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1

--No Title--  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Algerian| Brazilian| Canadian | Canadian | Canadian Month | Saharan | Marlim | Bow River | Light Sour | Lloydminster | Blend | | Heavy | Blend | ||...

2

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Algerian Saharan Blend Brazilian Marlim Canadian Bow River Heavy Canadian Light Sour Blend Canadian Lloydminster Ecuadorian Oriente Ecuadorian Napo 1983 Average ... - -...

3

Canadian Chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

S. J. Cook, Canadian correspondent of Chemical and Engineering News, in an exclusive article, reviews chemical developments in the Dominion in the past year and the important scientific contributions of Canada to the war effort, and surveys postwar possibilities for greatly expanded production and research facilities. ... S. J. COOK ...

S. J. COOK

1944-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

4

pmm.vp  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 Table 27. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) Year Quarter Month Algerian Saharan Blend Brazilian Marlim Canadian Bow River Heavy Canadian Light Sour Blend Canadian Lloydminster 1985 Average .................................. - - 25.42 - 24.38 1986 Average .................................. - - 12.71 - 13.52 1987 Average .................................. - - 16.49 - 15.98 1988 Average .................................. - - 12.68 - 12.21 1989 Average .................................. - - 15.99 - 15.36 1990 Average .................................. - - 19.32 - 19.55 1991 Average .................................. - - 14.31 - 14.63 1992 Average .................................. - - 15.01 - W 1993 Average .................................. - -

5

Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Algerian Condensate Angolan Cabinda Canadian Lloydminster Cameroon Kole Marine Ecuadorian Oriente Mexican Isthmus Mexican Mayan 1978 Average ... W 13.32 - W 12.87 13.24 -...

6

Truck loading rack blending  

SciTech Connect

Blending, the combining of two or more components to make a single product, has become widely used in most loading rack applications. Blending should not be confused with additive injection, which is the injection of very small doses of enhancers, detergents and dyes into a product stream. Changes in the environmental protection laws in the early 90`s have put increasing demands on marketing terminals with regards to reformulated fuels and environmental protection concerns. As a result of these new mandates, terminals have turned to blending at the loading rack as an economical and convenient means in meeting these new requirements. This paper will discuss some of these mandates and how loading rack blending is used for different applications. Various types of blending will also be discussed along with considerations for each method.

Boubenider, E. [Daniel Flow Products, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Environmental Impact Assessment in Canadian  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy projects/pipelines) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (for uranium mining, nuclear facilities26/02/2014 1 Environmental Impact Assessment in Canadian Mine/Energy Development The Purpose

Boisvert, Jeff

8

Sandia National Laboratories: blending feedstock varieties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

blending feedstock varieties Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks On February 26, 2013, in Biofuels,...

9

Canadian Electrical Association Petition  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ELECTRICITY DELIVERY AND ENERGY RELIABILITY TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc. ) Docket No. EA-216-C PROTEST OF THE CANADIAN ELECTRICITY ASSOCIATION AND THE ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY ASSOCIATION TO SIERRA CLUB'S NOTICE OF INTERVENTION AND MOTION TO INTERVENE Pursuant to Section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act ("FPA"), 16 U.s.c. § 824(e) (2006) and § 385.211 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's ("FERC") Rules of Practice and Procedure, the Canadian Electricity Association ("CEA") and the Electric Power Supply Association ("EPSA") hereby submit this filing in protest to Sierra Club's Notice ofIntervention and Motion to Intervene and in support of TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S

10

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blends to Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Blends Production & Distribution Specifications Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Blends Biodiesel can be blended and used in many different concentrations, including B100 (pure biodiesel), B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel),

11

Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Natural Resources Canada, Environment Canada, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers' Association, Canadian Foundry Association, Canadian Gas Association, Canadian Petroleum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petroleum Products Institute, Canadian Portland Cement Association, Canadian Pulp and Paper Association des ressources naturelles, Québec. Ministry of Energy Mines and Petroleum Resource, BC. CIEEDAC-0019 15 Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment / I-0070 65 Canadian Association of Petroleum

12

Ethanol-blended Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ethanol-Blended Ethanol-Blended Fuels A Study Guide and Overview of: * Ethanol's History in the U.S. and Worldwide * Ethanol Science and Technology * Engine Performance * Environmental Effects * Economics and Energy Security The Curriculum This curriculum on ethanol and its use as a fuel was developed by the Clean Fuels Development Coalition in cooperation with the Nebraska Ethanol Board. This material was developed in response to the need for instructional materials on ethanol and its effects on vehicle performance, the environment, and the economy. As a renewable alternative energy source made from grain and other biomass resources, ethanol study serves as an excellent learning opportunity for students to use in issue clarification and problem-solving activities. Ethanol illustrates that science and technology can provide us with new

13

Ethers have good gasoline-blending attributes  

SciTech Connect

Because of their compatibility with hydrocarbon gasoline-blending components, their high octane blending values, and their low volatility blending values, ethers will grow in use as gasoline blending components. This article discusses the properties of ethers as blending components, and environmental questions.

Unzelman, G.H.

1989-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

14

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program DOE, NREL, and ORNL Team Presented by Keith Knoll Work supported by DOEEERE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

15

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blends to Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends E15 E85 Specifications Production & Distribution Feedstocks Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Blends Ethanol is blended with gasoline in various amounts for use in vehicles. E10 E10 is a low-level blend composed of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline. It is

16

Canadian River Compact (Texas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Canadian River Compact (Texas) Canadian River Compact (Texas) Canadian River Compact (Texas) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State Texas Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Canadian River Compact Commission The Canadian River Commission administers the Canadian River Compact which includes the states of New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Signed in 1950 by

17

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Blend Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Definition An ethanol blend is defined as a blended motor fuel containing ethyl alcohol that is at least 99% pure, derived from agricultural products, and

18

Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intermediate Ethanol Intermediate Ethanol Blends to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Fuels & Lubricants Fuel Effects on Combustion Lubricants Natural Gas Research Biofuels End-Use Research

19

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Standards to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Standards Biodiesel blends are considered compliant with Texas Low Emissions Diesel Fuel (TxLED) regulations if the diesel fuel is compliant with TxLED

20

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blending Ethanol Blending Regulation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blending Regulation Gasoline suppliers who provide fuel to distributors in the state must offer gasoline that is suitable for blending with fuel alcohol. Suppliers may not

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Requirement Suppliers that import gasoline for sale in North Carolina must offer fuel that is not pre-blended with fuel alcohol but that is suitable for future

22

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Mandate Ethanol Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Mandate All gasoline offered for sale at retail stations within the state must contain 10% ethanol (E10). This requirement is waived only if a distributor is unable to purchase ethanol or ethanol-blended gasoline at the same or

23

Method to blend separator powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

24

Sandia National Laboratories: Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends...

25

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Mandate Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Mandate Within one year after the Montana Department of Transportation has certified that ethanol producers in the state have produced a total of 40 million gallons of denatured ethanol and have maintained that level of

26

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Mandate Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blend Mandate All Gasoline sold or offered for sale in Minnesota must contain at least: 10% corn-based ethanol by volume or the maximum percent by volume of corn-based ethanol authorized in a waiver issued by the U.S. Environmental

27

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate All diesel fuel sold to state agencies, political subdivisions of the state, and public schools for use in on-road motor vehicles must contain at

28

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate In September 2013, the commissioners of the Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, and Pollution Control Agency determined that all conditions had been satisfied to implement a 10%

29

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate Pursuant to state law, all diesel motor vehicle fuel and all other liquid fuel used to operate motor vehicle diesel engines in Massachusetts must

30

Interaction blending equations enhance reformulated gasoline profitability  

SciTech Connect

The interaction approach to gasoline blending gives refiners an accurate, simple means of re-evaluating blending equations and increasing profitability. With reformulated gasoline specifications drawing near, a detailed description of this approach, in the context of reformulated gasoline is in order. Simple mathematics compute blending values from interaction equations and interaction coefficients between mixtures. A timely example of such interactions is: blending a mixture of catalytically cracked gasoline plus light straight run (LSR) from one tank with alkylate plus reformate from another. This paper discusses blending equations, using interactions, mixture interactions, other blending problems, and obtaining equations.

Snee, R.D. (Joiner Associates, Madison, WI (United States)); Morris, W.E.; Smith, W.E.

1994-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

31

Hybrid Time Formulation for Diesel Blending and Distribution Scheduling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hybrid Time Formulation for Diesel Blending and Distribution Scheduling ... Schematic of diesel in-line blending and distribution infrastructure. ...

Srgio M. S. Neiro; Valria V. Murata; Jos M. Pinto

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Fusibility of Blended Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) of coal ash are found at temperatures below the predicted liquidus temperature and, for ashes from blended coals, are generally nonlinear with respect to the blend proportion. ... ashing. ...

G. W. Bryant; G. J. Browning; H. Emanuel; S. K. Gupta; R. P. Gupta; J. A. Lucas; T. F. Wall

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

33

Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap Update: Progress...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Commercialization Roadmap Update: Progress of Canada's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Canadian Fuel Cell...

35

Canadian Atlas Map Bundle Data Creator /  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: Canadian Atlas Map Bundle Data Creator / Copyright Owner: DMTI Spatial Inc. Publisher: DMTI Coverage Date(s): N/A Updates: N/A Abstract: The Canadian Atlas Map Bundle consists of the National Atlas Resources Canada (NRCan) for the National Atlas of Canada publication. Also included are DMTI's Populated

36

Children's Literature (Non-Fiction) About or by Canadian Artists  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Falconer, S., White, S., Lord Cultural Resources Planning and Management Inc, & McMichael Canadian Art

MacMillan, Andrew

37

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuel Blend Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement

38

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Fuel Blend Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations

39

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Blend Purchase Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement Diesel fuel that the New Hampshire Department of Transportation

40

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Radiation effects on polypropylene/polybutylene blends  

SciTech Connect

Polymer blends of polypropylene and polybutylene have been found to exhibit substantial maintenance of structural integrity after exposure to ionizing radiation. This radiation resistance has been found to be related to processing conditions and the resulting morphology of the blend. This article discusses (a) the processing conditions and the resulting mechanical properties after irradiation and (b) the role of morphology in this unexpected blend property.

Rolando, R.J. (3M Engineering Systems and Technology, St. Paul, MN (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Complete 4 Relevance Objective: Solve technical problems that are preventing expanded markets for current and future biofuels and biofuel blends Necessary to achieve MYPP...

43

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties ... National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States ... Energy Fuels, 2011, 25 (10), ...

Earl Christensen; Janet Yanowitz; Matthew Ratcliff; Robert L. McCormick

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

44

Canadian Hills (Repower) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Canadian Hills (Repower) Canadian Hills (Repower) Jump to: navigation, search Name Canadian Hills (Repower) Facility Canadian Hills (Repower) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Atlantic Power Corp Developer Apex Wind Energy Energy Purchaser Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority / SWEPCO Location Calumet OK Coordinates 35.66212553°, -98.12820911° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.66212553,"lon":-98.12820911,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

45

The Canadian Penning Trap Spectrometer at Argonne  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is a device used for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. It is located at the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac facility where a nove...

G. Savard; R. C. Barber; C. Boudreau

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

The Canadian Penning Trap Spectrometer at Argonne  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is a device used for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. It is located at the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac facility where a nove...

G. Savard; R. C. Barber; C. Boudreau; F. Buchinger; J. Caggiano

47

CIMS: An Integrated US-Canadian Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CIMS: An Integrated US-Canadian Model John Nyboer, Simon Fraser University As the US addresses energy supply security and, at a state level, various environmental objectives, it is not clear what effect these will have on Canada's exports... CIMS: An Integrated US-Canadian Model John Nyboer, Simon Fraser University As the US addresses energy supply security and, at a state level, various environmental objectives, it is not clear what effect these will have on Canada's exports...

Nyboer, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuel Blending Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on AddThis.com... More in this section...

49

EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

ctsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf More Documents & Publications Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009...

50

Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status | Department of...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008...

51

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

52

Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B: End Use and Fuel...

53

Advancing Biorefining of Distiller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advancing Biorefining of Distiller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends Advancing Biorefining of Distiller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of...

54

Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007)....

55

Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Siclovan, Oltea Puica (Rexford, NY); Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar (Bangalore, IN); Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao (Bangalore, IN); Porob, Digamber G. (Goa, IN); Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi (Bangalore, IN); Heward, William Jordan (Saratoga Springs, NY); Radkov, Emil Vergilov (Euclid, OH); Briel, Linda Jane Valyou (Niskayuna, NY)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

56

PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

CERTA, P.J.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

57

According to the Canadian Electricity Association's (CEA) 2004 Canadian Electricity Human Resource Study (HR Study)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to the Canadian Electricity Association's (CEA) 2004 Canadian Electricity Human Resource and grow the electricity supply. Other industry realities such as the need to build and replace and increase within the electricity sector. The ability of educational and training institutions to adequately

58

Classification of carbon in Canadian fly ashes and their implications in the capture of mercury  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fly ashes produced from Canadian power plants using pulverized coal and fluidized bed combustors were examined for their carbon content to determine their ability to capture mercury. The feed coal used in these power plants were lignite, subbituminous, high and medium volatile bituminous, their blends, and also blends of coal with petroleum coke (Petcoke). The carbon and mercury content of the coals and fly ashes were determined using the ASTM standard method and by the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry method. The carbon content of the fly ash was concentrated by strong acid digestion using \\{HCl\\} and HF. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of the carbon concentrate were made by using a reflected light microscope. The results show that the carbon content of fly ash appears to be partially related to depositional environment during coalification and to the rank of the coal. The Hg captured by the fly ash depends on the rank and blend of the feed coals and the type of carbon in the fly ash. The isotropic vitrinitic char is mostly responsible for the capture of most Hg in fly ash. The inadvertent increase in carbon content due to the blending of coal with petroleum coke did not increase the amount Hg captured by the fly ash. The fly ash collected by the hot side electrostatic precipitator has a low Hg content and no relation between the Hg and carbon content of the ash was observed. These results indicate that the quantity of carbon in the fly ash alone does not determine the amount Hg captured. The types of carbon present (isotropic and anisotropic vitrinitic, isotropic inertinitic and anisotropic Petcoke), the halogen content, the types of fly ash control devices, and the temperatures of the fly ash control devices all play major roles in the capture of Hg.

Fariborz Goodarzi; James C. Hower

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Tax Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit Licensed biodiesel blenders are eligible for a tax credit for special fuel, including diesel, blended with biodiesel to create a biodiesel blend. The

60

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blended Fuel Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition Ethanol blended fuel, such as gasohol, is defined as any gasoline blended with 10% or more of anhydrous ethanol. (Reference Idaho Statutes 63-240

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

A Blended Space for Tourism: Genesee Village Country & Museum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Blended Space for Tourism: Genesee Village Country & Museum Abstract Blended spaces are spaces on this enables us to provide general guidance and framework on the design of blended spaces for digital tourism. Author Keywords Design, Tourism, Blended Spaces, User Experience ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2 User

Deussen, Oliver

62

MASCOT `98 1 Canadian Institute for Telecommunications Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Page 1 MASCOT `98 1 Canadian Institute for Telecommunications Research Gregor v. Bochmann (University of Western Ontario). This work was supported by the Canadian Institute for Telecommunication Canadian Institute for Telecommunications Research Abstract The notion of "quality of service" (Qo

von Bochmann, Gregor

63

Canadian study fuels move to limit rise in drug prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... body charged with holding down the cost of patented drugs is proposing amendments to its pricing guidelines at the same time a study shows that Canadian ... guidelines at the same time a study shows that Canadian prices are often higher than the international median. The Canadian parliament recently extended patent protection ...

David Spurgeon

1993-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

64

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State

65

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Blend Use Biofuels Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Blend Use Requirement Whenever possible, governmental entities and state educational institutions must fuel diesel vehicles with biodiesel blends containing at least 2%

66

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blending Tax Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit A biodiesel blender located in Indiana may receive a credit of $0.02 per gallon of blended biodiesel produced at a facility located in Indiana. The

67

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption The biodiesel or ethanol portion of blended fuel containing taxable diesel

68

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Tax Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption Biodiesel blends of at least 20% (B20) that are used for personal, noncommercial use by the individual that produced the biodiesel portion of

69

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement An ethanol retailer selling a blend of 10% ethanol by volume or higher must

70

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blending Tax Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit Businesses and individuals are eligible for a tax credit of up to 15% of the cost of qualified equipment used for storing or blending biodiesel with

71

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit Retailers whose total diesel sales consist of at least 50% biodiesel blends

72

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Labeling Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements Pumps that dispense ethanol-blended gasoline available for purchase must be

73

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blending Blending Equipment Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption Qualified equipment used for storing and blending petroleum-based fuel with

74

BLENDING PROBLEM A refinery blends four petroleum components into three grades of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BLENDING PROBLEM A refinery blends four petroleum components into three grades of gasoline/day $/barrel #1 5,000 $9.00 #2 2,400 7.00 #3 4,000 12.00 #4 1,500 6.00 Blending formulas and selling price 4,000 x4R + x4P + x4L 1,500 #12;blending: (1) x1R / (x1R + x2R + x3R + x4R) .40 or x1R .40(x1R

Shier, Douglas R.

