National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for blend dispenser labeling

  1. NREL UL Fuel Dispensing Infrastructure Intermediate Blends Performance Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Clark, W.

    2011-01-01

    Presentation provides an overview of NREL's project to determine compatibility and safe performance of installed fuel dispensing infrastructure with E15.

  2. Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    D, Table D1: UL-Certified E25 & E85 Fuel Dispensing Equipment List. September 2013. UL-Certified E25 & E85 Fuel Dispensing Equipment List Manufacturer Equipment Model Gilbarco Dispenser Encore Series 300, 500, 550, 700, may be suffixed S, Model N fol- lowed by A, followed by 0, 1, 2, or 3 Gilbarco Dispenser Encore Series 300, 500, 550, 700, may be suffixed S, Model N fol- lowed by B, followed by 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 Gilbarco Dispenser Encore Series 300, Model N followed by G, followed by 0

  3. NREL UL E15 Fuel Dispensing Infrastructure Intermediate Blends Performance Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Clark, W.

    2011-02-01

    Presentation provides an overview of NREL's project to determine compatibility and safe performance of installed fuel dispensing infrastructure with E15.

  4. Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends. September 2013. Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends Manufacturer Compatibility Statement Fiberglass 1 Containment Solutions Tanks manufactured after January 1, 1995 are all compatible with ethanol blends up to 100% (E100) (UL Listed) Owens Corning Single Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and 1994 are approved to store up to 10% ethanol (E10) Double Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and July 1, 1990 are

  5. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  6. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-17

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  7. Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    A2: Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment). September 2013. Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment) Manufacturer Product Model Ethanol Compatibility Bravo Systems Fiberglass Fittings Series F, FF, FPE, FR, F Retrofit- S, RPE Retrofit-Si, F BLR, F D-BLR-S, TBF E0-E100 Bravo Systems Spill Buckets B3XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Tank Sumps & Covers B4XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Transition Sumps (planter, walkover, H-20 rated) B5XX, B6XX, B7XX, B8XX

  8. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    3-3861 September 2013 Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process

  9. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Brochure), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    6-4854 February 2016 Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: E25 Dispensers Certified, E15

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Warranty Upgraded, and Testing on Ethanol Blends Continues (May 2010) E25 Dispensers Certified, E15 Warranty Upgraded, and Testing on Ethanol Blends Continues (May 2010) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: E25 Dispensers Certified, E15 Warranty Upgraded, and Testing on Ethanol Blends Continues (May 2010) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: E25 Dispensers Certified, E15 Warranty Upgraded, and Testing on Ethanol Blends

  11. Colorado E85 Dispensing Waiver Letter

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Date: December 27, 2006 FROM: Colorado Division of Oil and Public Safety Colorado Division of Fire Safety Fire Marshals' Association of Colorado Governor's Office of Energy Management and Conservation TO: All Interested Parties RE: E-85 Dispensers On October 5, 2006, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) suspended authorization for manufacturers to use UL Markings (listing or recognition) on components for fuel dispensing devices that specifically reference compatibility with alcohol blended fuels that

  12. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into

  13. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, S.P.

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser is disclosed for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 {micro}m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (ca. 200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments. 4 figs.

  14. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 .mu.m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (.about.200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments.

  15. Apparatus for dispensing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY); Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY)

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

  16. Hydrogen, CNG, and HCNG Dispenser System – Prototype Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Francfort

    2005-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is currently testing a prototype gaseous fuel dispenser developed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC). The dispenser (Figure 1) delivers three types of fuels: 100% hydrogen, 100% compressed natural gas (CNG), and blends of hydrogen and CNG (HCNG) using two independent single nozzles (Figure 2). The nozzle for the 100% hydrogen dispensing is rated at 5,000 psig and used solely for 100% hydrogen fuel. The second nozzle is rated at 3,600 psig and is used for both CNG and HCNG fuels. This nozzle connects to both a CNG supply line and a hydrogen supply line and blends the hydrogen and CNG to supply HCNG levels of 15, 20, 30, and 50% (by volume).

  17. Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

    2010-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Blender Pump Dispensers

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Blender Pump Dispensers to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Blender Pump Dispensers on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Blender Pump Dispensers on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Blender Pump Dispensers on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Blender Pump Dispensers on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Blender Pump Dispensers on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Blender Pump Dispensers on

  19. Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have...

  20. E85 Dispenser Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Johnson, C.; Sears, T.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-12-01

    This study reviews E85 dispensing infrastructure advances and issues and evaluates the geographic concentration of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), E85 stations, ethanol production facilities, and E85 suppliers. Costs, space, financial incentives, and barriers to adding E85 fueling equipment at existing stations are also assessed. This study found that E85 is increasingly available in the U.S. in half of the states; however, the other half have minimal or no E85 fueling options. Despite these gains, E85 is only available at 1% of U.S. gasoline stations. Ethanol production reached 9.5 billion gallons in 2008, but less than 1% is consumed as E85. FFVs have not reached a significant concentration in any county, metropolitan area, or state.

  1. Biodiesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    A 2-page fact sheet discussing general biodiesel blends and the improvement in engine performance and emissions.

  2. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Storage - Challenges and Opportunities Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company

  3. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aaron Harris, Sandia National Laboratories CSD Safety and Reliability Data, Kevin Harrison, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Coriolis Meters for Hydrogen Dispensing ...

  4. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy...

  5. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Underwriters Laboratories Ethanol Dispenser

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Safety Testing Underwriters Laboratories Ethanol Dispenser Safety Testing to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Underwriters Laboratories Ethanol Dispenser Safety Testing on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Underwriters Laboratories Ethanol Dispenser Safety Testing on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Underwriters Laboratories Ethanol Dispenser Safety Testing on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Underwriters Laboratories

  7. System for Dispensing a Precise Amount of Fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Dzenitis, John M. (Danville, CA); Ness, Kevin D. (Mountain View, CA)

    2008-08-12

    A dispensing system delivers a precise amount of fluid for biological or chemical processing and/or analysis. Dispensing means moves the fluid. The dispensing means is operated by a pneumatic force. Connection means delivers the fluid to the desired location. An actuator means provides the pneumatic force to the dispensing means. Valving means transmits the pneumatic force from the actuator means to the dispensing means.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: E85 Dispenser System

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Certified (June 2010) E85 Dispenser System Certified (June 2010) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: E85 Dispenser System Certified (June 2010) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: E85 Dispenser System Certified (June 2010) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: E85 Dispenser System Certified (June 2010) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: E85 Dispenser System

  9. Coriolis Meters for Hydrogen Dispensing Measurement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coriolis Meters for Hydrogen Dispensing Measurement Coriolis Meters for Hydrogen Dispensing Measurement This presentation by John Daly of GE Measurement and Control Solutions was given at the DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Workshop in March 2013. PDF icon csd_workshop_14_daly.pdf More Documents & Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Report on RFI DE-FOA-000753: High-Accuracy Hydrogen Meters Metering Best

  10. State of Michigan Bulletin Regarding E85 Fuel Dispensers

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    State Fire Marshal Bulletin 11 E-85 Fuel Dispensers We have become aware of the lack of an approved national standard for the dispensers and connected appurtenances involved in the dispensing of fuel, which contains more than 15% alcohol (E-85). The Michigan State Fire Code currently requires all dispensing equipment to be listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory; however, since there is no standard, no listing can currently be placed on these systems. We have discussed this issue

  11. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury. 2 figs.

  12. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

    1987-04-28

    A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

  13. Dispensing Hydrogen Fuel to Vehicles | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen Delivery » Dispensing Hydrogen Fuel to Vehicles Dispensing Hydrogen Fuel to Vehicles Photo of a person dispensing hydrogen into a vehicle fuel tank The technology used for storing hydrogen onboard vehicles directly affects the design and selection of the delivery system and infrastructure. In the near term, 700 bar gaseous onboard storage has been chosen by the original equipment manufacturers for the first vehicles to be released commercially, and 350 bar is the chosen pressure for

  14. A 0.25 Picoliter Electrostatic MEMS Sideshooter Drop Dispenser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: A 0.25 Picoliter Electrostatic MEMS Sideshooter Drop Dispenser. Abstract not provided. Authors: Galambos, Paul C. ; Pohl, Kenneth Roy ; Luck, David L. ; Czaplewski, David A. ...

  15. E85 Fuel Dispensers Lacking UL Listing

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alcohol and Gambling Enforcement Buresu of Crmrnal Apprehension Drrder and Vehicle Serwces Hom~e land Security and Emergency Managomcnt M~nnesota State Patrol Office of Cornmuntcations Off~ce of Justice Programs State Fire Marshal and Pipdine Safety State Fire Marshal and Pipeline Safety 444 Cedar Street Suite 145 Saint Paul. Minnesota 5 5 10 1-5 14.5 Phone: 651.ZU1.7200 Fax: 651.215.05G TTY: 651.282.6555 www.dps.state.mn.us Mn State Fire Marshal Update October 23.2006 E-85 Fuel Dispensers Iack

  16. System for Dispensing a Precise Amount of Fluid (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. A dispensing system delivers a precise amount of fluid for biological or chemical processing andor analysis. Dispensing means moves the...

  17. Hydrogen Production and Dispensing Facility Opens at W. Va. Airport

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A hydrogen production and dispensing station constructed and operated with support from the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory was officially opened Monday at the Yeager Airport in Charleston, W.Va.

  18. Ethanol Distribution, Dispensing, and Use: Analysis of a Portion of the Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Using System Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L. J.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

    2012-05-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and widespread use of high ethanol blends in flexible-fuel vehicles.

  19. System for Dispensing a Precise Amount of Fluid (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Patent: System for Dispensing a Precise Amount of Fluid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: System for Dispensing a Precise Amount of Fluid A dispensing system delivers a precise amount of fluid for biological or chemical processing and/or analysis. Dispensing means moves the fluid. The dispensing means is operated by a pneumatic force. Connection means delivers the fluid to the desired location. An actuator means provides the pneumatic force to the

  20. Methods and systems for integrating fluid dispensing technology with stereolithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medina, Francisco (El Paso, TX); Wicker, Ryan (El Paso, TX); Palmer, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Don W. (Albuquerque, NM); Chavez, Bart D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallegos, Phillip L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-09

    An integrated system and method of integrating fluid dispensing technologies (e.g., direct-write (DW)) with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies (e.g., stereolithography (SL)) without part registration comprising: an SL apparatus and a fluid dispensing apparatus further comprising a translation mechanism adapted to translate the fluid dispensing apparatus along the Z-, Y- and Z-axes. The fluid dispensing apparatus comprises: a pressurized fluid container; a valve mechanism adapted to control the flow of fluid from the pressurized fluid container; and a dispensing nozzle adapted to deposit the fluid in a desired location. To aid in calibration, the integrated system includes a laser sensor and a mechanical switch. The method further comprises building a second part layer on top of the fluid deposits and optionally accommodating multi-layered circuitry by incorporating a connector trace. Thus, the present invention is capable of efficiently building single and multi-material SL fabricated parts embedded with complex three-dimensional circuitry using DW.

  1. Plasma processes inside dispenser hollow cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.; Jameson, Kristina K.

    2006-06-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model of the plasma and neutral gas inside dispenser orificed hollow cathodes has been developed to quantify plasma processes that ultimately determine the life of the porous emitters inserted in these devices. The model self-consistently accounts for electron emission from the insert as well as for electron and ion flux losses from the plasma. Two cathodes, which are distinctively different in size and operating conditions, have been simulated numerically. It is found that the larger cathode, with outer tube diameter of 1.5 cm and orifice diameter of 0.3 cm, establishes an effective emission zone that spans approximately the full length of the emitter when operated at a discharge current of 25 A and a flow rate of 5.5 sccm. The net heating of the emitter is caused by ions that are produced by ionization of the neutral gas inside the tube and are then accelerated by the sheath along the emitter. The smaller cathode, with an outer diameter of 0.635 cm and an orifice diameter of 0.1 cm, does not exhibit the same operational characteristics. At a flow rate of 4.25 sccm and discharge current of 12 A, the smaller cathode requires 4.5 times the current density near the orifice and operates with more than 6 times the neutral particle density compared to the large cathode. As a result, the plasma particle density is almost one order of magnitude higher compared to the large cathode. The plasma density in this small cathode is high enough such that the Debye length is sufficiently small to allow 'sheath funneling' into the pores of the emitter. By accessing areas deeper into the insert material, it is postulated that the overall emission of electrons is significantly enhanced. The maximum emission current density is found to be about 1 A/mm{sup 2} in the small cathode, which is about one order of magnitude higher than attained in the large cathode. The effective emission zone in the small cathode extends to about 15% of the emitter length only, and the power deposited at the emitter surface by returning electrons is found to be twice that deposited by ions. A previous study suggested that the computed particle flux and energy of ions to the emitter of the 1.5 cm cathode were not high enough to change the barium evaporation rate compared to thermally induced evaporation. The same suggestion is made here for the 0.635 cm cathode. The peak ion flux to the emitter is found to be 1.2 A/cm{sup 2} (7.6x10{sup 18}/s cm{sup 2}), and the corresponding peak sheath drop is 2.9 V. Consequently, once the emitter operating temperature is known it is possible to determine directly the barium depletion-limited life of these cathodes using existing vacuum-cathode data.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends E15

  3. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, D.; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

  4. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Karner; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen–50% CNG fuel.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics

  6. EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf PDF icon EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf More Documents &...

  7. Method and apparatus for producing drops using a drop-on-demand dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Alvin U. (West Lafayette, IN); Basaran, Osman A. (West Lafayette, IN)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for dispensing fluid from a drop-on-demand (DOD) fluid dispenser. The method involves withdrawing fluid in the dispenser for a first duration of time, followed by a second duration of time during which the fluid is propelled toward the orifice of the dispenser. Following the period during which the fluid is propelled, there is a second withdrawing of the fluid into the dispenser. The duration of the propelling period is shorter than the duration of either the first withdrawing or the second withdrawing. The propelling of the fluid results in the extension of a small tongue of fluid from the meniscus of the fluid. The second withdrawing of the fluid results in a retraction of the meniscus into the passageway such that only the small tongue of fluid separates and is ejected from the dispenser.

  8. Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) Template for California Hydrogen Dispensing Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivkin, C.; Blake, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.; Post, M.

    2012-11-01

    This report explains the Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) requirements for hydrogen dispensing stations in the State of California. The reports shows the basic components of a hydrogen dispensing station in a simple schematic drawing; the permits and approvals that would typically be required for the construction and operation of a hydrogen dispensing station; and a basic permit that might be employed by an Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ).

  9. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Proceedings from the Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop held March 20-21, 2013, at Argonne National Laboratory.

  10. South Texas Blending | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: South Texas Blending Place: Laredo, Texas Zip: 78045 Product: Biodiesel producer based in Texas. References: South Texas Blending1 This article is a stub....

  11. Oregon Fire Marshall Letter

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and E85 fuel ethanol fuel specification, dispensers, and dispenser labeling requirements This is a summary of Oregon's biofuel (biodiesel, biodiesel blends, and E85 fuel ethanol) regulations and dispenser labeling requirements. Please refer to OAR 603-027-0410 thru OAR 603-027-0490 for the complete regulation. In addition, we try to answer some common questions about dispensers permitted for use with biofuels. Due to the unique characteristics of these fuels, certain precautions must be taken.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement A retail motor fuel dispenser that dispenses fuel containing more than 10% ethanol by volume must be labeled with the capital letter "E" followed by the numerical value representing the volume percentage of ethanol, such as E85, as specified in Kansas Department of Agriculture guidelines. (Reference Kansas Administrative Regulations 99-25-10

  13. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-22

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen-50% CNG fuel.

  14. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-22

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

  15. Method to blend separator powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  16. Intrinsically safe moisture blending system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

    2012-09-11

    A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

  17. Navigation Labels and Approval

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE has commonly used and approved navigation labels. To maintain consistency in navigation across EERE, the EERE Template Coordinator reviews and approves requests for new navigation labels and...

  18. Mid-Level Ethanol Blends

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program DOE, NREL, and ORNL Team Presented by Keith Knoll Work supported by DOE/EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation meeting May 19, 2009 Kevin Stork Vehicle Technologies Program Shab Fardanesh and Joan Glickman Office of the Biomass Program This presentation does not contain any proprietary or classified information Project ID: ft_05_knoll Collaborators Kevin Stork DOE OVT Shab Fardanesh DOE OBP Joan Glickman DOE OBP Wendy Clark

  19. Tropexx - Blending System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Tropexx - Blending System Y-12 National Security Complex Contact Y12 About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Fact Sheet (784 KB) PDF Document Publication Patent (88 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryThe Tropexx Blending System is a high-resolution blending system that works with gases, vapors and volatile (readily vaporizable) liquids in addition to moisture. Tropexx can be used to check

  20. DOE Challenge Home Label Methodology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    October 2012 1 Label Methodology DOE Challenge Home Label Methodology October 2012 DOE Challenge Home October 2012 2 Label Methodology Contents Background ............................................................................................................................................... 3 Methodology ............................................................................................................................................. 5 Comfort/Quiet

  1. Control method for high-pressure hydrogen vehicle fueling station dispensers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kountz, Kenneth John; Kriha, Kenneth Robert; Liss, William E.

    2006-06-13

    A method for quick filling a vehicle hydrogen storage vessel with hydrogen, the key component of which is an algorithm used to control the fill process, which interacts with the hydrogen dispensing apparatus to determine the vehicle hydrogen storage vessel capacity.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements Pumps that dispense ethanol-blended gasoline available for purchase must be labeled with the registered brand name and the volume percentage, or blend level, of the ethanol (10% or less, 10-15%, 15-85% or 85%). The labels must be affixed to the front panel of the pump in a position that is clearly visible to the vehicle driver. Graphics requirements apply. (Reference North Carolina Administrative Code Title 2, Chapter 42, Subchapter .0401; and North Carolina

  3. Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Siclovan, Oltea Puica; Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar; Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao; Porob, Digamber G.; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Heward, William Jordan; Radkov, Emil Vergilov; Briel, Linda Jane Valyou

    2010-12-28

    Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

  4. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  5. A Multicomponent Blend as a Diesel Fuel Surrogate for Compression...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Multicomponent Blend as a Diesel Fuel Surrogate for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Title A Multicomponent Blend as a Diesel Fuel Surrogate for Compression Ignition...

  6. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  7. CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior Presentation given by Jay ...

  8. Sandia Energy - Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks Home Renewable Energy Energy Transportation Energy Biofuels...

  9. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels ...

  10. Macrophase Separation of Blends of Diblock Copolymers in Thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Macrophase Separation of Blends of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Macrophase Separation of Blends of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films ...

  11. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  12. Two glass transitions in miscible polymer blends?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2014-06-28

    In contrast to mixtures of two small molecule fluids, miscible binary polymer blends often exhibit two structural relaxation times and two glass transition temperatures. Qualitative explanations postulate phenomenological models of local concentration enhancements due to chain connectivity in ideal, fully miscible systems. We develop a quantitative theory that explains qualitative trends in the dynamics of real miscible polymer blends which are never ideal mixtures. The theory is a synthesis of the lattice cluster theory of blend thermodynamics, the generalized entropy theory for glass-formation in polymer materials, and the Kirkwood-Buff theory for concentration fluctuations in binary mixtures.

  13. Microfluidic device and method for focusing, segmenting, and dispensing of a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Stephen C.; Ramsey, J. Michael

    2004-09-14

    A microfluidic device for forming and/or dispensing minute volume segments of a material is described. In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, a microfluidic device and method is provided for spatially confining the material in a focusing element. The device is also capable of segmenting the confined material into minute volume segments, and dispensing a volume segment to a waste or collection channel. The device further includes means for driving the respective streams of sample and focusing fluids through respective channels into a chamber, such that the focusing fluid streams spatially confine the sample material. The device may also include additional means for driving a minute volume segment of the spatially confined sample material into a collection channel in fluid communication with the waste reservoir.

  14. Microfluidic device and method for focusing, segmenting, and dispensing of a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Stephen C [Knoxville, TN; Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    A microfluidic device and method for forming and dispensing minute volume segments of a material are described. In accordance with the present invention, a microfluidic device and method are provided for spatially confining the material in a focusing element. The device is also adapted for segmenting the confined material into minute volume segments, and dispensing a volume segment to a waste or collection channel. The device further includes means for driving the respective streams of sample and focusing fluids through respective channels into a chamber, such that the focusing fluid streams spatially confine the sample material. The device may also include additional means for driving a minute volume segment of the spatially confined sample material into a collection channel in fluid communication with the waste reservoir.

  15. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid Summary Report November 2010 Kenneth Boyce, Principal Engineer Manager - Energy J. Thomas Chapin, Vice President - Corporate Research Underwriters Laboratories Inc. 333 Pfingsten Road Northbrook, Illinois 60062 This publication received minimal editorial review at NREL. NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any

  16. Underwriters Laboratories now accepting certification investigation requests for E85 fuel dispensing equipment

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    MEDIA CONTACT: Joe Hirschmugl Global Media Relations Supervisor Underwriters Laboratories Phone: +1 847 830-1404 E-mail: Joseph.F.Hirschmugl@us.ul.com PRESS RELEASE FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Underwriters Laboratories Announces Development of Certification Requirements for E85 Dispensers Now Accepting Product Submittals for Certification Investigation NORTHBROOK, Ill. Oct. 16, 2007 - Underwriters Laboratories (UL), North America's leading safety testing and certification organization, announced the

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

  18. Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends October 7, 2008 - 4:14pm Addthis In August 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to assess the potential impacts of higher intermediate ethanol blends on conventional vehicles and other engines that rely on gasoline. The test program focuses specifically on the effects of intermediate blends of E15 and E20-gasoline blended with 15 and 20 percent ethanol, respectively-on

  19. Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ft003_mccormick_2013_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends

  20. Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ft005_west_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf

  1. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office?¢????s (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost?¢???effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally?¢???friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  2. Capacitive label reader

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  3. Capacitive label reader

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arlowe, H. Duane (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  4. Capacitive label reader

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  5. Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

    2010-06-09

    Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

  6. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009...

  7. Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends The results of a quality survey of B20 fuel in the United States were ...

  8. Mid-Level Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Mid-Level Ethanol Blends 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ft_05_knoll.pdf More Documents & Publications Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program Biofuels Quality Surveys Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009

  9. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

  10. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  11. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  12. Hydrogen Station Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Technical Status and Costs: Systems Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, G.; Boyd, R.; Cornish, J.; Remick, R.

    2014-05-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory commissioned an independent review of hydrogen compression, storage, and dispensing (CSD) for pipeline delivery of hydrogen and forecourt hydrogen production. The panel was asked to address the (1) cost calculation methodology, (2) current cost/technical status, (3) feasibility of achieving the FCTO's 2020 CSD levelized cost targets, and to (4) suggest research areas that will help the FCTO reach its targets. As the panel neared the completion of these tasks, it was also asked to evaluate CSD costs for the delivery of hydrogen by high-pressure tube trailer. This report details these findings.

  13. Method and apparatus for dispensing small quantities of mercury from evacuated and sealed glass capsules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Pai, R.Y.

    1985-08-13

    A technique is disclosed for opening an evacuated and sealed glass capsule containing a material that is to be dispensed which has a relatively high vapor pressure such as mercury. The capsule is typically disposed in a discharge tube envelope. The technique involves the use of a first light source imaged along the capsule and a second light source imaged across the capsule substantially transversely to the imaging of the first light source. Means are provided for constraining a segment of the capsule along its length with the constraining means being positioned to correspond with the imaging of the second light source. These light sources are preferably incandescent projection lamps. The constraining means is preferably a multiple looped wire support. 6 figs.

  14. Method and apparatus for dispensing small quantities of mercury from evacuated and sealed glass capsules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Framingham, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA); Pai, Robert Y. (Hamilton, MA)

    1985-01-01

    A technique for opening an evacuated and sealed glass capsule containing a material that is to be dispensed which has a relatively high vapor pressure such as mercury. The capsule is typically disposed in a discharge tube envelope. The technique involves the use of a first light source imaged along the capsule and a second light source imaged across the capsule substantially transversely to the imaging of the first light source. Means are provided for constraining a segment of the capsule along its length with the constraining means being positioned to correspond with the imaging of the second light source. These light sources are preferably incandescent projection lamps. The constraining means is preferably a multiple looped wire support.

  15. Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Robert McCormick Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Fuels and Lubricants Technologies May 16, 2013 Project ID: FT003 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 Overview Timeline Start date: Oct 2012 End date: Sept 2013 Percent complete: 66% Program funded one year at a time Barriers VTP MYPP Fuels & Lubricants Technologies Goals * By 2013 identify light-duty (LD) non-petroleum

  16. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2012-10-10

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  17. Map labeling and its generalizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doddi, S. |; Marathe, M.V.; Mirzaian, A.; Moret, B.M.E.; Zhu, B. |

    1997-01-01

    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  18. Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends *Accurately measure exhaust profile from an HCCI engine with a variety of fuels and create a better understanding of HCCI engine emissions. PDF icon deer09_bunting.pdf More Documents & Publications A Comparison of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling Results over a Wide Rangeof Gasoline Range Surrogate Fuel Blends Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel

  19. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_pedersen.pdf More Documents & Publications Key Benefits in Using Ethanol-Diesel Blends Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder

  20. Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heavin, Leonard J. (Olympia, WA); King, Edward E. (Gig Harbor, WA); Milliron, Dennis L. (Lacey, WA)

    1982-10-26

    A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

  1. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    117 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated February 2009 Prepared by Keith Knoll Brian West Wendy Clark...

  2. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  3. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mixtures of ethanol, gasoline, and higher alcohols were evaluated to determine if they offer superior performance to ethanol/gasoline blends in meeting the Renewal Fuels Standard II.

  4. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 | Department of Energy Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 PDF

  5. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid particles have higher density and/or larger size than indicated by previous analysis of SRS sludge and sludge simulants. (5) Tank 21 waste characterization, laboratory settling tests, and additional field turbidity measurements during mixing evolutions are recommended to better understand potential risk for extended (> 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and

  7. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization PDF icon...

  8. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-03-30

    Novel methods for positron emission tomography or single photon emission spectroscopy using tracer compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)napthyl Y in .beta. configuration is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, The compounds bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  9. Oxygen transport in the internal xenon plasma of a dispenser hollow cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capece, Angela M. Shepherd, Joseph E.; Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2014-04-21

    Reactive gases such as oxygen and water vapor modify the surface morphology of BaO dispenser cathodes and degrade the electron emission properties. For vacuum cathodes operating at fixed temperature, the emission current drops rapidly when oxygen adsorbs on top of the low work function surface. Previous experiments have shown that plasma cathodes are more resistant to oxygen poisoning and can operate with O{sub 2} partial pressures one to two orders of magnitude higher than vacuum cathodes before the onset of poisoning occurs. Plasma cathodes used for electric thrusters are typically operated with xenon; however, gas phase barium, oxygen, and tungsten species may be found in small concentrations. The densities of these minor species are small compared with the plasma density, and thus, their presence in the discharge does not significantly alter the xenon plasma parameters. It is important, however, to consider the transport of these minor species as they may deposit on the emitter surface and affect the electron emission properties. In this work, we present the results of a material transport model used to predict oxygen fluxes to the cathode surface by solving the species conservation equations in a cathode with a 2.25?mm diameter orifice operated at a discharge current of 15?A, a Xe flow rate of 3.7 sccm, and 100?ppm of O{sub 2}. The dominant ionization process for O{sub 2} is resonant charge exchange with xenon ions. Ba is effectively recycled in the plasma; however, BaO and O{sub 2} are not. The model shows that the oxygen flux to the surface is not diffusion-limited; therefore, the high resistance to oxygen poisoning observed in plasma cathodes likely results from surface processes not considered here.

  10. Calcination of calcium carbonate and blend therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallow, William A.; Dziuk, Jr., Jerome J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for calcination of a calcium carbonate material comprising heating the calcium carbonate material to a temperature and for a time sufficient to calcine the material to the degree desired while in the presence of a catalyst; said catalyst comprising at least one fused salt having the formula MCO.sub.3.CaCO.sub.3.CaO.H.sub.2 O.sub.x, wherein M is an alkali metal and x is 0 to 1 and formed by fusing MCO.sub.3 and CaCO.sub.3 in a molar ratio of about 1:2 to 2:1, and a blend adapted to be heated to CaO comprising a calcium carbonate material and at least one such fused salt.

