, Kai; Shao, Ming; Hong, Kunlun [Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

437

Narrow spectral linewidth of single zinc-blende GaN/AlN self-assembled quantum dots  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study by microphotoluminescence the optical properties of single self-assembled zinc-blende GaN/AlN quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. As opposed to previous reports, the high quality of such zinc-blende GaN quantum dots allows us to evidence a weak acoustic phonon sideband as well as a limited spectral diffusion. As a result, we report on resolution-limited quantum dot linewidths as narrow as 500 ± 50 ?eV. We finally confirm the fast radiative lifetime and high-temperature operation of such quantum dots.

Sergent, S. [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)] [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Kako, S. [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)] [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Bürger, M.; As, D. J. [Department Physik, Universität Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)] [Department Physik, Universität Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Arakawa, Y. [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan) [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

2013-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

438

Role of dopant counter-anion functionality in polyaniline salts/blends and implications to morphology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyanilines are of particular current interest primarily due to their relative ease of synthesis, low cost and stable conductivity in air. The insulating, polyaniline emeraldine base (PANI-EB) form becomes electrically conducting by preferential protonation or doping the imine nitrogen sites to yield an electrically conducting polyaniline emeraldine salt (PANI-ES). In this paper, wide and small angle X-ray scattering techniques (i.e., WAXS and SAXS) and light microscopy are used to characterize the influence of the dopant`s structure on the morphology of both polyaniline salt and blend. In an attempt to modify the morphology of the PANI-ES, the authors have evaluated a number of doping acids (i.e., methane sulfonic acid (HMSA), butane sulfonic acid (HBSA), dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (HDBSA) and camphor sulfonic acid (HCSA)) that vary in size and polarity to better understanding the role of the acid in PANI-ES`s morphology and the resulting electrical conductivity. The other goal was to investigate the effect of the counter-anion structure on the nature of the phase separated PANI-ES network. The shape of the PANI-ES network in the host polycaprolactam has important implications on the nature of conduction behavior and the final electrical conductivity of the blend.

Hopkins, A.R.; Rasmussen, P.G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Basheer, R.A. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States). Polymers Dept.; Annis, B.K.; Wignall, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Draft constitution of Computability in Europe 1. Name. The name of the Association shall be Computability in Europe (CiE).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

if admitted might, in the opinion of the membership secretary, qualify for termination of membership under, particularly in Europe, of computability-related science, ranging over mathematics, computer science, and applications in various natural and engineering sciences such as physics and biology. This object also includes

Priestley, Hilary

440

Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

Not Available

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

WHAT DO THREAT LEVELS AND RESPONSE LEVELS MEAN? THREAT LEVELS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WHAT DO THREAT LEVELS AND RESPONSE LEVELS MEAN? THREAT LEVELS: The UK Threat Level is decided by the Government's Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (JTAC). It is the system to assess the threat to the UK from Threat Levels: Low - an attack is unlikely Moderate - an attack is possible, but not likely Substantial