75

Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels ? Implementation Perspectives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wall" * E15 is the answer to the question nobody asked * E85 has no market penetration * GHG Rulemaking removes incentives for OEMs to produce FFV vehicles Page 15 Mid Blend...

76

Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status  

Energy Savers (EERE)

* 60,000 E85 stations vs 1,200 today. Background * DOE intermediate ethanol blend test plan development began March 2007 - DOE funding: 14.6M (2007 & 2008) - Organizational...

77

Imaginative play with blended reality characters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The idea and formative design of a blended reality character, a new class of character able to maintain visual and kinetic continuity between the fully physical and fully virtual; the technical underpinnings of its unique ...

Robert, David Yann

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against the corporation income tax imposed under KRS 141.040 and/or the limited liability entity tax (LLET) imposed under KRS...

79

Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

Pernenkil, Lakshman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Storage Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Storage Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends ... The biodiesels were selected to represent unstable material (D) with an induction time of 0.5 h and moderately stable material (B) with an induction time of 3.1 h. ...

Robert L. McCormick; Steven R. Westbrook

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

82

WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Wisconsin State Energy Office?¢????s (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost?¢???effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally?¢???friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Ninth Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ninth Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 26-29 June 2007 focused on research on Retrofit of Beam-to- Column Moment Connections, Frame Modifications at Beams' Mid, Plastic and Rotation Limits for Buildings and on Shear Links and Truss Piers for Bridges. That research

Bruneau, Michel

84

The definitive guide for Canadian students  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The definitive guide for Canadian students #12;Where We Are Newcastle Leeds Manchester Birmingham with University buildings interspersed throughout. The town really is our campus! There are regular flights). To fly directly to Scotland from Canada you can depart from Calgary, Toronto and Vancouver. For details

Brierley, Andrew

85

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement State government agencies and universities owning or operating motor

86

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Use Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement Any diesel-powered vehicle the state, county or local government, school district, community college, public college or university, or mass transit

87

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate All state-owned diesel fueling facilities must provide fuel containing at

88

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate The tax rate on fuel containing ethanol is $0.06 per gallon less than the tax rate on other motor fuels in certain geographic areas. This reduced

89

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Retailer Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit The Ethanol Promotion Tax Credit is available to any fuel retailer for up

90

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuel Blending Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation Any provision in a contract between a fuel wholesaler and a refiner or

91

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Fuel Blend Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard At least 85% of gasoline supplied to a retailer or sold in Hawaii must contain a minimum of 10% ethanol (E10), unless the Director determines that

92

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement A retail motor fuel dispenser that dispenses fuel containing more than 10%

93

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Blending Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit A tax credit is available for up to 30% of the cost of purchasing or

94

Canadian Hills (Mitsubishi) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hills (Mitsubishi) Hills (Mitsubishi) Jump to: navigation, search Name Canadian Hills (Mitsubishi) Facility Canadian Hills (Mitsubishi) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Atlantic Power Corp Developer Apex Wind Energy Energy Purchaser Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority / SWEPCO Location Calumet OK Coordinates 35.69756036°, -98.20438385° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.69756036,"lon":-98.20438385,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

95

Canadian Solar Japan KK | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Japan KK Japan KK Jump to: navigation, search Name Canadian Solar Japan KK Place Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan Zip 160-0022 Sector Solar Product Tokyo-based subsidiary of Canadian Solar, producing solar equipment. Coordinates 35.7015°, 139.709244° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.7015,"lon":139.709244,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

96

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

2009 -- Washington D.C. ft05knoll.pdf More Documents & Publications Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status Biofuels Quality Surveys...

97

Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends The results of a quality survey of B20 fuel in the United States were...

98

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Blends Test Program Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 --...

99

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues The United States has 11...

100

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Advanced Ethanol Fuel Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants

102

The viscoelastic properties of linear-star blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to understand the nature of polydispersity and characterize the effect of branching architecture, the model blend of linear and star polymer, which is the simplest branched polymer, is contrived. In this blend system, chain dynamics...

Lee, Jung Hun

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

F.O.B. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

for Selected Crude Streams for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Crude Stream Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Angolan Cabinda 1983-2010 Canadian Bow River 1996-2010 Canadian Light Sour Blend W 90.81 W W W W 2010-2013 Canadian Lloydminster 70.87 79.48 80.36 W 92.04 W 1983-2013 Ecuadorian Oriente 1983-2008 Gabon Rabi-Kouanga 1996-2008 Iraqi Basrah Light 100.31 W W 97.05 101.32 W 2009-2013 Mexican Mayan 98.74 98.36 96.26 99.63 99.74 99.31 1983-2013 Mexican Olmeca 1996-2010 Nigerian Forcados Blend 1996-2008 Nigerian Qua Iboe W W W 2009-2013 Venezuelan Furrial 1996-2008 Venezuelan Leona 1996-2010

104

F.O.B. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Angolan Cabinda 64.60 W 1978-2008 Canadian Bow River 52.38 81.82 1978-2008 Canadian Light Sour Blend 74.59 93.75 83.54 2010-2012 Canadian Lloydminster 48.54 79.33 50.11 64.41 78.41 77.01 1978-2012 Ecuadorian Oriente W 74.74 1978-2008 Gabon Rabi-Kouanga 71.27 89.56 1978-2008 Iraqi Basrah Light 62.98 74.36 104.51 103.17 2009-2012 Mexican Mayan 59.96 82.99 55.07 70.36 98.27 99.81 1978-2012 Mexican Olmeca 72.12 99.40 1978-2008 Nigerian Forcados Blend 93.72 110.57 1978-2008 Nigerian Qua Iboe 65.60 82.66 115.82 115.85 2009-2012 Venezuelan Furrial - - 1978-2008 Venezuelan Leona W W 1978-2008 Venezuelan Merey

105

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) Year Quarter Month Algerian Saharan Blend Brazilian Marlim Canadian Bow River Heavy Canadian Light Sour Blend Canadian Lloydminster Ecuadorian Oriente Ecuadorian Napo 1983 Average .......... - - 25.62 - 25.27 28.90 - 1984 Average .......... - - 25.46 - 25.35 28.79 - 1985 Average .......... - - 25.42 - 24.38 26.97 - 1986 Average .......... - - 12.71 - 13.52 14.39 - 1987 Average .......... - - 16.49 - 15.98 17.60 - 1988 Average .......... - - 12.68 - 12.21 13.77 - 1989 Average .......... - - 15.99 - 15.36 17.69 - 1990 Average .......... - - 19.32 - 19.55 21.63 - 1991 Average .......... - - 14.31 - 14.63 17.52 - 1992 Average .......... - - 15.01 - W 18.52 - 1993 Average .......... - - 13.56 - 13.65 15.79 - 1994 Average

106

Landed Costs of Imported Crude for Selected Crude Streams  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

for Selected Crude Streams for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Crude Stream Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Algerian Saharan Blend W W W W 2009-2013 Angolan Cabinda 1983-2010 Brazilian Marlim W W W W W 2009-2013 Canadian Bow River 75.11 81.32 80.69 90.70 94.40 88.54 1996-2013 Canadian Light Sour Blend 86.95 92.97 91.76 94.96 103.23 102.09 2009-2013 Canadian Lloydminster 73.88 80.34 84.17 87.50 94.64 91.89 1983-2013 Ecuadorian Napo W W W 104.38 103.06 101.56 2009-2013 Ecuadorian Oriente 104.18 104.42 101.61 106.94 107.51 105.09 1983-2013 Gabon Rabi-Kouanga 1996-2008

107

Landed Costs of Imported Crude for Selected Crude Streams  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Algerian Saharan Blend 65.95 81.78 115.82 114.02 2009-2012 Angolan Cabinda 69.17 W 1978-2008 Brazilian Marlim 58.94 76.63 107.13 114.32 2009-2012 Canadian Bow River 52.36 84.29 55.71 68.92 82.02 77.19 1978-2012 Canadian Light Sour Blend 59.12 76.56 96.52 87.82 2009-2012 Canadian Lloydminster 50.94 82.50 53.44 68.13 82.24 81.33 1978-2012 Ecuadorian Napo 48.74 72.97 97.91 101.53 2009-2012 Ecuadorian Oriente 64.57 87.25 56.97 75.48 101.74 105.50 1978-2012 Gabon Rabi-Kouanga 72.93 95.46 1978-2008 Iraqi Basrah Light 64.38 77.96 106.67 106.93 2009-2012 Mexican Mayan 60.93 84.29 56.03 70.87 98.81 100.29 1978-2012 Mexican Olmeca 72.77 101.14 1978-2008

109

Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap Update: Progress of Canada's  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap Update: Progress of Canada's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap Update: Progress of Canada's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Focus Area: Hydrogen Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: www.chfca.ca/files/IC_FC_PDF_final.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/canadian-fuel-cell-commercialization- Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance This roadmap update provides an overview of global hydrogen and fuel cell markets as context for the activities of the Canadian industry. It presents

110

Canadian Environmental Protection Act 2012 (Canada) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Canadian Environmental Protection Act 2012 (Canada) Canadian Environmental Protection Act 2012 (Canada) Canadian Environmental Protection Act 2012 (Canada) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Environment Canada The Canadian Environmental Protection Act of 1999 (CEPA 1999) provides the

111

Emission of Nanosize Particles in the Process of Nanoclay Blending  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Blending is one of the dustiest operations in the process of developing new fire-safe polyurethane foams. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the emission of nanosize particles released Nanofil5 nanoclay is blended. Ten 520 ... Keywords: nanoclay, blending, emission of nanosize particles

Elzbieta Jankowska; Wojciech Zatorski

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. I. INTRODUCTION Blending processes arise in a wide range of industries, for example gasoline1 Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Process Tor A. Johansen£ , Daniel Sb. ££ Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Concepci´on, Concepci´on, Chile. Abstract Blending

Johansen, Tor Arne

113

Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

processes arise in a wide range of industries, for example gasoline blending [1], [2], [3], [4], food1 Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Processes Tor A. Johansen , Daniel Sb. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Concepci´on, Concepci´on, Chile. Abstract Blending

Johansen, Tor Arne

114

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Decomposition method for the Multiperiod Blending Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Flows between which tanks in which time periods · Inventories/concentrations for tanks in each period for many applications 4 · Gasoline and crude oil blending · Raw material feed scheduling · Storage. "no bounds" on concentration total inventory mass balance in tanks inventory mass balance by component

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

116

Decomposition method for the Multiperiod Blending Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

problem is a general model for many applications, and it is difficult to solve · Gasoline and crude oil tanks in which time periods · Inventories/concentrations for tanks in each period · Maximum total profit total inventory mass balance in tanks inventory mass balance by component in blending tanks

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

117

BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.  

SciTech Connect

Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

KRISHNA,C.R.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Exciting careers blending engineering, science, and ecology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exciting careers blending engineering, science, and ecology New Opportunities Making the world://bee.oregonstate.edu/ecoe Ecological Engineering is: · Ecosystem restoration and habitat design at multiple scales · Watershed · Phytoremediation and bioremediation · Industrial ecology · Constructed wetlands and tidal marshlands · Mitigation

Tullos, Desiree

119

Table S1. Fuel Properties. JP-8 Blend-1 FT-1 Blend-2 FT-2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

58 45 51 H Content (% mass) 13.6 14.5 15.5 14.3 15.1 Heat of Combust. (MJ/kg) 43.3 43.8 44.4 43.8 441 Table S1. Fuel Properties. JP-8 Blend-1 FT-1 Blend-2 FT-2 Feedstock Petroleum Petroleum & Natural Gas Natural Gas Petroleum & Coal Coal Sulfur (ppm by mass) 1148 699 19 658 22 Alkanes (% vol.) 50

Meskhidze, Nicholas

120

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual meeting canadian Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms," Annual Meeting, Canadian Political Science Association, 4 June... in Canada and the United States," Annual Meeting,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Supply of Petroleum Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

122

PETROLEUM SOCIETY CANADIAN INSTITUTE OF MINING, METALLURGY & PETROLEUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 PETROLEUM SOCIETY CANADIAN INSTITUTE OF MINING, METALLURGY & PETROLEUM PAPER 2002-074 Temperature Canada Ltd. This paper is to be presented at the Petroleum Society's Canadian International Petroleum of the meeting. This paper and any discussion filed will be considered for publication in Petroleum Society

Schramm, Laurier L.

123

PETROLEUM SOCIETY CANADIAN INSTITUTE OF MINING, METALLURGY & PETROLEUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 PETROLEUM SOCIETY CANADIAN INSTITUTE OF MINING, METALLURGY & PETROLEUM PAPER 2002-092 Effects of Alberta This paper is to be presented at the Petroleum Society's Canadian International Petroleum of the meeting. This paper and any discussion filed will be considered for publication in Petroleum Society

Hossain, M. Enamul

124

Contact the Canadian Anti-Fraud Centre (CAFC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Contact the Canadian Anti-Fraud Centre (CAFC) Report the theft to the Canadian Anti- Fraud Center agency in Canada that collects information and criminal intelligence on all forms of mass marketing fraud, including advance fee fraud letters (e.g. West African fraud letters), Internet fraud, identity theft

Boonstra, Rudy

125

Canadian operators boost heavy oil production  

SciTech Connect

Recent technological advances in slurry pipelining, horizontal wells, and thermal recovery techniques have made recovery of Canadian heavy oil resources more economical. In addition, reduced government royalties have made investment in these difficult reservoirs more attractive. As a result, activity has increased in heavy-oil fields in Alberta and Saskatchewan. This paper review the various oil sand recovery projects under development in the area and the current government policies which are helping to develop them. The paper also provides brief descriptions of the equipment and technologies that have allowed a reduced cost in the development. Items discussed include surface mining techniques, horizontal drilling, reservoir engineering techniques, separation processes, and thermal recovery.

Perdue, J.M.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of Intermediate Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Digg

127

Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends October 7, 2008 - 4:14pm Addthis In August 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to assess the potential impacts of higher intermediate ethanol blends on conventional vehicles and other engines that rely on gasoline. The test program focuses specifically on the effects of intermediate blends of E15 and E20-gasoline blended with 15 and 20 percent ethanol, respectively-on emissions, catalyst and engine durability, drivability or operability, and materials associated with these vehicles and engines. This DOE test program includes technical expertise from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

128

Canadian Solar Inc CSI | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CSI CSI Jump to: navigation, search Name Canadian Solar Inc (CSI) Place Kitchener, Ontario, Canada Zip N2K 3S2 Sector Solar Product Canada-incorporated, China-based manufacturer of solar cells and modules; also has some silicon recycling activities and makes UMG Si-based modules. Coordinates 43.45123°, -80.493049° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.45123,"lon":-80.493049,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

129

Report on intermediate ethanol blends research published | ornl...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Final report on intermediate ethanol blends research published February 01, 2012 Mileage accumulation dynamometers at subcontractor facilities were used to "age" many of the...

130

Water Content in Biodiesel, Diesel, and BiodieselDiesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water Content in Biodiesel, Diesel, and BiodieselDiesel Blends ... In what concerns road transportation, biodiesel is being considered a good alternative to conventional diesels. ...

Patricia Bogalhos Lucente Fregolente; Leonardo Vasconcelos Fregolente; Maria Regina Wolf Maciel

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

131

Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Applications Blends of Phytol and diesel (by volume) were compared against baseline diesel experiments and simulations p-21ramirez.pdf More Documents & Publications HD...

132

Meet changing fuel requirements with online blend optimization  

SciTech Connect

Compania Espanola de Petroleos (CEPSA) embarked on an overall refinery automation program, with state-of-the-art gasoline blending being one of the highest priorities. The result of this effort is a sophisticated computerized gasoline blending system using offline LPs for initial optimal recipe calculation, an online LP for real-time blend recipe reformulation using online analyzers for blending model adjustment, complete automation of blending sequence startup and shutdown, generation of end of blend quality performance reports, and real-time integration between lab, tank gauging, plant information, and blending systems. The entry of Spain in the EEC brought with it the need to quickly adapt to the requirements of an openly competitive marketplace emphasizing no lead, oxygenated, high performance gasolines and ISO 9000 quality standards. The blending system allowed CEPSA to produce lowest cost, minimum giveaway gasolines, while having the flexibility to produce a wide variety of modern gasolines serving the Western European market. The paper describes the blender architecture, optimizer linear programming, man machine interface, and results from the blending system.