  11. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-01-26

    Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  12. Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.

  13. COOLING COIL EFFECTS ON BLENDING IN A PILOT SCALE TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-08-26

    Blending, or mixing, processes in 1.3 million gallon nuclear waste tanks are complicated by the fact that miles of serpentine, vertical, cooling coils are installed in the tanks. As a step toward investigating blending interference due to coils in this type of tank, a 1/10.85 scale tank and pump model were constructed for pilot scale testing. A series of tests were performed in this scaled tank by adding blue dye to visualize blending, and by adding acid or base tracers to solution to quantify the time required to effectively blend the tank contents. The acid and base tests were monitored with pH probes, which were located in the pilot scale tank to ensure that representative samples were obtained. Using the probes, the hydronium ion concentration [H{sup +}] was measured to ensure that a uniform concentration was obtained throughout the tank. As a result of pilot scale testing, a significantly improved understanding of mixing, or blending, in nuclear waste tanks has been achieved. Evaluation of test data showed that cooling coils in the waste tank model increased pilot scale blending times by 200% in the recommended operating range, compared to previous theoretical estimates of a 10-50% increase. Below the planned operating range, pilot scale blending times were increased by as much as 700% in a tank with coils installed. One pump, rather than two or more, was shown to effectively blend the tank contents, and dual pump nozzles installed parallel to the tank wall were shown to provide optimal blending. In short, experimental results varied significantly from expectations.

  14. Phosphor blends for high-CRI fluorescent lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Manivannan, Venkatesan (Clifton Park, NY); Beers, William Winder (Chesterland, OH); Toth, Katalin (Pomaz, HU); Balazs, Laszlo D. (Budapest, HU)

    2008-06-24

    A phosphor blend comprises at least two phosphors each selected from one of the groups of phosphors that absorb UV electromagnetic radiation and emit in a region of visible light. The phosphor blend can be applied to a discharge gas radiation source to produce light sources having high color rendering index. A phosphor blend is advantageously includes the phosphor (Tb,Y,LuLa,Gd).sub.x(Al,Ga).sub.yO.sub.12:Ce.sup.3+, wherein x is in the range from about 2.8 to and including 3 and y is in the range from about 4 to and including 5.

  15. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT MISSION ANALYSIS WASTE BLENDING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHUFORD DH; STEGEN G

    2010-04-19

    Preliminary evaluation for blending Hanford site waste with the objective of minimizing the amount of high-level waste (HLW) glass volumes without major changes to the overall waste retrieval and processing sequences currently planned. The evaluation utilizes simplified spreadsheet models developed to allow screening type comparisons of blending options without the need to use the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model. The blending scenarios evaluated are expected to increase tank farm operation costs due to increased waste transfers. Benefit would be derived from shorter operating time period for tank waste processing facilities, reduced onsite storage of immobilized HLW, and reduced offsite transportation and disposal costs for the immobilized HLW.

  16. Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blends of Phytol and diesel (by volume) were compared against baseline diesel experiments and simulations

  17. Device of dispensing micro doses of aqueous solutions of substances onto a carrier and device for carrying out said method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ershow, Gennady Moiseevich (Moscow, RU); Kirillov, Evgenii Vladislavovich (gor. Dolgoprudnyi, RU); Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich (Moscow, RU)

    1998-01-01

    A device for dispensing microdoses of aqueous solutions are provided, whereby the substance is transferred by the free surface end of a rodlike transferring element; the temperature of the transferring element is maintained at essentially the dew point of the ambient air during the transfer. The device may comprise a plate-like base to which are affixed a plurality of rods; the unfixed butt ends of the rods are coplanar. The device further comprises a means for maintaining the temperature of the unfixed butt ends of the rods essentially equal to the dew point of the ambient air during transfer of the aqueous substance.

  18. Time phased alternate blending of feed coals for liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweigharett, Frank; Hoover, David S.; Garg, Diwaker

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for reducing process performance excursions during feed coal or process solvent changeover in a coal hydroliquefaction process by blending of feedstocks or solvents over time. ,

  19. Photonic polymer-blend structures and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, Michael D.

    2004-06-29

    The present invention comprises the formation of photonic polymer-blend structures having tunable optical and mechanical properties. The photonic polymer-blend structures comprise monomer units of spherical microparticles of a polymer-blend material wherein the spherical microparticles have surfaces partially merged with one another in a robust inter-particle bond having a tunable inter-particle separation or bond length sequentially attached in a desired and programmable architecture. The photonic polymer-blend structures of the present invention can be linked by several hundred individual particles sequentially linked to form complex three-dimensional structures or highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of 3D columns with 2D spacing.

  20. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-05

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  1. Macrophase Separation of Blends of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Macrophase Separation of Blends of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Macrophase Separation of Blends of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films Authors: Williamson, Lance D. ; Nealey, Paul F. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (UC) Publication Date: 2015-08-26 OSTI Identifier: 1203744 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Macromolecules; Journal Volume: 48; Journal Issue: (12) ; 06, 2015 Research

  2. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  3. Conductive Polymer/Fullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb Framework -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Conductive Polymer/Fullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb Framework Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Structural dynamics and charge transfer via complexation with fullerene in large area conjugated polymer honeycomb thin films (728 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This composite conductive polymer/fullerene blend

  4. Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B: End Use and Fuel Certification Bill Woebkenberg, Fuels Technical and Regulatory Affairs Senior Engineer, Mercedes-Benz PDF icon b13_woebkenberg_2-b.pdf More Documents & Publications High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With

  5. DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance with Biodiesel Blends DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_williams.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Particulate Filter Technology for Low-Temperature and Low-NOx/PM Applications Impact of Biodiesel on Modern Diesel Engine Emissions Diesel Emission Control Review

  6. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection | Department of Energy Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Supercritical dieseline could be used in diesel engines having efficient fuel systems and combustion chamber designs that decrease fuel consumption and mitigate emissions. PDF icon p-02_anitescu.pdf More Documents & Publications Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Evaluation of Biodiesel

  7. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut fr Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  8. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  9. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  10. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  11. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, Joanna S. (Bellport, NY); MacGregor, Robert R. (Sag Harbor, NY); Wolf, Alfred P. (Setauket, NY); Langstrom, Bengt (Upsala, SE)

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  12. Controlled Dispensing and Mixing of Pico- to Nanoliter Volumes Using On-Demand Droplet-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2013-07-08

    We present an integrated droplet-on-demand microfluidic platform for dispensing, mixing, incubating, extracting and analyzing by mass spectrometry pico- to nanoliter sized droplets. Droplet generation is accomplished using computer-controlled pneumatic valves. Controlled actuation of valves for different aqueous streams enables controlled dosing and rapid mixing of reagents within droplets in the droplet generation area or in a region with widening channel cross-section. Following incubation, which takes place while droplets travel in the oil stream, the droplet contents are extracted to an aqueous channel for subsequent ionization at an integrated nanoelectrospray emitter. As an initial demonstration of the platform, rapid enzymatic digestions of a model protein are performed in droplets and detected on-line by nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  13. Method and apparatus for dispensing compressed natural gas and liquified natural gas to natural gas powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, Dennis A.; Clark, Michael L.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Palmer, Gary L.

    2005-05-31

    A fueling facility and method for dispensing liquid natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or both on-demand. The fueling facility may include a source of LNG, such as cryogenic storage vessel. A low volume high pressure pump is coupled to the source of LNG to produce a stream of pressurized LNG. The stream of pressurized LNG may be selectively directed through an LNG flow path or to a CNG flow path which includes a vaporizer configured to produce CNG from the pressurized LNG. A portion of the CNG may be drawn from the CNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of LNG flowing therethrough. Similarly, a portion of the LNG may be drawn from the LNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of CNG flowing therethrough.

  14. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-02-24

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  15. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson III, George R. ); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin ); Freerks, Robert L. )

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.

  16. Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine-in-the-Loop | Department of Energy Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon vss049_shidore_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Evaluation of the Fuel Economy Impacts of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) using Engine-in-the-Loop Cold-Start Performance and

  17. BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends in Small Engines BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends in Small Engines June 22, 2015 - 4:39pm Addthis The U.S. ...

  18. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  19. NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labbe, D.

    2009-11-15

    Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Semi-automated lab-on-a-chip for dispensing GA-68 radiotracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberg, Irving

    2014-03-12

    We solved a technical problem that is hindering American progress in molecular medicine, and restricting US citizens from receiving optimal diagnostic care. Specifically, the project deals with a mother/daughter generator of positron-emitting radiotracers (Ge-68/Ga-68). These generator systems are approved in Europe but cannot be used in the USA, because of safety issues related to possible breakthrough of long-lived Ge-68 (mother) atoms. Europeans have demonstrated abilities of Ga-68-labeled radiotracers to image cancer foci with high sensitivity and specificity, and to use such methods to effectively plan therapy.The USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have taken the position that every patient administration of Ga-68 should be preceded by an assay demonstrated that Ge-68 breakthrough is within acceptable limits. Breakthrough of parent elements is a sensitive subject at the FDA, as evidenced by the recent recall of Rb-82 generators due to inadvertent administrations of Sr-82. Commercially, there is no acceptable rapid method for assaying breakthrough of Ge-68 prior to each human administration. The gamma emissions of daughter Ga-68 have higher energies than the parent Ge-68, so that the shielding assays typically employed for Mo-99/Tc-99m generators cannot be applied to Ga-68 generators. The half-life of Ga-68 is 68 minutes, so that the standard 10-half-life delay (used to assess breakthrough in Sr-82/Rb-82 generators) cannot be applied to Ga-68 generators. As a result of the aforementioned regulatory requirements, Ga-68 generators are sold in the USA for animal use only.The American clinical communitys inability to utilize Ga-68 generators impairs abilities to treat patients domestically, and puts the USA at a disadvantage in developing exportable products. The proposed DOE project aimed to take advantage of recent technological advances developed for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications. Based on our experiences constructing such devices, the proposed microfluidics-based approach could provide cost-effective validation of breakthrough compliance in minutes.

  1. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

    1984-01-01

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  2. U.S. transparency monitoring of HEU oxide conversion and blending to LEU hexafluoride at three Russian blending plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leich, D., LLNL

    1998-07-27

    The down-blending of Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) takes place at three Russian gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. The fluorination of HEU oxide and down-blending of HEU hexafluoride began in 1994, and shipments of low enriched uranium (LEU) hexafluoride product to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) began in 1995 US transparency monitoring under the HEU Purchase Agreement began in 1996 and includes a permanent monitoring presence US transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU is received and down-blended to LEU for shipment to USEC The monitoring begins with observation of the receipt of HEU oxide shipments, including confirmation of enrichment using US nondestructive assay equipment The feeding of HEU oxide to the fluorination process and the withdrawal of HEU hexafluoride are monitored Monitoring is also conducted where the blending takes place and where shipping cylinders are filled with LEU product. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to US monitors.

  3. Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-26

    The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 ?m diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 ?m in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations; Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction; Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign; o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks; o Blends from the qualification tanks; Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation experience). As experience is ga

  4. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  5. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment Caley Johnson, Emily Newes, Aaron Brooker, and Robert McCormick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Steve Peterson Lexidyne, LLC Paul Leiby, Rocio Uria Martinez, and Gbadebo Oladosu Oak Ridge National Laboratory Maxwell L. Brown Colorado School of Mines Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-63698 December 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance

  6. Overview of Existing Home Energy Labels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rating Review Process June 1, 2010 The attached spreadsheet contains to date gathered information on six domestic and international rating and/or labeling programs (summarized below), including: their rating; calculation methodology; the display of the scale; the display of additional information on the label; detailed information contained on the label's accompanying report; policy issues, training, and quality assurance; and data gathering, management, and analysis. The following provides some

  7. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  8. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

  9. Labeled nucleotide phosphate (NP) probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

    2009-02-03

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  10. Effects of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and small non-road engines, report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian; Knoll, Keith; Clark, Wendy; Graves, Ronald; Orban, John; Przesmitzki, Steve; Theiss, Timothy

    2008-10-01

    Report on the test program to assess the viability of using intermediate ethanol blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels.

  11. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  12. INVESTIGATION ON THE FLAME EXTINCTION LIMIT OF FUEL BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2005-02-01

    Lean flame extinction limits of binary fuel mixtures of methane (CH{sub 4}), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were measured using a twin-flame counter-flow burner. Experiments were conducted to generate an extinction equivalence ratio vs. global stretch rate plot and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the equivalence ratio corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The foregoing gases were selected because they are the primary constitutes of natural gas, which is the primary focus of the present study. To validate the experimental setup and methodology, the flame extinction limit of pure fuels at zero stretch conditions were also estimated and compared with published values. The lean flame extinction limits of methane (f{sub ext} = 4.6%) and propane (f{sub ext} = 2.25%) flames measured in the present study agreed with the values reported in the literature. It was observed that the flame extinction limit of fuel blends have a polynomial relation with the concentration of component fuels in the mixture. This behavior contradicts with the commonly used linear Le Chatelier's approximation. The experimentally determined polynomial relations between the flame extinction limits of fuel blends (i.e. methane-propane and methane-ethane) and methane concentration are as follows: (1) Methane-Propane--%f{sub ext} = (1.05 x 10{sup -9}) f{sup 5}-(1.3644 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(6.40299 x 10{sup -6}) f{sup 3}-(1.2108459 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2}+(2.87305329 x 10{sup -3}) f+2.2483; (2) Methane-Ethane--%f{sub ext} = (2.1 x 10{sup -9})f{sup 5}-(3.5752 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(2.095425 x 10{sup -5}) f{sup 3}-(5.037353 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2} + 6.08980409 f + 2.8923. Where f{sub ext} is the extinction limits of methane-propane and methane-ethane fuel blends, and f is the concentration (% volume) of methane in the fuel mixture. The relations were obtained by fitting fifth order curve (polynomial regression) to experimentally measured extinction limits at different mixture conditions. To extend the study to a commercial fuel, the flame extinction limit for Birmingham natural gas (a blend of 95% methane, 5% ethane and 5% nitrogen) was experimentally determined and was found to be 3.62% fuel in the air-fuel mixture.

  13. Hydrogen effects on materials for CNG/H2 blends.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farese, David; Keller, Jay O.; Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-09-01

    No concerns for Hydrogen-Enriched Compressed Natural gas (HCNG) in steel storage tanks if material strength is < 950 MPa. Recommend evaluating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in higher strength steels at H{sub 2} partial pressure in blend. Limited fatigue testing on higher strength steel cylinders in H{sub 2} shows promising results. Impurities in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (e.g., CO) may provide extrinsic mechanism for mitigating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in steel tanks.

  14. Microsoft Word - Int_blends_Rpt1_Updated.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NREL/TP-540-43543 ORNL/TM-2008/117 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated February 2009 Prepared by Keith Knoll Brian West Wendy Clark Ronald Graves John Orban Steve Przesmitzki Timothy Theiss DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web site http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be

  15. Method Of Dispensing Microdoses Of A Aqueous Solutions Of S Ubstances Onto A Carrier And A Device For Carrying Out Said Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Kirillov, Eugenii Vladislavovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1999-10-05

    A method and a device for dispensing microdoses of aqueous solutions are provided, whereby the substance is transferred by the free surface end of a rodlike transferring element; the temperature of the transferring element is maintained at essentially the dew point of the ambient air during the transfer. The device may comprise a plate-like base to which are affixed a plurality of rods; the unfixed butt ends of the rods are coplanar. The device further comprises a means for maintaining the temperature of the unfixed butt ends of the rods essentially equal to the dew point of the ambient air during transfer of the aqueous substance

  16. Nanomaterial Labels in Electrochemical Immunosensors and Immunoassays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-12-15

    This article reviews recent advances in nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed, including colloidal gold/silver, semiconductor nanoparticles, and markers loaded nanocarriers (carbon nanotubes, apoferritin, silica nanoparticles, and liposome beads). The enormous signal enhancement associated with the use of nanomaterial labels and with the formation of nanomaterialantibody-antigen assemblies provides the basis for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of disease-related protein biomarkers, biothreat agents, or infectious agents. In general, all endeavors cited here are geared to achieve one or more of the following goals: signal amplification by several orders of magnitude, lower detection limits, and detecting multiple targets.

  17. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D; Pawel, Steven J; Theiss, Timothy J; Janke, Christopher James

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more components of the elastomers (by the solvent). This extraction of additives can negatively change the properties of the elastomer, leading to reduced performance and durability. For a seal application, some level of volume swell is acceptable, since the expansion will serve to maintain a seal. However, the acceptable level of swell is dependent on the particular application of the elastomer product. It is known that excessive swell can lead to unacceptable extrusion of the elastomer beyond the sealed interface, where it becomes susceptible to damage. Also, since high swell is indicative of high solubility, there is a heightened potential for fluid to seep through the seal and into the environment. Plastics, on the other hand, are used primarily in structural applications, such as solid components, including piping and fluid containment. Volume change, especially in a rigid system, will create internal stresses that may negatively affect performance. In order to better understand and predict the compatibility for a given polymer type and fuel composition, an analysis based on Hansen solubility theory was performed for each plastic and elastomer material. From this study, the solubility distance was calculated for each polymer material and test fuel combination. Using the calculated solubility distance, the ethanol concentration associated with peak swell and overall extent of swell can be predicted for each polymer. The bulk of the material discussion centers on the plastic materials, and their compatibility with Fuel C, CE25a, CE50a, and CE85a. The next section of this paper focuses on the elastomer compatibility with the higher ethanol concentrations with comparison to results obtained previously for the lower ethanol levels. The elastomers were identical to those used in the earlier study. Hansen solubility theory is also applied to the elastomers to provide added interpretation of the results. The final section summarizes the performance of the metal coupons.

  18. Microsoft Word - Smart Grid Certification and Labeling Program...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... class" labeling program emphasizing electronics with special energy efficiency or energy conservation features. * Energy Guide-A neutral, information-centric labeling program that ...

  19. ENERGY STAR Labeled Buildings and Plants | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    STAR Labeled Buildings and Plants Jump to: navigation, search Name ENERGY STAR Labeled Buildings and Plants Data Format Excel Spreadsheet Geographic Scope United States TODO:...

  20. Label-invariant Mesh Quality Metrics. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Label-invariant Mesh Quality Metrics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Label-invariant Mesh Quality Metrics. Abstract not provided. Authors: Knupp, Patrick Publication...

  1. Properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourounis, S.; Tsivilis, S. . E-mail: stsiv@central.ntua.gr; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Papadimitriou, G.D.; Tsibouki, Z.

    2007-06-15

    The present research study investigates the properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag, a by-product of the conversion process of iron to steel. For this purpose, a reference sample and three cements containing up to 45% w/w steel slag were tested. The steel slag fraction used was the '0-5 mm', due to its high content in calcium silicate phases. Initial and final setting time, standard consistency, flow of normal mortar, autoclave expansion and compressive strength at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days were measured. The hydrated products were identified by X-ray diffraction while the non-evaporable water was determined by TGA. The microstructure of the hardened cement pastes and their morphological characteristics were examined by scanning electron microscopy. It is concluded that slag can be used in the production of composite cements of the strength classes 42.5 and 32.5 of EN 197-1. In addition, the slag cements present satisfactory physical properties. The steel slag slows down the hydration of the blended cements, due to the morphology of contained C{sub 2}S and its low content in calcium silicates.

  2. JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

    2008-01-31

    Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

  3. The Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the United States today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% of the total U.S. gasoline consumption).

  4. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito

    2008-05-15

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Emissions from ethanol-blended fossil fuel flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akcayoglu, Azize

    2011-01-15

    A fundamental study to investigate the emission characteristics of ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Employing a heterogeneous experimental setup, emissions are measured from diffusion flames around spherical porous particles. Using an infusion pump, ethanol-fossil fuel blend is transpired into a porous sphere kept in an upward flowing air stream. A typical probe of portable digital exhaust gas analyzer is placed in and around the flame with the help of a multi-direction traversing mechanism to measure emissions such as un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Since ethanol readily mixes with water, emission characteristics of ethanol-water blends are also studied. For comparison purpose, emissions from pure ethanol diffusion flames are also presented. A simplified theoretical analysis has been carried out to determine equilibrium surface temperature, composition of the fuel components in vapor-phase and heat of reaction of each blend. These theoretical predictions are used in explaining the emission characteristics of flames from ethanol blends. (author) This paper presents the results of an experimental study of flow structure in horizontal equilateral triangular ducts having double rows of half delta-wing type vortex generators mounted on the duct's slant surfaces. The test ducts have the same axial length and hydraulic diameter of 4 m and 58.3 mm, respectively. Each duct consists of double rows of half delta wing pairs arranged either in common flow-up or common flow-down configurations. Flow field measurements were performed using a Particle Image Velocimetry Technique for hydraulic diameter based Reynolds numbers in the range of 1000-8000. The secondary flow field differences generated by two different vortex generator configurations were examined in detail. The secondary flow is found stronger behind the second vortex generator pair than behind the first pair but becomes weaker far from the second pair in the case of Duct1. However, the strength of the secondary flow is found nearly the same behind the first and the second vortex generator pair as well as far from the second vortex generator pair in the case of Duct2. Both ducts are able to create a counter-rotating and a second set of twin foci. Duct2 is able to create the second set of twin foci in an earlier streamwise location than Duct1, as these foci are well-known to their heat transfer augmentation. A larger vortex formation area and a greater induced vorticity field between vortex pairs are observed for Duct2 compared with Duct1. As the induced flow field between the vortex pairs increases the heat transfer, and as the flow field between the vortex cores is found larger in the case of Duct2, therefore, it is expected to obtain better heat transfer characteristics for Duct2 compared with Duct1. (author)

  6. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1983-05-03

    Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  7. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Fawwaz, Rashid A. (Pelham, NY); Richards, Powell (Bayport, NY)

    1985-01-01

    Lymphocytes labelled with .beta.-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  8. North America Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 30 days and the proposal is then published in the Diario Oficial de la Federacin (DOF). ... andor label and its publication in the DOF. The NOM includes both the minimum energy ...

  9. Modeling the Auto-Ignition of Biodiesel Blends with a Multi-Step Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toulson, Dr. Elisa; Allen, Casey M; Miller, Dennis J; McFarlane, Joanna; Schock, Harold; Lee, Tonghun

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in using biodiesel in place of or in blends with petrodiesel in diesel engines; however, biodiesel oxidation chemistry is complicated to directly model and existing surrogate kinetic models are very large, making them computationally expensive. The present study describes a method for predicting the ignition behavior of blends of n-heptane and methyl butanoate, fuels whose blends have been used in the past as a surrogate for biodiesel. The autoignition is predicted using a multistep (8-step) model in order to reduce computational time and make this a viable tool for implementation into engine simulation codes. A detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends was used as a basis for validating the multistep model results. The ignition delay trends predicted by the multistep model for the n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends matched well with that of the detailed CHEMKIN model for the majority of conditions tested.

  10. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

  11. Multiple tag labeling method for DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, Richard A. (Contra Costa County, CA); Huang, Xiaohua C. (Mt. View, CA); Quesada, Mark A. (San Francisco, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A DNA sequencing method described which uses single lane or channel electrophoresis. Sequencing fragments are separated in said lane and detected using a laser-excited, confocal fluorescence scanner. Each set of DNA sequencing fragments is separated in the same lane and then distinguished using a binary coding scheme employing only two different fluorescent labels. Also described is a method of using radio-isotope labels.

  12. Multiple tag labeling method for DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, R.A.; Huang, X.C.; Quesada, M.A.

    1995-07-25

    A DNA sequencing method is described which uses single lane or channel electrophoresis. Sequencing fragments are separated in the lane and detected using a laser-excited, confocal fluorescence scanner. Each set of DNA sequencing fragments is separated in the same lane and then distinguished using a binary coding scheme employing only two different fluorescent labels. Also described is a method of using radioisotope labels. 5 figs.

  13. Identification and quantification of organic chemicals in supplemental fuel blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salter, F.

    1996-12-31

    Continental Cement Company, Inc. (Continental) burns waste fuels to supplement coal in firing the kiln. It is to be expected that federal and state agencies want an accounting of the chemicals burned. As rules and regulations become more plentiful, a company such as Continental must demonstrate that it has made a reasonable attempt to identify and quantify many specific organic compounds. The chemicals on the SARA 313 list can change frequently. Also the number and concentrations of compounds that can disqualify a material from consideration as a supplemental fuel at Continental continues to change. A quick and reliable method of identifying and quantifying organics in waste fuel blends is therefore crucial. Using a Hewlett-Packard 5972 GC/MS system Continental has developed a method of generating values for the total weight of compounds burned. A similar procedure is used to verify that waste streams meet Continental`s acceptance criteria.

  14. Influence of Substrate on Crystallization in Polythiophene/fullerene Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C He; D Germack; J Kline; D Delongchamp; D Fischer; C Snyder; M Toney; J Kushmerick; L Richter

    2011-12-31

    The nanoscale morphology of the active layer in organic, bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is crucial to device performance. Often a combination of casting conditions and post deposition thermal treatment is used to optimize the morphology. In general, the development of microscopic crystals is deleterious, as the exciton diffusion length is {approx}10 nm. We find that the microscopic crystallization behavior in polythiophene/fullerene blends is strongly influenced by the substrate on which the BHJ is cast. With a silicon oxide substrate, the crystal nucleation density is high and significant crystallization occurs at a temperature of 140 C. On more hydrophobic substrates, significantly higher temperatures are required for observable crystallization. This difference is attributed to the interfacial segregation of the PCBM, controlled by the substrate surface energy. The substrate dependence of crystallization has significant implications on the fullerene crystal growth mechanisms and practical implications for device studies.

  15. Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

    2009-11-01

    The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

  16. A charge carrier transport model for donor-acceptor blend layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Janine Widmer, Johannes; Koerner, Christian; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl; Kleemann, Hans; Tress, Wolfgang; Riede, Moritz

    2015-01-28

    Highly efficient organic solar cells typically comprise donor-acceptor blend layers facilitating effective splitting of excitons. However, the charge carrier mobility in the blends can be substantially smaller than in neat materials, hampering the device performance. Currently, available mobility models do not describe the transport in blend layers entirely. Here, we investigate hole transport in a model blend system consisting of the small molecule donor zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and the acceptor fullerene C{sub 60} in different mixing ratios. The blend layer is sandwiched between p-doped organic injection layers, which prevent minority charge carrier injection and enable exploiting diffusion currents for the characterization of exponential tail states from a thickness variation of the blend layer using numerical drift-diffusion simulations. Trap-assisted recombination must be considered to correctly model the conductivity behavior of the devices, which are influenced by local electron currents in the active layer, even though the active layer is sandwiched in between p-doped contacts. We find that the density of deep tail states is largest in the devices with 1:1 mixing ratio (E{sub t}?=?0.14?eV, N{sub t}?=?1.2??10{sup 18?}cm{sup ?3}) directing towards lattice disorder as the transport limiting process. A combined field and charge carrier density dependent mobility model are developed for this blend layer.

  17. Overview of Existing Home Energy Labels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Buildings » Home Energy Score » Home Energy Score Publications » Overview of Existing Home Energy Labels Overview of Existing Home Energy Labels This analysis looks at home energy labeling programs around the world and highlights similarities and differences of various approaches. PDF icon existing_labels.pdf More Documents & Publications North America Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Lower Colorado River Authority Lower Colorado River Authority Buildings Home About

  18. Probes labelled with energy transfer coupled dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, R.A.; Glazer, A.; Ju, J.

    1997-11-18

    Compositions are provided comprising sets of fluorescent labels carrying pairs of donor and acceptor dye molecules, designed for efficient excitation of the donors at a single wavelength and emission from the acceptor in each of the pairs at different wavelengths. The different molecules having different donor-acceptor pairs can be modified to have substantially the same mobility under separation conditions, by varying the distance between the donor and acceptor in a given pair. Particularly, the fluorescent compositions find use as labels in sequencing nucleic acids. 7 figs.