Edinburgh, University of

442

Ethanol Blends and Engine Operating Strategy Effects on Light-Duty Spark-Ignition Engine Particle Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spark ignition (SI) engines with direct injection (DI) fueling can improve fuel economy and vehicle power beyond that of port fuel injection (PFI). Despite this distinct advantage, DI fueling often increases particle emissions such that SI exhaust may be subject to future particle emissions regulations. Challenges in controlling particle emissions arise as engines encounter varied fuel composition such as intermediate ethanol blends. Furthermore, modern engines are operated using unconventional breathing strategies with advanced cam-based variable valve actuation systems. In this study, we investigate particle emissions from a multi-cylinder DI engine operated with three different breathing strategies, fueling strategies and fuels. The breathing strategies are conventional throttled operation, early intake valve closing (EIVC) and late intake valve closing (LIVC); the fueling strategies are single injection DI (sDI), multi-injection DI (mDI), and PFI; and the fuels are emissions certification gasoline, E20 and E85. The results indicate the dominant factor influencing particle number concentration emissions for the sDI and mDI strategies is the fuel injection timing. Overly advanced injection timing results in particle formation due to fuel spray impingement on the piston, and overly retarded injection timing results in particle formation due to poor fuel and air mixing. In addition, fuel type has a significant effect on particle emissions for the DI fueling strategies. Gasoline and E20 fuels generate comparable levels of particle emissions, but E85 produces dramatically lower particle number concentration. The particle emissions for E85 are near the detection limit for the FSN instrument, and particle number emissions are one to two orders of magnitude lower for E85 relative to gasoline and E20. We found PFI fueling produces very low levels of particle emissions under all conditions and is much less sensitive to engine breathing strategy and fuel type than the DI fueling strategies. The particle number-size distributions for PFI fueling are of the same order for all of the breathing strategies and fuel types and are one to two orders lower than for the sDI fuel injection strategy with gasoline and E20. Remarkably, the particle emissions for E85 under the sDI fueling strategy are similar to particle emissions with a PFI fueling strategy. Thus by using E85, the efficiency and power advantages of DI fueling can be gained without generating high particle emissions.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Youngquist, Adam D [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Moore, Wayne [Delphi; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Relationship between the technical parameters of cokes produced from blends of three Polish coals of different coking ability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The demand for metallurgical coke for blast furnaces is forcing the coking industry to look for new sources of coking coals. The physical and chemical parameters of coals used in coking blends determine the quality (reactivity and strength) of the finished cokes. This study examines the technical properties of the cokes produced from various blends of three Polish coals with different coking. These coals were collected from three mines: Zofiówka, Szczyg?owice, and Krupi?ski (Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland). The coal charges were coked in the laboratory scale, at temperatures of up to 1000 °C, in an inert atmosphere. The coke reactivity (index CRI) and the coke strength after reaction (CSR) were measured and correlated to the properties of parent coals using statistical analysis. The result of this study shows strong relationships between the concentration of the best coking coal (Zofiówka) in the blend and the CRI and CSR of the resulting coke. The CRI and CSR parameters for cokes obtained from single coals and from their blends show the additive character. This study also confirms the linear relationship between CRI and CSR parameters of the cokes.

A. Koszorek; M. Krzesi?ska; S. Pusz; B. Pilawa; B. Kwieci?ska

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Experiences from a Novel Sensor for Fireside Corrosion Monitoring during Grate Combustion of Corn Stover/Wood Chip Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The operation of a pilot-scale online corrosion sensor system was studied at VTT’s 100 kW grate pilot plant. The feedstock composition in tests was varied from 100% wood chips to a blend that also contained 40 en-% d.b. corn stover. The mass flow of ...

Timo J. Leino; Martti J. Aho; S. Juhani Gynther; Tommi A. Ruuskanen; Matti H. Häkkinen

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

445

AFM/LFM surface studies of a ternary polymer blend cast on substrates covered by a self-assembled monolayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AFM/LFM surface studies of a ternary polymer blend cast on substrates covered by a self force microscopy; Friction; Self-assembly; Surface thermodynamics (including phase transitions); Growth are of utmost current interest. In many practical appli- cations films of incompatible mixtures are pre- pared

Zbigniew, Postawa

446

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

Alvarez, Pedro J.

447

Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

Melaina, M. W.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

By Earle B. Amey Tungsten's unique high-temperature in Metal Bulletin (London). ferrotungsten, carbide powder blends, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). ferrotungsten, carbide powder blends, and properties can be utilized advantageously in the As a result properties of its carbide continue to scrap, and sodium tungstate and away from the provide important items increased in all imported tungsten materials. the cemented carbide end-use sectors that A summary

449

Key Aspects Blended Library draw strength by building on users'pre-existing knowledge of the everyday, non-digital  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Key Aspects » Blended Library draw strength by building on users'pre-existing knowledge University of Konstanz http://hci.uni-konstanz.de/blendedlibrary Contact: Roman Rädle Tel. +49 7531 88-2868 Fax +49 7531 88-4772 roman.raedle@uni-konstanz.de Caused by the proceeding digitalization, real

Reiterer, Harald

450

Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Properties and performance of cotton seed oil–diesel blends as a fuel for compression ignition engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the evaluation of properties of straight vegetable cotton seed oil (CSO) and its blends with diesel fuel in various proportions to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine at constant speed of 1500 rev ? min . Diesel and CSO oil fuel blends (10% 30% 50% and 70%) were used to conduct engine performance and smoke emission tests at varying loads of 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% and 100% of full load in addition to their straight CSO and diesel fuel. The performance parameters of brake specific energy consumption (BSFC) brake thermal efficiency (BTE) mechanical efficiency (ME) exhaust gas temperature (EGT) and exhaust emission (smoke) were evaluated to find the optimum CSO and diesel fuel blend. From the experimental results the CSO10D90 blend fuel showed 3.7% reduction in BSFC 1.7% increase in BTE 6.7% increase in ME and 21.7% reduction in the smoke emissions in comparison with conventional diesel operated engine. Finally it is concluded that CSO10D90 can be used straight away in CI engines without any major modifications to the engine as it showed good performance and improved emission compared to all other fuels tested for the entire range of engine operation in comparison with diesel.