Diaz, A. [Compania Espanola de Petroleos, S.A., Cadiz (Spain). Algeciras Refinery; Barsamian, J.A. [ABB Simcon Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understanding (more)

Eslami, Farshad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATEREPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATEREPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice The 13th Haskell & White Corporate Reporting & Governance conference is intended to provide opportunities

de Lijser, Peter

135

Purification Testing for HEU Blend Program  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is working to dispose of the inventory of enriched uranium (EU) formerly used to make fuel for production reactors. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has agreed to take the material after blending the EU with either natural or depleted uranium to give a {sup 235}U concentration of 4.8 percent low-enriched uranium will be fabricated by a vendor into reactor fuel for use in TVA reactors. SRS prefers to blend the EU with existing depleted uranium (DU) solutions, however, the impurity concentrations in the DU and EU are so high that the blended material may not meet specifications agreed to with TVA. The principal non-radioactive impurities of concern are carbon, iron, phosphorus and sulfur. Neptunium and plutonium contamination levels are about 40 times greater than the desired specification. Tests of solvent extraction and fuel preparation with solutions of SRS uranium demonstrate that the UO{sub 2} prepared from these solutions will meet specifications for Fe, P and S, but may not meet the specifications for carbon. The reasons for carbon remaining in the oxide at such high levels is not fully understood, but may be overcome either by treatment of the solutions with activated carbon or heating the UO{sub 3} in air for a longer time during the calcination step of fuel preparation.Calculations of the expected removal of Np and Pu from the solutions show that the specification cannot be met with a single cycle of solvent extraction. The only way to ensure meeting the specification is dilution with natural U which contains no Np or Pu. Estimations of the decontamination from fission products and daughter products in the decay chains for the U isotopes show that the specification of 110 MEV Bq/g U can be met as long as the activities of the daughters of U- 235 and U-238 are excluded from the specification.

Thompson, M.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Pierce, R.A.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces February 16, 2005 - 10:14am Addthis Will Develop, Deploy, and Validate Carbon Sequestration Options WASHINGTON, DC -- The Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that the Provinces of Alberta and British Columbia have joined Saskatchewan and Manitoba as Canadian partners in the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program, the centerpiece of North American efforts to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. The program, a network of federal and state agencies, as well as private sector entities, will determine the most suitable technologies, regulations, and infrastructure for future carbon capture, storage, and sequestration in different areas of

137

Canadian Wind Energy Atlas Potential Website | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Canadian Wind Energy Atlas Potential Website Canadian Wind Energy Atlas Potential Website Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Canadian Wind Energy Atlas Potential Website Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Opportunity Assessment & Screening Website: www.windatlas.ca/en/index.php Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/canadian-wind-energy-atlas-potential- Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance Environment Canada's Wind Energy Atlas website aims at developing new meteorological tools to be used by Canada's wind energy industry. It offers the possibility to browse through the results of the numerical simulations that were run on all of Canada in order to determine its wind energy potential. Consultants and the general public will find valuable data about

138

DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces February 16, 2005 - 10:14am Addthis Will Develop, Deploy, and Validate Carbon Sequestration Options WASHINGTON, DC -- The Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that the Provinces of Alberta and British Columbia have joined Saskatchewan and Manitoba as Canadian partners in the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program, the centerpiece of North American efforts to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. The program, a network of federal and state agencies, as well as private sector entities, will determine the most suitable technologies, regulations, and infrastructure for future carbon capture, storage, and sequestration in different areas of

139

Canadian Council of Chief Executives | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Canadian Council of Chief Executives Canadian Council of Chief Executives Canadian Council of Chief Executives September 12, 2005 - 10:18am Addthis Remarks Prepared for Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman I am pleased to participate in today's forum with such an impressive group of representatives from the Canadian business sector. My earlier career in business, and my service in two other Cabinet Agencies, have given me a special appreciation for the unique, historic relationship that has always existed between our two nations, which is the subject I wish to speak about today. Canada and the U.S. are neighbors, of course. But our relationship, our partnership, goes much deeper than that. As President Bush said during his trip to Canada in December, the U.S. and Canada have "always agreed on the great principles of liberty derived from

140

The discourse of democracy in Canadian nuclear waste management policy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Canadian nuclear waste management policy has taken a deliberative democratic turn. What ... identify limitations in this turn by evaluating the Nuclear Waste Management Organizations subsequent consultation proc...

Genevieve Fuji Johnson

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Electric Motor Energy Efficiency Regulations: The Canadian Experience  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the Canadian Energy Efficiency Regulatory Program for electric motors. The existing Energy Efficiency Regulations are discussed. In addition, a proposed amendment to the existin...

Valerie Whelan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The k-Canadian Travelers Problem with Communication  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From the online point of view, this paper studies a variation of the k-Canadian Traveler Problem (k-CTP), in which there are multiple travelers who communicate with each other to share real-time information. The ...

Huili Zhang; Yinfeng Xu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The k-Canadian Travelers Problem with communication  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper studies a variation of the online k-Canadian Traveler Problem (k-CTP), in which there are multiple travelers who can communicate with each other, to share real-time blockage information of the edges. W...

Huili Zhang; Yinfeng Xu; Lan Qin

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Synthesis of grafted polyamide/polyglutarimide blends  

SciTech Connect

Polyglutarimides are high Tg thermoplastics, prepared by a reactive extrusion process involving polymethylmethacrylate and primary amines in a plasticating extruder at high pressures and temperatures. The resulting polymers can be synthesized with various levels of carboxylic acid and/or anhydride functionality as part of the polyglutarimide polymer. In a recent discovery, these polymers can be grafted to polyamides in a highly efficient manner by means of a reactive extrusion process. This talk will discuss the synthesis of these blends and techniques for their analysis. Partial fractionation, and spectroscopic analysis of these materials was used to monitor the reaction. The effects of extrusion temperature and catalyst level will be presented.

Hallden-Abberton, M. [Rohm and Haas Corp., Bristol, PA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

145

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization deer12szybist.pdf More Documents &...

146

Proton NMR characterization of gasolineethanol blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be conveniently used for accurate measurement of water and ethanol concentrations in gasolineethanol fuel blends. The spectra also contain information on proton exchange rates. In addition, NMR pulsed-field-gradient diffusion measurement allows estimation of ethanolwater clusters and viscosity of the fuel blends.

A. Turanov; A.K. Khitrin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Effect of Ethanol on Blending Stability and Diesel Engine Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Ethanol on Blending Stability and Diesel Engine Emissions ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research2013 52 (44), 15504-15508 ... This article describes the effects of hydroxylated biodiesel (castor oil methyl ester COME) on the properties, combustion, and emissions of butanoldiesel blends used within compression ignition engines. ...

Magn Lapuerta; Octavio Armas; Reyes Garca-Contreras

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

148

Blend lines in the polarized spectrum of the Sun  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......July 2012 research-article Papers Blend lines in the polarized spectrum of the Sun K...Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034, India Blend lines form an integral part of the theoretical...Their interaction with other spectral lines needs to be explored and understood before......

K. Sowmya; K. N. Nagendra; M. Sampoorna

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

First International Conference on E-Learning and Blended Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the conference will appear in its proceedings. The Conference's academic committee will also select some highFirst International Conference on E-Learning and Blended Education as a Strategic Choice for Arab Universities ICELBE 2012 : 13­11 ()2112 #12;First International Conference on E-Learning and Blended

150

Blended language learning in tertiary education  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines the supporting and enhancing role of technology in language learning and teaching in a higher education institution in Slovenia. Despite the fact that the vast majority of foreign language teaching is still carried out in face-to-face environments, a growing extent of foreign language teaching in a number of tertiary education institutions has moved, at least partly, online. In this paper, the development of e-learning practices in Slovenia is described first, together with the evolution of computer technologies from multimedia to the internet and their potential for language learning and teaching purposes. Against this background, the practical application of the Blended Language Learning (BLL) experience at the Faculty of Management Koper is discussed. The paper also addresses the changing role of teachers in blended language teaching/learning environments and analyses the opinions of students who participated in a combination of Face-to-Face (F2F) and Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) courses and expressed their opinions on the BLL experience in a questionnaire.

Igor Riznar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Proceedings of the Canadian Hydrographic Conference and National Surveyors Conference 2008 9-2 Page 1 Lead Author L. Alexander  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of the Canadian Hydrographic Conference and National Surveyors Conference 2008 9-2 Page #12;Proceedings of the Canadian Hydrographic Conference and National Surveyors Conference 2008 9

New Hampshire, University of

152

Differences in the Physical Characteristics of Diesel PM with Increasing Biofuel Blend Level  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Measure physical characteristics, carbon state, and surface bound oxygen of soot from biodiesel blends.

153

Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition Engine Applications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Blends of Phytol and diesel (by volume) were compared against baseline diesel experiments and simulations

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - aboriginal canadian population Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to include the distinct Canadian terms Aboriginal... -growing ... Source: Saskatchewan, University of - Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Plasma Physics...

155

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

New New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing

156

MASCOT `98 1Canadian Institute for Telecommunications Research Gregor v. Bochmann  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Page 1 MASCOT `98 1Canadian Institute for Telecommunications Research Gregor v. Bochmann (University of Western Ontario). This work was supported by the Canadian Institute for TelecommunicationCanadian Institute for Telecommunications Research Abstract The notion of "quality of service" (Qo

von Bochmann, Gregor

157

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

158

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on February 12, 2013. EZFeed Policy Place Kentucky Name Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Policy Category Financial Incentive Policy Type Corporate Tax Incentive Affected Technologies Biomass/Biogas Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector State/Province Primary Website http://energy.ky.gov/biofuels/Pages/biofuelsIncentives.aspx Summary blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against the corporation income tax imposed under KRS 141.040 and/or the limited liability entity tax (LLET) imposed under KRS 141.0401. The amount

159

Time phased alternate blending of feed coals for liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for reducing process performance excursions during feed coal or process solvent changeover in a coal hydroliquefaction process by blending of feedstocks or solvents over time. ,

Schweigharett, Frank (Allentown, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Garg, Diwaker (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Settling of rubber particles in asphalt-rubber blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Traditional asphalt-rubber binders have faced problems ics. in pavement compaction, due to phase separation or sedimentation of undissolved rubber. A homogeneous asphalt-rubber binder is desirable for alleviating this problem. In addition, a blend...

Wattanachai, Piyachat

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Toughened blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) and BPA polycarbonate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The morphologies of melt blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) toughened with a core/shell impact modifier have been characterized by transmission and scanning electro...

S. Y. Hobbs; M. E. J. Dekkers; V. H. Watkins

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Toughened blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) and BPA polycarbonate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The toughening mechanisms of blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) toughened with core/shell impact modifier have been studied by transmission electron microscopy, not...

M. E. J. Dekkers; S. Y. Hobbs; V. H. Watkins

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert October 7, 2010 - 11:58am Addthis Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy What does this project do? Rooftop solar panels provide 27 percent of the facility's energy. Maricopa County officials estimate the complex is 42 percent more energy efficient than many modern day buildings. Next month, hikers marveling at the sun bathed canyons and ridges of White Tank Mountain in the Sonoran Desert will see something on the horizon - if they look hard. Built to blend into the desert landscape, the new 29,000 square-foot White Tank Library and Nature Center in Surprise, Ariz., is set to open on Nov. 13. Rooftop solar panels provide 27 percent of the facility's energy.

164

Droplet combustion studies of hydrocarbon-monopropellant blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An experimental investigation was conducted to characterize the monopropellant droplet combustion of pure and blended isopropyl nitrate (IPN), suspended on quartz fibers in a quiescent atmosphere. The blends were prepared by mixing varying percentages by weight of IPN with less viscous n-heptane, as well as highly viscous desensitizer dibutyl sebacate (DBS). Ignition was achieved by using a heated 60?m Nichrome wire. The dependence of the burning rate constant of pure IPN on initial droplet diameter was investigated in the droplet size range of 0.791.97mm. The blended IPN studies were carried out with initial droplet diameters of 2 and 1.5mm for IPN-n-heptane and IPN-DBS blends respectively, to characterize the effect of gravimetric composition. The experiments revealed a strong dependence of IPN burning rate on droplet size. The IPN-DBS blends were characterized by severe micro-explosions, further atomizing the droplet, governed by the preferential evaporation of IPN over DBS. However, micro-explosions were conspicuously absent in case of IPN-n-heptane blends due to simultaneous gasification of both components.

Anirudha Ambekar; Arindrajit Chowdhury; Suryanarayana Challa; D. Radhakrishna

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut fr Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience  

SciTech Connect

For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

None, None

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Achievements and current activities of the Canadian radon program  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......territorial governments to review the Canadian radon...of practices and standards for radiation protection...Quality assurance plans have been established...the USA and the Standards Council of Canada...2008 to develop a standard protocol for mapping...such as ground uranium concentration from......

Jing Chen; Ken Ford; Jeff Whyte; Kelley Bush; Deborah Moir; Jack Cornett

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture (CCHSA)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture (CCHSA) Building on 20 years of leadership in agricultural safety and rural health issues, CCHSA has evolved into a national centre of excellence in agricultural safety, rural health, research, delivery of training programs and knowledge translation

Saskatchewan, University of

169

SAVE THE DATE! Canadian Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Symposium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SAVE THE DATE! Canadian Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Symposium 2015 ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM January 30 focused on treating foot and ankle conditions. DRAFT Schedule: 0700-1000 MEETING 1000-1500 LUNCH/SKI BREAK of British Columbia - Department of Orthopaedics, B.C.'s Foot and Ankle Clinic based at Providence Health

Michelson, David G.

170

Canadian Industrial Energy End-use Data and Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an inventory of existing databases related to industry in Canada. CIEEDAC is strategically working towards publications include: enerInfo Industrial (newsletter, published 3 times annually) An Inventory of Energy in Canadian Oil Refineries, 1990, 1994 to the current year Detailed reports on energy consumption

171

The k-canadian travelers problem with communication  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From the online point of view, this paper studies a variation of the k-Canadian Traveler Problem (k-CTP), in which there are multiple travelers who communicate with each other to share real-time information. The objective is to find a route from ... Keywords: communication, competitive analysis, multiple travelers, online k-CTP

Huili Zhang; Yinfeng Xu

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

The k-Canadian Travelers Problem with communication  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper studies a variation of the online k-Canadian Traveler Problem (k-CTP), in which there are multiple travelers who can communicate with each other, to share real-time blockage information of the edges. We study two different ... Keywords: Communication, Competitive analysis, Online k-CTP

Huili Zhang; Yinfeng Xu; Lan Qin

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Attitudes towards the Canadian Wheat Board monopoly in Saskatchewan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Attitudes towards the Canadian Wheat Board monopoly in Saskatchewan: A research brief December 2011 Saskatchewan Election Study team Dr. Michael Atkinson, Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy Dr. David McGrane, St. Thomas More College, University of Saskatchewan Dr. Loleen Berdahl, University

Saskatchewan, University of

174

The Canadian Hadron Experience and possibilities for the future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Nuclear Physics Mission (2005-2010) · National-based research facility · Support the Canadian subatomic physics program · Expand the ISAC (Isotope Separator and Accelerator) facility · Support material sciences, life sciences, medical imaging & cancer therapy · Connect with CERN and initiate the CERN/ATLAS data

175

Iceberg Flux and Climate Change FOR THE CANADIAN ICE SERVICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Submitted to: Canadian Ice Service Environment Canada 373 Sussex Drive, Block E Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3., St. John's NL, Canada, A1A 5B9 Ph 709 722-6542 CCS 01-08 March 31, 2008 St. John's, NL. Can...................................................................... 11 Solar Influence

Bruneau, Steve

176

Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

178

Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada, Aluminium Association of Canada, Automotive Parts Manufactures' Association, Brewers Association of Canada, Canadian Construction Association, Canadian Energy Pipeline Association,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to improve reporting of both energy (in TJ) and CO2 emissions, CIEEDAC updated its conversion coefficients conversion coefficients supplied by the refineries and a new, updated set of emissions factors from Manufactures' Association, Brewers Association of Canada, Canadian Construction Association, Canadian Energy

179

Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components  

SciTech Connect

Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.

Wilson III, George R. (Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin (United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)); Freerks, Robert L. (Rentech, Incorporated, 1331 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States))

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation andEngine...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Behaviour and effects of alcohol-blended petrol in the subsurface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Science of the Total Environment , 339 , 117-126...blends. Biomass and Bioenergy , 33 , 1175-1181...C.A. 2001. A review of the environmental...ethanol-blended gasoline in the environment. A literature review and transport modeling...

Philip Morgan; Simon Firth; Beate Hildenbrand

182

Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric studies on nanoclay-filled TPU/PP blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal stability of ester-thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/polypropylene (PP) and ether-TPU/PP blends was evaluated by thermogravimetric studies. Thermal studies were made as a function of blend ratio. Effect...

Murugasamy Kannan; S. S. Bhagawan

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Nanoclay effect on transport properties of thermoplastic polyurethane/polypropylene (TPU/PP) blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the diffusion of water through the nanoclay filled TPU/PP blends was investigated at ... The effect of blend ratio, compatibilisation and nanoclay addition on the transport properties was studied .....