  19. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  20. The effect of block copolymer on the phase behavior of a polymer blend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, L.; Jackson, C.L.; Hess, D.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of an interfacial modifier on the phase behavior of a blend has been investigated using time-resolved fight scattering and small angle neutron scattering techniques. A low molecular weight binary blend of deuterated polystyrene/polybutadiene (PSD/PB) with PSD-PB diblock copolymer as the added interfacial modifier was studied. We observed that the critical temperature of the blend decreases with increasing copolymer content and the kinetics of the phase separation (via spinodal decomposition) slows down in the presence of the copolymer. The transition from early to late stage spinodal decomposition in a near critical mixture of the binary blend was analyzed and compared to available theories. In addition, transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy studies were used to examine the morphology of the system under various temperature quench conditions.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Installing B20 Equipment

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ... Once the dispenser is set, the system can be tested for leakage (tightness test), proper working order, and dispensing accuracy. At about this time, the necessary labeling, ...

  2. Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

  3. Solvent Blending Strategy to Upgrade MCU CSSX Solvent to Equivalent Next-Generation CSSX Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Moyer, Bruce A

    2012-12-01

    The results of the present study have validated an equal-volume blending strategy for upgrading freshly prepared CSSX solvent to a blended solvent functionally equivalent to NG-CSSX solvent. It is shown that blending fresh CSSX solvent as currently used in MCU with an equal volume of an NG-CSSX solvent concentrate of appropriate composition yields a blended solvent composition (46.5 mM of MaxCalix, 3.5 mM of BOBCalixC6, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, 3 mM of guanidine suppressor, and 1.5 mM of TOA in Isopar L) that exhibits equivalent batch ESS performance to that of the NG-CSSX solvent containing 50 mM of MaxCalix, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, and 3 mM of guanidine suppressor in Isopar L. The solvent blend composition is robust to third-phase formation. Results also show that a blend containing up to 60% v/v of CSSX solvent could be accommodated with minimal risk. Extraction and density data for the effect of solvent concentration mimicking diluent evaporation or over-dilution of the equal-volume blended solvent are also given, providing input for setting operational limits. Given that the experiments employed all pristine chemicals, the results do not qualify a blended solvent starting with actual used MCU solvent, which can be expected to have undergone some degree of degradation. Consequently, further work should be considered to evaluate this risk and implement appropriate remediation if needed.

  4. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, Keith; West, Brian; Clark, Wendy; Graves, Ronald; Orban, John; Przesmitzki, Steve; Theiss, Timothy

    2009-02-01

    This report (February 2009) is an update of the original version, which was published in October 2008. This report is the result of the U.S. Department of Energy's test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels.

  5. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize

  6. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues | Department of Energy Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and

  7. CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior Presentation given by Jay Keller of Sandia National Laboratories at the CNG and Hydrogen Lessons Learned Workshop on December 10, 2009 PDF icon cng_h2_workshop_2_keller.pdf More Documents & Publications US DRIVE Hydrogen Codes and Standards Technical Team Roadmap Hydrogen Release Behavior Workshop Notes from

  8. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with CO2 | Department of Energy A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO2 A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO2 ISTN extruded polystyrene (XPS) board produced in factory demonstration ISTN extruded polystyrene (XPS) board produced in factory demonstration Lead Performer: Industrial Science & Technology Network - Lancaster, PA DOE Funding: $400,000 Cost Share: $80,000 Project Term: 1/1/2014 -

  9. Tc-99m Labeled carrier for imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henze, Eberhard (Santa Monica, CA)

    1984-01-01

    Novel radionuclide imaging agents, having particular application for lymphangiography are provided by non-covalently binding Tc-99m to a pharmaceutically acceptable cross-linked polysaccharide. Upon injection of the Tc-99m labeled polysaccharide into the blood stream, optimum contrast can be obtained within one hour.

  10. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 â?? 300 ?¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  11. BLENDING STUDY FOR SRR SALT DISPOSITION INTEGRATION: TANK 50H SCALE-MODELING AND COMPUTER-MODELING FOR BLENDING PUMP DESIGN, PHASE 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

    2011-05-26

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. Blending requires the miscible salt solutions from potentially multiple source tanks per batch to be well mixed without disturbing settled sludge solids that may be present in a Blend Tank. Disturbing solids may be problematic both from a feed quality perspective as well as from a process safety perspective where hydrogen release from the sludge is a potential flammability concern. To develop the necessary technical basis for the design and operation of blending equipment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) completed scaled blending and transfer pump tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A 94 inch diameter pilot-scale blending tank, including tank internals such as the blending pump, transfer pump, removable cooling coils, and center column, were used in this research. The test tank represents a 1/10.85 scaled version of an 85 foot diameter, Type IIIA, nuclear waste tank that may be typical of Blend Tanks used in SDI. Specifically, Tank 50 was selected as the tank to be modeled per the SRR, Project Engineering Manager. SRNL blending tests investigated various fixed position, non-rotating, dual nozzle pump designs, including a blending pump model provided by the blend pump vendor, Curtiss Wright (CW). Primary research goals were to assess blending times and to evaluate incipient sludge disturbance for waste tanks. Incipient sludge disturbance was defined by SRR and SRNL as minor blending of settled sludge from the tank bottom into suspension due to blending pump operation, where the sludge level was shown to remain constant. To experimentally model the sludge layer, a very thin, pourable, sludge simulant was conservatively used for all testing. To experimentally model the liquid, supernate layer above the sludge in waste tanks, two salt solution simulants were used, which provided a bounding range of supernate properties. One solution was water (H{sub 2}O + NaOH), and the other was an inhibited, more viscous salt solution. The research performed and data obtained significantly advances the understanding of fluid mechanics, mixing theory and CFD modeling for nuclear waste tanks by benchmarking CFD results to actual experimental data. This research significantly bridges the gap between previous CFD models and actual field experiences in real waste tanks. A finding of the 2009, DOE, Slurry Retrieval, Pipeline Transport and Plugging, and Mixing Workshop was that CFD models were inadequate to assess blending processes in nuclear waste tanks. One recommendation from that Workshop was that a validation, or bench marking program be performed for CFD modeling versus experiment. This research provided experimental data to validate and correct CFD models as they apply to mixing and blending in nuclear waste tanks. Extensive SDI research was a significant step toward bench marking and applying CFD modeling. This research showed that CFD models not only agreed with experiment, but demonstrated that the large variance in actual experimental data accounts for misunderstood discrepancies between CFD models and experiments. Having documented this finding, SRNL was able to provide correction factors to be used with CFD models to statistically bound full scale CFD results. Through the use of pilot scale tests performed for both types of pumps and available engineering literature, SRNL demonstrated how to effectively apply CFD results to salt batch mixing in full scale waste tanks. In other words, CFD models were in error prior to development of experimental correction factors determined during this research, which provided a technique to use CFD models for salt batch mixing and transfer pump operations. This major scientific advance in mixing technology resulted in multi-million dollar cost savings to SRR. New techniques were developed for both experiment and analysis to complete this research. Supporting this success, research findings are summarized in the Conclusions section of this report, and technical recommendations for design and operation are included in this section of the report.

  12. Resistance of fly ash-Portland cement blends to thermal shock

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi

    2015-09-11

    Thermal-shock resistance of high-content fly ash-Portland cement blends was tested in the following ways. Activated and non-activated blends with 80-90 % fly ash F (FAF) were left to set at room temperature, then hydrated for 24 hours at 85°C and 24-more hours at 300°C and tested in five thermal-shock cycles (600°C heat - 25°C water quenching). XRD, and thermal gravimetric analyses, along with calorimetric measurements and SEM-EDX tests demonstrated that the activated blends form more hydrates after 24 hours at 300°C, and achieve a higher short-term compressive strength than do non-activated ones. Sodium meta-silicate and sodaash engendered the concomitant hydrationmore » of OPC and FAF, with the formation of mixed crystalline FAF-OPC hydrates and FAF hydrates, such as garranite, analcime, and wairakite, along with the amorphous FAF hydration products. In SS-activated and non-activated blends separate OPC (tobermorite) and FAF (amorphous gel) hydrates with no mixed crystalline products formed. The compressive strength of all tested blends decreased by nearly 50% after 5 thermal-shock test cycles. These changes in the compressive strength were accompanied by a marked decrease in the intensities of XRD patterns of the crystalline hydrates after the thermalshock. As a result, there was no significant difference in the performance of the blends with different activators« less

  13. Resistance of fly ash-Portland cement blends to thermal shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi

    2015-09-11

    Thermal-shock resistance of high-content fly ash-Portland cement blends was tested in the following ways. Activated and non-activated blends with 80-90 % fly ash F (FAF) were left to set at room temperature, then hydrated for 24 hours at 85C and 24-more hours at 300C and tested in five thermal-shock cycles (600C heat - 25C water quenching). XRD, and thermal gravimetric analyses, along with calorimetric measurements and SEM-EDX tests demonstrated that the activated blends form more hydrates after 24 hours at 300C, and achieve a higher short-term compressive strength than do non-activated ones. Sodium meta-silicate and sodaash engendered the concomitant hydration of OPC and FAF, with the formation of mixed crystalline FAF-OPC hydrates and FAF hydrates, such as garranite, analcime, and wairakite, along with the amorphous FAF hydration products. In SS-activated and non-activated blends separate OPC (tobermorite) and FAF (amorphous gel) hydrates with no mixed crystalline products formed. The compressive strength of all tested blends decreased by nearly 50% after 5 thermal-shock test cycles. These changes in the compressive strength were accompanied by a marked decrease in the intensities of XRD patterns of the crystalline hydrates after the thermalshock. As a result, there was no significant difference in the performance of the blends with different activators

  14. Phase Behavior of Neat Triblock Copolymers and Copolymer/Homopolymer Blends Near Network Phase Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Tureau; L Rong; B Hsiao; T Epps

    2011-12-31

    The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (ISM) copolymers near the styrene-rich network phase window was examined through the use of neat triblock copolymers and copolymer/homopolymer blends. Both end-block and middle-block blending protocols were employed using poly(isoprene) (PI), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(styrene) (PS) homopolymers. Blended specimens exhibited phase transformations to well-ordered nanostructures (at homopolymer loadings up to 26 vol % of the total blend volume). Morphological consistency between neat and blended specimens was established at various locations in the ISM phase space. Copolymer/homopolymer blending permitted the refinement of lamellar, hexagonally packed cylinder, and disordered melt phase boundaries as well as the identification of double gyroid (Q{sup 230}), alternating gyroid (Q{sup 214}), and orthorhombic (O{sup 70}) network regimes. Additionally, the experimental phase diagram exhibited similar trends to those found in a theoretical ABC triblock copolymer phase diagram with symmetric interactions and statistical segments lengths generated by Tyler et al.

  15. High Performance Laminates Using Blended Urethane Resin Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Jones, George G.; Walsh, Sean P.; Wood, Geoff M.

    2005-03-24

    Hybrid blended resin systems have the potential to provide excellent impact performance in structured laminates. Although mostly under development for sheet molding compound (SMC) applications using glass fiber with high levels of fillers, the resins have been found to be useful in liquid molding applications with other high-performance fiber systems. A research pro-gram to develop the molding capability, property data, and capability to model the composites using newly de-veloped codes and modeling techniques was initiated through the Department of Energys Office of Freedom-Car and Vehicle Technologies. Results have shown ex-cellent adhesion to different fiber systems as evidenced by mechanical properties, and a capability to develop very good impact results thereby allowing thin panel structures to be developed. Comparison to predicted me-chanical properties has been achieved and mechanisms for the development of observed high energy absorption under impact loadings are being investigated. Scale ef-fects based on panel thickness, fiber type loading, and position in laminate are being investigated. DOE pro-gram sponsorship was provided by Dr. Sidney Diamond, Technical Area Development Manager for High-Strength Weight-Reduction Materials.

  16. Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garca-Mat, M.; De la Torre, A.G.; Len-Reina, L.; Aranda, M.A.G.; CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona ; Santacruz, I.

    2013-12-15

    The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 2 and 72 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

  17. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  18. An introduction to the National Tritium Labeling Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorsky, A.M.; Morimoto, H.; Saljoughian, M.; Williams, P.G.; Rapoport, H.

    1988-06-01

    The facilities and projects of the National Tritium Labeling Facility are described. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. CRAD, Equipment and Piping Labeling Assessment Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Equipment and Piping Labeling Assessment Plan CRAD, Equipment and Piping Labeling Assessment Plan Performance Objective: To verify that facility equipment and piping are labeled in a manner such that facility personnel are able to positively identify equipment they operate. To ensure that an effective labeling program is in effect to reduce operator and maintenance errors from incorrect identification of equipment, to increase training effectiveness by tracing the actual facility system as

  20. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

  1. Website Navigation Labels and Approval | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    has commonly used and approved navigation labels. To maintain consistency in navigation across EERE, the EERE Template Coordinator reviews and approves requests for new navigation labels and navigation changes. Commonly Used and Approved Navigation Labels [Office technology area or acronym] Home About the [office name] Key Activities Plans, Implementation, & Results Research & Development Deployment Market Transformation Success Stories Financial Opportunities Current Opportunities Past

  2. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS TO CFD MODELS FOR BLENDING IN A TANK USING DUAL OPPOSING JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.

    2011-08-07

    Research has been completed in a pilot scale, eight foot diameter tank to investigate blending, using a pump with dual opposing jets. The jets re-circulate fluids in the tank to promote blending when fluids are added to the tank. Different jet diameters and different horizontal and vertical orientations of the jets were investigated. In all, eighty five tests were performed both in a tank without internal obstructions and a tank with vertical obstructions similar to a tube bank in a heat exchanger. These obstructions provided scale models of several miles of two inch diameter, serpentine, vertical cooling coils below the liquid surface for a full scale, 1.3 million gallon, liquid radioactive waste storage tank. Two types of tests were performed. One type of test used a tracer fluid, which was homogeneously blended into solution. Data were statistically evaluated to determine blending times for solutions of different density and viscosity, and the blending times were successfully compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The other type of test blended solutions of different viscosity. For example, in one test a half tank of water was added to a half tank of a more viscous, concentrated salt solution. In this case, the fluid mechanics of the blending process was noted to significantly change due to stratification of fluids. CFD models for stratification were not investigated. This paper is the fourth in a series of papers resulting from this research (Leishear, et.al. [1- 4]), and this paper documents final test results, statistical analysis of the data, a comparison of experimental results to CFD models, and scale-up of the results to a full scale tank.

  3. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

    1990-11-13

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

  4. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  5. Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  6. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

  7. Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

    2008-10-01

    The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

  8. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-06-04

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap-assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increasedmore » hole extraction, efficient energy transfer and better morphology. The working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high-performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs.« less

  9. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-06-04

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap-assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increased hole extraction, efficient energy transfer and better morphology. The working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high-performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs.

  10. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  11. A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauls, R. E.

    2011-05-01

    This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

  12. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Blending Hydrogen

  13. 100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 00,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20) 100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20) Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_barnitt.pdf More Documents & Publications Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel Impact of

  14. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimization | Department of Energy The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization PDF icon deer12_szybist.pdf More Documents & Publications High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced

  15. Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Emission Tunable to Near-Infrared Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Emission Tunable to Near-Infrared Authors: Deng, Z., Schulz, O., Lin, S., Ding, B., Liu, X., Wei, X., Ros, R., Liu, Y., Yan, H., and Francis, M. Title: Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Emission Tunable to Near-Infrared Source: Journal of the American

  16. Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    near Paducah Site | Department of Energy Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West

  17. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of labeling strategies and promotion in China.

  18. North America Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy North America Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling North America Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling This document reflects a joint perspective of the national energy departments of Canada, Mexico, and the Unites States. PDF icon naewg_report.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of Existing Home Energy Labels 2014-12-30 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Final Rule Inspection Report:

  19. CD Label and Package Templates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications, Exhibits, & Logos » Templates » CD Label and Package Templates CD Label and Package Templates The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has developed templates for CD labels and CD packages. These can be used for all EERE products. Both templates are available as EPS files, which can be downloaded and edited in a graphics package like Adobe Illustrator. You are not required to use these templates for your EERE products. These templates were designed to allow

  20. Energy Efficiency Labeling System & its Development in China | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Efficiency Labeling System & its Development in China Energy Efficiency Labeling System & its Development in China Information about the regulations, formats, objectives, and implementation of energy efficiency labeling in China. PDF icon session_1_buildings_track_cheng_jianhong_en.pdf PDF icon session_1_buildings_track_cheng_jianhong_cn.pdf More Documents & Publications Status Prospects of Green Data Center 4th U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Forum Documents Non-ferrous

  1. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

    1987-11-17

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  2. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

    1985-04-29

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  3. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, Powell (New Bern, NC); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Prach, Thomas F. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1987-01-01

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  4. Widget:LabelMandatoryFields | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This widget labels any mandatory form fields with a red asterik. Matches on css selectors formtable and mandatoryField. Retrieved from "http:...

  5. Lumens and the Lighting Facts Label | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lumens and the Lighting Facts Label Lumens and the Lighting Facts Label Energy 101 Lumens: The new way to shop for light lighting_sub.jpg When you're shopping for lightbulbs, compare lumens to be sure you're getting the amount of light, or level of brightness, you want. The Lighting Facts Label will help. This new label will make it easy to compare bulb brightness, color, life, and estimated operating cost for the year. Buy Lumens, Not Watts We typically buy things based on how much of it we

  6. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks. A Review of Key Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

    2013-03-01

    This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines. Blending hydrogen into the existing natural gas pipeline network has also been proposed as a means of increasing the output of renewable energy systems such as large wind farms.

  7. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.

    1984-09-28

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  8. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

    1986-01-01

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  9. The Blend Down Monitoring System Demonstration at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, J.; Close, D.; Johnson, W., Jr.; Kerr, P.; March-Leuba, J.; Mastal, E.; Moss, C.; Powell, D.; Sumner, J.; Uckan, T.; Vines, R.; Wright, P.D.

    1999-07-25

    Agreements between the governments of the US and the Russian Federation for the US purchase of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons calls for the establishment of transparency measures to provide confidence that nuclear nonproliferation goals are being met. To meet these transparency goals, the agreements call for the installation of nonintrusive US instruments to monitor the down blending of HEU to LEU. The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) has been jointly developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continuously monitor {sup 235}U enrichments and mass flow rates at Russian blending facilities. Prior to its installation in Russian facilities, the BDMS was installed and operated in a UF{sub 6} flow loop in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant simulating flow and enrichment conditions expected in a typical down-blending facility. A Russian delegation to the US witnessed the equipment demonstration in June, 1998. To conduct the demonstration in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the BDMS was required to meet stringent Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing, safety and operational requirements. The Paducah demonstration was an important milestone in achieving the operational certification for the BDMS use in Russian facilities.

  10. HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BLEND DOWN PROGRAM AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE PRESENT AND FUTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magoulas, V; Charles Goergen, C; Ronald Oprea, R

    2008-06-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) entered into an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 40 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to TVA for conversion to fuel for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant. Savannah River Site (SRS) inventories included a significant amount of this material, which resulted from processing spent fuel and surplus materials. The HEU is blended with natural uranium (NU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) with a 4.95% 235U isotopic content and shipped as solution to the TVA vendor. The HEU Blend Down Project provided the upgrades needed to achieve the product throughput and purity required and provided loading facilities. The first blending to low enriched uranium (LEU) took place in March 2003 with the initial shipment to the TVA vendor in July 2003. The SRS Shipments have continued on a regular schedule without any major issues for the past 5 years and are due to complete in September 2008. The HEU Blend program is now looking to continue its success by dispositioning an additional approximately 21 MTU of HEU material as part of the SRS Enriched Uranium Disposition Project.

  11. Understanding Polymorphism Formation in Electrospun Fibers of Immiscible Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhong; L Zhang; R Su; K Wang; H Fong; L Zhu

    2011-12-31

    Effects of electric poling, mechanical stretching, and dipolar interaction on the formation of ferroelectric ({beta} and/or {gamma}) phases in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) have been studied in electrospun fibers of PVDF/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and PVDF/polysulfone (PSF) blends with PVDF as the minor component, using wide-angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared techniques. Experimental results of as-electrospun neat PVDF fibers (beaded vs. bead-free) showed that mechanical stretching during electrospinning, rather than electric poling, was effective to induce ferroelectric phases. For as-electrospun PVDF blend fibers with the non-polar PSF matrix, mechanical stretching during electrospinning again was capable of inducing some ferroelectric phases in addition to the major paraelectric ({alpha}) phase. However, after removing the mechanical stretching in a confined melt-recrystallization process, only the paraelectric phase was obtained. For as-electrospun PVDF blend fibers with the polar (or ferroelectric) PAN matrix, strong intermolecular interactions between polar PAN and PVDF played an important role in the ferroelectric phase formation in addition to the mechanical stretching effect during electrospinning. Even after the removal of mechanical stretching through the confined melt-recrystallization process, a significant amount of ferroelectric phases persisted. Comparing the ferroelectric phase formation between PVDF/PSF and PVDF/PAN blend fibers, we concluded that the local electric field-dipole interactions were the determining factor for the nucleation and growth of polar PVDF phases.

  12. BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends in Small Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office has released a Request for Information (RFI) seeking stakeholder input on the following topics related to the use of advanced biofuel blends in small engines

  13. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; West, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

  14. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Holographic Labeling And Reading Machine For Authentication And Security Appications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, David C. (Rancho Santa Margarita, CA); Trolinger, James D. (Costa Mesa, CA)

    1999-07-06

    A holographic security label and automated reading machine for marking and subsequently authenticating any object such as an identification badge, a pass, a ticket, a manufactured part, or a package is described. The security label is extremely difficult to copy or even to read by unauthorized persons. The system comprises a holographic security label that has been created with a coded reference wave, whose specification can be kept secret. The label contains information that can be extracted only with the coded reference wave, which is derived from a holographic key, which restricts access of the information to only the possessor of the key. A reading machine accesses the information contained in the label and compares it with data stored in the machine through the application of a joint transform correlator, which is also equipped with a reference hologram that adds additional security to the procedure.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Dispenser Labeling Requirement All equipment used to dispense motor fuel containing at least 1% ethanol or methanol must be clearly labeled to inform customers that the fuel contains ethanol or methanol. (Reference Texas Statutes, Agriculture Code 17.051

  17. Synthesis of labeled oxalic acid derivatives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Alvarez, Marc A.

    2004-06-22

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, specifically ##STR1## where each C* is selected from the group consisting of a carbon-12, i.e., .sup.12 C, or a carbon-13, i.e., .sup.13 C and at least one C* is .sup.13 C, R.sup.1 is selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl and aryl, and X is selected from the group of --NR.sup.2 R.sup.3 where R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 are each independently selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, alkoxy and aryl, --SR.sup.4 where R.sup.4 is selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, alkoxy and aryl, and --OR.sup.5 where R.sup.5 is selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, alkoxy and aryl with the proviso that when R.sup.1 is methyl then R.sup.5 is other than methyl, when R.sup.1 is ethyl then R.sup.5 is other than ethyl, and when R.sup.1 is benzyl then R.sup.5 is other than benzyl.

  18. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, K.; West, B.; Clark, W.; Graves, R.; Orban, J.; Przesmitzki, S.; Theiss, T.

    2009-02-01

    Intended for policymakers and others who make decisions about, and set guidelines for, the proper use of intermediate ethanol blends such as E20 in both vehicle engines and other engine types.

  19. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, William

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  20. Pressure dispensable gelled alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monick, J.A.

    1982-12-28

    A pressurized fuel gel composition particularly suitable for igniting wood and charcoal consisting essentially of, by weight, 42-90% of at least one c1-c6 monohydric alcohol, 0.5-6% of water-soluble gelling agent, up to about 24% water and a correlated amount of propellant from 0.5% to 30% characterized by a gel structure which forms a shape retaining mass upon contact with wood or charcoal that is maintained during the burning of said composition. Also within the scope of the invention is an aerosol product comprising said pressurized composition enclosed within a pressure-tight container having valve means for expelling the composition.

  1. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  2. Effects of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends on Conventional Vehicle Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, K.; West, B.; Huff, S.; Thomas, J.; Orban, J.; Cooper, C.

    2010-06-01

    Tests were conducted in 2008 on 16 late-model conventional vehicles (1999-2007) to determine short-term effects of mid-level ethanol blends on performance and emissions. Vehicle odometer readings ranged from 10,000 to 100,000 miles, and all vehicles conformed to federal emissions requirements for their federal certification level. The LA92 drive cycle, also known as the Unified Cycle, was used for testing because it more accurately represents real-world acceleration rates and speeds than the Federal Test Procedure. Test fuels were splash-blends of up to 20 volume percent ethanol with federal certification gasoline. Both regulated and unregulated air-toxic emissions were measured. For the 16-vehicle fleet, increasing ethanol content resulted in reductions in average composite emissions of both nonmethane hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and increases in average emissions of ethanol and aldehydes.

  3. SimwYpes(tm) and RonJohn Blend | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SimwYpes(tm) and RonJohn ... SimwYpes(tm) and RonJohn Blend The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 2:20 min. Created to remove residual amounts of beryllium oxide and beryllium particulate from solid surfaces without leaving a residue, SimwYpes are ideal for multiple uses. Quick, gentle, but effective. The inventors of RonJohn solvent talk about its invention and uses

  4. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  5. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon S.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  6. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  7. Recovery and Blend-Down Uranium for Beneficial use in Commercial Reactors - 13373

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magoulas, Virginia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In April 2001 the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) signed an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 33 MT of off-specification (off-spec) highly enriched uranium (HEU) from DOE to TVA for conversion to commercial reactor fuel. Since that time additional surplus off-spec HEU material has been added to the program, making the total approximately 46 MT off-spec HEU. The disposition path for approximately half (23 MT) of this 46 MT of surplus HEU material, was down blending through the H-canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HEU is purified through the H-canyon processes, and then blended with natural uranium (NU) to form low enriched uranium (LEU) solution with a 4.95% U-235 isotopic content. This material was then transported to a TVA subcontractor who converted the solution to uranium oxide and then fabricated into commercial light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This fuel is now powering TVA reactors and supplying electricity to approximately 1 million households in the TVA region. There is still in excess of approximately 10 to 14 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for use in either currently designed light water reactors, ?5% enriched LEU, or be made available for use in subsequent advanced 'fast' reactor fuel designs, ?19% LEU. (authors)

  8. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: RECOVERY AND DOWN BLEND URANIUM FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-05-27

    For over fifty years, the H Canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has performed remotely operated radiochemical separations of irradiated targets to produce materials for national defense. Although the materials production mission has ended, the facility continues to play an important role in the stabilization and safe disposition of proliferable nuclear materials. As part of the US HEU Disposition Program, SRS has been down blending off-specification (off-spec) HEU to produce LEU since 2003. Off-spec HEU contains fission products not amenable to meeting the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) commercial fuel standards prior to purification. This down blended HEU material produced 301 MT of ~5% enriched LEU which has been fabricated into light water reactor fuel being utilized in Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) reactors in Tennessee and Alabama producing economic power. There is still in excess of ~10 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for beneficial use as either ~5% enriched LEU, or for use in subsequent LEU reactors requiring ~19.75% enriched LEU fuel.

  9. Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

    1999-05-05

    Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

  10. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Ning; Xu, Feng; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Thompson, Vicki S.; Cafferty, Kara; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Narani, Akash; Pray, Todd R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production because of its abundance and its low or perhaps negative cost. However, the significant heterogeneity and toxic contaminants are barriers to efficient conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we generated MSW paper mix, blended with corn stover (CS), and have shown that both MSW paper mix alone and MSW/CS blends can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released for MSW. The results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries.

  11. NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott; West, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

  12. Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

  13. NMOG Emissions Characterizations and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott; West, Brian H

    2011-10-01

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

  14. Efficient and selective isotopic labeling of hemes to facilitate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Here, a method for production of recombinant multiheme cytochromes c in Escherichia coli with isotopically labeled hemes is reported. A small tetraheme cytochrome of 12 kDa from ...