B. Murali Krishna; J. M. Mallikarjuna

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Amon Millner draft short paper submitted to the Interaction Design and Children 2011 conference Modkit: Blending and Extending Approachable Platforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

programming environment and the Arduino platform. The demonstration will feature the current Modkit components, activities, and projects that illustrate how the toolkit blends Scratch and Arduino platforms to extend what). General Terms Design, Human Factors, Languages. Keywords Modkit, Scratch, Arduino, informal learning

454

Preparation and properties of chitosan–soybean trypsin inhibitor blend film with anti-Aspergillus flavus activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The chitosan-based blend films were prepared from chitosan, soybean trypsin inhibitor extract (STI)/wild soybean trypsin inhibitor extract (WTI) and glycerol (Gly) solutions, the properties of which were also investigated, including thickness, mechanical property, water vapor transmission, optical transmittance, and solubility. In addition, the resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The result of SEM images showed the surface and cross-section of chitosan–STI/WTI–Gly blend film had more smooth and dense morphology than pure chitosan film, which suggested there was a better compatibility among the three components. XRD and FTIR spectra indicated that the possible interaction force among the components might be the hydrogen bonds of NH?OC and OH?OC. Furthermore, the antifungal activity against A. flavus by the prepared blend films had been investigated. The facts that the germination and growth of A. flavus were strongly inhibited by chitosan–STI/WTI–Gly film indicated the blend films might be useful as potential bio-control packaging against A. flavus during the peanuts and other cereals storage.

Bin Zhang; Dong-Feng Wang; Hai-Yan Li; Ying Xu; Li Zhang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Development of decision support system to select the best fuel blend in IC engines to enhance the energy efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes an application of hybrid MCDM technique for the selection of optimum blend in fish oil biodiesel among the six alternative fuel blends diesel, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 which is prepared by varying the amount of diesel with biodiesel. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), smoke, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ignition delay (ID), combustion duration (CD) and maximum rate of pressure rise (MRPR) are considered as evaluation criteria. A single cylinder, constant speed and direct injection diesel engine with a rated output of 4.4 kW was used for exploratory analysis of evaluation criteria at different load conditions. The proposed model, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) is integrated with elimination et and choice translating reality (ELECTRE) to evaluate the optimum blend. Here the FAHP is used to determine the relative weights of the criteria, whereas ELECTRE is used for obtaining the final ranking of alternative blends.

G. Sakthivel; M. Ilangkumaran

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Proposed Studentship The Origin of Coal: unravelling the effects of climate, sea-level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pennsylvanian times? Did economic coals mostly form at sea-level lowstand, during transgression, or at highstandProposed Studentship The Origin of Coal: unravelling the effects of climate, sea Pennsylvanian times, Europe and North America lay at low latitudes and were covered by steamy coal

Royal Holloway, University of London

457

IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Annual Technical Progress Report for Project Entitled "Impact Annual Technical Progress Report for Project Entitled "Impact of DME-Diesel Fuel Blend Properties on Diesel Fuel Injection Systems" May 16, 2002 - May 15, 2003 Elana M. Chapman, Andre Boehman, Kimberly Wain, Wallis Lloyd, Joseph M. Perez, Donald Stiver, Joseph Conway Report Issue Date: June 2003 DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-01NT41115 The Pennsylvania State University The Energy Institute University Park, PA 16802 ii DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus,

458

Results of Research Engine and Vehicle Drive Cycle Testing during Blended Hydrogen/Methane Operation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Results of Research Engine and Results of Research Engine and Vehicle Drive Cycle Testing during Blended Hydrogen/Methane Operation Thomas Wallner, Henning Lohse-Busch, Henry Ng Argonne National Laboratory Robert Peters University of Alabama at Birmingham NHA Annual Hydrogen Conference 2007 San Antonio/Texas March 19 th - 22 nd 2007 DOE-Sponsors: Lee Slezak, Gurpreet Singh Government license The submitted manuscript was developed by the UChicago Argonne LLC as Operator of Argonne National Laboratory ("Argonne") under Contract No. DE-AC-02-06CH11357 with DOE. The U.S. Government retains for itself, and others acting on its behalf, a paid-up, nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in said article to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on

459

Production and characterization of natural rubber–Ca/P blends for biomedical purposes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study presents the development of natural rubber–Ca/P blends, as promising candidates for biomedical purposes. The specific objective was the incorporation of Ca/P into a natural rubber polymeric matrix. Ca/P crystalline phases were synthesized by the sol–gel method and the polymeric matrices were produced using natural rubber extracted from latex of the Hevea brasiliensis. The shape and size of natural rubber particles present in the NR membrane, as well as, the way the Ca/P powder grains aggregate in the polymeric matrix were investigated, giving information about the interactions between the Ca/P and the natural rubber particles. Confocal fluorescence scanning microscopy measurements allowed us to propose a structure where the Ca/P grains are surrounded by natural rubber particles. This structure may mediate Ca2 + release for tissue regeneration. The system investigated may open new horizons for development of a bandage which provides the controlled-release of biomaterials.