Murugasamy Kannan; S. S. Bhagawan; Sabu Thomas

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

A Review of Chromatographic Characterization Techniques for Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......determination of the biodiesel content of...blends of biodiesel in conventional...Sciences and Engineering Division...characterization of biodiesel and its blends...addressed. Introduction Biodiesel...commercial fuels. These fuels......

R. E. Pauls

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

On-line RVP analysis improves gas blending  

SciTech Connect

New government regulations on gasoline quality are making gasoline blending an increasingly important aspect of refining. The Environmental Protection Agency volatility regulations that establish maximum summertime commercial gasoline volatility levels provide that gasoline Reid Vapor Pressor starting in 1989 may not exceed 10.5, or 9.0 psi. Additionally, beginning in 1992, it may not exceed either 9.0 or 7.8 psi, depending on the area of the country and the month. This article discusses the on-line analysis of gas blending to minimize the volatile organic compounds released to the air.

Lo, P.T. [BP Oil Alliance Refinery, Belle Chasse, LA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

187

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up to 85% ethanol for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

188

A Fast Spatial Patch Blending Algorithm for Artefact Reduction in Pattern-based Image Inpainting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Fast Spatial Patch Blending Algorithm for Artefact Reduction in Pattern-based Image Inpainting Mar´echal Juin, 14050 Caen/France Figure 1: Illustration of our proposed spatial patch blending propose a fast and generic spatial patch blending technique that can be embedded within any kind

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU UNH for commercial use  

SciTech Connect

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form that is more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UNH blending HEU disposition option. Process requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste/emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Burning Behaviour of Heavy Gas Oil from the Canadian Oil Sands.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work presents the first systematic investigation and characterisation of the burning behaviour of untreated heavy gas oil from the Canadian oil sands, an intermediate (more)

Mulherin, Patrick

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

GRADUATE RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN APPLIED SCIENCE Effects of Hydroelectric Operations in Canadian Aquatic Ecosystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GRADUATE RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN APPLIED SCIENCE Effects of Hydroelectric Operations in Canadian with Fisheries and Oceans Canada (6 scientists) and 3 major hydroelectric companies (Nalcor, Manitoba Hydro

Cooke, Steven J.

192

Exchange Rate Effects on Excess Demand in the United States for Canadian Oil .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper examines a model of excess supply and excess demand for Canadian oil in the United States utilizing an error correction model and time (more)

Dickey, James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

100% Pet coke or pet coke blends combustion  

SciTech Connect

Information is outlined on the combustion of 100 percent petroleum coke or petroleum coke blends. Data are presented on NISCO overviews; fuel (coke) characteristics; delayed coke analysis (1995-96); limestone characteristics/effects; limestone preparation; ash characteristics; vortex finders; agglomerization; and NISCO performance results.

Swindle, D.L.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

194

Blending world map projections with Flex Projector Bernhard Jennya  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Projector and then documents the new approaches to projection blending. The integration of the three methods into Flex Projector makes creating new projections simple and easy to control and allows the user.flexprojector.com) is a free, open- source, cross-platform application with a graphical user interface for designing world map

Jenny, Bernhard

195

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

196

Diesel vehicle performance on unaltered waste soybean oil blended with petroleum fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interest in using unaltered vegetable oil as a fuel in diesel engines has experienced an increase due to uncertainty in the crude oil market supply and the detrimental effects petroleum fuels have on the environment. Unaltered vegetable oil blended with petroleum fuels is less expensive, uses less energy to produce and is more environmentally friendly compared to petroleum diesel or biodiesel. Here we investigate the engine performance of unaltered waste soybean oil blended with petroleum diesel and kerosene for three vehicles. Five biofuel blends ranging from 15% to 50% oil by volume were tested on a 2006 Jeep Liberty CRD, a 1999 Mercedes E300 and a 1984 Mercedes 300TD. A DynoJet 224x chassis dynamometer was used to test vehicle engine performance for horsepower and torque through a range of RPMs. Results for the Jeep showed a modest decrease in horsepower and torque compared to petroleum diesel ranging from 0.9% for the 15% oil blend to 5.0% lower for the 50% oil blend. However, a 30% oil blend showed statistically better performance (P<0.05) compared to petroleum diesel. For the 1999 Mercedes, horsepower performance was 1.1% lower for the 15% oil blend to 6.4% lower for the 50% oil blend. Engine performance for a 30% blend was statistically the same (P<0.05) compare to diesel. Finally, horsepower performance was 1.1% lower for the 15% oil blend to 4.7% lower for the 50% oil blend for the 1984 Mercedes. Overall, the performance on these oil blended fuels was excellent and, on average 1.1% lower than petroleum diesel for blends containing 40% or lower waste soybean oil content. The more significant decrease in power between the 40% and 50% oil blends indicates that oil content in these blended fuels should be no more than 40%.

Eugene P. Wagner; Patrick D. Lambert; Todd M. Moyle; Maura A. Koehle

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

HIGH PERFORMANCE BLENDS AND COMPOSITES: PART (I) CLAY AEROGEL/POLYMER COMPOSITES PART (II) MECHANISTIC INVESTIGATION OF COLOR GENERATION IN PET/MXD6 BARRIER BLENDS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??High performance in polymer blends and composites can be achieved through the addition of a strong filler component into a polymer matrix. The overall physical (more)

Bandi, Suneel A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

200

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Prohibition of the Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending  

SciTech Connect

The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 ?m diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 ?m in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations; Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction; Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign; o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks; o Blends from the qualification tanks; Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation experience). As experience is ga

Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

202

1994 lubricating oil and wax capacities of U. S. and Canadian refineries  

SciTech Connect

The paper consists of several tables which list the names of US and Canadian refineries, their location, and their capacity for production of lubricating oil and waxes categorized by finishing operations and primary processing. A separate table lists US and Canadian re-refiners and their capacity for refining waste lubricating oils.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Estimating sea ice area flux across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago using enhanced AMSR-E  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This produced a net loss of sea ice area of about 122 ? 103 km2 or roughly 174 km3 a?1 which is presumedEstimating sea ice area flux across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago using enhanced AMSR-E T. Agnew is used to estimate daily sea ice area fluxes between the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the Arctic Ocean

Long, David G.

204

IEEE Canadian Communications and Power Conference October 16, 1980  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE Canadian Communications and Power Conference October 16, 1980 Montreal, Quebec J. Turner Bell-Northern Research Verdun, Quebec H3E 1H6 P. Kabal INRS-Telecomm., U n i v e r s i t y o f Quebec Verdun, Quebec H3E 1H5 and E l e c t r i c a l Eng., McGill U n i v e r s i t y Montreal, Quebec H3A 2A7 A b s t r a c

Kabal, Peter

205

An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.  

SciTech Connect

This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

Peng, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended Gasoline Dataset Summary Description These data files contain volume, mass, and hardness changes of elastomers and plastics representative exposed to gasoline containing various levels of ethanol. These materials are representative of those used in gasoline fuel storage and dispensing hardware. All values are compared to the original untreated condition. The data sets include results from specimens exposed directly to the fuel liquid and also a set of specimens exposed only to the fuel vapors. Source Mike Kass, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Date Released August 16th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated August 16th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords compatibility elastomers ethanol gasoline

207

Application of the distributed activation energy model to blends devolatilisation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, an investigation was carried out into the thermal behaviour of coal, petcoke and their blend as a generic feedstock in combustion and IGCC plants for energy production. The samples were pyrolysed in a TG analyzer in nitrogen atmosphere (constant flow of 0.0335m/s) at several heating rates with temperatures ranging from 300 to 1223K. The distributed activation energy model was applied to study the effects of heating rates on the reactions of single solids. The results obtained were used in the calculation of curves mass loss vs. temperature at more realistic heating rates. The algorithm used to obtain the distribution of reactivities for single solids was successfully implemented to allow the prediction of blends performance.

M.V. Navarro; A. Aranda; T. Garcia; R. Murillo; A.M. Mastral

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Sulfur meter for blending coal at Plant Monroe: Final report  

SciTech Connect

An on-line sulfur analyzer, installed at the Detroit Edison, Monroe Power station, was placed into service and evaluated for coal blending optimization to minimize the cost of complying with changing stack gas sulfur dioxide regulations. The project involved debugging the system which consisted of an /open quotes/as-fired/close quotes/ sampler and nuclear source sulfur analyzer. The system was initially plagued with mechanical and electronic problems ranging from coal flow pluggages to calibration drifts in the analyzer. Considerable efforts were successfully made to make the system reliable and accurate. On-line testing showed a major improvement in control of sulfur dioxide emission rates and fuel blending optimization equivalent to as much as $6 million in fuel costs at the time of the evaluation. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

Trentacosta, S.D.; Yurko, J.O.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Course redesign for blended learning: modern optics for technical professionals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Philips Centre for Technical Training (CTT) is responsible for the on-going professional education of scientific staff in Philips Research Laboratories worldwide. This article addresses the ''why'' and ''how'' of an evolution toward more flexible learning at the CTT in which various models for blended learning supported by a web-based course-management system are being piloted and evaluated, and describes one of the courses in more detail. The ''why'' relates to CTT's challenge to give more participants at distant locations access to its courses. The ''how'' has to be appropriate to the very specific situation in which CTT functions the transfer of Philips' highly technical knowledge and experience to relatively small numbers of scientific staff within Philips. This knowledge and experience is being refreshed continuously so the contents of the learning also are in steady change. The blended learning models evolving at the CTT are grounded in these characteristics.

Betty Collis; Huib Bruijstens; Jan Kees van der Veen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Effect of n-Butanol Blending with a Blend of Diesel and Biodiesel on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of n-Butanol Blending with a Blend of Diesel and Biodiesel on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine ... Mechanical Engineering, Batman University, Batman 72100, Turkey ... Diesel engines are widely used for transportation, energy production, and agricultural and industrial applications because of their high fuel conversion efficiencies and durability. ...

S?ehmus Altun; Cengiz O?ner; Fevzi Yas?ar; Hamit Adin

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

211

Achieving High Chilled Water Delta T Without Blending Station  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Achieving High Chilled Water Delta T without Blending Station Zhan Wang, Gang Wang, Ke Xu, Yuebin Yu and Mingsheng Liu Energy System Laboratory, Department of Architectural Engineering University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, NE 68182, USA...-12?C) after all 3-way control valves in the system were converted to 2-way valves. It seems that the use of 3-way control valves is accused of the lower chilled water temperature differential. Wang [2006] investigated the cooling coil performance...

Wang, Z.; Wang, G.; Xu, K.; Yu, Y.; Liu, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Properties and Performance of Levulinate Esters as Diesel Blend Components  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The esters were treated with the cetane-enhancing compound 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate and were tested as blends with diesel fuel in a 2008 model year Cummins ISB engine with the measurement of regulated pollutant emissions over the federal heavy duty diesel transient cycle. ... The various approaches to biomass conversion can be divided into two general types: thermochemical (gasification, pyrolysis, acid hydrolysis, combustion, and liquefaction) and biochemical (fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis, and anaerobic and aerobic digestion). ...

Earl Christensen; Aaron Williams; Stephen Paul; Steve Burton; Robert L. McCormick

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

213

Effect of use of low oxygenate gasoline blends upon emissions from California vehicles. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to investigate the emissions effects of low-oxygenate gasoline blends on exhaust and evaporative emissions from a test fleet of California certified light-duty autos. Thirteen vehicles were procured and tested using four gasoline-oxygenate blends over three test cycles. The four gasoline blends were: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and 'match' and 'splash' blends of ethanol (in the 'match' blend the fuel Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) is held constant, while in the 'splash' blend the fuel RVP is allowed to increase). Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions were generally reduced for the oxygenated blends, the exception being the 'splash-blended' ethanol gasoline which showed mixed results. Older technology vehicles (e.g., non-catalyst and oxidation catalyst) showed the greatest emissions reductions regardless of gasoline blend, while later technology vehicles showed the smallest reductions. Evaporative emissions and toxics were generally reduced for ETBE, while results for the other blends were mixed.

Born, G.L.; Lucas, S.V.; Scott, R.D.; DeFries, T.H.; Kishan, S.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends. September 2013. A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends. September 2013. Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends Manufacturer Compatibility Statement Fiberglass 1 Containment Solutions Tanks manufactured after January 1, 1995 are all compatible with ethanol blends up to 100% (E100) (UL Listed) Owens Corning Single Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and 1994 are approved to store up to 10% ethanol (E10) Double Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and July 1, 1990 are approved to store up to 10% ethanol (E10) Tanks manufactured between July 2, 1990 and December 31, 1994 were warrantied to store any ethanol blend Xerxes Single Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured prior to 1981 are not compatible with ethanol blends Tanks manufactured from February 1981 through June 2005 are

215

Comparative Study of Thermomechanical Properties of Indigenous Blended Clay and Clay of Ukraine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the particle size distribution chemical composition fired modulus of rupture (MOR) and apparent porosity of blended clay utilizing clays available in Bikaner region and comparison with a imported Ukrainian clay. The blended clay B2 presents good white buff fired colour higher fired modulus of rupture and low porosity. The blend is suitable for Traditional Indian ceramic industries and a substitute of Ukrainian clay in India.

M. S. Shekhawat; S. K. Tak; R. Mangal; A. K. Gupta

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

A new blending agent and its effects on methanol-gasoline fuels  

SciTech Connect

The major difficulty encountered with the use of methanol-gasoline blends as SI engine fuel is their tendency to phase separation due to the hydrophilic properties of methanol. Phase separation can lead to some utilization problems. Using a blending agent for the methanol-gasoline system is the common approach taken towards solving the phase separation problem. In this study introduces fraction of molasses fuel oil as an effective new blending agent for methanol-gasoline fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternatives blending private Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for mixing as polymer feedstock. This feedstock was melt-blended with high- density polyethylene... mechanical properties and thermal properties of paintHDPE and paintPMMA...

218

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-d rh1 blend Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Metallocene Summary: -Natta and Metallocene Hexene Linear Low-Density Polyethylene Blends with Low-Density Polyethylene Ibnelwaleed A. Hussein... and mechanical...

219

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydride ternary blend Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

13 Phase Structure and Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)High-Density Polyethylene Based on Summary: 1 (NCO stretching) disappeared in the blends,...

220

Effects of bio-diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of diesel engine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study presents an experimental investigation into the effects of running biodiesel fuel blends on conventional diesel engines. Bio fuels provide a way to produce (more)

Bastiani, Sergio.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Multi-scale analysis and simulation of powder blending in pharmaceutical manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Multi-Scale Analysis methodology was developed and carried out for gaining fundamental understanding of the pharmaceutical powder blending process. Through experiment, analysis and computer simulations, microscopic ...

Ngai, Samuel S. H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Evaluation of the Effects of Nanofil Nanoclays in the Blending of Polypropylene and Polystyrene.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study evaluated the effects of Nanofil nanoclay on morphology development of an immiscible polymer blend of polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). The hypothesis that (more)

Opalko, Robert J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATE REPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATE REPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice Pinnell, Managing Partner of Haskell & White. GUIDELINES FOR PAPER SUBMISSION Papers are invited from

de Lijser, Peter

224

Effect of PCI blending on combustion characteristics for iron-making.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The PCI technology is well established for reducing the consumption of economic and environmentally expensive coke in blast furnace iron-making. Often, coal blends show unexpected (more)

Gill, Trilochan Singh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

The Effects of Ethanol/Gasoline Blends on Advanced Combustion Strategies in Internal Combustion Engines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation presents the effects of blending ethanol with gasoline on advanced combustion strategies in internal combustion engines. The unique chemical, physical and thermal properties (more)

Fatouraie, Mohammad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Canadian Valley Elec Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Valley Elec Coop, Inc Valley Elec Coop, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Canadian Valley Elec Coop, Inc Place Oklahoma Utility Id 2911 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Irrigation-Rate I Industrial Lage Power-2 ,Distribution Service Commercial Lage Power-2 ,Secondary Service Commercial Large Power -Rate LP,Distribution Serivce Commercial Large Power-2 Commercial Residential - Rate A, Single Phase Residential Residential - Rate A, Three Phase Residential Security Lighting 1000Watt MH Lighting

227

Canadian radiation oncologists opinions regarding peer review: A national survey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractPurpose To determine Canadian radiation oncologists (ROs) views regarding the benefits, workload implications, and legal liability of the peer review quality assurance (QA) process. Methods and materials A 26-item anonymous survey was electronically distributed to all current practicing \\{ROs\\} in Canada through the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncologists membership to obtain their opinions regarding peer review. Results The survey was completed by 145 (36%) of 404 ROs. Most (82%) reported their practice is moderately or very busy and more than two-thirds (69%) felt stressed by their workload. A peer review process is standard at 92% of respondents institutions. The majority reported this consists of weekly meetings where \\{ROs\\} and other health care providers convene to review radiation treatment plans; some have tumor site-specific rounds while others have 1 meeting for all sites. Nearly all (97%) found this type of QA is beneficial for review of radical plans and 71% found it is beneficial for palliative plans. Incorporating peer review into their current work schedule for all sites was deemed by 37% of respondents to be not or slightly difficult, while 40% found it moderately difficult and 22% very or extremely difficult. The majority (91%) reported that creating a work code to document QA meetings would be helpful and 69% stated that extra resources such as scheduling protected time, designating other health care providers QA coordinators, and increasing overall RO manpower are needed to implement effective peer review. Over half (52%) felt documenting QA meeting minutes would increase legal liability. Conclusions The majority of \\{ROs\\} who responded found that peer review is beneficial and participate in peer review for at least some of the tumor sites they treat. However, most stated that extra resources are required to effectively implement QA for all tumor sites in their current schedule.