  15. Template:LabelValuePair | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is typically used to display the results of an ask or sparql query in a simple label: value format. It is used by many pages, including the sub pages for country profiles, and is...

  16. 99M-Technetium labeled tin colloid radiopharmaceuticals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1976-07-06

    An improved 99m-technetium labeled tin(II) colloid, size-stabilized for reticuloendothelial organ imaging without the use of macromolecular stabilizers and a packaged tin base reagent and an improved method for making it are disclosed.

  17. Technical Issues Associated With the Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends (>E10) in the U.S. Legacy Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, Bechtold; Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; Szybist, James P; West, Brian H; Theiss, Timothy J; Timbario, Tom; Goodman, Marc

    2007-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in assessing the impact of using intermediate ethanol blends (E10 to E30) in the legacy fleet of vehicles in the U.S. fleet. The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify the issues associated with intermediate ethanol blends with an emphasis on the end-use or vehicle impacts of increased ethanol levels; (2) assess the likely severity of the issues and whether they will become more severe with higher ethanol blend levels, or identify where the issue is most severe; (3) identify where gaps in knowledge exist and what might be required to fill those knowledge gaps; and (4) compile a current and complete bibliography of key references on intermediate ethanol blends. This effort is chiefly a critical review and assessment of available studies. Subject matter experts (authors and selected expert contacts) were consulted to help with interpretation and assessment. The scope of this report is limited to technical issues. Additional issues associated with consumer, vehicle manufacturer, and regulatory acceptance of ethanol blends greater than E10 are not considered. The key findings from this study are given.

  18. Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

  19. Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, H.; Braun-Unkhoff, M.

    2008-04-15

    This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased. (author)

  20. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre L. Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2002-07-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. This project complements another ongoing project titled ''Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project''. The objectives of that research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, they have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, the activities have covered two areas: development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  1. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  2. Powertrain Component Inspection from Mid-Level Blends Vehicle Aging Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoffner, Brent; Johnson, Ryan; Heimrich, Martin J.; Lochte, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls on the nation to significantly increase its use of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law expands the renewable fuel standard to require use of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Given that ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the U.S. market, ethanol will likely make up a significant portion of the 36-billion-gallon requirement. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10-gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85 - a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). Consumption of E85 is at present limited by both the size of the FFV fleet and the number of E85 fueling stations. Gasoline consumption in the United States is currently about 140 billion gallons per year; thus the maximum use of ethanol as E10 is only about 14 billion gallons. While the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market represented less than 1% of the ethanol consumed in 2010 and will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Because of these factors, DOE and others have been assessing the viability of using mid-level ethanol blends (E15 or E20) as a way to accommodate growing volumes of ethanol. The DOE Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program has been under way since 2007, supported jointly by the Office of the Biomass Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program. One of the larger projects, the Catalyst Durability Study, or Vehicle Aging Study, will be completed early in calendar year 2011. The following report describes a subproject of the Vehicle Aging Study in which powertrain components from 18 of the vehicles were examined at Southwest Research Institute under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  3. The Use of Triangular-Shaped PV Arrays to Better Blend into Historical Structures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When considering the installation of a solar PV array on a designated historical structure, placement of each solar panel requires extra attention to aesthetic considerations. If the solar array cannot be installed behind the structure or “hidden” on a roof plane that is not visible from the public street or sidewalk, it can sometimes be installed as an architectural feature that blends into the historical structure. One way to do this is to utilize triangular-shaped PV panels that conform with the building’s roof lines.

  4. Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Barone, Teresa L; Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P

    2012-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

  5. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IMPACT OF LOW OCTANE HYDROCARBON BLENDING STREAMS ON "E85" ENGINE OPTIMIZATION Jim Szybist and Brian West Oak Ridge National Laboratory October 19, 2012 Acknowledgement This research was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Vehicle Technology under the Fuels & Lubricants Program managed by Kevin Stork and Steve Przesmitzki. 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

  6. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO2

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    com Principal Investigator A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO 2 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: January 1, 2014 Planned end date: December 31, 2015 Key Milestones 1. Insulation value of R-6 per inch, pore geometry and orientation created by the foam extrusion process with 97% porosity (30 kg/m3 density) and full-scale manufacturing costs of < $0.40/ft 2 ; 12/31/14 2. Insulation value to R-9

  7. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt.% additive of all viscosity and lubricity additives tested here to even approach the lower limit of the ASTM diesel fuel viscosity requirement. To treat neat DME sufficiently to make DME comply with the ASTM diesel fuel viscosity requirement would require a viscosity additive with 10{sup 45} cSt viscosity, which is not possible with current additive technologies.

  8. Simple, rapid method for the preparation of isotopically labeled formaldehyde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooker, Jacob Matthew; Schonberger, Matthias; Schieferstein, Hanno; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-10-04

    Isotopically labeled formaldehyde (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O) is prepared from labeled methyl iodide (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.3I) by reaction with an oxygen nucleophile having a pendant leaving group. The mild and efficient reaction conditions result in good yields of *C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O with little or no *C isotopic dilution. The simple, efficient production of .sup.11CH.sub.2O is described. The use of the .sup.11CH.sub.2O for the formation of positron emission tomography tracer compounds is described. The reaction can be incorporated into automated equipment available to radiochemistry laboratories. The isotopically labeled formaldehyde can be used in a variety of reactions to provide radiotracer compounds for imaging studies as well as for scintillation counting and autoradiography.

  9. Data-Parallel Mesh Connected Components Labeling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Cyrus; Childs, Hank; Gaither, Kelly

    2011-04-10

    We present a data-parallel algorithm for identifying and labeling the connected sub-meshes within a domain-decomposed 3D mesh. The identification task is challenging in a distributed-memory parallel setting because connectivity is transitive and the cells composing each sub-mesh may span many or all processors. Our algorithm employs a multi-stage application of the Union-find algorithm and a spatial partitioning scheme to efficiently merge information across processors and produce a global labeling of connected sub-meshes. Marking each vertex with its corresponding sub-mesh label allows us to isolate mesh features based on topology, enabling new analysis capabilities. We briefly discuss two specific applications of the algorithm and present results from a weak scaling study. We demonstrate the algorithm at concurrency levels up to 2197 cores and analyze meshes containing up to 68 billion cells.

  10. Semiconductor Quantum Rods as Single Molecule FluorescentBiological Labels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Boussert, Benjamine; Koski, Kristie; Gerion, Daniele; Manna, Liberato; Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-05-29

    In recent years, semiconductor quantum dots have beenapplied with great advantage in a wide range of biological imagingapplications. The continuing developments in the synthesis of nanoscalematerials and specifically in the area of colloidal semiconductornanocrystals have created an opportunity to generate a next generation ofbiological labels with complementary or in some cases enhanced propertiescompared to colloidal quantum dots. In this paper, we report thedevelopment of rod shaped semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum rods) asnew fluorescent biological labels. We have engineered biocompatiblequantum rods by surface silanization and have applied them fornon-specific cell tracking as well as specific cellular targeting. Theproperties of quantum rods as demonstrated here are enhanced sensitivityand greater resistance for degradation as compared to quantum dots.Quantum rods have many potential applications as biological labels insituations where their properties offer advantages over quantumdots.

  11. Understanding the Environmental Impacts of Electricity: Product Labeling and Certification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.

    2003-01-01

    Electricity consumers are increasingly gaining the ability to choose among power options from either their current electric utilities or from alternative power providers. In order to help consumers make informed decisions about their electricity purchases and to compare alternatives, many states are requiring electricity providers to disclose information regarding the fuel sources used to generate electricity and the associated environmental impacts. Like nutrition labels, environmental disclosure labels present the content or sources of electricity and are typically included with electricity bills and in product offers. These labels allow consumers to compare the environmental impacts of standard and cleaner power options, which are typically available. This paper discusses clean, green power options available to power purchasers and the tools and information that can be used to make more sustainable power purchase decisions.

  12. Volume-labeled nanoparticles and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei; Gu, Baohua; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel J

    2015-04-21

    Compositions comprising nanosized objects (i.e., nanoparticles) in which at least one observable marker, such as a radioisotope or fluorophore, is incorporated within the nanosized object. The nanosized objects include, for example, metal or semi-metal oxide (e.g., silica), quantum dot, noble metal, magnetic metal oxide, organic polymer, metal salt, and core-shell nanoparticles, wherein the label is incorporated within the nanoparticle or selectively in a metal oxide shell of a core-shell nanoparticle. Methods of preparing the volume-labeled nanoparticles are also described.

  13. High-Pressure Turbulent Flame Speeds and Chemical Kinetics of Syngas Blends with and without Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Eric; Mathieu, Olivier; Morones, Anibal; Ravi, Sankar; Keesee, Charles; Hargis, Joshua; Vivanco, Jose

    2014-12-01

    This Topical Report documents the first year of the project, from October 1, 2013 through September 30, 2014. Efforts for this project included experiments to characterize the atmospheric-pressure turbulent flame speed vessel over a range of operating conditions (fan speeds and turbulent length scales). To this end, a new LDV system was acquired and set up for the detailed characterization of the turbulence field. Much progress was made in the area of impurity kinetics, which included a numerical study of the effect of impurities such as NO2, NO, H2S, and NH3 on ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds of syngas blends at engine conditions. Experiments included a series of laminar flame speed measurements for syngas (CO/H2) blends with various levels of CH4 and C2H6 addition, and the results were compared to the chemical kinetics model of NUI Galway. Also, a final NOx kinetics mechanism including ammonia was assembled, and a journal paper was written and is now in press. Overall, three journal papers and six conference papers related to this project were published this year. Finally, much progress was made on the design of the new high-pressure turbulent flame speed facility. An overall design that includes a venting system was decided upon, and the detailed design is in progress.

  14. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschner, Florian; Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank; Neubauer, Jrgen

    2013-10-15

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the CSH and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the CSH. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the CSH and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: The reaction of quartz powder at 80 C strongly enhances the compressive strength. Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 C was found after 2 days. Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 C correlates with sulphate content of CSH.

  15. Exploiting Photo-induced Reactions in Polymer Blends to Create Hierarchically Ordered, Defect-free Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Balazs, Anna [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

    2010-01-08

    Computer simulations reveal how photo-induced chemical reactions can be exploited to create long-range order in binary and ternary polymeric materials. The process is initiated by shining a spatially uniform light over a photosensitive AB binary blend, which undergoes both a reversible chemical reaction and phase separation. We then introduce a well-collimated, higher-intensity light source. Rastering this secondary light over the sample locally increases the reaction rate and causes formation of defect-free, spatially periodic structures. These binary structures resemble either the lamellar or hexagonal phases of microphase-separated di-block copolymers. We measure the regularity of the ordered structures as a function of the relative reaction rates for different values of the rastering speed and determine the optimal conditions for creating defect-free structures in the binary systems. We then add a non-reactive homo-polymer C, which is immiscible with both A and B. We show that this component migrates to regions that are illuminated by the secondary, higher-intensity light, allowing us to effectively write a pattern of C onto the AB film. Rastering over the ternary blend with this collimated light now leads to hierarchically ordered patterns of A, B, and C. The findings point to a facile, non-intrusive process for manufacturing high-quality polymeric devices in a low-cost, efficient manner.

  16. An In-situ X-ray Scattering Study During Uniaxial Stretching of Ionic Liquid/Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    X Li; Y Mao; H Ma; F Zuo; B Hsiao; B Chu

    2011-12-31

    An ionic liquid (IL) 1-docosanyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was incorporated into ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and formed IL/UHMWPE blends by solution mixing. The structure evolution of these blends during uniaxial stretching was followed by in-situ synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. During deformation at room temperature, deformation-induced phase transformation from orthorhombic to monoclinic phase was observed in both IL/UHMWPE blends and neat UHMWPE. The elongation-to-break ratios of IL/UHMWPE blends were found to increase by 2-3 times compared with that of pure UHMWPE, while the tensile strength remained about the same. In contrast, during deformation at high temperature (120 C), no phase transformation was observed. However, the blend samples showed much better toughness, higher crystal orientation and higher tilting extent of lamellar structure at high strains.

  17. Palladium-109 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    The invention consists of new monoclonal antibodies labelled with Palladium 109, a beta-emitting radionuclide, the method of preparing this material, and its use in the radiotherapy of melanoma. The antibodies are chelate-conjugated and demonstrate a high uptake in melanomas. (ACR)

  18. Isonitrile radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1984-06-04

    A coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta, is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  19. Calendar Year 2008 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homan, GregoryK; Sanchez, Marla; Brown, RichardE; Lai, Judy

    2010-08-24

    This paper presents current and projected savings for ENERGY STAR labeled products, and details the status of the model as implemented in the September 2009 spreadsheets. ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates for ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2008, annual forecasts for 2009 and 2010, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2008 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2009 through 2015. Through 2008 the program saved 8.8 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 158 metric tones carbon (MtC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 18.1 Quads or primary energy saved and 316 MtC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 104 MtC and 213 MtC (1993 to 2008) and between 206 MtC and 444 MtC (2009 to 2015). In this report we address the following questions for ENERGY STAR labeled products: (1) How are ENERGY STAR impacts quantified; (2) What are the ENERGY STAR achievements; and (3) What are the limitations to our method?

  20. Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Barone, Teresa L

    2010-01-01

    Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size distribution remained approximately the same (50 nm) but the particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content in the fuel. In addition, increasing ethanol content significantly reduced the number concentration of 50 and 100 nm particles during gradual and WOT accelerations.

  1. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Fisher, Galen; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

  2. Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

  3. Methanol/ethanol/gasoline blend-fuels demonstration with stratified-charge-engine vehicles: Consultant report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pefley, R.; Adelman, H.; Suga, T.

    1980-03-01

    Four 1978 Honda CVCC vehicles have been in regular use by California Energy Commission staff in Sacramento for 12 months. Three of the unmodified vehicles were fueled with alcohol/gasoline blends (5% methanol, 10% methanol, and 10% ethanol) with the fourth remaining on gasoline as a control. The operators did not know which fuels were in the vehicles. At 90-day intervals the cars were returned to the Univerity of Santa Clara for servicing and for emissions and fuel economy testing in accordance with the Federal Test Procedures. The demonstration and testing have established the following: (1) the tested blends cause no significant degradation in exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and driveability; (2) the tested blends cause significant increases in evaporative emissions; (3) analysis of periodic oil samples shows no evidence of accelerated metal wear; and (4) higher than 10% alcohols will require substantial modification to most existing California motor vehicles for acceptable emissions, performance, and fuel economy. Many aspects of using methanol and ethanol fuels, both straight and in blends, in various engine technologies are discussed.

  4. Chlorinated organic compounds evolved during the combustion of blends of refuse-derived fuels and coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaodong Yang; Napier, J.; Sisk, B.; Wei-Ping Pan; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to examine the possible formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of blends of refuse derived fuels (RDF) and coal under conditions similar to those of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. A series of experiments were conducted using a TGA interfaced to FTIR and MS systems. Additional experiments using a tube furnace preheated to AFBC operating temperatures were also conducted. The combustion products were cryogenically trapped and analyzed with a GUMS system. The chlorination of phenols and the condensation reactions of chlorophenols were investigated in this study. A possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organic; compounds such as dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, by chlorination and condensation reactions involving phenols, was proposed.

  5. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  6. Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Jeffery K; Pawel, Steven J; Wilson, Dane F

    2013-01-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  7. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2010-05-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet-stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. (author)

  8. PUBLIC AND REGULATORY ACCEPTANCE OF BLENDING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE VS DILUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldston, W.

    2010-11-30

    On April 21, 2009, the Energy Facilities Contractors Group (EFCOG) Waste Management Working Group (WMWG) provided a recommendation to the Department of Energy's Environmental Management program (DOE-EM) concerning supplemental guidance on blending methodologies to use to classify waste forms to determine if the waste form meets the definition of Transuranic (TRU) Waste or can be classified as Low-Level Waste (LLW). The guidance provides specific examples and methods to allow DOE and its Contractors to properly classify waste forms while reducing the generation of TRU wastes. TRU wastes are much more expensive to characterize at the generator's facilities, ship, and then dispose at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) than Low-Level Radioactive Waste's disposal. Also the reduction of handling and packaging of LLW is inherently less hazardous to the nuclear workforce. Therefore, it is important to perform the characterization properly, but in a manner that minimizes the generation of TRU wastes if at all possible. In fact, the generation of additional volumes of radioactive wastes under the ARRA programs, this recommendation should improve the cost effective implementation of DOE requirements while properly protecting human health and the environment. This paper will describe how the message of appropriate, less expensive, less hazardous blending of radioactive waste is the 'right' thing to do in many cases, but can be confused with inappropriate 'dilution' that is frowned upon by regulators and stakeholders in the public. A proposal will be made in this paper on how to communicate this very complex and confusing technical issue to regulatory bodies and interested stakeholders to gain understanding and approval of the concept. The results of application of the proposed communication method and attempt to change the regulatory requirements in this area will be discussed including efforts by DOE and the NRC on this very complex subject.

  9. New Lighting Facts Label: Takes the Guess Work Out of Shopping...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Lighting Facts Label: Takes the Guess Work Out of Shopping for Light Bulbs New Lighting Facts Label: Takes the Guess Work Out of Shopping for Light Bulbs January 25, 2012 - ...

  10. Department of Energy to Take Steps to Remove ENERGY STAR Label...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Take Steps to Remove ENERGY STAR Label on Certain LG Refrigerator-Freezer Models Department of Energy to Take Steps to Remove ENERGY STAR Label on Certain LG ...

  11. The Practice and Thinking of Building Energy Efficiency Evaluation & Labeling in Shanghai

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information about the development of Building Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Labeling in Shanghai with project examples and theory.

  12. Efficient and selective isotopic labeling of hemes to facilitate the study

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of multiheme proteins (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Efficient and selective isotopic labeling of hemes to facilitate the study of multiheme proteins Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficient and selective isotopic labeling of hemes to facilitate the study of multiheme proteins Specific isotopic labeling of hemes provides a unique opportunity to characterize the structure and function of heme-proteins. Unfortunately, present day methods do not allow efficient labeling in high

  13. Methods to radiolabel natural organic matter by reduction with hydrogen labeled reducing agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tinnacher, Ruth M.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2011-10-18

    Methods to radiolabel natural organic matter by reduction with a hydrogen labeled reducing agent, and compositions, are provided.

  14. OPS 9.18 Equipment and Piping Labeling 8/24/98 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    8 Equipment and Piping Labeling 8/24/98 OPS 9.18 Equipment and Piping Labeling 8/24/98 The objective of this surveillance is to verify that facility equipment and piping are labeled in a manner such that facility personnel are able to positively identify equipment they operate. This surveillance provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the contractor's program for labeling equipment and piping and for establishing compliance with DOE requirements. Microsoft Office document icon

  15. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Peter J. (Davis, CA); Dueker, Stephen (Davis, CA); Miller, Joshua (Davis, CA); Green, Ralph (Elmacero, CA); Roth, John (Davis, CA); Carkeet, Colleen (Silver Spring, MD); Buchholz,; Bruce A. (Orinda, CA)

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  16. Single step signal group-imidazole labeling of organic phosphate groups under aqueous conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giese, R.W.; Wang, P.

    1996-04-30

    Compounds and methods for single step, covalent labeling of the phosphate group of an organic substance under aqueous conditions are described. The labeling compound includes any kind of detectable signal group covalently bound to an imidazole moiety, which can be imidazole or a substituted imidazole. A preferred labeling compound has the formula shown in the accompanying diagram. 4 figs.

  17. Labeled ALPHA4BETA2 ligands and methods therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Pichika, Ramaiah; Potkin, Steven; Leslie, Frances; Chattopadhyay, Sankha

    2013-02-19

    Contemplated compositions and methods are employed to bind in vitro and in vivo to an .alpha.4.beta.2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in a highly selective manner. Where such compounds are labeled, compositions and methods employing such compounds can be used for PET and SPECT analysis. Alternatively, and/or additionally contemplated compounds can be used as antagonists, partial agonists or agonists in the treatment of diseases or conditions associated with .alpha.4.beta..beta.2 dysfunction.

  18. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration with other strategies under consideration.

  19. Calendar Year 2009 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homan, Gregory K; Sanchez, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-11-15

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates from the use ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2009, annual forecasts for 2010 and 2011, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2009 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2010 through 2015. Through 2009 the program saved 9.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 170 million metric tons carbon (MMTC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 11.5 Quads or primary energy saved and 202 MMTC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 110 MMTC and 231 MMTC (1993 to 2009) and between 130 MMTC and 285 MMTC (2010 to 2015).

  20. State of Ohio Approval Policy

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    STATE OF OHIO DIVISION OF STATE FIRE MARSHAL E 85 DISPENSER UTILIZATION APPROVAL POLICY When the Division of State Fire Marshal is involved in the approval process for a flammable/combustible liquid dispensing facility that utilizes E-blend, where a listed dispensing device is required by the state fire code and the proposed dispensing device is not specifically listed for the intended application, the following guidelines shall be followed in the approval process: As there are currently no

  1. Blend Down Monitoring System Fissile Mass Flow Monitor and its Implementation at the Siberian Chemical Enterprise, Seversk, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uckan, T

    2005-07-28

    In this paper the implementation plans and preparations for installation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment at the Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE), Seversk, Russia, are presented. The FMFM, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is part of the Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) for the U.S. Department of Energy Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program. The BDMS provides confidence to the United States that the Russian nuclear facilities supplying the lower assay ({approx}4%) product low enriched uranium (PLEU) to the United States from down-blended weapon-grade HEU are meeting the nonproliferation goals of the government-to-government HEU purchase agreement signed between the Russian Federation and the United States in 1993. The first BDMS has been operational at Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant, Novouralsk, since February 1999. The second BDMS has been operational at Electro Chemical Plant, Zelenogorsk, since March 2003. These systems are successfully providing HEU transparency data to the United States. The third BDMS was successfully installed on the HEU down-blending tee in the SChE Enrichment Plant in October 2004. The FMFM makes use of a set of thermalized {sup 252}Cf spontaneous neutron sources for modulated fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas stream for measuring the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow rate. To do this, the FMFM measures the transport time of the fission fragments created from the fission activation process under the modulated source to the downstream detectors by detecting the delayed gamma rays from the fission fragments retained in the flow. The FMFM provides unattended nonintrusive measurements of the {sup 235}U mass flow of the UF{sub 6} gas in the blending tee legs of HEU, the LEU blend stock, and the resulting P-LEU. The FMFM also confirms that highly enriched UF{sub 6} gas identified in the HEU leg flows through the blending tee into the P-LEU leg. This report contains details of the SChE FMFM equipment characteristics as well as the technical installation requirements and the latest measurement results.

  2. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance improvement was measured for this vehicle, which achieved near volumetric fuel economy parity on the aggressive US06 drive cycle, demonstrating the potential for improved fuel economy in forthcoming downsized, downsped engines with high-octane fuels.

  3. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2007-03-29

    High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of sludge and the level of dilution for the mixture. (5) Blending the size-reduced zeolite into larger quantities of sludge can reduce the amount of preferential settling. (6) Periodic dilution or resuspension due to sludge washing or other mixing requirements will increase the chances of preferential settling of the zeolite solids. (7) Mixtures of Purex sludge and size-reduced zeolite did not produce yield stresses greater than 200 Pascals for settling times less than thirty days. Most of the sludge-zeolite blends did not exceed 50 Pascals. These mixtures should be removable by current pump technology if sufficient velocities can be obtained. (8) The settling rate of the sludge-zeolite mixtures is a function of the ionic strength (or supernate density) and the zeolite- sludge mixing ratio. (9) Simulant tests indicate that leaching of Si may be an issue for the processed Tank 19 mound material. (10) Floating zeolite fines observed in water for the jet-eductor system and size-reduced zeolite were not observed when the size-reduced zeolite was blended with caustic solutions, indicating that the caustic solutions cause the fines to agglomerate. Based on the test programs described in this report, the potential for successfully removing Tank 18/19 mound material from Tank 7 with the current slurry pump technology requires the reduction of the particle size of the Tank 18/19 mound material.

  4. Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses: October 15, 2002--September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Toro, A.; Frailey, M.; Lynch, F.; Munshi, S.; Wayne, S.

    2005-11-01

    The report covers literature and laboratory analyses to identify modification requirements of a Cummins Westport B Gas Plus engine for transit buses using a hydrogen/compressed natural fuel blend.

  5. Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad; Salleh, Muhamad Mat

    2013-11-27

    This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

  6. Photo-response of a P3HT:PCBM blend in metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devynck, M.; Rostirolla, B.; Watson, C. P.; Taylor, D. M.

    2014-11-03

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are investigated, in which the insulator is cross-linked polyvinylphenol and the active layer a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and the electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Admittance spectra and capacitance-voltage measurements obtained in the dark both display similar behaviour to those previously observed in P3HT-only devices. However, the photo-capacitance response is significantly enhanced in the P3HT:PCBM case, where exciton dissociation leads to electron transfer into the PCBM component. The results are consistent with a network of PCBM aggregates that is continuous through the film but with no lateral interconnection between the aggregates at or near the blend/insulator interface.

  7. Mesoporous Silica Films with Long-Range Order Prepared from Strongly Segregated Block Copolymer/Homopolymer Blend Templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tirumala, Vijay R.; Pai, Rajaram A.; Agarwal, Sumit; Testa, Jason J.; Bhatnagar, Gaurav; Romang, Alvin H.; Chandler, Curran; Gorman, Brian P.; Jones, Ronald L.; Lin, Eric K.; Watkins, James J.

    2008-06-30

    Well-ordered mesoporous silica films were prepared by infusion and selective condensation of Si alkoxides within preorganized block copolymer/homopolymer blend templates using supercritical CO{sub 2} as the delivery medium. The morphologies of the mesoporous silica films reflect significant improvements in the strength of segregation and long-range order of template blends of poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers with selectively associating homopolymers such as poly(acrylic acid) or poly(4-hydroxystyrene) prior as compared to templates comprised of the neat copolymer. Control over film porosity, pore ordering, and morphology of the films is achieved through simple variations in the homopolymer concentration. The films were characterized using X-ray reflectivity, small-angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy.

  8. Determining the Impact of MSW as a Feedstock Blending Agent Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE BioEnergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review Date: March 23 th , 2015 Technology Review Area: Feedstock- Conversion Interface Determining the Impact of MSW as a Feedstock Blending Agent (WBS 2.2.1.103- 105) Principal Investigators: Seema Singh (SNL), Vicki Thompson (INL), Todd Pray (ABPDU) Organizations: Sandia National Lab, Idaho National Lab, Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Goal Statement * Goal and outcome: Identify the optimal

  9. Modifications for use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends in automotive vehicles, September 1976-January 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, D.J.; Bolt, J.A.; Cole, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Methanol or blends of methanol and gasoline as automotive fuels may be attractive means for extending the nation's petroleum reserves. The present study was aimed at identifying potential problems and solutions for this use of methanol. Retrofitting of existing vehicles as well as future vehicle design have been considered. The use of ethanol or higher alcohols was not addressed in this study but will be included at a later date. Several potentially serious problems have been identified with methanol use. The most attractive solutions depend upon an integrated combination of vehicle modifications and fuel design. No vehicle problems were found which could not be solved with relatively minor developments of existing technology providing the methanol or blend fuel was itself engineered to ameliorate the solution. Research needs have been identified in the areas of lubrication and materials. These, while apparently solvable, must precede use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends as motor fuels. Because of the substantial costs and complexities of a retrofitting program, use of methanol must be evaluated in relation to other petroleum-saving alternatives. Future vehicles can be designed initially to operate satisfactorily on these alternate fuels. However a specific fuel composition must be specified around which the future engines and vehicles can be designed.