R.M. Nascimento; F.L. Faita; D.L.S. Agostini; A.E. Job; F.E.G. Guimarães; I.H. Bechtold

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Performance of a spark ignition engine fueled with methanol or methanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engine torque and specific energy consumption of an automotive engine were studied under steady state condition using gasoline, methanol gasoline blends and straight methanol as fuel. At first the engine was run without any modification. Next the diameters of metering orifices in carburetor were modified to give the same excess air factor regardless of fuel type under each fixed engine operating condition. Finally the engine was run with 15% mixture methanol in gasoline by volume using the carburetor modified to have approximately 10% larger fuel flow area than the production carburetor. From the results of this study the effects of using methanol on engine torque and specific energy consumption can be explained on the basis of change in stoichiometry caused by the use of methanol.

You, B.C.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Fact #839: September 22, 2014 World Petroleum Consumption Continues to Rise despite Declines from the United States and Europe- Dataset  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Excel file with dataset for Fact #839: World Petroleum Consumption Continues to Rise despite Declines from the United States and Europe

464

Health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe in general and in Norway in particular. Literature review and ecological study.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Health costs of Chernobyl disaster are still not clear.Main goal of this paper therefore is to investigate health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe (outside… (more)

Fedorov, Roman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Waste Growth Challenges Local Democracy. The Politics of Waste between Europe and the Mediterranean: a Focus on Italy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

activities, such as waste burning versus waste dumping.and the Geographies of Waste Governance: A Burning Issue forEurope: • Burning oriented – Incineration (waste-to-energy)

Mengozzi, Alessandro

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

The Association of the North Atlantic and the Arctic Oscillation on Wind Energy Resource over Europe and its Intermittency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study focuses on a better understanding of the influences of the North Atlantic and the Arctic Oscillation on wind power resource over Europe. In the case of a change in phase of the oscillations, wind power density can vary by a factor of three in northern Europe, and a similar effect (but opposite in sign) is seen for southern Europe. Similar results are obtained by calculating the energy output of hypothetical wind turbines. In this way, we have identified an interconnection potential between wind farms in northern and southern Europe in order to reduce intermittency at an aggregate scale.

Pascal Kriesche; C. Adam Schlosser

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal blends by means of nano-liquid chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, a rapid and simultaneous separation of 12 synthetic cannabinoids and ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) in herbal blends was obtained by means of nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). The nano-LC experiments were performed in a 100 ?m i.d. capillary column packed with Cogent® bidentate C18 silica particles for 25.0 cm. All compounds were resolved using an isocratic elution mode in less than 30 min. A mobile phase containing ACN/MeOH/H2O/formic acid 69/5/25/1 (v/v/v/v) was employed for the chromatographic separation. The developed analytical method was validated in terms of precision, linearity, sensitivity and accuracy. Under optimal nano-LC–UV conditions, the resulting RSD percentages for intra-day and inter-day repeatability, related to retention time and peak area, were below 2.98 and 6.40%, respectively. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.2 and 0.5 ?g/mL, respectively, for all the studied compounds. Linearity was assessed in the concentration range of interest for all analytes with determination coefficients r2 ? 0.9975. The method was then applied to the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal blends. Quantitative analyses of the cannabimimetic compounds in six products showed that there was a wide difference in the concentration of the studied compounds among different products. Further, the nano-LC system was coupled with a mass spectrometer measuring the MS and MS–MS spectra to unequivocally identify the cannabinoids present in smoking mixtures.