Sarah Nicole Hamilton; Haroon Hasan; Christina Parsons; Scott Tyldesley; A. Fuchsia Howard; Mary Anne Bobinski; Karen Goddard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Preliminary study for solar combisystem potential in Canadian houses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solar combisystems that are capable of providing space heating and cooling as well as domestic hot water heating present a promising alternative to conventional systems to achieve net zero energy status in residential buildings. To determine whether or not the performance of such systems would be suitable in the northerly Canadian context, a preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the thermal performance of a solar combisystem with space heating, cooling, domestic hot water heating and thermal storage capability for houses in the four climate regions of Canada (Atlantic, Central, Prairies and Pacific) based on simulations conducted using models developed within the TRNSYS 17.1 energy simulation software. For days without sufficient sunshine, auxiliary heating and cooling systems are included. The operation of the solar combisystem and the auxiliary systems is controlled using a realistic control algorithm. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine effects of solar collector area and storage capacity on solar combisystem performance. The results show that solar combisystems can provide a substantial fraction of the space heating, cooling and domestic hot water heating energy requirement of a simple house in all major climatic regions of Canada. As to be expected, climatic conditions have an important impact on solar combisystem performance. The results also show that increasing solar collector area enhances solar fraction, and the solar fraction curve peaks at a specific storage capacity. Based on the favorable results found in this study, it is clear that further and more detailed studies are warranted on solar combisystem applications in Canada. The next step in this work will be a much more detailed evaluation using the Canadian Hybrid Residential Energy End-use and Emissions Model.

S. Rasoul Asaee; V. Ismet Ugursal; Ian Beausoleil-Morrison; Noureddine Ben-Abdallah

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

230

Experimental Study of Biodiesel Blends Effects on Diesel Injection Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It can be said that a lot of studies performed with biodiesel are mere emissions and performances comparisons against a standard diesel fuel using multicylinder engines and fundamental combustion and overall injections aspects are not being completely addressed yet. ... Emissions variations from 2 different engine models and 2 driving cycles were also obsd. ... Lujan, J. M.; Tormos, B.; Salvador, F. J.; Gargar, K. Comparative analysis of a DI diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel blends during the European MVEG-A cycle: Preliminary study (I). ...

Jos M. Desantes; Ral Payri; Antonio Garca; Julien Manin

2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

231

Emissions mitigation of blended coals through systems optimization  

SciTech Connect

For coal fired power stations, such as those located in the US, that have installed NOx and SOx emissions abatement equipment substantial carbon dioxide reduction could be achieved by shifting from pure PRB coal to blended coals with local bituminous coal. Don Labbe explains how. The article is based on a presentation at Power-Gen Asia 2009, which takes place 7-9 October in Bangkok, Thailand and an ISA POWID 2009 paper (19th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controlls and Instrumentation Conference, Chicago, Illinois, May 2009). 4 refs., 3 figs.

Don Labbe [IOM Invensys Operations Management (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

GHG Registries: Participation and Performance Under the Canadian Voluntary Climate Challenge Program  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Between 1994 and 2004, the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) played an important role in Canadian climate change policy. In this paper, we examine the decision of firms to participate in the VCR, the extent ...

Keith Brouhle; Donna Ramirez Harrington

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Technologies, markets and challenges for development of the Canadian Oil Sands industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the current status of development of the Canadian oil sands industry, and considers possible paths of further development. We outline the key technology alternatives, critical resource ...

Lacombe, Romain H.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Gregariousness versus solitude: another look at parasite faunal richness in Canadian freshwater fishes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently Poulin (1991), using published data on Canadian ... size, age or range of distribution. Analysing Poulin's data with somewhat differing methods I ... function of research effort (also noted by Poulin), I...

Esa Ranta

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 ? Updated Feb 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 ? Updated Feb 2009

236

Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung-ho Ahn, Anna G. Stefanopoulou, and Mrdjan Jankovic Abstract--Ethanol is being increasingly flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up

Stefanopoulou, Anna

237

Exhaust emissions and mutagenic effects of diesel fuel, biodiesel and biodiesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The replacement of petroleum-derived fuels by renewable biogenic fuels has become of worldwide interest with the environmental effects being scientifically investigated. Biodiesel has been proven to be a suitable alternative to petrodiesel and blending up to 20% biodiesel with petrodiesel is policy promoted in the USA and the EU. To investigate the influence of blends on the exhaust emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) using blends of rapeseed-derived biodiesel and petrodiesel. Regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds were measured and their mutagenic effects were determined using the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay (Ames-Test) according to OECD Guideline 471. Exhaust emissions of blends were approximately linearly dependent on the blend composition, particularly when considering regulated emissions. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust emissions. In detail, an increase of the mutagenic potential was found for blends with the maximum observed for B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend when petrodiesel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures.

Olaf Schrder; Jrgen Bnger; Axel Munack; Gerhard Knothe; Jrgen Krahl

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Aerodynamically Optimal Regional Aircraft Concepts: Conventional and Blended Wing-Body Designs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aerodynamically Optimal Regional Aircraft Concepts: Conventional and Blended Wing-Body Designs aircraft such as those that serve regional routes. We thus explore the optimal aerodynamic shape of both a blended wing-body and conventional tube-and-wing regional aircraft through high-fidelity aerodynamic shape

Zingg, David W.

239

Shear-induced shift of spinodal line in entangled polymer blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the shear-flow effects on phase separation of entangled polymer blends by incorporating into the chemical potential a nonequilibrium contribution due to the flow. The results are compared with those of a previous analysis by other authors which did not modify the chemical potential but used a different assumption for the stress tensor of the blend.

M. Criado-Sancho; D. Jou; J. Casas-Vzquez; L. F. del Castillo

2002-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

240

"Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Xibin Wang "Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends" Abstract : Combustion, performance and emission were studied for DI diesel engine fuelled with DMM/diesel fuel blends for DMM content from 0 to 50%. Results showed that, for diesel engine with fuel

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241

Enhanced Miscibility of Low-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene/Polyisoprene Blends in Supercritical CO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with nitrogen decouple the plasticization efficacy of CO2 from free-volume compression due to hydrostaticEnhanced Miscibility of Low-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene/Polyisoprene Blends in Supercritical CO2 solution temperature (UCST) polymer blend in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2

Raghavan, Srinivasa

242

Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement  

SciTech Connect

To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends  

SciTech Connect

Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Combustion Characteristics of Coal and Biomass Blends and Thermal Dynamic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By using TGA technology, the combustion characteristics under different conditions of hard coal and biomass blends has been discussed. The combustion curves of blends exhibited the characteristics with two peaks. Results also exhibited that there was ... Keywords: coal, biomass, thermal analysis, combustion characteristics

Haizhen Huang; Haibo Chen; Guohua Wang; Jun Liu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Compatibilizing Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Nylon-6 Blends with Nanoclay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/nylon-6 (PVDF/N6) 30:70 were melt compounded with various organoclays directly or sequentially. The morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties of the blend nanocomposites were investigated. It was determined that ...

Loan T. Vo; Emmanuel P. Giannelis

2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

246

Conformational properties of blends of cyclic and linear polymer melts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An adapted version of the annealing algorithm to identify primitive paths of a melt of ring polymers is presented. This algorithm ensures that the primitive path length becomes zero for nonconcatenated rings, and that no entanglements are observed. The bond-fluctuation model was used to simulate ring-linear blends with N=150 and 300 monomers. The primitive path length and the average number of entanglements of the linear component were found to be independent of the blend composition. In contrast, the primitive path length and the average number of entanglements on a ring molecule increased approximately linearly with the fraction of linear chains, and for large N, they approached values comparable with linear chains. Threading of ring molecules by linear chains, and ring-ring interactions were observed only in the presence of linear chains. It is conjectured that for large N, these latter interactions facilitate the formation of a percolating entangled network, thereby resulting in a disproportionate retardation of the dynamical processes.

Gopinath Subramanian and Sachin Shanbhag

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

247

JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation  

SciTech Connect

Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

248

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and Tractors Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and Tractors Project Summary Full Title: Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emission Impacts of Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Urban Buses and Farming Tractors Project ID: 86 Principal Investigator: Michael Wang Brief Description: This project studied the full fuel-cycle energy and emissions effects of ethanol-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in urban transit buses and farming tractors. Keywords: Ethanol; diesel; emissions; well-to-wheels (WTW) Purpose Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark- ignition engine vehicles. Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of

249

Relationship between coking pressure generated by coal blends and the composition of their primary tars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four coals that develop different pressures during the coking process were selected together with 10 blends (7 binary and 3 ternary) prepared with the same coals. Their semicoke contraction/expansion was measured by means of two tests (the Koppers-INCAR and the sole heated oven) and the variation in coking pressure during coking was determined in a movable wall oven. The coals and blends were then pyrolysed and the tars were analysed by gas chromatography (GC-FIDMS). The additivity law was applied to the properties used to evaluate the dangerousness of the blends and to the composition of the tar produced from the blends. Afterwards, the composition of the tar was studied in relation to contraction/expansion and the coking pressure generated by the coals and blends.

C. Barriocanal; M.A. Dez; R. Alvarez; M.D. Casal

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Effect of compatibilizer on impact and morphological analysis of recycled HDPE/PET blends  

SciTech Connect

Blends based on recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. PET and HDPE are incompatible polymers and their blends showed poor properties. Compatibilization is a step to obtain blends with good mechanical properties and in this work, ethylene glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (E-GMA) was used as a compatibilizing agent. The effect of blends based on rHDPE and rPET with and without a compatibilizer, E-GMA were examined. From the studies clearly showed that the addition of 5% E-GMA increased the impact strength. SEM analysis of rHDPE/rPET blends confirmed the morphological interaction and improved interfacial bonding between two phases.

Salleh, Mohd Nazry [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Chen, Ruey Shan [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

251

Chapter 30 - Biofuel Economics and Policy: The Renewable Fuel Standard, the Blend Wall, and Future Uncertainties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biofuels are currently in a state of flux. The main operative policy for biofuels in the United States is the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It specifies a minimum quantity of four different types of biofuels that must be blended each year in the United States through 2022. However, the United States also faces what is called the blend wall, which is a physical limit on blending given that the United States blends at a 10% rate. The blend wall upper limit is now below the RFS lower limit for corn ethanol, and that is causing problems with the administration of the RFS. This chapter explains how the RFS functions and then examines alternatives to the current administration of the RFS. The RFS is critical for cellulosic biofuels and biodiesel, and its elimination would likely end use of those fuels. Corn ethanol, however, is now much less expensive than gasoline and would continue.

Wallace E. Tyner

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

DOE/EIS-0197-SA-01; Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement to Record of Decision  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement to Record of Decision Summary The United States Entity has decided to supplement an earlier decision regarding the Canadian Entitlement. The United States Entity issued a Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement Record of Decision (ROD) on November 8, 1996. The ROD was based on the Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS- 0197, issued in January 1996). The November 1996 ROD announced the United States Entity decision to fulfill its obligation under the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty) between Canada and the United States of America (United States) by delivering the full Canadian Entitlement (Entitlement) at existing transmission interconnections between the United

253

Insight into the Molecular Arrangement of High-Density Polyethylene Polymer Chains in Blends of Polystyrene/High-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Insight into the Molecular Arrangement of High-Density Polyethylene Polymer Chains in Blends of Polystyrene/High- Density Polyethylene from Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Raman Techniques JAYANT/high-density polyethylene (PS/HDPE) blends were synthe- sized by melt blending in a single screw extruder. Co

254

Canadian National Energy Use Database: Statistics and Analysis | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Canadian National Energy Use Database: Statistics and Analysis Canadian National Energy Use Database: Statistics and Analysis Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Canadian National Energy Use Database: Statistics and Analysis Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: oee.nrcan.gc.ca/corporate/statistics/neud/dpa/home.cfm?attr=24 Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/canadian-national-energy-use-database Language: "English,French" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

255

Strategic analysis of the Great Canadian Hydroelectric Power Conflict  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The contract negotiation that led to the 1969 agreement between Newfoundland and Labrador,and Quebec, is systemically analyzed within the framework of Graph Model for Conflict Resolution. The Great Canadian Hydroelectric Power Conflict has been ongoing since 1963 and shows no signs of ending. In this dispute, the Province of Quebec has the right to buy almost all of the power generated from the Upper Churchill Falls, which is located in the Labrador territory in Newfoundland and Labrador, at a very low price. Originally, the contract was signed by Churchill Falls Labrador Corporation to secure finances for the Upper Churchill Falls development. The unpopularity of the contract led to several unsuccessful attempts by the Newfoundland and Labrador Government to escape its provisions. Newfoundland and Labrador is currently negotiating to develop the Lower Churchill Project and seeking to avoid the mistakes of the first contract. Furthermore, the automatic renewal clause of the original contract is expected to cause another round of conflict in 2016. The analysis shows that, given the circumstances in which the agreement was signed, the outcome was almost inevitable. Athird party intervener rule could have remediated the damage caused by the conflict.

Yasser T. Matbouli; Keith W. Hipel; D. Marc Kilgour

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Flow boundary conditions for chain-end adsorbing polymer blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the phenol-terminated polycarbonate blend as an example, we demonstrate that the hydrodynamic boundary conditions for a flow of an adsorbing polymer melt are extremely sensitive to the structure of the epitaxial layer. Under shear, the adsorbed parts (chain ends) of the polymer melt move along the equipotential lines of the surface potential whereas the adsorbed additives serve as the surface defects. In response to the increase of the number of the adsorbed additives the surface layer becomes thinner and solidifies. This results in a gradual transition from the slip to the no-slip boundary condition for the melt flow, with a non-monotonic dependence of the slip length on the surface concentration of the adsorbed ends.

X. Zhou; D. Andrienko; L. Delle Site; K. Kremer

2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

257

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

258

Canadian House Dust Study: Lead Bioaccessibility and Speciation  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum samples were collected from 1025 randomly selected urban Canadian homes to investigate bioaccessible Pb (Pb{sub S}) concentrations in settled house dust. Results indicate a polymodal frequency distribution, consisting of three lognormally distributed subpopulations defined as 'urban background' (geomean 58 {micro}g g{sup -1}), 'elevated' (geomean 447 {micro}g g{sup -1}), and 'anomalous' (geomean 1730 {micro}g g{sup -1}). Dust Pb{sub S} concentrations in 924 homes (90%) fall into the 'urban background' category. The elevated and anomalous subpopulations predominantly consist of older homes located in central core areas of cities. The influence of house age is evidenced by a moderate correlation between house age and dust Pb{sub S} content (R{sup 2} = 0.34; n = 1025; p < 0.01), but it is notable that more than 10% of homes in the elevated/anomalous category were built after 1980. Conversely, the benefit of home remediation is evidenced by the large number of homes (33%) in the background category that were built before 1960. The dominant dust Pb species determined using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy were as follows: Pb carbonate, Pb hydroxyl carbonate, Pb sulfate, Pb chromate, Pb oxide, Pb citrate, Pb metal, Pb adsorbed to Fe- and Al-oxyhydroxides, and Pb adsorbed to humate. Pb bioaccessibility estimated from solid phase speciation predicts Pb bioaccessibility measured using a simulated gastric extraction (R{sup 2} = 0.85; n = 12; p < 0.0001). The trend toward increased Pb bioaccessibility in the elevated and anomalous subpopulations (75% {+-} 18% and 81% {+-} 8%, respectively) compared to background (63% {+-} 18%) is explained by the higher proportion of bioaccessible compounds used as pigments in older paints (Pb carbonate and Pb hydroxyl carbonate). This population-based study provides a nationally representative urban baseline for applications in human health risk assessment and risk management.