  10. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  11. Effects of Turbulence on the Combustion Properties of Partially Premixed Flames of Canola Methyl Ester and Diesel Blends

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dhamale, N.; Parthasarathy, R. N.; Gollahalli, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Canola methyl ester (CME) is a biofuel that is a renewable alternative energy resource and is produced by the transesterification of canola oil. The objective of this study was to document the effects of turbulence on the combustion characteristics of blends of CME and No 2 diesel fuel in a partially-premixed flame environment. The experiments were conducted with mixtures of pre-vaporized fuel and air at an initial equivalence ratio of 7 and three burner exit Reynolds numbers, 2700, 3600, and 4500. Three blends with 25, 50, and 75% volume concentration of CME were studied. The soot volume fraction was highestmore » for the pure diesel flames and did not change significantly with Reynolds number due to the mutually compensating effects of increased carbon input rate and increased air entrainment as the Reynolds number was increased. The global NOx emission index was highest and the CO emission index was the lowest for the pure CME flame, and varied non-monotonically with biofuel content in the blend The mean temperature and the NOx concentration at three-quarter flame height were generally correlated, indicating that the thermal mechanism of NOx formation was dominant in the turbulent biofuel flames also.« less

  12. Study of fractionation of refrigerant blends in contact with lubricants and measurement of the solubility, density, and viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Falconi, E.A.

    1999-07-01

    The fractionation of two refrigerant blends was studied using the gas equilibrium method. The amount of fractionation was measured by maintaining a constant composition of the refrigerant gas vapor over the lubricant, which was equal in composition to the liquid refrigerant gas blend introduced into the viscometer. Specifically, the concentration of the dissolved refrigerant gas in the lubricant ranges from 0.6% to 78% by weight in the specified temperature range of {minus}25 C to 125 C and within the highest test pressure of 500 psia (3.45 MPa). The polyolester chosen for this study was a 32 ISO VG complex branched acid pentaerythritol product. Smoothed graphical data presented were obtained from individual isothermal measurements. These individual isothermal measurement temperatures detail the composition of the equilibrium gas fractionation of R-32 and R-134a in the lubricant, mixed vapor pressure, concentration of the total mixed blend as percent by weight in the lubricant and viscosity in centipoise (cP) and centistokes (cSt). The raw data are presented in a smoothed graphical form based on a fixed vapor composition.

  13. Blending Cr2O3 into a NiO-Ni electrocatalyst for sustained water splitting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gong, Ming; Zhou, Wu; Kenney, Michael James; Kapusta, Rich; Cowley, Sam; Wu, Yingpeng; Lu, Bingan; Lin, Meng -Chang; Wang, Di -Yan; Yang, Jiang; et al

    2015-08-24

    The rising H2 economy demands active and durable electrocatalysts based on low-cost, earth-abundant materials for water electrolysis/photolysis. Here we report nanoscale Ni metal cores over-coated by a Cr2O3-blended NiO layer synthesized on metallic foam substrates. The Ni@NiO/Cr2O3 triphase material exhibits superior activity and stability similar to Pt for the hydrogen-evolution reaction in basic solutions. The chemically stable Cr2O3 is crucial for preventing oxidation of the Ni core, maintaining abundant NiO/Ni interfaces as catalytically active sites in the heterostructure and thus imparting high stability to the hydrogen-evolution catalyst. The highly active and stable electrocatalyst enables an alkaline electrolyzer operating at 20more » mA cm–2 at a voltage lower than 1.5 V, lasting longer than 3 weeks without decay. Thus, the non-precious metal catalysts afford a high efficiency of about 15 % for light-driven water splitting using GaAs solar cells.« less

  14. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

    2006-03-01

    U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  15. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  16. Correlations of Polyimides and Blended Polyimides for High Temperature Gas Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Klaehn; Christopher J. Orme; Thomas A. Luther; Eric S. Peterson; Jagoda M. Urban-Klaehn

    2002-03-01

    High performance polymers are of interest for high temperature gas separations, especially for the sequestration of carbon dioxide. A new family of high performance imide polymers has been identified as a successful membrane capture material. VTEC polyimides possess desired thermal properties (up to 500 C) along with being robust and flexible even after multiple thermal cycles (up to 400 C). Polyimides (PI) are excellent materials for high selectivity for smaller kinetic diameter gases such as H2 and CO2; however, they have low fluxes. We blended small amounts of different polymers with VTEC polyimide, which changes the fluxes. Another critical problem when working with glassy polymers is their moisture content. It has been found that water entrapped within the polymer matrix (left over from the solvent, or physisorbed) can also cause the polymer to change dramatically. Additionally presence of molecular water in the polymers void volume has been validated through Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy. In this presentation, polymer characterization and gas-separation testing results will be discussed.

  17. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

    1995-05-02

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

  18. Method for producing labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J. (Bellport, NY); Quesada, Mark A. (Middle Island, NY); Randesi, Matthew (Upton, NY)

    1999-10-19

    Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

  19. International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

    2008-05-01

    China has had an active program on energy efficiency standards for household appliances since the mid-1990s. Rice cooker is among the first to be subject to such mandatory regulation, since it is one of the most prevalent electric appliances in Chinese households. Since first introduced in 1989, the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers has not been revised. Therefore, the potential for energy saving is considerable. Initial analysis from CNIS indicates that potential carbon savings is likely to reach 7.6 million tons of CO2 by the 10th year of the standard implementation. Since September 2007, CNIS has been working with various groups to develop the new standard for rice cookers. With The Energy Foundation's support, LBNL has assisted CNIS in the revision of the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers that is expected to be effective in 2009. Specifically, work has been in the following areas: assistance in developing consumer survey on usage pattern of rice cookers, review of international standards, review of international test procedures, comparison of the international standards and test procedures, and assessment of technical options of reducing energy use. This report particularly summarizes the findings of reviewing international standards and technical options of reducing energy consumption. The report consists of an overview of rice cooker standards and labeling programs and testing procedures in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, and Japan's case study in developing energy efficiency rice cooker technologies and rice cooker efficiency programs. The results from the analysis can be summarized as the follows: Hong Kong has a Voluntary Energy Efficiency Labeling scheme for electric rice cookers initiated in 2001, with revision implemented in 2007; South Korea has both MEPS and Mandatory Energy Efficiency Label targeting the same category of rice cookers as Hong Kong; Thailand's voluntary endorsement labeling program is similar to Hong Kong in program design but has 5 efficiency grades; Japan's program is distinct in its adoption of the 'Top Runner' approach, in which, the future efficiency standards is set based on the efficiency levels of the most efficient product in the current domestic market. Although the standards are voluntary, penalties can still be evoked if the average efficiency target is not met. Both Hong Kong and South Korea's tests involve pouring water into the inner pot equal to 80% of its rated volume; however, white rice is used as a load for its tests in Hong Kong whereas no rice is used for tests in South Korea. In Japan's case, water level specified by the manufactures is used and milled rice is used as a load only partially in the tests. Moreover, Japan does not conduct heat efficiency test but its energy consumption measurements tests are much more complex, with 4 different tests are conducted to determine the annual average energy consumption. Hong Kong and Thailand both set Minimum Allowable Heat Efficiency for different rated wattages. The energy efficiency requirements are identical except that the minimum heat efficiency in Thailand is 1 percentage point higher for all rated power categories. In South Korea, MEPS and label's energy efficiency grades are determined by the rice cooker's Rated Energy Efficiency for induction, non-induction, pressure, nonpressure rice cookers. Japan's target standard values are set for electromagnetic induction heating products and non-electromagnetic induction heating products by different size of rice cookers. Specific formulas are used by type and size depending on the mass of water evaporation of the rice cookers. Japan has been the leading country in technology development of various types of rice cookers, and developed concrete energy efficiency standards for rice cookers. However, as consumers in Japan emphasize the deliciousness of cooked rice over other factors, many types of models were developed to improve the taste of cooked rice. Nonetheless, the efficiency of electromagnetic induction heating (IH) rice cook

  20. Preparation of 13C/15N-labeled oligomers using the polymerase chain reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Xian (Los Alamos, NM); Gupta, Goutam (Santa Fe, NM); Bradbury, E. Morton (Santa Fe, NM)

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of .sup.13 C/.sup.15 N-labeled DNA oligomers using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A PCR based method for uniform (.sup.13 C/.sup.15 N)-labeling of DNA duplexes is described. Multiple copies of a blunt-ended duplex are cloned into a plasmid, each copy containing the sequence of interest and restriction Hinc II sequences at both the 5' and 3' ends. PCR using bi-directional primers and uniformly .sup.13 C/.sup.15 N-labeled dNTP precursors generates labeled DNA duplexes containing multiple copies of the sequence of interest. Twenty-four cycles of PCR, followed by restriction and purification, gave the uniformly .sup.13 C/.sup.15 N-labeled duplex sequence with a 30% yield. Such labeled duplexes find significant applications in multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  1. Slow Light Mach-Zehnder Interferometer as Label-free Biosensor with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scalable Sensitivity (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Slow Light Mach-Zehnder Interferometer as Label-free Biosensor with Scalable Sensitivity Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on February 5, 2017 Title: Slow Light Mach-Zehnder Interferometer as Label-free Biosensor with Scalable Sensitivity Our design, fabrication, and characterization of a label-free Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optical biosensor that incorporates a highly dispersive

  2. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  3. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanfilippo, Antonio (Richland, WA); Calapristi, Augustin J. (West Richland, WA); Crow, Vernon L. (Richland, WA); Hetzler, Elizabeth G. (Kennewick, WA); Turner, Alan E. (Kennewick, WA)

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  4. Automatic Labeling for Entity Extraction in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bridges, Robert A; Jones, Corinne L; Iannacone, Michael D; Testa, Kelly M; Goodall, John R

    2014-01-01

    Timely analysis of cyber-security information necessitates automated information extraction from unstructured text. While state-of-the-art extraction methods produce extremely accurate results, they require ample training data, which is generally unavailable for specialized applications, such as detecting security related entities; moreover, manual annotation of corpora is very costly and often not a viable solution. In response, we develop a very precise method to automatically label text from several data sources by leveraging related, domain-specific, structured data and provide public access to a corpus annotated with cyber-security entities. Next, we implement a Maximum Entropy Model trained with the average perceptron on a portion of our corpus (~750,000 words) and achieve near perfect precision, recall, and accuracy, with training times under 17 seconds.

  5. Nucleic acid analysis using terminal-phosphate-labeled nucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

    2008-04-22

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  6. Blend Down Monitoring System Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Implementation at the ElectroChemical Plant, Zelenogorsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uckan, T.

    2005-11-11

    The implementation plans and preparations for installation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment at the ElectroChemical Plant (ECP), Zelenogorsk, Russia, are presented in this report. The FMFM, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is part of the Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS), developed for the U.S. Department of Energy Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program. The BDMS provides confidence to the United States that the Russian nuclear facilities supplying the lower-assay ({approx}4%) product low enriched uranium (P-LEU) to the United States from down-blended weapons-grade HEU are meeting the nonproliferation goals of the government-to-government HEU Purchase Agreement, signed between the Russian Federation and the United States in 1993. The first BDMS has been operational at Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant, Novouralsk, since February 1999 and is successfully providing HEU transparency data to the United States. The second BDMS was installed at ECP in February 2003. The FMFM makes use of a set of thermalized californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) spontaneous neutron sources for a modulated fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas stream for measuring the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow rate. To do this, the FMFM measures the transport time of the fission fragments created from the fission activation process under the modulated source to the downstream detectors by detecting the delayed gamma rays from the fission fragments. The FMFM provides unattended, nonintrusive measurements of the {sup 235}U mass flow in the HEU, LEU blend stock, and P-LEU process legs. The FMFM also provides the traceability of the HEU flow to the product process leg. This report documents the technical installation requirements and the expected operational characteristics of the ECP FMFM.

  7. VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

    1999-02-01

    Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and biomass minerals.

  8. Impacts of side chain and excess energy on the charge photogeneration dynamics of low-bandgap copolymer-fullerene blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huo, Ming-Ming Zhang, Jian-Ping E-mail: hjhzlz@iccas.ac.cn; Department of Chemistry, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 ; Hu, Rong Xing, Ya-Dong Liu, Yu-Chen Ai, Xi-Cheng; Hou, Jian-Hui E-mail: hjhzlz@iccas.ac.cn

    2014-02-28

    Primary charge photogeneration dynamics in neat and fullerene-blended films of a pair of alternating benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b{sup ?}]dithiophene (BDT) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (TT) copolymers are comparatively studied by using near-infrared, time-resolved absorption (TA) spectroscopy under low excitation photon fluence. PBDTTT-E and PBDTTT-C, differed merely in the respective TT-substituents of ester (-E) and carbonyl (-C), show distinctly different charge photogeneration dynamics. The pair of neat PBDTTT films show exciton lifetimes of ?0.1 ns and fluorescence quantum yields below 0.2%, as well as prominent excess-energy enhanced exciton dissociation. In addition, PBDTTT-C gives rise to >50% higher P{sup +} yield than PBDTTT-E does irrespective to the excitation photon energy. Both PBDTTT-E:PC{sub 61}BM and PBDTTT-C:PC{sub 61}BM blends show subpicosecond exciton lifetimes and nearly unitary fluorescence quenching efficiency and, with respect to the former blend, the latter one shows substantially higher branching ratio of charge separated (CS) state over interfacial charge transfer (ICT) state, and hence more efficient exciton-to-CS conversion. For PBDTTT-C:PC{sub 61}BM, the ultrafast charge dynamics clearly show the processes of ICT-CS interconversion and P{sup +} migration, which are possibly influenced by the ICT excess energy. However, such processes are relatively indistinctive in the case of PBDTTT-E:PC{sub 61}BM. The results strongly prove the importance of ICT dissociation in yielding free charges, and are discussed in terms of the film morphology and the precursory solution-phase macromolecular conformation.

  9. Low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol and ethanol-PRF blends: An experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Francis M.; Chaos, Marcos; Dryer, Frederick L.

    2009-12-15

    In this brief communication, we present new experimental species profile measurements for the low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol under knock-prone conditions. These experiments show that ethanol exhibits no global low temperature reactivity at these conditions, although we note the heterogeneous decomposition of ethanol to ethylene and water. Similar behavior is reported for an E85 blend in n-heptane. Kinetic modeling results are presented to complement these experiments and elucidate the interaction of ethanol and primary reference fuels undergoing cooxidation. (author)

  10. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non?Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, Keith; West, Brian H; Clark, Wendy; Graves, Ronald L; Orban, John; Przesmitzki, Steve; Theiss, Timothy J

    2009-02-01

    In summer 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20--gasoline blended with 15 and 20% ethanol--on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This first report provides the results available to date from the first stages of a much larger overall test program. Results from additional projects that are currently underway or in the planning stages are not included in this first report. The purpose of this initial study was to quickly investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the following: (1) Regulated tailpipe emissions for 13 popular late model vehicles on a drive cycle similar to real-world driving and 28 small non-road engines (SNREs) under certification or typical in use procedures. (2) Exhaust and catalyst temperatures of the same vehicles under more severe conditions. (3) Temperature of key engine components of the same SNREs under certification or typical in-use conditions. (4) Observable operational issues with either the vehicles or SNREs during the course of testing. As discussed in the concluding section of this report, a wide range of additional studies are underway or planned to consider the effects of intermediate ethanol blends on materials, emissions, durability, and driveability of vehicles, as well as impacts on a wider range of nonautomotive engines, including marine applications, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Section 1 (Introduction) gives background on the test program and describes collaborations with industry and agencies to date. Section 2 (Experimental Setup) provides details concerning test fuels, vehicle and SNRE selection, and test methods used to conduct the studies presented in this report. Section 3 (Results and Discussion) summarizes the vehicle and SNRE studies and presents data from testing completed to date. Section 4 (Next Steps) describes planned future activities. The appendixes provide test procedure details, vehicle and SNRE emissions standards, analysis details, and additional data and tables from vehicle and SNRE tests.

  11. Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labeling Programs in China: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saheb, Yamina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-08-01

    After implementing several energy efficiency standards and labels (30 products covered by MEPS, 50 products covered by voluntary labels and 19 products by mandatory labels), the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) is now implementing verification and compliance mechanism to ensure that the energy information of labeled products comply with the requirements of their labels. CNIS is doing so by organizing check testing on a random basis for room air-conditioners, refrigerators, motors, heaters, computer displays, ovens, and self -ballasted lamps. The purpose of the check testing is to understand the implementation of the Chinese labeling scheme and help local authorities establishing effective compliance mechanisms. In addition, to ensure robustness and consistency of testing results, CNIS has coordinated a round robin testing for room air conditioners. Eight laboratories (Chinese (6), Australian (1) and Japanese (1)) have been involved in the round robin testing and tests were performed on four sets of samples selected from manufacturer's production line. This paper describes the methodology used in undertaking both check and round robin testing, provides analysis of testing results and reports on the findings. The analysis of both check and round robin testing demonstrated the benefits of a regularized verification and monitoring system for both laboratories and products such as (i) identifying the possible deviations between laboratories to correct them, (ii) improving the quality of testing facilities, (iii) ensuring the accuracy and reliability of energy label information in order to strength the social credibility of the labeling program and the enforcement mechanism in place.

  12. Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labelling Programs in China: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saheb, Yamina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Pierrot, Andr

    2010-06-11

    After implementing several energy efficiency standards and labels (30 products covered by MEPS, 50 products covered by voluntary labels and 19 products by mandatory labels), the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) is now implementing verification and compliance mechanism to ensure that the energy information of labeled products comply with the requirements of their labels. CNIS is doing so by organizing check testing on a random basis for room air-conditioners, refrigerators, motors, heaters, computer displays, ovens, and self -ballasted lamps. The purpose of the check testing is to understand the implementation of the Chinese labeling scheme and help local authorities establishing effective compliance mechanisms. In addition, to ensure robustness and consistency of testing results, CNIS has coordinated a round robin testing for room air conditioners. Eight laboratories (Chinese (6), Australian (1) and Japanese (1)) have been involved in the round robin testing and tests were performed on four sets of samples selected from manufacturer?s production line. This paper describes the methodology used in undertaking both check and round robin testing, provides analysis of testing results and reports on the findings. The analysis of both check and round robin testing demonstrated the benefits of a regularized verification and monitoring system for both laboratories and products such as (i) identifying the possible deviations between laboratories to correct them, (ii) improving the quality of testing facilities, (iii) ensuring the accuracy and reliability of energy label information in order to strength the social credibility of the labeling program and the enforcement mechanism in place.

  13. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  14. Investigation of critical equivalence ratio and chemical speciation in flames of ethylbenzene-ethanol blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therrien, Richard J.; Ergut, Ali; Levendis, Yiannis A.; Richter, Henning; Howard, Jack B.; Carlson, Joel B.

    2010-02-15

    This work investigates five different one-dimensional, laminar, atmospheric pressure, premixed ethanol/ethylbenzene flames (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 90% ethanol by weight) at their soot onset threshold ({phi}{sub critical}). Liquid ethanol/ethylbenzene mixtures were pre-vaporized in nitrogen, blended with an oxygen-nitrogen mixture and, upon ignition, burned in premixed one-dimensional flames at atmospheric pressure. The flames were controlled so that each was at its visual soot onset threshold, and all had similar temperature profiles (determined by thermocouples). Fixed gases, light volatile hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons were directly sampled at three locations in each flame. The experimental results were compared with a detailed kinetic model, and the modeling results were used to perform a reaction flux analysis of key species. The critical equivalence ratio was observed to increase in a parabolic fashion as ethanol concentration increased in the fuel mixture. The experimental results showed increasing trends of methane, ethane, and ethylene with increasing concentrations of ethanol in the flames. Carbon monoxide was also seen to increase significantly with the increase of ethanol in the flame, which removes carbon from the PAH and soot formation pathways. The PAH and oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbon values were very similar in the 0%, 25% and 50% ethanol flames, but significantly lower in the 75% and 90% ethanol flames. These results were in general agreement with the model and were reflected by the model soot predictions. The model predicted similar soot profiles for the 0%, 25% and 50% ethanol flames, however it predicted significantly lower values in the 75% and 90% ethanol flames. The reaction flux analysis revealed benzyl to be a major contributor to single and double ring aromatics (i.e., benzene and naphthalene), which was identified in a similar role in nearly sooting or highly sooting ethylbenzene flames. The presence of this radical was significantly reduced as ethanol concentration was increased in the flames, and this effect in combination with the lower carbon to oxygen ratios and the enhanced formation of carbon monoxide, are likely what allowed higher equivalence ratios to be reached without forming soot. (author)

  15. Conductivity enhancement in PVA?PEO?EC?LiCF?{sub 3}SO{sub 3} blends upon swift heavy O{sup 7+} ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joge, Prajakta Kanchan, D. K. Sharma, Poonam Jayswal, Manish; Awasthi, D. K.

    2014-04-24

    In the present study, the PVA?PEO?EC?LiCF?{sub 3}SO{sub 3} blend system was prepared using solution cast technique. The system was prepared by taking 5 different concentrations LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} in the range of 3wt% to 11 wt%, at a fixed proportion of the rest of the constituents. These blend films had been exposed to O{sup 7+} radiations of 80 MeV at a current of 1pnA at a fluence of 110{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The conductivity variation of the specimens is investigated using impedance spectroscopy wherein; the conductivity enhances drastically upon irradiation at all the concentrations of salt. The thermal characteristics of the blend films are being studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

  16. Label-free functional nucleic acid sensors for detecting target agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yi; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-13

    A general methodology to design label-free fluorescent functional nucleic acid sensors using a vacant site approach and an abasic site approach is described. In one example, a method for designing label-free fluorescent functional nucleic acid sensors (e.g., those that include a DNAzyme, aptamer or aptazyme) that have a tunable dynamic range through the introduction of an abasic site (e.g., dSpacer) or a vacant site into the functional nucleic acids. Also provided is a general method for designing label-free fluorescent aptamer sensors based on the regulation of malachite green (MG) fluorescence. A general method for designing label-free fluorescent catalytic and molecular beacons (CAMBs) is also provided. The methods demonstrated here can be used to design many other label-free fluorescent sensors to detect a wide range of analytes. Sensors and methods of using the disclosed sensors are also provided.

  17. Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape

    2005-12-01

    High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  19. Enhanced detection of fluorescence quenching in labeled cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, H.A.; Steinkamp, J.A.

    1987-11-30

    A method is provided for quantifying BrdU labeled DNA in cells. The BrdU is substituted onto the DNA and the DNA is stained with a first fluorochrome having a fluorescence which is quenchable by BrdU. The first fluorochrome is preferably a thymidine base halogen analogue, such as a Hoechst fluorochrome. The DNA is then stained with a second fluorochrome having a fluorescence which is substantially uneffected by BrdU. The second fluorochrome may be selected from the group consisting of mithramycin, chromomycin A3, olivomycin, propidium iodide and ethidium bromine. The fluorescence from the first and second fluorochromes is then measured to obtain first and second output signals, respectively. The first output signal is subtracted from the second output signal to obtain a difference signal which is functionally related to the quantity of BrdU incorporated into DNA. The technique is particularly useful for quantifying the synthesis of DNA during the S-phase of the cell cycle. 2 figs.

  20. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard

    2008-10-31

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2007, the program saved 7.1 Quads of primary energy and avoided 128 MtC equivalent. The forecast shows that the program is expected to save 21.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 375 MtC equivalent over the period 2008-2015. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 84 MtC and 172 MtC (1993 to 2007) and between 243 MtC and 519 MtC (2008 to 2015).

  1. Enhanced detection of fluorescence quenching in labeled cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, Harry A. (Los Alamos, NM); Steinkamp, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A method is provided for quantifying BrdU labeled DNA in cells. The BrdU is incorporated into the DNA and the DNA is stained with a first fluorochrome having a fluorescence which is quenchable by BrdU. The first fluorochrome is preferably a thymidine base halogen analogue, such as a Hoechst fluorochrome. The DNA is then stained with a second fluorochrome having a fluorescence that is substantially uneffected by BrdU. The second fluorochrome may be selected from the group consisting of mithramycin, chromomycin A3, olivomycin, propidium iodide and ethidium bromine. The fluorescence from the first and second fluorochromes is then measured to obtain first and second output signals, respectively. The first output signal is substracted from the second output signal to obtain a difference signal which is functionally related to the quantity of BrdU incorporated into DNA. The technique is particularly useful for quantifying the synthesis of DNA during the S-phase of the cell cycle.

  2. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluations of fluorescent or 149Promethium labeled Trastuzumab-polyethylenimine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan; Nayak, Tapan; Cutler, Cathy; Atcher, Robert

    2015-12-30

    Radioimmunotherapy utilize a targeting antibody coupled to a therapeutic isotope to target and treat a tumor or disease. In this study we examine the synthesis and cell binding of a polymer scaffold containing a radiotherapeutic isotope and a targeting antibody. Methods: The multistep synthesis of a fluorescent or 149Promethium-labeled Trastuzumab-polyethyleneimine (PEI), Trastuzumab, or PEI is described. In vitro uptake, internalization and/or the binding affinity to the Her2/neu expressing human breast adenocarcinoma SKBr3 cells was investigated with the labeled compounds. Fluorescent-labeled Trastuzumab-PEI was internalized more into cells at 2 and 18 h than fluorescent-labeled Trastuzumab or PEI. The fluorescent-labeled Trastuzumab wasmore » concentrated on the cell surface at 2 and 18 h and the labeled PEI had minimal uptake. DOTA-PEI was prepared and contained an average of 16 chelates per PEI; the compound was radio-labeled with 149Promethium and conjugated to Trastuzumab. The purified 149Pm-DOTA-PEI-Trastuzumab had a radiochemical purity of 96.7% and a specific activity of 0.118 TBq/g. The compound demonstrated a dissociation constant for the Her2/neu receptor of 20.30 ± 6.91 nM. In conclusion, the results indicate the DOTA-PEI-Trastuzumab compound has potential as a targeted therapeutic carrier, and future in vivo studies should be performed.« less

  3. Self-degradable Slag/Class F Fly Ash-Blend Cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Warren, J.; Butcher, T.; Lance Brothers; Bour, D.

    2011-03-01

    Self-degradable slag/Class F fly ash blend pozzolana cements were formulated, assuming that they might serve well as alternative temporary fracture sealers in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells operating at temperatures of {ge} 200 C. Two candidate formulas were screened based upon material criteria including an initial setting time {ge} 60 min at 85 C, compressive strength {ge} 2000 psi for a 200 C autoclaved specimen, and the extent of self-degradation of cement heated at {ge} 200 C for it was contacted with water. The first screened dry mix formula consisted of 76.5 wt% slag-19.0 wt% Class F fly ash-3.8 wt% sodium silicate as alkali activator, and 0.7 wt% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the self-degradation promoting additive, and second formula comprised of 57.3 wt% slag, 38.2 wt% Class F fly ash, 3.8 wt% sodium silicate, and 0.7 wt% CMC. After mixing with water and autoclaving it at 200 C, the aluminum-substituted 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal phase was identified as hydrothermal reaction product responsible for the development of a compressive strength of 5983 psi. The 200 C-autoclaved cement made with the latter formula had the combined phases of tobermorite as its major reaction product and amorphous geopolymer as its minor one providing a compressive strength of 5271 psi. Sodium hydroxide derived from the hydrolysis of sodium silicate activator not only initiated the pozzolanic reaction of slag and fly ash, but also played an important role in generating in-situ exothermic heat that significantly contributed to promoting self-degradation of cementitious sealers. The source of this exothermic heat was the interactions between sodium hydroxide, and gaseous CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}COOH by-products generated from thermal decomposition of CMC at {ge} 200 C in an aqueous medium. Thus, the magnitude of this self-degradation depended on the exothermic temperature evolved in the sealer; a higher temperature led to a sever disintegration of sealer. The exothermic temperature was controlled by the extent of thermal decomposition of CMC, demonstrating that CMC decomposed at higher temperature emitted more gaseous reactants. Hence, such large emission enhanced the evolution of in-situ exothermic heat. In contrast, the excessive formation of geopolymer phase due to more incorporation of Class F fly ash into this cementitious system affected its ability to self-degrade, reflecting that there was no self-degradation. The geopolymer was formed by hydrothermal reactions between sodium hydroxide from sodium silicate and mullite in Class F fly ash. Thus, the major reason why geopolymer-based cementitiuos sealers did not degrade after heated sealers came in contact with water was their lack of free sodium hydroxide.