Gustavo Merola; Zeineb Aturki; Giovanni D’Orazio; Rossella Gottardo; Teodora Macchia; Franco Tagliaro; Salvatore Fanali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Institute of Energy for South-East Europe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South-East Europe South-East Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name Institute of Energy for South-East Europe Address Αlex. Soutsou 3 Place Athens, Greece Zip 10671 Phone number +30.210.3628457 Coordinates 37.9773425°, 23.737251° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.9773425,"lon":23.737251,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

469

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: A Portfolio of Power-Trains for Europe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Portfolio of Power-Trains for Europe A Portfolio of Power-Trains for Europe Project Summary Full Title: A Portfolio of Power-Trains for Europe: A Fact-Based Analysis Project ID: 266 Principal Investigator: Brief Description: This study reports the results of a factual evaluation of battery electric vehicles, fuel cell electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and internal combustion engine vehicles for the European market based on proprietary industry data. Keywords: Alternative fuel vehicles (AFV); Fuel cell vehicles (FCV); Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV); Costs; Greenhouse gases (GHG); Emissions; Battery electric vehicles (BEV); Internal combustion engine (ICE); Hydrogen Purpose A group of companies, government organisations and a non-governmental organization - the majority with a specific interest in fuel cell

470

The Changing Electricity System in Belgium/Europe and Related Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Changing Electricity System in Belgium/Europe and Related Research The Changing Electricity System in Belgium/Europe and Related Research Speaker(s): Johan Driesen Date: April 30, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 In the first part of the seminar, the changes in the electricity system in Europe in general and Belgium in particular are highlighted. These changes are partly technology-driven and partly imposed by the on-going deregulation according the EU guidelines. This has brought about many initiatives to introduce renewable energies and power-efficient systems, but also political problems and a heavy congestion problem. A short overview will be given, thereby indicating the differences with the US.The second part will discuss some recent and on-going research projects of the electrical energy research group and the Energy Institute of the

471

Plus c`est la meme chose: The future of nuclear weapons in Europe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the end of the Cold War, the United States perhaps more than any other nuclear weapon state has deeply questioned the future role of nuclear weapons, both in a strategic sense and in Europe. It is probably the United States that has raised the most questions about the continuing need for and efficacy of nuclear weapons, and has expressed the greatest concerns about the negative consequences of continuing nuclear weapons deployment. In the US, this period of questioning has now come to a pause, if not a conclusion. In late 1994 the United States decided to continue to pursue reductions in numbers of nuclear weapons as well as other changes designed to reduce the dangers associated with the possession of nuclear weapons. But at the same time the US concluded that some number of nuclear forces would continue to be needed for national security for the foreseeable future. These necessary nuclear forces include a continuing but greatly reduced stockpile of nuclear bombs deployed in Europe under NATO`s New Strategic Concept. If further changes to the US position on nuclear weapons in Europe are to occur, it is likely to be after many years, and only in the context of dramatic additional improvements in the political and geo-political climate in and around Europe. The future role of nuclear weapons in Europe, as discussed in this report, depends in part on past and future decisions by the United States. but it must also be noted that other states that deploy nuclear weapons in Europe--Britain, France, and Russia, as well as the NATO alliance--have shown little inclination to discontinue their deployment of such weapons, whatever the United States might choose to do in the future.

Maaranen, S.A.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Size Distributions of Airborne Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident at Several Places in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Size Distributions of Airborne Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident at Several Places in Europe ... (8) After about 10 days following the beginning of the releases, contaminated air masses reached Europe and yielded to an unusual airborne concentration for 2–3 weeks,(8) even if this was of no concern for public health thanks to atmospheric dispersion and deposition along the route from Japan. ... (35) In our opinion this “gas-to-particle conversion” results mainly from the adsorption of gas on particles. ...

Olivier Masson; Wolfgang Ringer; Helena Malá; Petr Rulik; Magdalena Dlugosz-Lisiecka; Konstantinos Eleftheriadis; Olivier Meisenberg; Anne De Vismes-Ott; François Gensdarmes

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

473

Fuel prices and new vehicle fuel economy—Comparing the United States and Western Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Several recent papers have documented an effect of fuel prices on new vehicle fuel economy in the United States. This paper estimates the effect of fuel prices on average new vehicle fuel economy for the eight largest European markets. The analysis spans the years 2002–2007 and uses detailed vehicle registration and specification data to control for policies, consumer preferences, and other potentially confounding factors. We find fuel prices to have a statistically significant effect on average new vehicle fuel economy in Europe. The effect estimated for Europe is much smaller than comparable estimates for the United States.