P Rasmussen; S Beauchemin; M Chenier; C Levesque; L MacLean; L Marrow; H Jones-Otazo; S Petrovic; L McDonald; H Gardner

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

259

Advanced Photon Source, Canadian Light Source Strengthen Ties, Expand X-ray  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rose of APS and CNM One of Four DOE Early Career Award Winners Rose of APS and CNM One of Four DOE Early Career Award Winners Scientists Close-In on Artificial Spider Silk Ekiert Earns 2012 APSUO Franklin Award for Studies of Influenza Virus Clever Apes on WBEZ: Breaking the Fossil Record Gerig to Chair Particle Accelerator School Board APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed Advanced Photon Source, Canadian Light Source Strengthen Ties, Expand X-ray Technology and Research JUNE 18, 2012 Bookmark and Share The interiors of the Canadian Light Source (top) and Advanced Photon Source experiment halls. (CLS photo courtesy of Canadian Light Source) Seeking to solve some of today's greatest global problems, scientists using x-ray light source facilities at national research laboratories in

260

HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UF{sub 6} blending alternative to produce LEU UF{sub 6} for commercial use  

SciTech Connect

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials; the nuclear material will be converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed; blending as UF{sub 6} to produce a UF{sub 6} product for commercial use is one of them. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UF{sub 6} blending HEU disposition option. Resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Melt blend studies of nanoclay-filled polypropylene (PP)high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to study how the rheological factors of unfilled and nanoclay-filled HDPEPP blend series influence the ... 100wt% HDPE), with and without nanoclay, was prepared by using melt-mixi...

T. P. Mohan; K. Kanny

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Morphology development in nanoclay filled rubber compounds and rubber blends detected by online measured electrical conductance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The online measured electrical conductance (OMEC) during the rubber mixing process has been used as a novel method to characterize the dispersion of organoclay in rubber compounds and blends. This method was a...

Z. Ali; H. H. Le; S. Ilisch; H.-J. Radusch

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A Design Experiment for Blending Knowledge Community And Inquiry in Secondary School Science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Design Experiment for Blending Knowledge Community And Inquiry:00-1:15 Education Building 2010 Abstract. This presentation describes a design experiment objectives. Drawing on data from two design cycles, I examine the validity

Stanford, Kyle

264

Solid State Blending of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) with Polystyrene: Extent of PET Amorphization and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

state via cryogenic mechanical attrition (CMA) and in the melt through conventional twin-screw extrusion of compatibilization was previously deter- mined to be both higher than that of extruded blends and also dependent upon

Mitchell, Brian S.

265

The morphology and deformation behavior of poly(butylene terephthalate)/BPA polycarbonate blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this communication the results of a series of recent studies of the morphology and deformation behavior of toughened poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)/BPA polycarbonate (PC) blends are briefly summarized....

S. Y. Hobbs; M. E. J. Dekkers; V. H. Watkins

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

A Blended Soundproof-to-Compressible Numerical Model for Small- to Mesoscale Atmospheric Dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A blended model for atmospheric flow simulations is introduced that enables seamless transition from fully compressible to pseudo-incompressible dynamics. The model equations are written in nonperturbation form and integrated using a well-balanced ...

Tommaso Benacchio; Warren P. ONeill; Rupert Klein

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

E-Print Network 3.0 - administration blending initiative Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TPW.... 2 History Began with a 1998 grant to CIRA to use AMSU... Microwave Sounding Unit. Weather and Forecasting, 15, 476-483. 12;22 Jan 2007 Blended TPW.... 3 ... Source:...

268

A Review of Chromatographic Characterization Techniques for Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......June 2011 385 I. General References Several...presence can impact engine performance and emissions...method Outline I. General References. II...of B100 Content of Diesel Blends VI. Determination...esters (FAME) for diesel engines--Requirements......

R. E. Pauls

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Blended Straight-Run Gasolines with Composite Additives Containing Watery Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cranking and antiknock properties of gasoline-alcohol blends based on straight-run gasoline with additives containing watery ethanol and other ... components are studied. The composition of the gasoline-alcohol b...

Yu. O. Beiko; A. P. Pavlovskii; O. A. Beiko

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

271

Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

A Study on Coal Properties and Combustion Characteristics of Blended Coals in Northwestern China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of the tight supply situation and rising price of coals, the actual coals used in coal-fired power plants of China are usually significantly different from the design coal, which may seriously deteriorate the safety and economy of power plants. ... Accurate prediction of coal characteristics of blended coals from those of individual coals is quite significant to ensure the reliable and economic operation of a blended-coal-fired power plant. ...

Changan Wang; Yinhe Liu; Xiaoming Zhang; Defu Che

2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

273

Profit and policy implications of producing biodieselethanoldiesel fuel blends to specification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A nonlinear optimization model is developed in this work to analyze biodieselethanoldiesel (BED) ternary blending processes. The model establishes optimal blends to improve the system profitability given production costs, market demand, and fuel prices while meeting multiple property criteria such as kinematic viscosity, density, lower heating value, cloud point, cetane number, fuel stability and sulfur content. Pertinent fuel mixing rules for predicting the fuel properties of BED blends were extrapolated from previous works and applied as constraints to the present model. Several dynamic and/or uncertainty factors were explored in further depth to quantify their impacts on the fuel composition of BED blends including petro-diesel supply reduction, diesel production cost, diesel blends market retail price, and policy changes on bio-fuel subsidies. By examining key optimization sensitivity analysis such as shadow prices and opportunity costs, the crucial limits or constraints on fuel specifications can be identified and used to proactively identify and promote the development of potential additives. The model also suggests the government policy of simultaneously implementing bio-fuel tax credits and mandates may not have a higher contribution to promoting bio-fuel production than the case only with tax credits for the firms with the goal of profit maximization. The firms enable 58% increase of the optimal profit from BED blends by utilizing ethanol derived from food waste feedstocks instead of edible biomass.

Jiefeng Lin; Gabrielle Gaustad; Thomas A. Trabold

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Hybrid Dynamic Density Functional Theory for Polymer Melts and Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a high-speed and accurate hybrid dynamic density functional theory for the computer simulations of the phase separation processes of polymer melts and blends. The proposed theory is a combination of the dynamic self-consistent field (SCF) theory and a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau type theory with the random phase approximation (GRPA). The SCF theory is known to be accurate in evaluating the free energy of the polymer systems in both weak and strong segregation regions although it has a disadvantage of the requirement of a considerable amount of computational cost. On the other hand, the GRPA theory has an advantage of much smaller amount of required computational cost than the SCF theory while its applicability is limited to the weak segregation region. To make the accuracy of the SCF theory and the high-performance of the GRPA theory compatible, we adjust the chemical potential of the GRPA theory by using the SCF theory every constant time steps in the dynamic simulations. The performance of the GRPA and the hybrid theories is tested by using several systems composed of an A/B homopolymer, an AB diblock copolymer, or an ABC triblock copolymer. Using the hybrid theory, we succeeded in reproducing the metastable complex phase-separated domain structures of an ABC triblock copolymer observed by experiments.

Takashi Honda; Toshihiro Kawakatsu

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

275

EM Hosts Successful Visit from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories at Hanford Site  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

RICHLAND, Wash. EMs Office of D&D and Facility Engineering (D&D/FE) hosted decommissioning professionals from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) Canada's premier nuclear technology and engineering organization for two days at EMs Hanford site in November this year. CNL was formerly known as Atomic Energy Canada Ltd.

276

VOLUME 84, APRIL 2006 THE CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 1 INTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

VOLUME 84, APRIL 2006 THE CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 1 INTRODUCTION T his review to offer a viable micro-fluidic platform for miniature medical, environmental and security diagnostic kits Micro-Fluidic Platform for Miniature Diagnostic Kits Hsueh-Chia Chang Center for Micro

Chang, Hsueh-Chia

277

The Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Survey (CPEVS 2013): Anticipating Purchase, Use, and Grid Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be powered by grid electricity for an initial distance, say 60 km, but are otherwise powered by gasoline until the battery is recharged (e.g. the Chevrolet Volt) and Electric vehiclesThe Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Survey (CPEVS 2013): Anticipating Purchase, Use, and Grid

278

Does Foundation Giving Stimulate or Suppress Private Giving? Evidence from Canadian  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Does Foundation Giving Stimulate or Suppress Private Giving? Evidence from Canadian Charities Iryna Kryvoruchko McMaster University February 27, 2012 Iryna Kryvoruchko (McMaster) Foundation and Private Giving? charitable organizations as providers of public goods Iryna Kryvoruchko (McMaster) Foundation and Private

Saskatchewan, University of

279

Nuclear Technology & Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Technology & Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction A.E. FINAN, K. MIU, A.C. KADAK Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Nuclear Science the technical aspects and the economics of utilizing nuclear reactors to provide the energy needed

280

Deformation-induced inverted metamorphic eld gradients: an example from the southeastern Canadian Cordillera  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deformation-induced inverted metamorphic ®eld gradients: an example from the southeastern Canadian allochthon and Monashee complex, exhibits an inverted metamorphic ®eld gradient. New data presented preserving evidence of strongly diachronous deformation and an apparent inverted metamorphism. # 1999

Gibson, Dan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Regional electrical resistivity structure of the southern Canadian Cordillera and its physical interpretation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regional electrical resistivity structure of the southern Canadian Cordillera and its physical on paleomagnetic data and palinspastic reconstructions. Comparing the resistivity models derived from two-dimensional resistivity model for southern British Columbia. Generally, the model shows a resistive upper crust overlying

Jones, Alan G.

282

Tailoring key fuel properties of dieselbiodieselethanol blends for diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alternative fuel research for the profusely growing number of diesel run automotive has intensified due to environmental reasons and turmoil in petroleum market. Government initiatives all around the world, their energy policies and steps to emphasis the use of biodiesel; proved biodiesel as a number one renewable substitute for No. 2 diesel fuels. Among all biodiesel feedstock, palm oil is a potential source with higher yield rate without much fertilizer use especially in tropical region. However, the application of transesterified palm biodiesel is objected by many auto-manufacturers due to adverse effects on engine in long term operation. The aim of this study was to modify the key fuel properties of palm biodiesel which causes engine fouling in long term operation. A significant amount of work is devoted to mix biodiesel and diesel at arbitrary percentages and test engine performance. Numerous fuel additives are developed for biodiesels automotive use. In this study, chemical properties of biodiesel are tailored by ethanol and an optimum formulation is derived mathematically. Ethanol is used at a controlled proportion (6%) with palm oil methyl ester (POME) as additive to reduce the higher viscosity of POME. This optimum palm biodieselethanol blend was mixed at varying proportions (i.e. 030%) with No. 2 diesel to produce ternary blends of dieselpalm biodieselethanol. Cold flow properties (such as, could point, pour point) of these ternary blends has improved and minute percentage of ethanol adding did not adversely affect the oxidation stability and corrosiveness of the fuel blend. Ethanol has significantly reduces the flash point, but the flammability of ternary blends is classified as Class II; similar to that of diesel. Cetane number is reduced in ternary blends by ethanol. So, palm biodiesel with minute percentage of anhydrous ethanol as additive in the ternary blend significantly improved key fuel properties significantly.

Md. Jayed Hussan; Masjuki Hj. Hassan; Md. Abul Kalam; Liaquat Ali Memon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Degradation studies on acidbase blends for both LT and intermediate T fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study the ex-situ and in-situ behavior of acidbase blend membranes from sulfonated polyethersulfone and a partially fluorinated sulfonated polymer (prepared by condensation of decafluorobipenyl with bisphenol AF, followed by sulfonation of the obtained polymer) and two different polybenzmidazoles (F6-PBI and PBIOO) was investigated. Two types of acidbase blend membranes from the abovementioned polymers were prepared and characterized: acidbase blend membranes with a molar excess of acidic blend component for low-TH2 fuel cells (LT-FC) where the proton conductivity is overtaken by the sulfonic acid groups, and blend membranes comprising a molar excess of basic blend component which were subsequently doped with phosphoric acid for the usage in intermediate-TH2 fuel cells (IT-FC) where the network of phosphoric acid molecules in the membrane provides the proton conduction. For elucidation of the radical stability of the membranes, the membranes were subjected to Fenton's Reagent and were operated in a H2-PEMFC. After these tests, the membranes were investigated via SEC for molecular weight degradation. As a result, correlations could be found between degradation of the blend membranes in the fuel cell and after Fenton's test. Moreover, at IT-FC membranes, a correlation could be found between doping degree and fuel cell performance which are discussed in this paper. One of the membranes, a H3PO4-doped base-excess membrane from sPSU and PBIOO showed an excellent performance in an IT-FC at 180C of 0.85 A/cm2@0.5V without pressurization of the reactant gases.

A. Chromik; J.A. Kerres

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Synthesis and Characterization of Surface Relaxations of Macrocyclic Polystyrenes and Interfacial Segregation in Blends with Linear Polystyrenes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effects of a topology with no chain ends on interfacial segregation in binary polymer blends and the surface fluctuations of films of macrocycles were (more)

Wang, Shih-fan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

286

Pilot plant assessment of blend properties and their impact on critical power plant components  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of blending eastern bituminous coals with western subbituminous coals on utility boiler operation. Relative to the baseline bituminous coal, the testing reported here indicated that there were significant impacts to boiler performance due to the blending of the eastern and western coals. Results indicated that fuel blending can be used to adequately control flue gas emissions of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} at the expense of reduced milling efficiency, increased sootblowing in the high-temperature and low-temperature regions of the boiler and, to a lesser extent, decreased collection efficiency for an electrostatic precipitator. The higher reactivity of the subbituminous coal increased the overall combustion efficiency, which may tend to decrease the impact of milling efficiency losses. The extent of these impacts was directly related to the percentage of subbituminous coal in the blends. At the lowest blend ratios of subbituminous coal, the impacts were greatly reduced.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Concentration fluctuations in miscible polymer blends: Influence of temperature and chain rigidity  

SciTech Connect

In contrast to binary mixtures of small molecule fluids, homogeneous polymer blends exhibit relatively large concentration fluctuations that can strongly affect the transport properties of these complex fluids over wide ranges of temperatures and compositions. The spatial scale and intensity of these compositional fluctuations are studied by applying Kirkwood-Buff theory to model blends of linear semiflexible polymer chains with upper critical solution temperatures. The requisite quantities for determining the Kirkwood-Buff integrals are generated from the lattice cluster theory for the thermodynamics of the blend and from the generalization of the random phase approximation to compressible polymer mixtures. We explore how the scale and intensity of composition fluctuations in binary blends vary with the reduced temperature ? ? (T ? T{sub c})/T (where T{sub c} is the critical temperature) and with the asymmetry in the rigidities of the components. Knowledge of these variations is crucial for understanding the dynamics of materials fabricated from polymer blends, and evidence supporting these expectations is briefly discussed.

Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Douglas, Jack F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States) [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

288

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Alan Cisar, Lynntech  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries DOE Grant No: DE-SC0006306 Alan Cisar* and Chris Rhodes Lynntech, Inc., 2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South, College Station, TX 77845 *E-mail: alan.cisar@lynntech.com, Phone: 979.764.2311 Prof. Arumugam Manthiram University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 Prof. Fuqiang Liu University of Texas Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 Conclusions Lynntech, in conjunction with the University of Texas and the University of Texas at Arlington, developed a new series of low-cost polymer blend membranes with high proton conductivity and ultralow vanadium ion permeability. The proton conductivity and physical properties of these membranes are tunable by adjusting the ratio of acid and base components. Membrane conductivity was found to be more critical to

289

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of recycling. Young is chairman of the Paducah Citizens Advisory Board, which advises the Department of Energy regarding cleanup issues at the Paducah site. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of

290

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Blending Hydrogen into Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Prepared under Task No. HT12.2010 Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

291

The effects of blending hydrogen with methane on engine operation, efficiency, and emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

-01-0474 -01-0474 The effects of blending hydrogen with methane on engine operation, efficiency, and emissions Thomas Wallner and Henry K. Ng Argonne National Laboratory Robert W. Peters University of Alabama at Birmingham Copyright © 2007 SAE International ABSTRACT Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers and transportation fuels. Because of the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations, widespread introduction of vehicles powered by pure hydrogen is not likely in the near future. Blending hydrogen with methane could be one solution. Such blends take advantage of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and, at the same time, reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. In this paper, the authors analyze the combustion properties of hydrogen/methane

292

Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.  

SciTech Connect

The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Performance of a direct diesel engine using aviation fuels blended with biodiesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, jet fuel (JF) and railroad fuel (D2) with SME blends (5%, 20%, 50%) were used in a four-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct (DI) diesel engine. The engine was operated under full load and tested at various speeds to determine the engine's performance and exhaust emission characteristics. The experimental results show that as the SME ratio of the fuels increases, the break specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust temperature increase; the SME and its blends show a slight drop in engine performance. In this experiment, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke opacity values were measured for each fuel. The results of the emission tests revealed that the oxygen content of SME provided a significant reduction in CO and smoke opacity emissions. However, when the test engine was fuelled by SME and its blends, NOx emissions increased.