  4. A New Generation of Labels for a New Generation of Cars | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy A New Generation of Labels for a New Generation of Cars A New Generation of Labels for a New Generation of Cars May 25, 2011 - 5:42pm Addthis A New Generation of Labels for a New Generation of Cars John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? An improved car buying experience Clear cut cost comparisons of vehicles If you've ever gone through the process of shopping for a new car, you know just how difficult it can be to

  5. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

  6. Slow Light Mach-Zehnder Interferometer as Label-free Biosensor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of a label-free Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optical biosensor that incorporates a highly dispersive one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal in one arm are presented. ...

  7. DOE Withdraws the Energy Star Label from 34 Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington, DC - On January 25th, the General Counsel notified 25 manufacturers that the Department of Energy has withdrawn their right to use the Energy Star label on 34 different models of...

  8. Vertical and lateral morphology effects on solar cell performance for a thiophene–quinoxaline copolymer:PC 70BM blend

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hansson, Rickard; Ericsson, Leif K. E.; Holmes, Natalie P.; Rysz, Jakub; Opitz, Andreas; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Wang, Ergang; Barr, Matthew G.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Zhou, Xiaojing; et al

    2015-02-13

    The distribution of electron donor and acceptor in the active layer is known to strongly influence the electrical performance of polymer solar cells for most of the high performance polymer:fullerene systems. The formulation of the solution from which the active layer is spincoated plays an important role in the quest for morphology control. We have studied how the choice of solvent and the use of small amounts of a low vapour pressure additive in the coating solution influence the film morphology and the solar cell performance for blends of poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1) and [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM). We havemore » investigated the lateral morphology using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), the vertical morphology using dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (d-SIMS) and variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), and the surface composition using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The lateral phase-separated domains observed in films spincoated from single solvents, increase in size with increasing solvent vapour pressure and decreasing PC70BM solubility, but are not observed when 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) is added. A strongly TQ1-enriched surface layer is formed in all TQ1:PC70BM blend films and rationalized by surface energy differences. The photocurrent and power conversion efficiency strongly increased upon the addition of CN, while the leakage current decreased by one to two orders of magnitude. The higher photocurrent correlates with the finer lateral structure and stronger TQ1-enrichment at the interface with the electron-collecting electrode. This indicates that the charge transport and collection are not hindered by this polymer-enriched surface layer. Neither the open-circuit voltage nor the series resistance of the devices are sensitive to the differences in morphology.« less

  9. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two base labeling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Posner, Richard G.; Marrone, Babetta L.; Hammond, Mark L.; Simpson, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Method for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used to replicate a single DNA or RNA strand to be sequenced. The bases are then sequentially cleaved from the replicated strand, excited with a chosen spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the fluorescence from individual, tagged bases detected in the order of cleavage from the strand.

  10. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two base labeling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Posner, R.G.; Marrone, B.L.; Hammond, M.L.; Simpson, D.J.

    1995-04-11

    A method is described for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used to replicate a single DNA or RNA strand to be sequenced. The bases are then sequentially cleaved from the replicated strand, excited with a chosen spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the fluorescence from individual, tagged bases detected in the order of cleavage from the strand. 4 figures.

  11. Cyanine dyes with high-absorbance cross section as donor chromophores in energy transfer labels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Hung, Su-Chun (Richmond, CA); Ju, Jingyue (Redwood City, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures.

  12. Methods of sequencing and detection using energy transfer labels with cyanine dyes as donor chromophores

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Hung, Su-Chun (Richmond, CA); Ju, Jingyue (Redwood City, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures.

  13. Synthesis of isotopically labeled R- or S-[.sup.13C, .sup.2H] glycerols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Alvarez, Marc A.

    2008-01-22

    The present invention is directed to asymmetric chiral labeled glycerols including at least one chiral atom, from one to two .sup.13C atoms and from zero to four deuterium atoms bonded directly to a carbon atom, e.g., (2S) [1,2-.sup.13C.sub.2]glycerol and (2R) [1,2-.sup.13C.sub.2]glycerol, and to the use of such chiral glycerols in the preparation of labeled amino acids.

  14. Enhancing the Sensitivity of Label-free Silicon Photonic Biosensors through

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Increased Probe Molecule Density (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enhancing the Sensitivity of Label-free Silicon Photonic Biosensors through Increased Probe Molecule Density Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhancing the Sensitivity of Label-free Silicon Photonic Biosensors through Increased Probe Molecule Density Authors: Hu, Shuren [1] ; Quin, K. [1] ; Retterer, Scott T [2] ; Kravchenko, Ivan I [2] ; Weiss, Sharon [1] + Show Author Affiliations Vanderbilt University,

  15. Cyanine dyes with high-absorbance cross section as donor chromophores in energy transfer labels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glazer, A.N.; Mathies, R.A.; Hung, S.C.; Ju, J.

    1998-12-29

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures. 22 figs.

  16. Microsoft Word - Smart Grid Certification and Labeling Program 09-11-2009 _3_.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NETL Modern Grid Strategy Powering our 21st-Century Economy SMART GRID CERTIFICATION AND LABELING Conducted by National Energy Technology Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability September 2009 Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Smart Grid Certification and Labeling 1 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor

  17. Compositions for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Petric, Andrej; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Small, Gary W.; Cole, Gregory M.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2008-03-11

    Compositions useful for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are provided. The compositions comprises compounds of formula (I): ##STR00001## wherein R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2-alkyl, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.4 is a radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; R.sub.5 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --NH.sub.2, --OH, --SH, --NH-alkyl, --NHR.sub.4, --NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --O-alkyl, --O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --S-alkyl, and --S-alkylenyl-R.sub.4; R.sub.6 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --CN, --COOH, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-halogen, --C(O)NH-alkyl, --C(O)NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 and --C(O)NH.sub.2; R.sub.7 is a radical selected from the group consisting of O, NH, and S; and R.sub.8 is N, O or S; and R.sub.2 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl and alkylenyl-R.sub.10 and R.sub.3 is alkylenyl-R.sub.10, wherein R.sub.10 is selected from the group consisting of --OH, --OTs, halogen, spiperone, spiperone ketal, and spiperone-3-yl, or R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 together form a heterocyclic ring, optionally substituted with at least one radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, OH, OTs, halogen, alkyl-R.sub.10, carbonyl, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl, and further wherein one or more of the hydrogen, halogen or carbon atoms are optionally replaced with a radiolabel.

  18. Methods for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Petric, Andrej; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Small, Gary W.; Cole, Gregory M.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2003-12-09

    A method for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in vivo and in vitro, comprises contacting a compound of formula (I): ##STR1## with mammalian tissue. In formula (I), R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkyl, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkylenyl-R.sub.4, ##STR2## R.sub.4 is a radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; R.sub.5 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --NH.sub.2, --OH, --SH, --NH-alkyl, --NHR.sub.4, --NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --O-alkyl, --O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --S-alkyl, and --S-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.6 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --CN, --COOH, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-halogen, --C(O)NH, --C(O)NH-alkyl, --C(O)NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.7 is a radical selected from the group consisting of O, NH, and S; and R.sub.8 is N, O or S. R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl and alkylenyl-R.sub.10, wherein R.sub.10 is selected from the group consisting of --OH, --OTs, halogen, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. Alternatively, R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 together form a heterocyclic ring, optionally substituted with at least one radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, OH, OTs, halogen, alkylenyl-R.sub.10, carbonyl, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. In the compounds of formula (I), one or more of the hydrogen, halogen or carbon atoms can, optionally, be replaced with a radiolabel.

  19. Methods for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Petric, Andrej; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Small, Gary W.; Cole, Gregory M.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2001-01-01

    A method for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in vivo and in vitro, comprises contacting a compound of formula (I): ##STR1## with mammalian tissue. In formula (I), R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkyl, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkylenyl-R.sub.4 , ##STR2## R.sub.4 is a radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; R.sub.5, is a radical selected from the group consisting of --NH.sub.2, --OH, --SH, --NH-alkyl, --NHR.sub.4, --NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --O-alkyl, --O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --S-alkyl, and --S-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.6 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --CN, --COOH, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-halogen, --C(O)NH , --C(O)NH-alkyl, --C(O)NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.7 is a radical selected from the group consisting of O, NH, and S; and R.sub.8 is N, O or S. R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl and alkylenyl-R.sub.10, wherein R.sub.10 is selected from the group consisting of --OH, --OTs, halogen, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. Alternatively, R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 together form a heterocyclic ring, optionally substituted with at least one radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, OH, OTs, halogen, alkylenyl-R.sub.10, carbonyl, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. In the compounds of formula (I), one or more of the hydrogen, halogen or carbon atoms can, optionally, be replaced with a radiolabel.

  20. Secretary Chu Announces Nearly $80 Million Investment for Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... install blender pumps that offer ethanol blends up to 85 percent at over 60 stations. Collectively, the projects propose creating at least 45 E85 dispensers and 16 blender pumps ...

  1. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Alleman, T. L.

    2014-05-01

    With the increasing fuel diversity in the marketplace, the Coordinating Research Council and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a survey of mid-level ethanol blends (MLEBs) in the market. A total of 73 fuel samples were collected from 20 retail stations. To target Class 4 volatility, the fuel samples were collected primarily in the midwestern United States in the month of February. Samples included the gasoline (E0), Flex Fuel, and every MLEB that was offered from each of the 20 stations. Photographs of each station were taken at the time of sample collection, detailing the pump labeling and configuration. The style and labeling of the pump, hose, and dispenser nozzle are all important features to prevent misfueling events. The physical location of the MLEB product relative to the gasoline product can also be important to prevent misfueling. In general, there were many differences in the style and labeling of the blender pumps surveyed in this study. All samples were analyzed for volatility and ethanol content. For the MLEB samples collected, the fuels tended to be lower in ethanol content than their indicated amount; however, the samples were all within 10 vol% of their indicated blend level. One of the 20 Flex Fuel samples was outside of the allowable limits for ethanol content. Four of the 20 Flex Fuel samples had volatility below the minimum requirement for Class 4.

  2. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  3. Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

    2009-05-01

    There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

  4. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  5. New Analysis Methods Estimate a Critical Property of Ethanol Fuel Blends (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods developed at NREL disclose the impact of ethanol on gasoline blend heat of vaporization with potential for improved efficiency of spark-ignition engines. More stringent standards for fuel economy, regulation of greenhouse gas emissions, and the mandated increase in the use of renew- able fuel are driving research to improve the efficiency of spark ignition engines. When fuel properties such as octane number and evaporative cooling (heat of vaporization or HOV) are insufficient, they

  6. Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses: October 15, 2002-September 30, 2004

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses October 15, 2002 - September 30, 2004 A. Del Toro SunLine Services Group Thousand Palms, California M. Frailey National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado F. Lynch Hydrogen Components Inc. Littleton, Colorado S. Munshi Westport Innovations Inc. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada S. Wayne West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia Technical Report NREL/TP-540-38707 November 2005

  7. Understanding how processing additives tune nanoscale morphology of high efficiency organic photovoltaic blends: From casting solution to spun-cast thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Ming [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL; Kumar, Rajeev [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Chen, Wei [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Jianhui, Hou [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Chemistry; Do, Changwoo [ORNL; Littrell, Ken [ORNL; Sanjib, Das [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Adding a small amount of a processing additive to the casting solution of organic blends has been demonstrated to be an effective method for achieving improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). However, an understanding of the nano-structural evolution occurring in the transformation from casting solution to thin photoactive films is still lacking. In this report, we investigate the effects of the processing additive diiodooctane (DIO) on the morphology of OPV blend of PBDTTT-C-T and fullerene derivative, PC71BM in a casting solution and in spun-cast thin films by using neutron/x-ray scattering, neutron reflectometry and other characterization techniques. The results reveal that DIO has no effect on the solution structures of PBDTTT-C-T and PC71BM. In the spun-cast films, however, DIO is found to promote significantly the molecular ordering of PBDTTT-C-T and PC71BM, and phase segregation, resulting in the improved PCE. Thermodynamic analysis based on Flory-Huggins theory provides a rationale for the effects of DIO on different characteristics of phase segregation as a solvent and due to evaporationg during the film formation. Such information may enable improved rational design of ternary blends to more consistently achieve improved PCE for OPVs.

  8. Determination of photocarrier density under continuous photoirradiation using spectroscopic techniques as applied to polymer: Fullerene blend films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanemoto, Katsuichi Nakatani, Hitomi; Domoto, Shinya

    2014-10-28

    We propose a method to determine the density of photocarrier under continuous photoirradiation in conjugated polymers using spectroscopic signals obtained by photoinduced absorption (PIA) measurements. The bleaching signals in the PIA measurements of polymer films and the steady-state absorption signals of oxidized polymer solution are employed to determine the photocarrier density. The method is applied to photocarriers of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in a blended film consisting of P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The photocarrier density under continuous photoirradiation of 580 mW/cm{sup 2} is determined to be 3.5??10{sup 16?}cm{sup ?3}. Using a trend of the carrier density increasing in proportion to the square root of photo-excitation intensity, we provide a general formula to estimate the photocarrier density under simulated 1 sun solar irradiation for the P3HT: PCBM film of an arbitrary thickness. We emphasize that the method proposed in this study enables an estimate of carrier density without measuring a current and can be applied to films with no electrodes as well as to devices.

  9. Department of Energy to Take Steps to Remove ENERGY STAR Label on Certain

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LG Refrigerator-Freezer Models | Department of Energy to Take Steps to Remove ENERGY STAR Label on Certain LG Refrigerator-Freezer Models Department of Energy to Take Steps to Remove ENERGY STAR Label on Certain LG Refrigerator-Freezer Models December 7, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - The Department of Energy announced today that as part of the expanded enforcement efforts under the ENERGY STAR® program, effective January 2, 2010, certain LG French-door refrigerator-freezers are

  10. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs and on the design of the labels and standards themselves. In addition, it directs the reader to references and other resources likely to be useful in conducting the activities described and includes a chapter on energy policies and programs that complement appliance efficiency labels and standards. This guidebook attempts to reflect the essential framework of labeling and standards programs. It is the intent of the authors and sponsors to distribute copies of this book worldwide at no charge for the general public benefit. The guidebook is also available on the web at www.CLASPonline.org and can be downloaded to be used intact or piecemeal for whatever beneficial purposes readers may conceive.

  11. Using phylogenetic probes for quantification of stable isotope labeling and microbial community analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brodie, Eoin L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Karaoz, Ulas; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-12-09

    Herein is described methods for a high-sensitivity means to measure the incorporation of stable isotope labeled substrates into RNA following stable isotope probing experiments (SIP). RNA is hybridized to a set of probes such as phylogenetic microarrays and isotope incorporation is quantified such as by secondary ion mass spectrometer imaging (NanoSIMS).

  12. Kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with [sup 99]Tc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1992-05-26

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of [sup 99m]Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for reduction of technetium. No Drawings

  13. Kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with .sup.9 TC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Babich, John W. (Redhill Surrey, GB2); Straub, Rita (Brookhaven, NY); Richards, Powell (New Bern, NC)

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for reduction of technetium.

  14. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  15. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  16. TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

    2008-06-13

    In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

  17. TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite with reduced graphene oxide through facile blending and its photocatalytic behavior for hydrogen evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, Fuyun; Liu, Yingliang; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shengping; Xu, Shengang Cao, Shaokui

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: TRG-COOH nanocomposite as a photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution is prepared. The reduction of graphene oxide reconstructs a part of conjugated structure. The band gap is red-shifted due to the reconstruction of conjugated structure. RG-COOH covered and anchored by P25 blocks the aggregation and the stacking. The photocatalytic efficiency of TRG-COOH was increased under 500 W Xenon lamp. - Abstract: TRG-COOH nanocomposite is prepared as a photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution by blending TiO{sub 2} with reduced graphene oxide (RG-COOH). TRG-COOH is characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM), and photoluminescent spectra. XPS result shows the reduction of monolayer graphene oxide (GO). The band gap is red-shifted from 3.25 eV for P25, which consists of 20% rutile and 80% anatase, to 2.95 eV for TGO and then to 2.80 eV for TRG-COOH due to the introduction of GO and the reconstruction of conjugated structure. TEM image illustrates that RG-COOH in TRG-COOH is covered and anchored by P25, which blocks the aggregation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the stacking of monolayer graphene. This allows RG-COOH to take a good role of electron-sink and electron-transporting bridge. The photocatalytic efficiency of TRG-COOH is respectively increased under Xenon lamp about 8.9 and 2.7 times compared to P25 and TGO.

  18. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  19. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the α-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore » freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  20. Method for preparing radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meares, Claude F. (Davis, CA); Li, Min (Davis, CA); DeNardo, Sally J. (El Macero, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complexes that are useful in medical diagnosis or therapy are prepared by reacting a radionuclide, such as .sup.90 Y or .sup.111 In, with a polyfunctional chelating agent to form a radionuclide chelate that is electrically neutral; purifying the chelate by anion exchange chromatography; and reacting the purified chelate with a targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody, to form the complex.

  1. Alexa Fluor-labeled Fluorescent Cellulose Nanocrystals for Bioimaging Solid Cellulose in Spatially Structured Microenvironments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Mo, Kai-For; Shin, Yongsoon; Vasdekis, Andreas; Warner, Marvin G.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Orr, Galya; Hu, Dehong; Dehoff, Karl J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2015-03-18

    Cellulose nanocrystal materials have been labeled with modern Alexa Fluor dyes in a process that first links the dye to a cyanuric chloride molecule. Subsequent reaction with cellulose nanocrystals provides dyed solid microcrystalline cellulose material that can be used for bioimaging and suitable for deposition in films and spatially structured microenvironments. It is demonstrated with single molecular fluorescence microscopy that these films are subject to hydrolysis by cellulose enzymes.

  2. 2006 Status Report Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R)Voluntary Labeling Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Sanchez, Marla; Homan,Gregory K.

    2006-03-07

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more thanthirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2005, whatwe expect in 2006, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2006 to 2015 and 2006 to 2025. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  3. Apparatus and method for reading two-dimensional electrophoretograms containing .beta.-ray-emitting labeled compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Herbert L. (Santa Fe, NM); Kinnison, W. Wayne (Los Alamos, NM); Lillberg, John W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus and method for electronically reading planar two dimensional .beta.-ray emitter-labeled gel electrophoretograms. A single, flat rectangular multiwire proportional chamber is placed in close proximity to the gel and the assembly placed in an intense uniform magnetic field disposed in a perpendicular manner to the rectangular face of the proportional chamber. Beta rays emitted in the direction of the proportional chamber are caused to execute helical motions which substantially preserve knowledge of the coordinates of their origin in the gel. Perpendicularly oriented, parallel wire, parallel plane cathodes electronically sense the location of the .beta.-rays from ionization generated thereby in a detection gas coupled with an electron avalanche effect resulting from the action of a parallel wire anode located therebetween. A scintillator permits the present apparatus to be rendered insensitive when signals are generated from cosmic rays incident on the proportional chamber. Resolution for concentrations of radioactive compounds in the gel exceeds 700 .mu.m. The apparatus and method of the present invention represent a significant improvement over conventional autoradiographic techniques in dynamic range, linearity and sensitivity of data collection. A concentration and position map for gel electrophoretograms having significant concentrations of labeled compounds and/or highly radioactive labeling nuclides can generally be obtained in less than one hour.

  4. Apparatus for reading two-dimensional electrophoretograms containing. beta. -ray-emitting labeled compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, H.L.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lillberg, J.W.

    1985-04-30

    An apparatus and method for electronically reading planar two-dimensional ..beta..-ray emitter-labeled gel electrophoretograms. A single, flat rectangular multiwire proportional chamber is placed in close proximity to the gel and the assembly placed in an intense uniform magnetic field disposed in a perpendicular manner to the rectangular face of the proportional chamber. Beta rays emitted in the direction of the proportional chamber are caused to execute helical motions which substantially preserve knowledge the coordinates of their origin in the gel. Perpendicularly oriented, parallel wire, parallel plane cathodes electronically sense the location of the ..beta..-rays from ionization generated thereby in a detection gas coupled with an electron avalanche effect resulting from the action of a parallel wire anode located therebetween. A scintillator permits the present apparatus to be rendered insensitive when signals are generated from cosmic rays incident on the proportional chamber. Resolution for concentrations of radioactive compounds in the gel exceeds 700-..mu..m. The apparatus and method of the present invention represent a significant improvement over conventional autoradiographic techniques in dynamic range, linearity and sensitivity of data collection. A concentration and position map for gel electrophoretograms having significant concentrations of labeled compounds and/or highly radioactive labeling nuclides can generally be obtained in less than one hour.

  5. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for U.S. EPA Energy Star Labeled Products: Expanded Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Marla; Homan, Gregory; Lai, Judy; Brown, Richard

    2009-09-24

    This report provides a top-level summary of national savings achieved by the Energy Star voluntary product labeling program. To best quantify and analyze savings for all products, we developed a bottom-up product-based model. Each Energy Star product type is characterized by product-specific inputs that result in a product savings estimate. Our results show that through 2007, U.S. EPA Energy Star labeled products saved 5.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided 100 MtC of emissions. Although Energy Star-labeled products encompass over forty product types, only five of those product types accounted for 65percent of all Energy Star carbon reductions achieved to date, including (listed in order of savings magnitude)monitors, printers, residential light fixtures, televisions, and furnaces. The forecast shows that U.S. EPA?s program is expected to save 12.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 215 MtC of emissions over the period of 2008?2015.

  6. Labeling of Cp-105,191. Unusual findings on triphenyltin hydride reduction of an aryl iodide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, P.A.; Diaz, C.L.; Zawistoski, M.P.

    1995-12-01

    CP-105,191 (1) is a potent, selective and systemically-available inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyl transferase. We needed to make tritium-labeled 1 in order to facilitate the preclinical evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and systemic anti-atherosclerosis effects of 1. Desiring to introduce the tritium as the last step in the synthesis, we opted for introduction of the tritium into the quinoline nucleus via reduction of an 8-iodo species (8, synthesis to be described). To our surprise, treatment of 8 with distilled triphenyltin deuteride and catalytic AIBN in diglyme at reflux for 2 hours gave 67-72% yield of 1 with no deuterium incorporation. Consideration of these results and others to be presented suggests that the solvent is participating in radical chain propagation and that this reaction was unsuitable for tritium labeling. After these results, we found that reduction of 8 with atmospheric pressure of deuterium catalyzed by palladium on carbon in ethanol and triethylamine gave 75-95% yield of 1 with complete deuterium incorporation at C8 of the quinoline ring. The same reaction using 4 Ci of tritium gas gave 1.8 Ci of tritium-labeled 1 with specific activity of 20 Ci/mmole and 97% radiochemical purity.

  7. Ethanol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    state. In France, ethanol is produced from grapes that are of insufficient quality for wine production. Prompted by the increase in oil prices in the 1970s, Brazil introduced a...

  8. Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merritt, P. M.; Ulmet, V.; McCormick, R. L.; Mitchell, W. E.; Baumgard, K. J.

    2005-11-01

    Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportion of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.

  9. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Divita, Vincent

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET — (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol — to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  10. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process. Fourth, sufficient program resources for program implementation and evaluation are critical to the effectiveness of standards and labeling programs and cost-sharing between national and local governments can help ensure adequate resources and uniform implementation. Lastly, check-testing and punitive measures are important forms of enforcement while the cancellation of registration or product sales-based fines have also proven effective in reducing non-compliance. The international comparative analysis also revealed the differing degree to which the level of government decentralization has influenced S&L programs and while no single country has best practices in all elements of standards and labeling development and implementation, national examples of best practices for specific elements do exist. For example, the U.S. has exemplified the use of rigorous analyses for standard-setting and robust data source with the RECS database while Japan?s Top Runner standard-setting principle has motivated manufacturers to exceed targets. In terms of standards implementation and enforcement, Australia has demonstrated success with enforcement given its long history of check-testing and enforcement initiatives while mandatory information-sharing between EU jurisdictions on compliance results is another important enforcement mechanism. These examples show that it is important to evaluate not only the drivers of different paths of standards and labeling development, but also the country-specific context for best practice examples in order to understand how and why certain elements of specific S&L programs have been effective.

  11. F-18 Labeled Diabody-Luciferase Fusion Proteins for Optical-ImmunoPET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Anna M

    2013-01-18

    The goal of the proposed work is to develop novel dual-labeled molecular imaging probes for multimodality imaging. Based on small, engineered antibodies called â??diabodiesâ?, these probes will be radioactively tagged with Fluorine-18 for PET imaging, and fused to luciferases for optical (bioluminescence) detection. Performance will be evaluated and validated using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Multimodality probes for optical-PET imaging will be based on diabodies that are dually labeled with 18F for PET detection and fused to luciferases for optical imaging. 1) Two sets of fusion proteins will be built, targeting the cell surface markers CEA or HER2. Coelenterazine-based luciferases and variant forms will be evaluated in combination with native substrate and analogs, in order to obtain two distinct probes recognizing different targets with different spectral signatures. 2) Diabody-luciferase fusion proteins will be labeled with 18F using amine reactive [18F]-SFB produced using a novel microwave-assisted, one-pot method. 3) Sitespecific, chemoselective radiolabeling methods will be devised, to reduce the chance that radiolabeling will inactivate either the target-binding properties or the bioluminescence properties of the diabody-luciferase fusion proteins. 4) Combined optical and PET imaging of these dual modality probes will be evaluated and validated in vitro and in vivo using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Each imaging modality has its strengths and weaknesses. Development and use of dual modality probes allows optical imaging to benefit from the localization and quantitation offered by the PET mode, and enhances the PET imaging by enabling simultaneous detection of more than one probe.

  12. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  13. Metabolomics relative quantitation with mass spectrometry using chemical derivatization and isotope labeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    O'Maille, Grace; Go, Eden P.; Hoang, Linh; Want, Elizabeth J.; Smith, Colin; O'Maille, Paul; NordstrÖm, Anders; Morita, Hirotoshi; Qin, Chuan; Uritboonthai, Wilasinee; et al

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive detection and quantitation of metabolites from a biological source constitute the major challenges of current metabolomics research. Two chemical derivatization methodologies, butylation and amination, were applied to human serum for ionization enhancement of a broad spectrum of metabolite classes, including steroids and amino acids. LC-ESI-MS analysis of the derivatized serum samples provided a significant signal elevation across the total ion chromatogram to over a 100-fold increase in ionization efficiency. It was also demonstrated that derivatization combined with isotopically labeled reagents facilitated the relative quantitation of derivatized metabolites from individual as well as pooled samples.

  14. Label-free three-dimensional imaging of cell nucleus using third-harmonic generation microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-09-08

    We report the implementation of the combined third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy for label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cell nucleus morphological changes in liver tissue. THG imaging shows regular spherical shapes of normal hepatocytes nuclei with inner chromatin structures while revealing the condensation of chromatins and nuclear fragmentations in hepatocytes of diseased liver tissue. Colocalized THG and TPEF imaging provides complementary information of cell nuclei and cytoplasm in tissue. This work suggests that 3-D THG microscopy has the potential for quantitative analysis of nuclear morphology in cells at a submicron-resolution without the need for DNA staining.