Thomas Klier; Joshua Linn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

The future of carbon capture and storage in Europe www.sccs.org.uk s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk p 1 The future of carbon capture and storage in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The future of carbon capture and storage in Europe www.sccs.org.uk s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk p 1 The future of carbon capture and storage in Europe Response to COM (2013) 180 final Professor Stuart Haszeldine Dr Vivian Scott Mr Chris Littlecott 1 July 2013 SCCS (Scottish carbon capture

Haszeldine, Stuart

475

Motorway Safety in Europe and Greece: A Comparative Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motorways offer a high level of road safety as compared to other road types. In most EU member states, motorways represent a percentage of all primary and secondary roads varying between 1% and 12% (EU15). In Greece this figure has been significantly lower until 2004 and since then it has been sharply increased. Road safety levels have been also improved as a consequence of that. The paper provides a comparative analysis of motorway safety among Greece and the EU and furthermore among Greek motorways. To achieve this, it makes use of certain safety indicators such as fatality and accident rates. In addition, for the Greek motorways, it makes use of additional data which are available from the motorway operators’ data bases including incidents and their causes. Association of accidents to drivers’ behavior is sought where possible. Finally, a more in depth investigation takes place concerning accidents in the Greek motorways, mainly in the ATTICA TOLLWAY and in EGNATIA ODOS.

Dimitrios Papaioannou; Alexandros Kokkalis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

The Organization and Cooperation in Europe: Media Protection Watchdog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Russia's downgrade to "not free" puts it at the level of other autocratic, non-democratic post-Soviet regimes. Freedom House?s 2007 country rating explanatory essay makes claims and gives examples about the Putin Administration by declaring... that Russia is heading in an authoritarian direction. 33 The essay argues that the Putin Administration supports autocratic regimes and opposes sanctions that IOs impose on dictatorships suspected of human rights violations. The Putin Administration...

Mason, Janet Lynn

2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

477

Characteristics of the performance and emissions of a HSDI diesel engine running with cottonseed oil or its methyl ester and their blends with diesel fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the use of various blends of cottonseed oil or its methyl ester (bio-diesel) with diesel fuel, in blend ratios from 10/90 up to 100/0, in a fully instrumented, four-stroke, High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' diesel engine. The tests were conducted using each of the above fuel blends or neat fuels, with the engine working at a medium and a high load. Volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust-regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons were measured. The differences in the performance and exhaust emissions from the baseline operation of the engine, that is, when working with neat diesel fuel, were determined and compared, as well as the differences between cottonseed oil or its methyl ester and their blends. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion were used to aid the correct interpretation of the engine behaviour.

Constantine D. Rakopoulos; Kimon A. Antonopoulos; Dimitrios C. Rakopoulos; Emmanuel C. Kakaras; Efthimios G. Pariotis

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Use of functionalized metallocene copolymers from ethylene and polar olefins as compatibilizers for low-density-polyethylene/starch and low-density-polyethylene/dextran blends .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Functionalized metallocene copolymers synthesized from ethylene with 5-hexen-1-ol and ethylene with 10-undecen-1-ol were used as compatibilizers in LDPE/starch and LDPE/dextran blends in order to improve… (more)

Domínguez Barceló, Ana María

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Use of SEBS/EPR and SBR/EPR as binary compatibilizers for PE/PP/PS/HIPS blends: A work oriented to the recycling of thermoplastic wastes .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Recycling of thermoplastic wastes consisting using SEBS/EPR and SBR/EPR as compatibilizers. The effect of PE/PP/PS/HIPS blends was investigated by The effect of the binary compatibilizer… (more)

Equiza, Nilton

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Deutsche Telekom launches new integrated location-based services in selected markets across Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deutsche Telekom launches new integrated location-based services in selected markets across Europe in Q4 last year, services will be available in 2010 in the Netherlands and other countries Deutsche and check the weather in the area. Deutsche Telekom's LBS service is truly for the mass market. From launch

Deutschmann, Rainer

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend levels europe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Modeling dust emissions and transport within Europe: The Ukraine March 2007 event  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling dust emissions and transport within Europe: The Ukraine March 2007 event Bertrand originating from Ukraine related to chernozemic-erodible lands. Using surface and satellite measurements in the Netherlands, Belgium, and the north of France were mostly due to the extremely rare Ukraine dust event

Menut, Laurent

482

Hypersonic test facilities available in Western Europe for aerodynamic/aerothermal and structure/material investigations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...compiled by L. H. Townend Hypersonic test facilities available in Western Europe...brief description of the hypersonic ground test requirements, the paper first gives an...Gottingen, Germany; and (v) the hot-shot test facility F4 of ONERA in Le Fauga, France...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

The event is free and open to the public "Germany in Europe" Campus Weeks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The event is free and open to the public "Germany in Europe" Campus Weeks German Embassy and German Educator Seattle, WA and Cologne, Germany Marcel Machill Professor of Journalism and International Media Systems University of Leipzig, Germany Randy Smith, Co-director, MU Center for the Digital Globe Donald W