Burak Gökalp; Hakan Serhad Soyhan; Halil ?brahim Sarac

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

The relationship between the thermoplastic behavior of blends and their component coals  

SciTech Connect

The thermoplastic behaviors of a number of coking coal blends were measured using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) to determine to what extent they were affected by interactions between the component coals. Most blends showed evidence that at temperatures near their temperatures of maximum fluidity the extent to which they fused was different to that expected if the coals did not interact. Only blends of coking coals of different rank fused to a greater extent than expected in the absence of interactions. Semi-anthracite, low rank coals and charcoal reduced the extent of fusion of coking coals to values below those expected if they were acting as inert diluents. These interactions are interpreted as being mediated by transfer of volatile material between the coals on heating.

Sakurovs, R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of recycling. Young is chairman of the Paducah Citizens Advisory Board, which advises the Department of Energy regarding cleanup issues at the Paducah site. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of

296

The Use and Abuse of Environmental Knowledge: A Bloomington School Interpretation of the Canadian Fisheries Act of 1868  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper will focus on the ambitious plan for regulation embodied in the Dominion Fisheries Act of 1868, a law passed by the Canadian federal parliament in its very first year of existence. The 1868 law was ...

Andrew David Allan Smith

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Chlorophyll a biomass and growth of sea-ice microalgae along a salinity gradient (southeastern Hudson Bay, Canadian Arctic)  

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The biomass of microalgae at the bottom of first-year sea ice, in southeastern Hudson Bay (Canadian Arctic), parallels an inshore-offshore salinity gradient caused by the under-ice plume of ... ice-algal biomass ...

Louis Legendre; Marie-Jose Martineau; Jean-Claude Therriault

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

299

Small-Angle X-ray Scattering from Blends of PE and SBS. Observation of a Novel Kind of Deviation from Porod's Law  

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In the SAXS of modified poly(ethylene) (blends) a peculiar and reproducible deviation from Porod's law is found. The strength of this effect is a function of blend composition.

Stribeck, N.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Properties Investigation of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone)/Polyacrylonitrile AcidBase Blend Membrane for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Application  

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Acidbase blend membrane prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was detailedly evaluated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. SPEEK/PAN blend membrane exhibited dense and homogeneous cross-...

Zhaohua Li; Wenjing Dai; Lihong Yu; Le Liu; Jingyu Xi; Xinping Qiu; Liquan Chen

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Numerical Model Investigation for Potential Methane Explosion and Benzene Vapor Intrusion Associated with High-Ethanol Blend  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Associated with High-Ethanol Blend Releases Jie Ma, Hong Luo, George E. DeVaull,§ William G. Rixey, and Pedro ABSTRACT: Ethanol-blended fuel releases usually stimulate methanogenesis in the subsurface, which could conditions exist. Ethanol- derived methane may also increase the vapor intrusion potential of toxic fuel

Alvarez, Pedro J.

302

Effects of the blends containing low ratios of alternative fuels on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine  

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The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effects of blends containing various alternative fuels and diesel fuel on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine. The considered parameters are brake power, specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency as well as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. Blends of biodiesel, ethanol, methanol and vegetable oil with diesel fuel, each containing 15% alternative fuel in volume, were prepared. Then, these blends were tested in a naturally aspirated, direct injection diesel engine. The test results obtained with these blends were compared with those obtained with diesel fuel. It was found that the tested blends yielded usually different performance and emission characteristics compared to diesel fuel. The biodiesel blend resulted in performance parameters very close to those obtained in the use of diesel fuel. Ethanol and methanol blends yielded lower brake power, while they resulted in higher specific fuel consumption and lower carbon monoxide emissions. On the other hand, the vegetable oil blend yielded lower carbon monoxide emissions, while it caused only slight changes in the performance parameters.

Murat Karabektas; Gokhan Ergen; Murat Hosoz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Photo-Curable Polymer Blend Dielectrics for Advancing Organic Field-Effect Transistor Applications  

SciTech Connect

A solution method of photo-curable and -patternable polymer gate dielectrics was introduced by using blend solutions of poly(4-dimethylsilyl styrene) (PDMSS) and poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde) acrylate (PMFA). The fabrication was optimized to produce a smooth hydrophobic gate dielectric with good insulating and solvent-resistant properties. On the optimized PDMSS/PMFA blend gate dielectric, pentacene could grow into highly ordered structure, showing high electric performances for the resulting OFETs, as well as PTCDI-C13 and TES-ADT.

S Kim; K Hong; M Jang; J Jang; J Anthony; H Yang; C Park

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

304

Surface-induced First Order Transition in Athermal Polymer/Nanoparticle Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the phase behavior of athermal polymer/nanoparticle blends near a hard substrate. We apply the density functional theory of Tripathi and Chapman to these blends. We find a first order phase transition where the nanoparticles expel the polymer from the surface to form a monolayer. The transition density depends on the polymer length and the system bulk density. The effect is due to the packing entropy of the species and configurational entropy of the polymer. The simplicity of the system allows us to understand the so-called ``entropic-push'' observed in experiments.

E. S. McGarrity; A. L. Frischknecht; L. J. D. Frink; M. E. Mackay

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

SciTech Connect

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Comparison of blends of conventional diesel fuel and CRBO containing high levels of FFA in a DI diesel engine  

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This work attempts to analyse the ability of high free fatty acid (FFA) crude rice bran oil (CRBO) in replacing diesel partially in a compression ignition (CI) engine. It was observed that the delay period and the maximum rate of pressure rise for CRBO blends are lower than diesel and is almost inversely proportional to FFA content. Maximum heat release rate for CRBO blends are lower and occur earlier than that of diesel. CRBO blends require longer duration to release 90% of heat than diesel and it decreases with increase in FFA content of CRBO. When operating with CRBO blends, all emission parameters were decreased significantly with a marginal increase in CO emission than that of diesel without affecting the brake thermal efficiency of the engine. It is concluded that higher FFA of CRBO blends does not inhibit its ability to be utilised as a fuel in CI engines.

S. Saravanan; G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao; S. Sampath; G. Nagarajan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Thermochemical and trace element behavior of coal gangue, agricultural biomass and their blends during co-combustion  

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Abstract The thermal decomposition behavior of coal gangue, peanut shell, wheat straw and their blends during combustion were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. The coal gangue/agricultural biomass blends were prepared in four weight ratios and oxidized under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000C by various heating rates. Kinetic models were carried out to evaluate the thermal reactivity. The overall mass balance was performed to assess the partition behavior of coal gangue, peanut shell and their blends during combustion in a fixed bed reactor. The decomposition processes of agricultural biomass included evaporation, release of volatile matter and combustion as well as char oxidation. The thermal reactivity of coal gangue could be improved through the addition of agricultural biomass in suitable proportion and subsequent appropriate heating rate during combustion. In combination with the heating value and base/acid ratio limitations, a blending ratio of 30% agricultural biomass is conservatively selected as optimum blending.

Chuncai Zhou; Guijian Liu; Siwei Cheng; Ting Fang; Paul Kwan Sing Lam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Managing Hardware Configurations and Data Products for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is an ambitious new radio telescope project for measuring cosmic expansion and investigating dark energy. Keeping good records of both physical configuration of its 1280 antennas and their analogue signal chains as well as the ~100 TB of data produced daily from its correlator will be essential to the success of CHIME. In these proceedings we describe the database-driven software we have developed to manage this complexity.

Hincks, Adam D

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Behaviour and effects of alcohol-blended petrol in the subsurface  

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...and gasoline blends. Biomass and Bioenergy , 33 , 1175-1181. McDowell...93-104. Staples, C.A. 2001. A review of the environmental fate and aquatic...gasoline in the environment. A literature review and transport modeling . Report...

Philip Morgan; Simon Firth; Beate Hildenbrand

310

Rapid Monitoring of Hydrocarbon Blending Stocks in Modified Aviation Turbine Fuels  

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......JP-4 jet fuel. For JP-4 turbine fuel, the analysis is relatively...blending stocks in JP-4 aviation turbine fuel. Introduction High resolution...principal Air Force aviation turbine fuel, and the incorporation...Scientific). The column's efficiency was measured and found to be......

P.C. Hayes; Jr.; E.W. Pitzer

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1 Department; accepted 6 June 2000 Abstract This paper reviews literature on co-firing of coal with biomass fuels. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal

Wooldridge, Margaret S.

312

Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene January 2010 Keywords: Wood plastic composites Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Polyethylene Extrusion a b into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre

313

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, T.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

314

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. ResearchRelatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10

315

Combined Impact of Branching and Unsaturation on the Autoignition of Binary Blends in a Motored Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From this test condition, a homogeneous charge of fuel and intake air can be achieved. ... The test fuels were prepared by addition of 520 vol % diisobutylene into n-heptane and isooctane. ... The 15 and 20 vol % blends of diisobutylene in isooctane were not able to reach high temperature heat release in the CFR engine system under these test conditions. ...

Dongil Kang; Stephen Kirby; John Agudelo; Magn Lapuerta; Khalid Al-Qurashi; Andr L. Boehman

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

316

Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black-based materials that have good catalytic activity, but the electrical conductivity of the AC is poor compared as a binder, as opposed to Nafion with Pt, which greatly reduces the cost of the cathode materials. AC

317

NO Reduction in Decoupling Combustion of Biomass and Biomass?Coal Blend  

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NO Reduction in Decoupling Combustion of Biomass and Biomass?Coal Blend ... Biomass is a form of energy that is CO2-neutral. ... However, NOx emissions in biomass combustion are often more than that of coal on equal heating-value basis. ...

Li Dong; Shiqiu Gao; Wenli Song; Jinghai Li; Guangwen Xu

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

318

Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases biodegradation potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases 2013 Accepted 28 March 2013 Keywords: Pyrosequencing Ethanol Microbial diversity Temperature a b s t r a pilot- scale continuous release (10 months) of a 10% v:v ethanol solution mixed with benzene and toluene

Alvarez, Pedro J.

319

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Spatial patch blending for artefact reduction in pattern-based inpainting techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spatial patch blending for artefact reduction in pattern-based inpainting techniques Maxime Daisy Juin, 14050 Caen/France, {maxime.daisy,david.tschumperle,olivier.lezoray}@ensicaen.fr Abstract. Patch regions in images, by iteratively du- plicating blocks of known image data (patches) inside the area

Lezoray, Olivier

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Hypocholesterolemic effect of some plants and their blend as studied on albino rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work was carried out to evaluate the hypocholesterolemia effect of esparto grass leaves, fenugreek seeds powder, myrrh resin and their blend (prepared using equal amounts of each) on albino rats. Half, fenugreek and the blend were added to basal diet at 5% and 10%, while myrrh added at 2.5% and 5% hypercholesterolemia raised serum TC, TG, LDL and VLDL while HDL declined. Feeding on mentioned plants reversed the mentioned change provided that efficacy was different where the blend mostly came first, being of highest effect (indicating a synergistic action) and fenugreek of lowest effect. Fenugreek seeds powder showed 34.50-43.75% decrease of AI compared to control (+). Serum glucose showed 31.25% increase due to hypercholesterolemia, and decreased from 141.13 mg dl?1 (control+) to 97.1-127.0 mg dl?1 by experimental diets; in this concern the blend diet was of highest effect. More studies are needed to confirm the effect of myrrh as overweight and obesity controller agent.

Nadia Saleh Al-Amoudi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Interfacial morphology and friction properties of thin PEO and PEO/PAA blend films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The scanning force microscope (SFM) was used to investigate morphology of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) blend. The effect of solvent and dewetting in surface structure of PEO film was reported. The results manifested that the crystallization of PEO could be suppressed completely in ultrathin region via using chloroform as a solvent, and the branched-like crystallization was recovered after dewetting. Also, the effect of thickness, the ratio of PEO/PAA and dewetting in surface morphology of PEOPAA blend films were investigated. These results showed that the crystallization was highly dependent on the ratio of PEO/PAA and the thickness of blend film. Furthermore, we assembled the PEO/PAA layer-by-layer film by spin-casting method for the first time, which exhibited highly efficiency. As a complementary tool, we also used lateral force microscopy (LFM) to explore surface information of these films. The result was indicative of interfacial constraints in ultrathin region, and also was supported by the results showing the spin-casting PEO/PAA blends rather than heterogeneous mixture.

Xianke Gu; Guojian Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Improvement of the Coal Ash Slagging Tendency by Coal Washing and Additive Blending with Mullite Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four typical coals and two pretreatment methods were investigated to prevent slagging by facilitating mullite formation in coal ash at a high temperature. ... Both security and economy in power plant can be improved substantially as long as ash deposition and slagging tendency alleviated. ... Pilot-projects about coal washing and coal blending economic benefit are looking forward to put into practice. ...

Zhenyu Huang; Yan Li; Dan Lu; Zhijun Zhou; Zhihua Wang; Junhu Zhou; Kefa Cen

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

324

Behaviour and effects of alcohol-blended petrol in the subsurface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Lahvis, M.A. 2003. Evaluation of small-volume releases...J.J. 2013 a. Microbial processes influencing the transport...B. 1999. Screening model evaluation of the effects of ethanol...groundwater contaminated with a biodiesel blend (B20). Biodegradation...

Philip Morgan; Simon Firth; Beate Hildenbrand

325

NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide, UO{sub 3}, was used in the testing. Next, NU made up of UO{sub 3} and DU made up of UO{sub 2} was used in the test work. In every test, the blend achieved was characterized by spatial sampling of the ground product and analyzing for {sup 235}U concentration. The test work proved that these uranium oxide materials can be blended successfully. The spatial concentration was found to be uniform. Next, sintered thorium oxide pellets were used as surrogate for light water breeder reactor pellets (LWBR). To simulate LWBR pellet dispositioning, the thorium oxide pellets were first ground to a powder form and then the powder was blended with NU. In these tests also the concentration of {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th in blended products fell within established limits proving the success of RM-2 milling technology. RM-2 milling technology is applicable to any dry radioactive waste, especially brittle solids that can be ground up and mixed with the non-radioactive stock.

Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Influence of coal thermoplastic properties on coking pressure generation: Part 2 A study of binary coal blends and specific additives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A number of coal blends and pitch/coal blends were evaluated using rheometry, thermogravimetric analysis and microscopy to confirm and further elucidate the coking pressure mechanism previously proposed by Duffy et al. (2007) [1]. We confirm that blending a low rank, high fluidity, low coking pressure coal, with a high rank, low fluidity, high coking pressure coal can significantly reduce the coking pressure associated with the latter. Interestingly, blending does not necessarily result in a fluidity that is midway between that of the two coals; sometimes the fluidity of the blend is less than that of the low fluidity coal, especially when the coals are significantly different in rank. This occurs because the increase in complex viscosity (?*) through resolidification of the low rank, high fluidity coal counteracts the reduction in ?* resulting from softening of the high rank, low fluidity coal. It has also been confirmed that the ?* of the resultant blend can be estimated from the ?* of each component coal using a logarithmic additivity rule commonly employed for polymer blends. Polarised light microscopy has indicated that the degree of mixing between coals of different rank is minimal, with fusion restricted to the particle surface. It is therefore inappropriate to think of such a coal blend in the same way as a single coal, since each component coal behaves relatively independently. This limited fusion is important for understanding the coking pressure mechanism for blends. It is proposed here that the lower rank coal, which softens at lower temperature, is able to expand into the interparticle voids between the high rank coal that is yet to soften, and these voids can create channels for volatiles to traverse. Then, and importantly, when the high rank coal begins to expand, the pore structure developed in the resolidified structures of the low rank coal can facilitate removal of volatiles, while the resolidified material may also act as a suitable sorbent for volatile matter. This is considered to be the primary mechanism by which coal blending is able to alleviate coking pressure, and applies to addition of inert material also. Addition of a coal tar pitch was found to increase fluidity but also to extend the thermoplastic range to lower temperatures. This caused an increase in the swelling range, which was accompanied by a long plateau in ?*, a feature which has previously been observed for certain high fluidity, high pressure coals. Elasticity and ?* at the onset of expansion were also higher for both the pitch impregnated coals and the high pressure blends, which supports previous findings for singly charged high pressure coals, and confirms the potential use of such criteria for identifying potentially dangerous coals/blends.

John J. Duffy; Merrick R. Mahoney; Karen M. Steel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Effects of Gasoline Blends on Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments presented in this study for gasoline blends and experiments of Bilgin et al. for ethanol blends have been performed in a single-cylinder diesel engine at Karadeniz Technical University, Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. ... However, to determine the most favorable blend ratio for any vehicle diesel engine, to achieve general results, and to give general recommendations, more systematic experimental and theoretical studies for actual vehicle diesel engines must be performed. ... Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects, Chamber of Mechanical Engineer, 1991; Vol. 383, pp 18? 29 (in Turkish). ...