  15. Label Building Natural Gas Usage Form 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Usage Form 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 1. Timely submission of this report is mandatory under Public Law 93-275, as amended. 2. This completed questionnaire is due by 3. Data reported on this questionnaire are for the entire building identified in the label to the right. 4. Data may be submitted directly on this questionnaire or in any other format, such as a computer-generated listing, which provides the same i nformation and is conve nient for y our

  16. Look at the label and indicate the type of unit for which you are instructed to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Usage Form (Form EIA-871C) Form approval OMB No.: 1905-0145 Expires: 09/30/2010 2007 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) Sponsored by the Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Case Label Here STEP 1 STEP 2 Please provide the following information for the person who completed this form. (Use each box for individual letters, numbers, characters, or spaces. Please print in CAPS.) Name:  Job Title:  Company:  E-Mail

  17. Look at the label and indicate the type of unit for which you are instructed to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    District Steam/Hot Water Usage Form (Form EIA-871D) Form approval OMB No.: 1905-0145 Expires: 09/30/2010 2007 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) Sponsored by the Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Case Label Here STEP 1 STEP 2 Please provide the following information for the person who completed this form. (Use each box for individual letters, numbers, characters, or spaces. Please print in CAPS.) Name:  Job Title:  Company:

  18. Look at the label and indicate the type of unit for which you are instructed to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Usage Form (Form EIA-871E) Form approval OMB No.: 1905-0145 Expires: 09/30/2010 2007 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) Sponsored by the Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Case Label Here STEP 1 STEP 2 Please provide the following information for the person who completed this form. (Use each box for individual letters, numbers, characters, or spaces. Please print in CAPS.) Name:  Job Title:  Company:  E-Mail

  19. Look at the label and indicate the type of unit for which you are instructed to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Oil Usage Form (Form EIA-871F) Form approval OMB No.: 1905-0145 Expires: 09/30/2010 2007 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) Sponsored by the Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Case Label Here STEP 1 STEP 2 Please provide the following information for the person who completed this form. (Use each box for individual letters, numbers, characters, or spaces. Please print in CAPS.) Name:  Job Title:  Company:  E-Mail

  20. .sup.123m Te-Labeled biochemicals and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01

    A novel class of .sup.123m Te-labeled steroids and amino acids is provided by the method of reacting a .sup.123m Te symmetric diorgano ditelluride with a hydride reducing agent and a source of alkali metal ions to form an alkali metal organo telluride. The alkali metal organo telluride is reacted with a primary halogenated steroidal side chain, amino acid, or amino acid precursor such as hydantoin. The novel compounds are useful as biological tracers and as organal imaging agents.

  1. Optimized periodic verification testing blended risk and performance-based MOV inservice test program an application of ASME code case OMN-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellers, C.; Fleming, K.; Bidwell, D.; Forbes, P.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents an application of ASME Code Case OMN-1 to the GL 89-10 Program at the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). Code Case OMN-1 provides guidance for a performance-based MOV inservice test program that can be used for periodic verification testing and allows consideration of risk insights. Blended probabilistic and deterministic evaluation techniques were used to establish inservice test strategies including both test methods and test frequency. Described in the paper are the methods and criteria for establishing MOV safety significance based on the STPEGS probabilistic safety assessment, deterministic considerations of MOV performance characteristics and performance margins, the expert panel evaluation process, and the development of inservice test strategies. Test strategies include a mix of dynamic and static testing as well as MOV exercising.

  2. Peptide affinity labels for thrombin and other trypsin-like proteases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaw, Elliott N. (Shoreham, NY); Kettner, Charles A. (Yaphank, NY)

    1982-03-09

    A peptide affinity label of the formula (I): ##STR1## wherein X is a radical capable of acting as a leaving group in a nucleophilic substitution reaction; A is an aromatic amino acid residue; B is H, or a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl group, or aryl; Y is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aroyl, C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 acyl, and Q--(A)--.sub.n, wherein Q=hydrogen, aroyl, or C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 acyl, n=1-10, A is an amino acid residue selected from the aliphatic, hydroxy-containing, carboxylic acid group, and amide-thereof-containing, aromatic, sulfur-containing and imino-containing amino acids; and wherein J is selected from the group consisting of --CH.sub.2 --, --CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --,--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --, --CH.dbd.CH-- and --CH(OH)--CH.sub.2. The affinity label is useful for irreversibly inactivating thrombin and trypsin-like enzymes and may be used as a potential anticlotting agent.

  3. Peptide affinity labels for thrombin and other trypsin-like proteases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaw, E.N.; Kettner, C.A.

    1982-03-09

    A peptide affinity label is disclosed of the formula (I): as given in the patent wherein X is a radical capable of acting as a leaving group in a nucleophilic substitution reaction; A is an aromatic amino acid residue; B is H, or a C[sub 1]--C[sub 4] alkyl group, or aryl; Y is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aroyl, C[sub 1]--C[sub 6] acyl, and Q--(A)--[sub n], wherein Q = hydrogen, aroyl, or C[sub 1]--C[sub 6] acyl, n = 1--10, A is an amino acid residue selected from the aliphatic, hydroxy-containing, carboxylic acid group, and amide-thereofcontaining, aromatic, sulfur-containing and imino-containing amino acids; and wherein J is selected from the group consisting of --CH[sub 2]--, --CH[sub 2]--CH[sub 2]--, --CH[sub 2]--CH[sub 2]--CH[sub 2]--, --CH[double bond]CH-- and --CH(OH)--CH[sub 2]. The affinity label is useful for irreversibly inactivating thrombin and trypsin-like enzymes and may be used as a potential anticlotting agent. 2 figs.

  4. Made with Renewable Energy: How and Why Companies are Labeling Consumer Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker Brannan, D.; Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-03-01

    Green marketing--a marketing strategy highlighting the environmental attributes of a product, often through the use of labels or logos--dates back to the 1970s. It did not proliferate until the 1990s, however, when extensive market research identified a rapidly growing group of consumers with a heightened concern for the environment. This group expressed not only a preference for green products but also a willingness to pay a premium for such products. The response was a surge in green marketing that lasted through the early 1990s. This report discusses the experience of companies that communicate to consumers that their products are 'made with renewable energy.' For this report, representatives from 20 companies were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences marketing products produced using renewable energy. The first half of this report provides an overview of the type of companies that have labeled products or advertised them as being made with renewable energy. It also highlights the avenues companies use to describe their use of renewable energy. The second half of the report focuses on the motivations for making on-product claims about the use of renewable energy and the challenges in doing so.

  5. Method to detect the end-point for PCR DNA amplification using an ionically labeled probe and measuring impedance change

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.; Belgrader, Phillip; Fuller, Christopher D.

    2007-01-02

    Impedance measurements are used to detect the end-point for PCR DNA amplification. A pair of spaced electrodes are located on a surface of a microfluidic channel and an AC or DC voltage is applied across the electrodes to produce an electric field. An ionically labeled probe will attach to a complementary DNA segment, and a polymerase enzyme will release the ionic label. This causes the conductivity of the solution in the area of the electrode to change. This change in conductivity is measured as a change in the impedance been the two electrodes.

  6. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs and on the design of the labels and standards themselves. In addition, it directs the reader to references and other resources likely to be useful in conducting the activities described and includes a chapter on energy policies and programs that complement appliance efficiency labels and standards. This guidebook attempts to reflect the essential framework of labeling and standards programs. It is the intent of the authors and sponsor to distribute copies of this book worldwide, at no charge, for the general public benefit. The guidebook is also available on the web at www.clasponline.org and may be downloaded to be used intact or piecemeal for whatever beneficial purposes readers may conceive.

  7. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Meiye; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Hatch, Anson

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  8. Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    A method for preparing a coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta is disclosed. The method comprises preparing a soluble metal adduct of said isonitrile ligand by admixing said ligand with a salt of a displaceable metal having a complete d-electron shell selected from the group consisting of Zn, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi to form a soluble metal-isonitrile salt, and admixing said metal isonitrile salt with a salt comprising said radioactive metal in a suitable solvent to displace said displaceable metal with the radioactive metal thereby forming said coordination. The complex is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  9. Tin-117m-labeled stannic (Sn.sup.4+) chelates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Meinken, George E. (Middle Island, NY); Richards, Powell (Bayport, NY)

    1985-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutical reagents of this invention and the class of Tin-117m radiopharmaceuticals are therapeutic and diagnostic agents that incorporate gamma-emitting nuclides that localize in bone after intravenous injection in mammals (mice, rats, dogs, and rabbits). Images reflecting bone structure or function can then be obtained by a scintillation camera that detects the distribution of ionizing radiation emitted by the radioactive agent. Tin-117m-labeled chelates of stannic tin localize almost exclusively in cortical bone. Upon intravenous injection of the reagent, the preferred chelates are phosphonate compounds, preferable, PYP, MDP, EHDP, and DTPA. This class of reagents is therapeutically and diagnostically useful in skeletal scintigraphy and for the radiotherapy of bone tumors and other disorders.

  10. Slow light Mach-Zehnder interferometer as label-free biosensor with scalable sensitivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qin, Kun; Hu, Shuren; Retterer, Scott T.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2016-02-05

    Our design, fabrication, and characterization of a label-free Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optical biosensor that incorporates a highly dispersive one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal in one arm are presented. The sensitivity of this slow light MZI-based sensor scales with the length of the slow light photonic crystal region. The numerically simulated sensitivity of a MZI sensor with a 16 μm long slow light region is 115,000 rad/RIU-cm, which is sevenfold higher than traditional MZI biosensors with millimeter-length sensing regions. Moreover, the experimental bulk refractive index detection sensitivity of 84,000 rad/RIU-cm is realized and nucleic acid detection is also demonstrated.

  11. Rational Conversion of Affinity Reagents into Label-Free Sensors for Peptide Motifs by Designed Allostery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jin; Koide, Shohei

    2010-05-25

    Optical biosensors for short peptide motifs, an important class of biomarkers, have been developed based on 'affinity clamps', a new class of recombinant affinity reagents. Affinity clamps are engineered by linking a peptide-binding domain and an antibody mimic domain based on the fibronectin type III scaffold, followed by optimization of the interface between the two. This two-domain architecture allows for the design of allosteric coupling of peptide binding to fluorescence energy transfer between two fluorescent proteins attached to the affinity clamp. Coupled with high affinity and specificity of the underlying affinity clamps and rationally designed mutants with different sensitivity, peptide concentrations in crude cell lysate were determined with a low nanomolar detection limit and over 3 orders of magnitude. Because diverse affinity clamps can be engineered, our strategy provides a general platform to generate a repertoire of genetically encoded, label-free sensors for peptide motifs.

  12. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-04-01

    Guidebook contains information about EPAct alternative fuels regulations for fleets, flexible fuel vehicles, E85 properties and specifications, and E85 handling and storage guidelines.

  13. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Document states additional feedback on the worksop received via a request for information issued in June, 2013.

  14. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig N.; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don; Camp, David G.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Kahl, Christoph; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Smith, Richard D.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Fruh, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The tegument phosphoprotein pp65 (UL83) is the most abundant virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Since pp65 is immunodominant in persistently infected individuals, subunit vaccines against HCMV often include pp65 as T cell stimulatory component. Although HCMV pp65 is non-essential for viral growth in vitro it is thought to have an important role in primary and persistent infection since pp65 displays multiple immunomodulatory functions. To determine whether pp65 is required for infection and to evaluate its role in natural and vaccination-induced immunity we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both homologues, pp65a (Rh111) and pp65b (Rh112). Lack of pp65 resulted in a slight growth defect in vitro and an increase of defective particle formation. However, most pp65-deleted virions in the supernatant were phenotypically normal and proteomics analysis revealed that the ratios of the remaining viral proteins were largely unchanged. RhCMV ?pp65ab was able to persistently infect CMV-negative rhesus macaques (RM) and to super-infect RM previously infected with CMV. To determine whether T cells against pp65 are essential for protection against CMV, we challenged ?pp65ab-infected animals with RhCMV ?US2-11, a viral recombinant that lacks inhibitors of MHC-I antigen presentation and is thus unable to overcome CMV-specific T cell immunity. Despite a complete lack of pp65-specific T cells, ?pp65ab protected against ?US2-11 challenge suggesting that pp65-specific T cells are not essential for T cell immunity against CMV. Using the same approach we further demonstrate that pp65b-specific T cells, induced by heterologous prime/boost vaccination, are not sufficient to protect against ?US2-11 challenge. Our data provides a new approach to test the efficacy of subunit vaccine candidates and suggest that pp65 vaccines are insufficient to induce a T cell response that recapitulates the protective effect of natural infection.

  15. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 as an alternative motor fuel. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and offers...

  16. EpiPOD : community vaccination and dispensing model user's guide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, M.; Samsa, M.; Walsh, D.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2009-01-09

    EpiPOD is a modeling system that enables local, regional, and county health departments to evaluate and refine their plans for mass distribution of antiviral and antibiotic medications and vaccines. An intuitive interface requires users to input as few or as many plan specifics as are available in order to simulate a mass treatment campaign. Behind the input interface, a system dynamics model simulates pharmaceutical supply logistics, hospital and first-responder personnel treatment, population arrival dynamics and treatment, and disease spread. When the simulation is complete, users have estimates of the number of illnesses in the population at large, the number of ill persons seeking treatment, and queuing and delays within the mass treatment system--all metrics by which the plan can be judged.

  17. California State Fire Marshal Information Bulletin

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    California State Fire Marshal Information Bulletin April 27, 2009 INFORMATION REGARDING PLACEMENT OF E85 FUEL DISPENSING EQUIPMENT ON STATE OWNED OR STATE LEASED FACILITIES In an effort to assist interested parties with criteria addressing E85 dispensing equipment, the Office of the State Fire Marshal (OSFM) is providing this informational bulletin. E85 is the acronym for an alcohol-blended gasoline fuel that contains between 15 to 85 percent ethanol (alcohol). Presently, there are over 10,000

  18. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance degradation of R410A at higher temperatures was greater than R22. However, the R22 and R410A systems both operated normally during all tests. Visual observations of the R410A system provided no indication of vibrations or TXV hunting at high ambient outdoor test conditions with the compressor operating in the transcritical regime.

  19. Fluorescence energy transfer efficiency in labeled yeast cytochrome c: a rapid screen for ion biocompatibility in aqueous ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Sheila N; Zhao, Hua; Pandey, Siddharth; Heller, William T; Bright, Frank; Baker, Gary A

    2011-01-01

    A fluorescence energy transfer de-quenching assay was implemented to follow the equilibrium unfolding behaviour of site-specific tetramethylrhodamine-labelled yeast cytochrome c in aqueous ionic liquid solutions; additionally, this approach offers the prospect of naked eye screening for biocompatible ion combinations in hydrated ionic liquids.

  20. Method and kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1988-07-05

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of [sup 99m]Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available for the reduction of technetium. No Drawings

  1. Method and kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with TC-99M

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Babich, John W. (Redhill, GB2); Straub, Rita (Brookhaven, NY); Richards, Powell (New Bern, NC)

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  2. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  3. EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

  4. Method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and pre-determined increase in cetane number

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waller, Francis Joseph; Quinn, Robert

    2004-07-06

    The present invention relates to a method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and a pre-determined increase in cetane number over the stock diesel fuel. Upon establishing the desired flash-point and increase in cetane number, an amount of a first oxygenate with a flash-point less than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number equal to or greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number. Thereafter, an amount of a second oxygenate with a flash-point equal to or greater than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number.

  5. Blending Cr2O3 into a NiO-Ni electrocatalyst for sustained water splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Ming; Zhou, Wu; Kenney, Michael James; Kapusta, Rich; Cowley, Sam; Wu, Yingpeng; Lu, Bingan; Lin, Meng -Chang; Wang, Di -Yan; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing -Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-08-24

    The rising H2 economy demands active and durable electrocatalysts based on low-cost, earth-abundant materials for water electrolysis/photolysis. Here we report nanoscale Ni metal cores over-coated by a Cr2O3-blended NiO layer synthesized on metallic foam substrates. The Ni@NiO/Cr2O3 triphase material exhibits superior activity and stability similar to Pt for the hydrogen-evolution reaction in basic solutions. The chemically stable Cr2O3 is crucial for preventing oxidation of the Ni core, maintaining abundant NiO/Ni interfaces as catalytically active sites in the heterostructure and thus imparting high stability to the hydrogen-evolution catalyst. The highly active and stable electrocatalyst enables an alkaline electrolyzer operating at 20 mA cm2 at a voltage lower than 1.5 V, lasting longer than 3 weeks without decay. Thus, the non-precious metal catalysts afford a high efficiency of about 15 % for light-driven water splitting using GaAs solar cells.

  6. Evaluation of inter-laminar shear strength of GFRP composed of bonded glass/polyimide tapes and cyanate-ester/epoxy blended resin for ITER TF coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmi, T.; Matsui, K.; Koizumi, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fusion Research and Development Directorate 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki, 311-0193 (Japan); Nishimura, A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Fusion Engineering Research Center 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Nishijima, S. [Osaka University, Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Shikama, T. [Tohoku University, Institute for Materials Research 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-01-27

    The insulation system of the ITER TF coils consists of multi-layer glass/polyimide tapes impregnated a cyanate-ester/epoxy resin. The ITER TF coils are required to withstand an irradiation of 10 MGy from gamma-ray and neutrons since the ITER TF coils is exposed by fast neutron (>0.1 MeV) of 10{sup 22} n/m{sup 2} during the ITER operation. Cyanate-ester/epoxy blended resins and bonded glass/polyimide tapes are developed as insulation materials to realize the required radiation-hardness for the insulation of the ITER TF coils. To evaluate the radiation-hardness of the developed insulation materials, the inter-laminar shear strength (ILSS) of glass-fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) fabricated using developed insulation materials is measured as one of most important mechanical properties before/after the irradiation in a fission reactor of JRR-3M. As a result, it is demonstrated that the GFRPs using the developed insulation materials have a sufficient performance to apply for the ITER TF coil insulation.

  7. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  8. Nanoparticle-based immunosensor with apoferritin templated metallic phosphate label for quantification of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Dan; Chen, Aiqiong; Xie, Yunying; Zhang, Aidong; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-05-15

    A new sandwich-like electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for quantification of organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP-AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were anchored on a screen printed electrode (SPE) to preferably capture OP-AChE adducts by metal chelation with phospho-moieties, which was selectively recognized by lead phosphate-apoferritin labeled anti-AChE antibody (LPA-anti-AChE). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among ZrO2 NPs, OP-AChE and LPA-anti-AChE to form ZrO2/OP-AChE/LPA-anti-AChE complex and the released lead ions were detected on a disposable SPE. The binding affinity was investigated by both square wave voltammetry (SWV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The proposed immunosensor yielded a linear response current over a broad OP-AChE concentrations range from 0.05 nM to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.02 nM, which has enough sensitivity for monitoring of low-dose exposure to OPs. This method avoids the drawback of unavailability of commercial OP-specific antibody as well as amplifies detection signal by using apoferritin encoded metallic phosphate nanoparticle tags. This nanoparticle-based immunosensor offers a new method for rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts for monitoring of OP pesticides and nerve agents exposures.

  9. Integrable perturbed magnetic fields in toroidal geometry: An exact analytical flux surface label for large aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallinikos, N.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Meletlidou, E.

    2014-06-15

    An analytical description of magnetic islands is presented for the typical case of a single perturbation mode introduced to tokamak plasma equilibrium in the large aspect ratio approximation. Following the Hamiltonian structure directly in terms of toroidal coordinates, the well known integrability of this system is exploited, laying out a precise and practical way for determining the island topology features, as required in various applications, through an analytical and exact flux surface label.

  10. In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E; Cho, Kukwon; Sluder, Scott; Kokjohn, Sage; Reitz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

  11. A nanoparticle label/immunochromatographic electrochemical biosensor for rapid and sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Wu, Hong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-06-15

    We present a nanoparticle (NP) label/immunochromatographic electrochemical biosensor (IEB) for rapid and sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum. This IEB integrates the immunochromatographic strip with the electrochemical detector for transducing quantitative signals. The NP label, made of CdSe@ZnS, serves as a signal-amplifier vehicle. A sandwich immunoreaction was performed on the immunochromatographic strip. The captured NP labels in the test zone were determined by highly sensitive stripping voltammetric measurement of the dissolved metallic component (cadmium) with a disposable-screen-printed electrode, which is embedded underneath the membrane of the test zone. Experimental parameters (e.g., immunoreaction time, the amount of anti-PSA-NP conjugations applied) and electrochemical detection conditions (e.g., preconcentration potential and time) were optimized using this biosensor for PSA detection. The analytical performance of this biosensor was evaluated with serum PSA samples according to the figure-of-merits (e.g., dynamic range, reproducibility, and detection limit). The results were validated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and show high consistency. It is found that this biosensor is very sensitive with the detection limit of 0.02 ng/mL PSA and is quite reproducible. This method is rapid, clinically accurate, and less expensive than other diagnosis tools for PSA; therefore, this IEB coupled with a portable electrochemical analyzer shows great promise for simple, sensitive, quantitative point-of-care testing of disease-related protein biomarkers.

  12. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  13. Transport of fluorescently labeled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated granular media at environmentally relevant concentrations of surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dengjun; Su, Chuming; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhou, Dongmei

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHAP) is being used to remediate soils and aquifers contaminated with metals and radionuclides; however, the mobility of nHAP is still poorly understood in subsurface granular environments. In this study, transport and retention kinetics of alizarin red S (ARS)-labeled nHAP were investigated in water-saturated quartz sand at low concentrations of surfactants: sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS, an anionic surfactant, 050 mg L1) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, a cationic surfactant, 05 mg L1). Both surfactants were found to have a marked effect on the electrokinetic properties of ARS-nHAP and, consequently, on their transport and retention behaviors. Transport of nanoparticles (NPs) increased significantly with increasing SDBS concentration, largely because of enhanced colloidal stability and reduced aggregate size arising from enhanced electrostatic, osmotic, and elastic-steric repulsions between ARS-nHAP and sand grains. Conversely, transport decreased significantly in the presence of increasing CTAB concentrations due to reduced surface charge and consequential enhanced aggregation of the NPs. Osmotic and elastic-steric repulsions played only a minor role in enhancing the colloidal stability of ARS-nHAP in the presence of CTAB. Retention profiles of ARS-nHAP exhibited hyperexponential-shapes (decreasing rates of retention with increasing distance) for all conditions tested, and became more pronounced as CTAB concentration increased. The phenomenon was attributed to the aggregation and ripening of ARS-nHAP in the presence of surfactants, particularly CTAB. Overall, the present study suggests that surfactants at environmentally relevant concentrations may be an important consideration in employing nHAP for engineered in-situ remediation of certain metals and radionuclides in contaminated soils and aquifers.

  14. Final report-98-ERI-003 identification of population with lifetime 41Ca-labeled skeletons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, S P

    1999-02-25

    In 1997 we first postulated the existence of a special human population that had had their skeletons inadvertently isotopically adulterated in the past. We theorized that the population, and the necessary LLNL accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) measurement technology, would prove a significant resource in the fight to combat osteoporosis. This LDRD project was to establish such. The project was significantly successful in its initial year, but was not renewed for another and the research is now ended at LLNL. We proposed a three-year program to (1) confirm the magnitude and extent of historical 41 Ca dosing, (2) exactly characterize the long-term 41 Ca signal by comparing it with conventional measurements of skeletal health, and (3) demonstrate the utility of the historically labeled population in evaluating an actual potential therapy for osteoporosis. However, rather than investigate historical records to learn the identity of those inadvertently dosed, find them, and if possible enroll them into a new protocol, this project was to be particularly efficient by making use of a multiyear archive of samples from original, inadvertent 41 Ca-dosing experiments at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. Because the subjects had been dosed in conventional studies of calcium kinetics, much important correlating historical data would also be available for comparison. Measurements of contemporary urine samples specifically provided for this project by selected identified subjects would follow. We discovered a second archive at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. This is potentially a better source of material as the samples were generated in numerous historical evaluations of actual osteoporosis therapies in which 41 Ca-impure radiotracers were used. The therapies might now powerfully be retrospectively evaluated, both to contribute to our understanding of the therapies and to highlight the potential of the use of 41 Ca tracer and LLNL measurement.

  15. Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors and Magnetic Labels for Chip-Scale Detection of Immunosorbent Assays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Lora Millen

    2005-12-17

    The combination of giant magnetoresistive sensors, magnetic labeling strategies, and biomolecule detection is just beginning to be explored. New readout methods and assay formats are necessary for biomolecules detection to flourish. The work presented in this dissertation describes steps toward the creation of a novel detection method for bioassays utilizing giant magnetoresistive sensors as the readout method. The introduction section contains a brief review of some of the current methods of bioassay readout. The theoretical underpinnings of the giant magnetoresistive effect are also discussed. Finally, the more prominent types of giant magnetoresistive sensors are described, as well as their complicated fabrication. Four data chapters follow the introduction; each chapter is presented as a separate manuscript, either already published or soon to be submitted. Chapter 1 presents research efforts toward the production of a bioassay on the surface of a gold-modified GMR sensor. The testing of this methodology involved the capture of goat a-mouse-coated magnetic nanoparticles on the mouse IgG-modified gold surface. The second, third and fourth chapters describe the utilization of a self-referenced sample stick for scanning across the GMR sensor. The sample stick consisted of alternating magnetic reference and bioactive gold addresses. Chapter 2 is concerned with the characterization of both the scanning readout method and the binding and detection of streptavidin-coated magnetic particles to a biotinylated surface. Chapter 3 advances the sample stick readout with the use of the system for detection of a sandwich immunoassay with rabbit IgG proteins. Finally, simultaneous detection of three IgG proteins is demonstrated in Chapter 4. The dissertation is concluded with a brief summary of the research presented and a discussion of the possible future applications and direction of this work.

  16. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  17. DOE-STD-1044-93 CN-1; Guide to Good Practices for Equipment and Piping Labeling

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4-93 June 1993 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR EQUIPMENT AND PIPING LABELING U.S. Department of Energy AREA FACR Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from

  18. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  19. Microfluidic Technology Platforms for Synthesizing, Labeling and Measuring the Kinetics of Transport and Biochemical Reactions for Developing Molecular Imaging Probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, Michael E.

    2009-09-01

    Radiotracer techniques are used in environmental sciences, geology, biology and medicine. Radiotracers with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) provided biological examinations of ~3 million patients 2008. Despite the success of positron labeled tracers in many sciences, there is limited access in an affordable and convenient manner to develop and use new tracers. Integrated microfluidic chips are a new technology well matched to the concentrations of tracers. Our goal is to develop microfluidic chips and new synthesis approaches to enable wide dissemination of diverse types of tracers at low cost, and to produce new generations of radiochemists for which there are many unfilled jobs. The program objectives are to: 1. Develop an integrated microfluidic platform technology for synthesizing and 18F-labeling diverse arrays of different classes of molecules. 2. Incorporate microfluidic chips into small PC controlled devices (Synthesizer) with a platform interfaced to PC for electronic and fluid input/out control. 3. Establish a de-centralized model with Synthesizers for discovering and producing molecular imaging probes, only requiring delivery of inexpensive [18F]fluoride ion from commercial PET radiopharmacies vs the centralized approach of cyclotron facilities synthesizing and shipping a few different types of 18F-probes. 4. Develop a position sensitive avalanche photo diode (PSAPD) camera for beta particles embedded in a microfluidic chip for imaging and measuring transport and biochemical reaction rates to valid new 18F-labeled probes in an array of cell cultures. These objectives are met within a research and educational program integrating radio-chemistry, synthetic chemistry, biochemistry, engineering and biology in the Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging. The Radiochemistry Training Program exposes PhD and post doctoral students to molecular imaging in vitro in cells and microorganisms in microfluidic chips and in vivo with PET, from new technologies for radiochemistry (macro to micro levels), biochemistry and biology to imaging principles, tracer kinetics, pharmacokinetics and biochemical assays. New generations of radiochemists will be immersed in the biochemistry and biology for which their labeled probes are being developed for assays of these processes. In this program engineers and radio-chemists integrate the principles of microfluidics and radiolabeling along with proper system design and chemistry rule sets to yield Synthesizers enabling biological and pharmaceutical scientists to develop diverse arrays of probes to pursue their interests. This progression would allow also radiochemists to focus on the further evolution of rapid, high yield synthetic reactions with new enabling technologies, rather than everyday production of radiotracers that should be done by technologists. The invention of integrated circuits in electronics established a platform technology that allowed an evolution of ideas and applications far beyond what could have been imagined at the beginning. Rather than provide a technology for the solution to a single problem, it is hoped that microfluidic radiochemistry will be an enabling platform technology for others to solve many problems. As part of this objective, another program goal is to commercialize the technologies that come from this work so that they can be provided to others who wish to use it.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Mid-level Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit Retail stations dispensing mid-level blends of ethanol in gasoline between 15% (E15) up to 69% (E69) for use in motor vehicles may be eligible for a tax credit. Credit amounts vary by date: September 16 through May 31 the credit is equal to $0.03 per gallon and June 1 through September 15 the credit is equal to $0.10 per gallon. The tax credit expires December 31, 2017. Eligible taxpayers may also claim the Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit for the

  1. Posting and Labeling for Radiological Control Guide for use with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-05-24

    This Guide provides an acceptable methodology for establishing and operating a radiological hazard posting and labeling program that will comply with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements specified in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection Canceled by DOE G 441.1-1B.