Missouri-Columbia, University of

484

Alien Terrestrial Invertebrates of Europe Alain Roques, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Jean-Yves Rasplus,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 5 Alien Terrestrial Invertebrates of Europe Alain Roques, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Jean of animals and plants, no checklist of alien terrestrial inverte- brates was available in any of the European the existing lists were inherently difficult because they used different definitions of alien. Thus, estimat

Richner, Heinz

485

Project EARTH-13-TM1: Understanding CO2 emissions from Europe's restless caldera-forming volcanoes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project EARTH-13-TM1: Understanding CO2 emissions from Europe's restless caldera-forming volcanoes the information contained in volcano CO2 emissions is important from both a volcanic hazards perspective into this program. The opportunity will also be taken to map out CO2 emissions at these systems and to review what

Henderson, Gideon

486

Predicting the net carbon exchanges of crop rotations in Europe with an agro-ecosystem model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting the net carbon exchanges of crop rotations in Europe with an agro-ecosystem model S.Lehuger@art.admin.ch. Fax: (+41) 44 377 72 01. Phone: (+41) 44 377 75 13. hal-00414342,version2-1Sep2010 #12;Abstract Carbon and measuring land-atmosphere carbon exchanges from arable lands are important tasks to predict the influence

Boyer, Edmond

487

Brussels, 07.10.2003 Position paper: Europe should lead the fight against global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Brussels, 07.10.2003 Position paper: Europe should lead the fight against global warming Climate, and withdraw completely from oldfashioned energy sources, i.e. coal, petroleum and natural gas by 2050. Most. In addition, the EU must set a long-term global threshold of the temperatures not raising more than two

Laughlin, Robert B.

488

Introduction Apis mellifera L. is native to Europe, Africa, and Asia (including Saudi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Apis mellifera L. is native to Europe, Africa, and Asia (including Saudi Arabia, Iran migrations and introductions (Ruttner, 1988). Apis mellifera includes about two dozen subspecies bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations from the USA Allen L Szalanski1* and Roxane M Magnus1 1 Social

Szalanski, Allen L.

489

The rare earth element distribution over Europe: geogenic and anthropogenic sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...increased risk of liver and bone cancer. REE toxicity has been investigated...such as seawater tends to be depleted in Ce on REE plots. The FOREGS...very similar to that of high uranium values described by Plant et...G., The distribution of uranium over Europe: geological and...

L. Fedele; J.A. Plant; B. De Vivo; A. Lima

490

Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater of Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens, Greece21 *Co-first authors. ABSTRACT Aims To perform wastewater population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants

Wehrli, Bernhard

491

MINES-TELECOM INSTITUTE, MINES DOUAI RMOD INRIA LILLE NORD EUROPE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MINES-TELECOM INSTITUTE, MINES DOUAI RMOD INRIA LILLE NORD EUROPE TECHNICAL REPORT Extended results for this case. We succeed to reduce the application's size to 1% of its original counterpart. 1 FileStream startUp: true. 2 1 to: 10 do: [ :i | FileStream stdout nextPutAll: 'hello'; crlf ]. Figure 1: Entry point

Boyer, Edmond

492

MINES-TELECOM INSTITUTE, MINES DOUAI RMOD INRIA LILLE NORD EUROPE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MINES-TELECOM INSTITUTE, MINES DOUAI RMOD INRIA LILLE NORD EUROPE TECHNICAL REPORT Tornado: A Run the application's size to 1% of its original counterpart. 1 FileStream startUp: true. 2 1 to: 10 do: [ :i | FileStream

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

493

Des dveloppements durables. Quel rfrentiel pour les politiques de dveloppement durable en Europe ?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Europe ? Sustainable developments. Sustainable policies within the EU : looking for a framework François some operational framework to sustainable development lies in the fact that sustainable development. It supposes abandoning the unique and universal sustainable development's myth, and to replace it by plural

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

494

Ensemble operational air quality assessments in Europe Improving modeling platforms with statistical analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ensemble operational air quality assessments in Europe ­ Improving modeling platforms. For regional air quality, seven regional modeling teams combine state-of-the-art atmospheric modeling the ensemble or a unique model. Keywords: Air quality, modeling system, ensemble approach, validation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

495

WILL THE STORK RETURN TO EUROPE AND JAPAN? UNDERSTANDING FERTILITY WITHIN DEVELOPED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 WILL THE STORK RETURN TO EUROPE AND JAPAN? UNDERSTANDING FERTILITY WITHIN DEVELOPED NATIONS James specialize in household production and fertility is high. In an intermediate phase, women have increasing opportunities to earn a living outside the home yet still shoulder the bulk of household production. Fertility

Lotko, William

496

Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America; published 3 July 2002. [1] We examine the transatlantic transport of anthropogenic ozone and its impact Head (Ireland) and Sable Island (Canada) are used to evaluate transatlantic transport in the model

Palmer, Paul

497

Germany and the future of nuclear deterrence in Europe. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the unification of Germany have fundamentally changed the politics of security in Europe. This thesis analyzes German perspectives on the international security environment and offers judgments about the probable future role of nuclear deterrence in European security. The thesis begins with a survey of the role of nuclear deterrence in the security policy of the Federal Republic of Germany during the period prior to reunification in 1989-1990. This is followed by an analysis of German views on the West European nuclear powers: the United Kingdom and France. German views on the U.S. nuclear presence and U.S. commitments to Europe are then examined. German views on nuclear weapons in the former Soviet Union and the potential for proliferation on Europe's periphery complete the survey. For the short term, Germany will not change its present policies regarding nuclear deterrence in Europe. The German nation is likely to remain preoccupied with the re-unification process for several years, and German politicians are not disposed to seek a debate on nuclear deterrence. The Germans generally consider Britain and France incapable of providing adequate nuclear protection for the Federal Republic in the near term. so the Germans will continue to rely on the United States for a nuclear guarantee. Germany, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), NATO Nuclear Policy, Nuclear Deterrence, Deterrence, Transatlantic Security, European Security, New National Security Strategy, Nuclear Weapons. Nuclear Strategy.

Gunning, E.G.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Effect of different percentages of biodiesel–diesel blends on injection, spray, combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A comparative study of effect of different biodiesel–diesel blends (B5, B10, B15, B20, B25, B50 and B100) on injection, spray, combustion, performance, and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine at constant speed (1500 rpm) was carried out. The penetration distance increased with increase in percentage of biodiesel in diesel due to enhanced in-line fuel pressure. The simulation results indicate the spray penetration with biodiesel–diesel blend up to B15 does not lead to wall impingement but B20 is to be a critical limit of wall impingement (within uncertainty ±1.3%). However, it is observed clearly from the simulation results that probability of wall impingement is more with higher blends (B25, B50 and B100). The ignition delay period decreased with all biodiesel blends due to higher cetane number resulting in less rate of pressure rise and the smooth engine running operation. The engine torque does not change significantly with biodiesel–diesel blends up to 20% (B20). However, the torque reduction is about 2.7% with B100 at the rated load. Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions decreased with all biodiesel–diesel blends. However, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission increased in the range of 1.4–22.8% with all biodiesel–diesel blends at rated load due to oxygenated fuel, automatic advance in dynamic injection timing (DIT), higher penetration and higher in-cylinder temperature. A notable conclusion emerged from this study is the optimum biodiesel–diesel blend based on no wall impingement (B15: 0% and B20 ±1.3% uncertainty limit) and increase in \\{NOx\\} emission (B15: 4.1% and B20: 15.6%) in a conventional (unmodified) diesel engine is up to B15.

Subhash Lahane; K.A. Subramanian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Co-coking of Hydrotreated Decant Oil/Coal Blends: Effect of Hydrotreatment Severity on the Yield Distribution and Quality of Distillate Fuels  

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The coke yield from delayed co-coking of hydrotreated DOs and coal blends was observed to be in the range of 15.9–24.4%. ... The coal used in this study (EI-106) was a 50:50 blend of the Powellton and Eagle seams, both very similar coals of high-volatile A bituminous rank from West Virginia. ... One of the hydrotreated DOs (EI-133) was coked alone. ...

Ömer Gül; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert

2013-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

500

Investigation of Biodiesel–Diesel Fuel Blends on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Using OpenFOAM  

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Investigation of Biodiesel–Diesel Fuel Blends on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Using OpenFOAM ... (1) In addition, biodiesel can be used in existing compression ignition (CI) or diesel engines with minimal or no modifications because its physicochemical characteristics are very similar to those of fossil diesel. ... However, when CME, PME, and SME are blended with 50 vol % of diesel fuel, the general trend as discussed above is not reproduced. ...

Harun Mohamed Ismail; Hoon Kiat Ng; Suyin Gan; Xinwei Cheng; Tommaso Lucchini

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z