  2. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-08-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is amorphous, macro-encapsulates the granules, and the monoliths pass ANSI/ANS 16.1 and ASTM C1308 durability testing with Re achieving a Leach Index (LI) of 9 (the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, IDF, criteria for Tc-99) after a few days and Na achieving an LI of >6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanford’s blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a “tie back” between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular ESTD and BSR products (radioactive and non-radioactive) were analyzed for total constituents and durability tested as a granular waste form. A subset of the granular material was stabilized in a clay based geopolymer matrix at 42% and 65% FBSR loadings and durability tested as a monolith waste form. The 65 wt% FBSR loaded monolith made with clay (radioactive) was more durable than the 67-68 wt% FBSR loaded monoliths made from fly ash (non-radioactive) based on short term PCT testing. Long term, 90 to 107 day, ASTM C1308 testing (similar to ANSI/ANS 16.1 testing) was only performed on two fly ash geopolymer monoliths at 67-68 wt% FBSR loading and three clay geopolymer monoliths at 42 wt% FBSR loading. More clay geopolymers need to be made and tested at longer times at higher FBSR loadings for comparison to the fly ash monoliths. Monoliths made with metakaolin (heat treated) clay are of a more constant composition and are very reactive as the heat treated clay is amorphous and alkali activated. The monoliths made with fly ash are subject to the inherent compositional variation found in fly ash as it is a waste product from burning coal and it contains unreactive components such as mullite. However, both the fly ash and the clay based monoliths perform well in long term ASTM C1308 testing. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) tests: ASTM C1285 testing (Product Consistency Test) of granular and monolithic waste forms; Comparison of granular BSR radioactive to ESTD and pilot scale granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant  Comparison of granular radioactive to granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant made using the SRNL BSR; Comparison of monolithic BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR and ESTD non-radioactive waste forms made of fly ash; Comparison of granular BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR non-radioactive waste forms made of fly ash; Comparison of granular BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR non-radioactive waste forms made of clay; ASTM C1308 Accelerated Leach Test for Diffusive Releases from Solidified Waste and a Computer Program to Model Diffusive, Fractional Leaching from Cylindrical Waste Forms; Comparison of BSR non-radioactive waste forms to monolithic ESTD non-radioactive waste forms made from fly ash; Testing of BSR non-radioactive monoliths made from clay for comparison to non-radioactive monoliths made from fly ash; ASTM C39 Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens; Comparison of monolithic BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR and ESTD non-radioactive waste forms; EPA Manual SW-846 Method 1311, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP); Comparison of granular BSR radioactive to ESTD and pilot scale granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant; Comparison of granular radioactive to granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant made using the SRNL BSR; Comparison of monolithic BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR non-radioactive waste forms.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Labeling Requirements Alternative fuel dispensers must be labeled with information to help consumers make informed decisions about fueling a vehicle, including the name of the fuel and the minimum percentage of the main component of the fuel. Labels may also list the percentage of other fuel components. This requirement applies to, but is not limited to, the following fuel types: methanol, denatured ethanol, and/or other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more by volume of

  4. E85 UL Listed Equipment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    E85 UL Listed Equipment E85 UL Listed Equipment This PDF demonstrates the Underwriters Laboratorys (ULs) approval of the E85 Pump and its implications. It provides background on the E85 and UL ande compares the E85 dispenser with the E-10 dispenser. PDF icon ul_e85_listings.pdf More Documents & Publications Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels QER - Comment of Brian West

  5. Methods for tritium labeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres, Hendrik; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.

    1993-01-01

    Reagents and processes for reductively introducing deuterium or tritium into organic molecules are described. The reagents are deuterium or tritium analogs of trialkyl boranes, borane or alkali metal aluminum hydrides. The process involves forming these reagents in situ from alkali metal tritides or deuterides.

  6. Thermal stability in the blended lithium manganese oxide – Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode materials: An in situ time-resolved X-Ray diffraction and mass spectroscopy study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong Min; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Zhang, Lulu; Shao, Minhua

    2015-03-01

    Thermal stabilities of a series of blended LiMn2O4(LMO)-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode materials with different weight ratios were studied by in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with mass spectroscopy in the temperature range of 25°C-580°C under helium atmosphere. Upon heating, the electrochemically delithiated LMO changed into Mn3O4 phase at around 250°C. Formation of MnO with rocksalt structure started at 520°C. This observation is in contrast to the previous report for chemically delithiate LMO in air, in which a process of λ-MnO2 transforming to β-MnO2 was observed. Oxygen peak was not observed in all cases, presumably as a result of either consumptionmore » by the carbon or detection limit. CO2 profile correlates well with the phase transition and indirectly suggests the oxygen release of the cathode. Introducing NCM into LMO has two effects: first, it makes the high temperature rock-salt phase formation more complicated with more peaks in CO2 profile due to different MO (M = Ni, Mn, Co) phases; secondly, the onset temperature of CO2 release is lowered, implying lowered oxygen release temperature. Upon heating, XRD patterns indicate the NCM part reacts first, followed by the LMO part. This confirms the better thermal stability of LMO over NCM.« less

  7. Thermal stability in the blended lithium manganese oxide Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode materials: An in situ time-resolved X-Ray diffraction and mass spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong Min; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Zhang, Lulu; Shao, Minhua

    2015-03-01

    Thermal stabilities of a series of blended LiMn2O4(LMO)-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode materials with different weight ratios were studied by in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with mass spectroscopy in the temperature range of 25C-580C under helium atmosphere. Upon heating, the electrochemically delithiated LMO changed into Mn3O4 phase at around 250C. Formation of MnO with rocksalt structure started at 520C. This observation is in contrast to the previous report for chemically delithiate LMO in air, in which a process of ?-MnO2 transforming to ?-MnO2 was observed. Oxygen peak was not observed in all cases, presumably as a result of either consumption by the carbon or detection limit. CO2 profile correlates well with the phase transition and indirectly suggests the oxygen release of the cathode. Introducing NCM into LMO has two effects: first, it makes the high temperature rock-salt phase formation more complicated with more peaks in CO2 profile due to different MO (M = Ni, Mn, Co) phases; secondly, the onset temperature of CO2 release is lowered, implying lowered oxygen release temperature. Upon heating, XRD patterns indicate the NCM part reacts first, followed by the LMO part. This confirms the better thermal stability of LMO over NCM.

  8. Enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassay procedures by use of antibodies directed to the product of a reaction between probe labels and assay substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlanger, Bernard F. (Whitestone, NY); Chen, Bi-Xing (New York, NY)

    1997-01-01

    The subject invention provides an antibody which specifically binds to the product of a reaction between a labeling substance and a substrate. The subject invention also provides a method of making an immunogen used to produce the antibody of the subject invention. The invention further provides methods of using the subject antibody for detecting an antigen of interest in a sample, for example detecting a protein comprising an amino acid sequence of interest and detecting a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleic acid sequence of interest.

  9. Enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassay procedures by use of antibodies directed to the product of a reaction between probe labels and assay substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlanger, B.F.; Chen, B.

    1999-07-20

    The subject invention provides an antibody which specifically binds to the product of a reaction between a labeling substance and a substrate. The subject invention also provides a method of making an immunogen used to produce the antibody of the subject invention. The invention further provides methods of using the subject antibody for detecting an antigen of interest in a sample, for example, detecting a protein comprising an amino acid sequence of interest and detecting a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleic acid sequence of interest, detecting a polypeptide such as those expressed by infectious agents, fungi or parasites. 25 figs.

  10. Enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassay procedures by use of antibodies directed to the product of a reaction between probe labels and assay substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlanger, Bernard F. (Whitestone, NY); Chen, Bi-Xing (New York, NY)

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention provides an antibody which specifically binds to the product of a reaction between a labeling substance and a substrate. The subject invention also provides a method of making an immunogen used to produce the antibody of the subject invention. The invention further provides methods of using the subject antibody for detecting an antigen of interest in a sample, for example, detecting a protein comprising an amino acid sequence of interest and detecting a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleic acid sequence of interest, detecting a polypeptide such as those expressed by infectious agents, fungi or parasites.

  11. Enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassay procedures by use of antibodies directed to the product of a reaction between probe labels and assay substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlanger, B.F.; Chen, B.X.

    1997-07-22

    The subject invention provides an antibody which specifically binds to the product of a reaction between a labeling substance and a substrate. The subject invention also provides a method of making an immunogen used to produce the antibody of the subject invention. The invention further provides methods of using the subject antibody for detecting an antigen of interest in a sample, for example detecting a protein comprising an amino acid sequence of interest and detecting a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleic acid sequence of interest. 8 figs.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Infrastructure Grants and Loan Guarantees The Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) provides loan guarantees and grants to agricultural producers and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. Eligible renewable energy systems include flexible fuel pumps, or blender pumps, that dispense intermediate ethanol blends. The maximum loan guarantee is $25 million and the maximum grant funding is 25% of project costs. At least 20% of the

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure Grants The Minnesota Corn Research & Promotion Council and the Minnesota Department of Agriculture offer funding assistance to fuel retailers for the installation of equipment to dispense ethanol fuel blends ranging from E15 through E85. Grant amounts are based on the extent to which the installation meets project priorities. For more information, refer to the Clean Air Choice E85 Retailer Information website. Point of Contact Kelly Marczak Director American

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Infrastructure Tax Credit for Businesses Business owners and others may be eligible for a tax credit of 35% of eligible costs for qualified alternative fuel infrastructure projects, or the incremental or conversion cost of two or more AFVs. Qualified infrastructure includes facilities for mixing, storing, compressing, or dispensing fuels for vehicles operating on alternative fuels. Qualified alternative fuels include electricity, natural gas, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85),

  15. Method of dispensing droplets to penetration-resistive mediums. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, V.L.; Ryon, A.D.; Haas, P.A.

    1982-06-10

    Uniform, monosized microspheroids are produced in a gelation medium characterized by a high resistance to surface penetration by reducing the effect of impact on entry of the droplets into the medium by contacting the droplet with a stream of medium and by introducing the resulting stream into a gelation column.

  16. Illinois Waiver letter on variances from UL ruling on E85 dispensers

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

  17. Waiver Letter re:UL ruling on E85 dispensing equipment

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

  18. Brake blending strategy for a hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI)

    2000-12-05

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including a transmission for driving a pair of wheels of a vehicle and a heat engine and an electric motor/generator coupled to the transmission. A friction brake system is provided for applying a braking torque to said vehicle. A controller unit generates control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system for controllably braking the vehicle in response to a drivers brake command. The controller unit determines and amount of regenerative torque available and compares this value to a determined amount of brake torque requested for determining the control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system.

  19. Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Clean Air Act requires that vehicles and engines using a fuel or fuel additive will continue to meet their emission standards over their "full useful life." The Vehicle ...

  1. Stocks of Motor Gasoline Blending Components

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    194,259 203,187 212,640 217,489 220,765 226,935 1983-2016 PADD 1 51,306 53,633 57,200 56,763 58,920 62,421 2004-2016 PADD 2 43,744 46,809 50,163 51,441 51,859 54,773 2004-2016 PADD...

  2. Tin-117m-labeled stannic (Sn/sup 4 +/) chelate of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) for application in diagnosis and therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Richards, P.

    1983-08-25

    The radiopharmaceutical reagents of this invention and the class of Tin-117m radiopharmaceuticals are therapeutic and diagnostic agents that incorporate gamma-emitting nuclides that localize in bone after intravenous injection in mammals (mice, rats, dogs, and rabbits). Images reflecting bone structure or function can then be obtained by a scintillation camera that detects the distribution of ionizing radiation emitted by the radioactive agent. Tin-117m-labeled chelates of stannic tin localize almost exclusively in cortical bone. Upon intravenous injection of the reagent, the preferred chelates are phosphonate compounds, preferable, PYP, MDP, EHDP, and DTPA. This class of reagents is therapeutically and diagnostically useful in skeletal scintigraphy and for the radiotherapy of bone tumors and other disorders.

  3. Optimization of pulsed-DEER measurements for Gd-based labels: choice of operational frequencies, pulse durations and positions, and temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raitsimring, Arnold; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Enemark, John H.; Kaminker, Ilia; Goldfarb, Daniella; Walter, Eric D.; Song, Y.; Meade, T. J.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the experimental conditions and parameters necessary to optimize the long-distance (? 60 ) Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) measurements of biomacromolecules labeled with Gd(III) tags are analyzed. The specific parameters discussed are the temperature, microwave band, the separation between the pumping and observation frequencies, pulse train repetition rate, pulse durations and pulse positioning in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. It was found that: (i) in optimized DEER measurements, the observation pulses have to be applied at the maximum of the EPR spectrum; (ii) the optimal temperature range for Ka-band measurements is 14-17 K, while in W-band the optimal temperatures are between 6-9 K; (iii) W-band is preferable to Ka-band for DEER measurements. Recent achievements and the conditions necessary for short-distance measurements (<15 ) are also briefly discussed.

  4. Flow cytometric detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proviral DNA by the polymerase chain reaction incorporating digoxigenin- or fluorescein-labeled dUTP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Gang; Olson, J.C.; Pu, R.; Vyas, G.N.

    1995-10-01

    Serological assays are routinely used in the laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HrV-1) infection, but the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is ultimately the most sensitive and direct method for establishing definitive diagnosis. As an alternative to the conventional radioactive PCR procedure we have developed and evaluated a pair of rapid nonradioisotopic flow cytometric detection methods. Using heminested PCR we directly incorporated fluorescein-12-dUTP (fluo-dUTP) or digoxigenin-11-dUTP (dig-dUTP) into the PCR-amplicons. The labeled amplicons were hybridized with biotinylated antisense and sense probes, followed by capture of the hybrid DNA using streptavidin-coated beads which were finally analyzed in a flow cytometer by (1) direct detection of the fluorescence intensity of the amplicons incorporating fluo-dUTP and (2) immunodetection of the amplicons incorporating dig-dUTP by anti-digoxigenin IgG labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Although both assays were functionally comparable with radiolabeled probe in reliably detecting as low as five copies of HIV-1 proviral DNA sequences, the immunodetection of dig-dUTP consistently yielded higher mean channel fluorescence and gave a stable signal over an extended period of 12-14 weeks. In testing a panel of 20 pedigreed PBMC specimens from blood donors with or without HIV-1 infection, the results of both flow cytometric assays were identical with those of the conventional radioactive procedure. Therefore, we conclude that the dig-dUTP incorporation in amplicons, hybridization with a pair of sense-antisense biotinylated probes and immunodetection of hybrids by flow cytometric analyses is the nonisotopic method of choice for PCR-diagnosis of HIV-1 infection. 21 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. SciFri AM: Mountain 04: Label-free Raman spectroscopy of single tumour cells detects early radiation-induced glycogen synthesis associated with increased radiation resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Q; Lum, JJ; Isabelle, M; Harder, S; Jirasek, A; Brolo, AG

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To use label-free Raman spectroscopy (RS) for early treatment monitoring of tumour cell radioresistance. Methods: Three human tumour cell lines, two radioresistant (H460, SF{sub 2} = 0.57 and MCF7, SF{sub 2} = 0.70) and one radiosensitive (LNCaP, SF{sub 2} = 0.36), were irradiated with single fractions of 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 Gy. In additional experiments, H460 and MCF7 cells were irradiated under co-treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin, a known radiosensitizing agent. Treated and control cultures were analyzed with RS daily for 3 days post-treatment. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 live cells per sample, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. The combined data sets were analyzed with principal component analysis using standard algorithms. Cells from each culture were also subjected to standard assays for viability, proliferation, cell cycle, and radiation clonogenic survival. Results: The radioresistant cells (H460, MCF7) exhibited a RS molecular radiation response signature, detectable as early as 1 day post-treatment, of which radiation-induced glycogen synthesis is a significant contributor. The radiosensitive cells (LNCaP) exhibited negligible glycogen synthesis. Co-treatment with metformin in MCF7 cells blocked glycogen synthesis, reduced viability and proliferation, and increased radiosensitivity. Conversely, metformin co-treatment in H460 cells did not produce these same effects; importantly, both radiation-induced synthesis of glycogen and radiosensitivity were unaffected. Conclusions: Label-free RS can detect early glycogen synthesis post-irradiation, a previously undocumented metabolic mechanism associated with tumour cell radioresistance that can be targeted to increase radiosensitivity. RS monitoring of intratumoral glycogen may provide new opportunities for personalized combined modality radiotherapy treatments.

  6. Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of /sup 75/Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutanen, M.L.; Mykkaenen, H.M.

    1984-05-01

    The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (/sup 75/Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of (/sup 75/Se)selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium.

  7. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

  8. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David J.; Alexoff, David

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

  9. Isotopically labeled compositions and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Jurgen G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kimball, David B. (Los Alamos, NM); Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM); Williams, Robert F. (Los Alamos, NM); Martinez, Rudolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-07-12

    Compounds having stable isotopes .sup.13C and/or .sup.2H were synthesized from precursor compositions having solid phase supports or affinity tags.

  10. DOE Challenge Home Label Methodology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A document of the U.S. Department of Energy's Zero Energy Ready Home (formerly Challenge Home) program.

  11. SU-E-CAMPUS-I-03: Dosimetric Comparison of the Hypoxia Agent Iodoazomycin Arabinoside (IAZA) Labeled with the Radioisotopes I-123, I-131 and I-124

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jans, H-S; Stypinski, D; Mcquarrie, S; Kumar, P; Mercer, J; McEwan, S; Wiebe, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the radiation dose to normal organs from the radio-iodinated, hypoxia-binding radiosensitizer iodoazomycin arabinoside (IAZA) for three different isotopes of iodine. Methods: Dosimety studies with normal volunteers had been carried out with [{sup 123}I]IAZA, a drug binding selectively to hypoxic sites. Two other isotopes of iodine, {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I, offer the opportunity to use IAZA as an agent for radioisotope therapy and as an imaging tracer for Positron Emission Tomography. Radioisotope dosimetry for {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I was performed by first deriving from the [{sup 123}I]IAZA studies biological uptake and excretion data. The cumulated activities for {sup 131}I or {sup 124}I where obtained by including their half-lives when integrating the biological data and then extrapolating to infinite time points considering a) physical decay only or b) physical and biological excretion. Doses were calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema (OLINDA1.1 code, Vanderbilt 2007). Results: Compared to {sup 123}I, organ doses were elevated on average by a factor 6 and 9 for {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I, respectively, if both physical decay and biological excretion were modeled. If only physical decay is considered, doses increase by a factor 18 ({sup 131}I) and 19 ({sup 124}I). Highest organ doses were observed in intestinal walls, urinary bladder and thyroid. Effective doses increased by a factor 11 and 14 for {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I, respectively, if biological and physical decay are present. Purely physical decay yields a 23-fold increase over {sup 123}I for both, {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I. Conclusion: Owing to the significant dose increase, caused by their longer half life and the approximately 10 times larger electronic dose deposited in tissue per nuclear decay, normal tissue doses of IAZA labeled with {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I need to be carefully considered when designing imaging and therapy protocols for clinical trials. Effective blocking of iodine uptake in the thyroid is essential. Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions (AIHS) and Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)

  12. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Dodge Ram Wagon Van -- Hydrogen/CNG Operations Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Karner; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle, a Dodge Ram Wagon Van, operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 22,816 miles of testing for the Dodge Ram Wagon Van, operating on CNG fuel, and a blended fuel of 15% hydrogen–85% CNG.

  13. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Dodge Ram Wagon Van - Hydrogen/CNG Operations Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-16

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle, a Dodge Ram Wagon Van, operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 22,816 miles of testing for the Dodge Ram Wagon Van, operating on CNG fuel, and a blended fuel of 15% hydrogen-85% CNG.

  14. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85, July 2010, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Clean Cities (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    Guidebook contains information about EPAct alternative fuels regulations for fleets, flexible fuel vehicles, E85 properties and specifications, and E85 handling and storage guidelines.

  15. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.

    2011-07-01

    To increase the number of ethanol blends available in the United States, several states have 'blender pumps' that blend gasoline with flex-fuel vehicle (FFV) fuel. No specification governs the properties of these blended fuels, and little information is available about the fuels sold at blender pumps. No labeling conventions exist, and labeling on the blender pumps surveyed was inconsistent.; The survey samples, collected across the Midwestern United States, included the base gasoline and FFV fuel used in the blends as well as the two lowest blends offered at each station. The samples were tested against the applicable ASTM specifications and for critical operability parameters. Conventional gasoline fuels are limited to 10 vol% ethanol by the U.S. EPA. The ethanol content varied greatly in the samples. Half the gasoline samples contained some ethanol, while the other half contained none. The FFV fuel samples were all within the specification limits. No pattern was observed for the blend content of the higher ethanol content samples at the same station. Other properties tested were specific to higher-ethanol blends. This survey also tested the properties of fuels containing ethanol levels above conventional gasoline but below FFV fuels.

  16. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Hydrogen-Fueled Mercedes Sprinter Van -- Operating Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, D.; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure- hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of testing conducted over 6,864 kilometers (4,265 miles) of operation using the pure-hydrogen-fueled Mercedes Sprinter van.

  17. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Hydrogen-Fueled Mercedes Sprinter Van Operating Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-22

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of testing conducted over 6,864 kilometers (4,265 miles) of operation using the pure-hydrogen-fueled Mercedes Sprinter van.

  18. Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort

    2005-03-01

    The U.S. Department Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) teamed with Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Arizona Public Service (APS) to develop the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant that produces and compresses hydrogen on site through an electrolysis process by operating a PEM fuel cell in reverse; natural gas is also compressed onsite. The Pilot Plant dispenses 100% hydrogen, 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG), and 100% CNG via a credit card billing system at pressures up to 5,000 psi. Thirty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles (including Daimler Chrysler, Ford and General Motors vehicles) are operating on 100% hydrogen and 15 to 50% H/CNG blends. Since the Pilot Plant started operating in June 2002, they hydrogen and H/CNG ICE vehicels have accumulated 250,000 test miles.

  19. Advanced Biorefinery of Distriller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    Fuel ethanol can be produced via the dry milling process, which converts corn grain to ethanol. The co-product, distillers grain (DG), is sold as a low-cost, high-protein feed source for livestock.

  20. Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Alleman, T. L.; Waynick, J. A.; Westbrook, S. R.; Porter, S.

    2006-04-01

    This is an interim report for a study of biodiesel oxidative stability. It describes characterization and accelerated stability test results for 19 B100 samples and six diesel fuels.

  1. Using prismatic microstructured films for image blending in OLEDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haenichen, Lukas (Anspach, DE); Pschenitzka, Florian (San Francisco, CA)

    2009-09-08

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a microstructured film disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The microstructured film contains features which diffuse light emitted by said OLED device and increase the luminance of the device.

  2. Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled ...

  3. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Diesel ...

  4. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  5. Refinery Net Input of Motor Gasoline Blending Components (Net)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    -208,235 -208,752 -200,399 -197,538 -207,199 -222,768 2005-2015 PADD 1 -16,013 -15,615 -14,721 -15,397 -16,716 -17,346 2005-2015 East Coast -16,073 -15,613 -14,764 -15,424 -16,708 -17,396 2005-2015 Appalachian No. 1 60 -2 43 27 -8 50 2005-2015 PADD 2 -49,433 -47,203 -45,883 -44,387 -51,509 -55,037 2005-2015 Ind., Ill. and Ky. -32,488 -29,386 -30,133 -29,898 -34,929 -36,182 2005-2015 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. -5,852 -6,117 -4,932 -4,948 -6,264 -7,150 2005-2015 Okla., Kans., Mo. -11,093

  6. Automated titration method for use on blended asphalts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pauli, Adam T. (Cheyenne, WY); Robertson, Raymond E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Chatham, IL); Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY)

    2012-08-07

    A system for determining parameters and compatibility of a substance such as an asphalt or other petroleum substance uses titration to highly accurately determine one or more flocculation occurrences and is especially applicable to the determination or use of Heithaus parameters and optimal mixing of various asphalt stocks. In a preferred embodiment, automated titration in an oxygen gas exclusive system and further using spectrophotometric analysis (2-8) of solution turbidity is presented. A reversible titration technique enabling in-situ titration measurement of various solution concentrations is also presented.

  7. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas...

  8. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cost) across a variety of thermal insulating applications, such as building foundations and walls, and refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning applications. ...

  9. On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

    1999-04-26

    Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

  10. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  11. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  12. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the ILbiomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL...

  13. Grazing incidence angle based sensing approach integrated with fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for remote and label-free detection of medical device contaminations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Moinuddin Ilev, Ilko

    2014-10-15

    Contamination of medical devices has become a critical and prevalent public health safety concern since medical devices are being increasingly used in clinical practices for diagnostics, therapeutics and medical implants. The development of effective sensing methods for real-time detection of pathogenic contamination is needed to prevent and reduce the spread of infections to patients and the healthcare community. In this study, a hollow-core fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology employing a grazing incidence angle based sensing approach (FO-FTIR-GIA) was developed for detection of various biochemical contaminants on medical device surfaces. We demonstrated the sensitivity of FO-FTIR-GIA sensing approach for non-contact and label-free detection of contaminants such as lipopolysaccharide from various surface materials relevant to medical device. The proposed sensing system can detect at a minimum loading concentration of approximately 0.7 ?g/cm{sup 2}. The FO-FTIR-GIA has the potential for the detection of unwanted pathogen in real time.

  14. Lead-203 as a label for radioimaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Meinken, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A radiopharmaceutical composition comprising a radioactive isotope of lead (Pb-203) in combination with a pharmaceutical or an antibody or antibody fragment and a bifunctional chelating agent. These compositions are especially useful in the imaging and diagnosis of tumors and tumor metastases.

  15. Internal Labeling Technique Tracks Nanoparticle Transport - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Marketing SummaryTo track the transport of nanoscale particles and core-shell particles in biological and environmental systems, ORNL researchers developed a way to...

  16. North America Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document reflects a joint perspective of the national energy departments of Canada, Mexico, and the Unites States.

  17. Increasing Biofuel Deployment through Renewable Super Premium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... * Require all new dispensers to be blender pumps (capable of RSP), vehicles are ... * Require all new dispensers to be blender pumps (capable of RSP), vehicles are ...

  18. Hydrogen and Hydrogen/Natural Gas Station and Vehicle Operations - 2006 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort; Donald Karner; Roberta Brayer

    2006-09-01

    This report is a summary of the operations and testing of internal combustion engine vehicles that were fueled with 100% hydrogen and various blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (HCNG). It summarizes the operations of the Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which produces, compresses, and dispenses hydrogen fuel. Other testing activities, such as the destructive testing of a CNG storage cylinder that was used for HCNG storage, are also discussed. This report highlights some of the latest technology developments in the use of 100% hydrogen fuels in internal combustion engine vehicles. Reports are referenced and WWW locations noted as a guide for the reader that desires more detailed information. These activities are conducted by Arizona Public Service, Electric Transportation Applications, the Idaho National Laboratory, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  19. Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump November 24, 2015 - 11:05am Addthis Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump The “Contains 10% ethanol” label means that ethanol has been blended into the petroleum gasoline—10% ethanol and 90% petroleum gasoline. The "Contains 10% ethanol" label means that ethanol has

  20. Conductive polymer/fullerene blend thin films with honeycomb framework for transparent photovoltaic application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cotlet, Mircea; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Tsai, Hsinhan; Xu, Zhihua

    2015-04-21

    Optoelectronic devices and thin-film semiconductor compositions and methods for making same are disclosed. The methods provide for the synthesis of the disclosed composition. The thin-film semiconductor compositions disclosed herein have a unique configuration that exhibits efficient photo-induced charge transfer and high transparency to visible light.