Z. ?ahin

2008-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

328

Air and oxy-fuel combustion behaviour of petcoke/lignite blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of a petroleum coke (petcoke), an indigenous lignite and their 70/30wt.% blend in air and oxy-fuel conditions were investigated by using non-isothermal thermo-gravimetric method (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Blend samples were prepared by mixing lignite, which has low calorific value, high ash and moisture contents with petcoke that has high calorific value, low ash and moisture content, in the proportion of 70:30. Pyrolysis tests were carried out in nitrogen and carbon dioxide environments which are the main diluting gases of air and oxy-fuel environments, respectively. Pyrolysis curves of parent fuels and their blend reveal close resemblance up to 700C in both N2 and CO2 environments. At higher temperatures, further weight loss taking place in N2 and CO2 atmospheres is attributed to calcite decomposition and CO2-char gasification reaction, respectively. Gasification reaction leads to significant increase in CO and COS formation as observed in FTIR evolution profiles. Almost identical experimental and theoretical pyrolysis profiles of the blend samples show that there is no synergy between the parent fuels of the blend in both pyrolysis environments. Combustion experiments were carried out in four different atmospheres; air, oxygen-enriched air environment (30% O270% N2), oxy-fuel environment (21% O279% CO2) and oxygen-enriched oxy-fuel environment (30% O270% CO2). Combustion experiments show that replacing nitrogen in the gas mixture by the same concentration of CO2 leads to delay in combustion (lower maximum rate of weight loss and higher burnout temperatures). Overall comparison of derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) profiles shows that effect of oxygen content on combustion characteristics is more significant than that of diluting gas in the combustion environment. At elevated oxygen levels, profiles shift through lower temperature zone, peak and burnout temperatures decrease, weight loss rate increases significantly and complete combustion is achieved at lower temperatures and shorter times. Theoretical and experimental combustion profiles of the blend mainly display different trends, which indicate synergistic interactions between lignite and petcoke during their combustion in different environments.

Nur Sena Yuzbasi; Nevin Seluk

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Vanishing White Matter Disease in French-Canadian Patients From Quebec  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractBackground Vanishing white matter disease is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy caused by mutations in any of the five genes encoding the subunits of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B. Most of the reported patients are of North American and European ancestry. Objective The objective of the study was to review the clinical, radiological, and molecular characteristics of vanishing white matter disease in a cohort of French-Canadian patients. Methods Between 2004 and March 2012, five French-Canadian (non-Cree) patients from Quebec were clinically and genetically diagnosed with vanishing white matter disease within three Montreal Neurogenetics and Leukodystrophy clinics. Their clinical presentation and evolution, demographic characteristics, genetic mutations, and imaging were reviewed and compared with what is known in the literature. Results Sequencing of the exons and intronic boundaries of the EIF2B1-5 genes revealed a rare 260C>T (A87V) missense mutation in EIF2B3 in two homozygous patients and one compound heterozygous patient. This mutation was previously reported in only one patient in the literature. The carrier frequency is unknown. Also, three of five Quebec patients had an extremely rare vanishing white matter disease presentation of migraines with transient neurological abnormalities. Conclusion The 260C>T (A87V) mutation in exon 3 of the EIF2B3 gene is likely a founder mutation for vanishing white matter disease in Quebec. Transient hemiparesthesia and hemiparesis episodes accompanied by headaches as presenting abnormalities of vanishing white matter disease are usually rare but seemed to be more frequent among the French-Canadian Quebec patients. They seemed to be preceded by periods of stress.

Marie-ve Robinson; Elsa Rossignol; Bernard Brais; Guy Rouleau; Jean-Franois Arbour; Genevive Bernard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Proceedings of the Canadian Hydrographic Conference and National Surveyors Conference 2008 Paper 2A-3 Page 1 Lead Author J. Gardner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of the Canadian Hydrographic Conference and National Surveyors Conference 2008 Paper 2A UNCLOS Article 76 and the year each area has been mapped. #12;Proceedings of the Canadian Hydrographic Conference and National Surveyors Conference 2008 Paper 2A-3 Page 2 Lead Author J. Gardner Ocean Mapping

New Hampshire, University of

331

Research on viscosity-reduction technology by electric heating and blending light oil in ultra-deep heavy oil wells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the Tahe oilfield in China, heavy oil is commonly lifted using the light oil blending technology. However, due to the lack of light oil, the production of heavy oil has been seriously limited. Thus, a new c...

Mo Zhu; Haiquan Zhong; Yingchuan Li

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Performance and Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Dimethyl Ether and Rapeseed Oil Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sorenson and Mikkelsen2 had studied DME in a modified diesel engine, and their results showed that the engine could achieve ultralow-emission prospects without a fundamental change in combustion systems. ... Meanwhile, these parameters are compared with those of pure diesel fuel in order to clarify the effect of blends on the combustion and emission of engines (a CI engine cannot run for much longer of a period with pure DME fuel, so a comparison is only made with pure diesel fuel). ... Moreover, owing to the lower calorific value of the blend compared to diesel fuel, the fuel supply amount per cycle for blend operation is enlarged by increasing the plunger stroke of the fuel pump in order to make the power and torque output of the blends approach those of the corresponding diesel engine. ...

Wang Ying; Zhou Longbao

2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

333

An integrated video- and weight-monitoring system for the surveillance of highly enriched uranium blend down operations  

SciTech Connect

An integrated video-surveillance and weight-monitoring system has been designed and constructed for tracking the blending down of weapons-grade uranium by the US Department of Energy. The instrumentation is being used by the International Atomic Energy Agency in its task of tracking and verifying the blended material at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio. The weight instrumentation developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory monitors and records the weight of cylinders of the highly enriched uranium as their contents are fed into the blending facility while the video equipment provided by Sandia National Laboratory records periodic and event triggered images of the blending area. A secure data network between the scales, cameras, and computers insures data integrity and eliminates the possibility of tampering. The details of the weight monitoring instrumentation, video- and weight-system interaction, and the secure data network is discussed.

Lenarduzzi, R.; Castleberry, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Whitaker, M. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Effect of idling on fuel consumption and emissions of a diesel engine fueled by Jatropha biodiesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An engine running at low load and low rated speed is said to be subject to high idling conditions, a mode which represents one of the major problems currently the transport industry is facing. During this time, the engine can not work at peak operating temperature. This leads to incomplete combustion and emissions level increase due to having fuel residues in the exhaust. Also, idling results in increase in fuel consumption. The purpose of this study is to evaluate fuel consumption and emissions parameters under high idling conditions when diesel blended with Jatropha curcas biodiesel is used to operate a diesel engine. Although biodieseldiesel blends decrease carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions, they increase nitrogen oxides emissions in high idling modes. Compared to pure diesel fuel, fuel consumption also increases under all high idling conditions for biodieseldiesel blends, with a further increase occurring as blend percentage rises.

S.M. Ashrafur Rahman; H.H. Masjuki; M.A. Kalam; M.J. Abedin; A. Sanjid; S. Imtenan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Combustion and emission characteristics of a turbo-charged common rail diesel engine fuelled with diesel-biodiesel-DEE blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion and emission characteristics of a turbo-charged, common rail diesel engine fuelled with diesel-biodiesel-DEE blends were investigated. The study reports that the brake-specific fuel consumption of ...

Ni Zhang; Zuohua Huang; Xiangang Wang; Bin Zheng

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated  

SciTech Connect

Intended for policymakers and others who make decisions about, and set guidelines for, the proper use of intermediate ethanol blends such as E20 in both vehicle engines and other engine types.

Knoll, K.; West, B.; Clark, W.; Graves, R.; Orban, J.; Przesmitzki, S.; Theiss, T.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Application and modeling of near-infrared frequency domain photon migration for monitoring pharmaceutical powder blending operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of blending. A simulation method was developed which consisted of (i) dynamic simulation for generating the powder structure; (ii) the completely-randommixture model for predicting the spatial distribution of API particles within the powder bed; and (iii...

Pan, Tianshu

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

338

Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

339

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0 C to 40 C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under ...

Dimou, Iason

340

Melt Strength Behaviour of Polyethylenes and Polyethylene Blends and its Relation to Bubble Stability in Film Blowing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Melt strength data are presented on the three major classes of commercial polyethylenes (LDPE, LLDPE and HDPE) and some of their binary blend systems. Melt strength was assessed from uniaxial tensile experiments ...

A. Ghijsels; J. J. S. M. Ente; J. Raadsen

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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341

The integration of child tax credits and welfare: Evidence from the Canadian National Child Benefit program  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 1998, the Canadian government introduced a new child tax credit. The innovation in the program was its integration with social assistance (welfare). Some provinces agreed to subtract the new federally-paid benefits from provincially-paid social assistance, partially lowering the welfare wall. Other provinces did not integrate benefits, providing a quasi-experimental framework for estimation. We find large changes in social assistance take-up and employment in provinces that provided the labour market incentives to do so. In our sample, the integration of benefits can account for between 19 and 27% of the decline in social assistance receipt between 1997 and 2000.

Kevin Milligan; Mark Stabile

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

An Experimental Study into the Ignition of Methane and Ethane Blends in a New Shock-tube Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY INTO THE IGNITION OF METHANE AND ETHANE BLENDS IN A NEW SHOCK-TUBE FACILITY A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH ERIK AUL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY INTO THE IGNITION OF METHANE AND ETHANE BLENDS IN A NEW SHOCK-TUBE FACILITY A Thesis...

Aul, Christopher Joseph Erik

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

343

Evaluation of Fuel Properties of Butanol?Biodiesel?Diesel Blends and Their Impact on Engine Performance and Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Values of specific fuel consumption of engine when fueled with different blends and pure diesel at different speeds are shown in Figure 4. ... Chandra, R.; Kumar, R. Fuel properties of some stable alcohol?diesel microemulsions for their use in compression ignition engines Energy Fuels 2007, 21, 3410 3414 ... Liu, B.; Huang, Z.; Miao, H.; Di, Y.; Jiang, D.; Zeng, K. Combustion and emissions of a DI diesel engine fuelled with diesel?oxygenate blends Fuel 2008, 87, 2691 2697 ...

Rakhi N. Mehta; Mousumi Chakraborty; Pinakeswar Mahanta; Parimal A. Parikh

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Effect of Bioethanol Blended Diesel Fuel and Engine Load on Spray, Combustion, and Emissions Characteristics in a Compression Ignition Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Yan et al.(8) investigated the combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with ethanoldiesel blended fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. ... Figure 11 shows the indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC) characteristics of dieselbioethanol blended fuels at various engine loads. ... Tests on the engine fuelled with diesel only were made, and the performance evaluated to form a basis for comparison for those of ethanol-diesel dual fuelling. ...

Su Han Park; In Mo Youn; Yunsung Lim; Chang Sik Lee

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

345

Physical and chemical characteristics of an interesterified blend of butterfat and cottonseed oil with possible industrial applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: dilatometry, glyceride compositional analysis, thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. physical/Chemical properties of the Modified pats Use of official methods of the American Oil... butterfat, cottonseed oil, the blend, the interesterified blend, and cheese. The following tests were conducted: Free fatty acids A. O. C. S. official method Ca 5a-40 was used. The molten samples were well mixed and a sample size of 28. 2 g of each...

Rashidi, Nabil

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

346

Impact of Biofuel Blending on Diesel Soot Oxidation: Implications for Aftertreatment  

SciTech Connect

Control strategies for diesel particulate filters (DPFs) remain one of the most important aspects of aftertreatment research and understanding the soot oxidation mechanism is key to controlling regeneration. Currently, most DPF models contain simple, first order heterogeneous reactions oxidation models with empirically fit parameters. This work improves the understanding of fundamental oxidation kinetics necessary to advance the capabilities of predictive modeling, by leading to better control over regeneration of the device. This study investigated the effects of blending soybean-derived biodiesel fuel on diesel particulate emissions under conventional combustion from a 1.7L direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five biofuel blend levels were investigated and compared to conventional certification diesel for the nanostructure, surface chemistry and major constituents of the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of diesel particulate matter (PM), and the relationship between these properties and the particulate oxidation kinetics.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Foster, David [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin; Vander Wal, Dr. Randy [NASA-Glenn Research Center, Cleveland

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Polyethylene-supported polyvinylidene fluoridecellulose acetate butyrate blended polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The polyethylene (PE)-supported polymer membranes based on the blended polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) are prepared for gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of lithium ion battery. The performances of the prepared membranes and the resulting \\{GPEs\\} are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear potential sweep, and chargedischarge test. The effect of the ratio of PVDF to CAB on the performance of the prepared membranes is considered. It is found that the GPE based on the blended polymer with PVDF:CAB=2:1 (in weight) has the largest ionic conductivity (2.48נ10?3Scm?1) and shows good compatibility with anode and cathode of lithium ion battery. The LiCoO2/graphite battery using this GPE exhibits superior cyclic stability at room temperature, storage performance at elevated temperature, and rate performance.

Jiansheng Liu; Weishan Li; Xiaoxi Zuo; Shengqi Liu; Zhao Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Conformational free energy of melts of ring-linear polymer blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conformational free energy of ring polymers in a blend of ring and linear polymers is investigated using the bond-fluctuation model. Previously established scaling relationships for the free energy of a ring polymer are shown to be valid only in the mean-field sense, and alternative functional forms are investigated. It is shown that it may be difficult to accurately express the total free energy of a ring polymer by a simple scaling argument, or in closed form.

Gopinath Subramanian and Sachin Shanbhag

2009-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

349

The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co. Kemmerer Mine coal blending facility  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Company`s Kemmerer Mine recently completed a new coal processing facility for blending the mine`s low, medium, and high sulfur coals to meet the needs of our customers. This article will discuss the geology; mining and market conditions that led to the need for this facility; design considerations; the construction; and the system`s controls and performance.

Mulhall, K.; Crank, G. [Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co., Kemmerer, WY (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Ab initio study of phase transition of boron nitride between zinc-blende and rhombohedral structures  

SciTech Connect

Boron nitride has polymorphs such as zinc-blende (c-BN), wurtzite (w-BN), rhombohedral (r-BN), and graphite-like (h-BN) forms. We simulate the direct conversion of r-BN to c-BN through electronic excitation. In our calculation, the conversion is made possible by increasing the hole concentration to over 0.06/atom. This conversion should be experimentally possible by hole-doping via an electric double layer transistor (EDLT) or capacitor.

Nishida, S.; Funashima, H.; Sato, K.; Katayama-Yoshida, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

351

Peer Evaluation of Video Lab Reports in a Blended Introductory Physics Course  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Georgia Tech blended introductory calculus-based mechanics course emphasizes scientific communication as one of its learning goals, and to that end, we gave our students a series of four peer-evaluation assignments intended to develop their abilities to present and evaluate scientific arguments. Within these assignments, we also assessed students' evaluation abilities by comparing their evaluations to a set of expert evaluations. We summarize our development efforts and describe the changes we observed in student evaluation behavior.

Douglas, Scott S; Aiken, John M; Thoms, Brian D; Greco, Edwin F; Caballero, Marcos D; Schatz, Michael F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Hydrothermal Treatment of a Sub-bituminous Coal and Its Use in Coking Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crucible coking determinations suggest that hydrothermal treatment can greatly increase the coke strength and the particle coke strength after reaction toward CO2 and decrease the coke reactivity when the hydrothermally treated coals were used in the coal blends instead of the raw coal. ... While the cokes from the crucible coking experiments were subjected to 800 rotations at a speed of 25 rpm, the weight percent of coke particles (>0.2 ... The coal charges were coked in the lab. ...

Hengfu Shui; Ye Wu; Zhicai Wang; Zhiping Lei; Changhui Lin; Shibiao Ren; Chunxiu Pan; Shigang Kang

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

353

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

In-cylinder pressure characteristics of a CI engine using blends of diesel fuel and methyl esters of beef tallow  

SciTech Connect

A Cummins N14-410 diesel engine was operated on 12 fuels produced by blending methyl tallowate, methyl soyate, and ethanol with no. 2 diesel fuel. Engine in-cylinder pressure data were used to evaluate engine performance. Peak cylinder pressures for each fuel blend at all engine speeds were lower than peak pressure for diesel fuel with the exception of the 80% diesel, 13% methyl tallowate, and 7% ethanol; and the 80% diesel, 6.5% methyl tallowate, 6.5% methyl soyate and 7% ethanol blends. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) values for all fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. The differences in IMEP values correlated with differences in power output of the engine. Similarly, maximum rates of pressure rise for most fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. It was concluded that the fuel blends used in this study would have no detrimental long-term effects on engine performance, wear, and knock. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A.; Borg, J.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Investigation on combustion characteristics of crude rice bran oil methyl ester blend as a heavy duty automotive engine fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work, an attempt was made to test the suitability of crude rice bran oil methyl ester (CRBME) blend as a heavy duty automotive engine fuel. A four stroke, six cylinder direct injection 117.6 kW turbo-charged compression ignition (CI) engine was used for the work. The operation of the engine with CRBME blend showed that the peak pressure increased with lower maximum rate of pressure rise and maximum heat release rate with shorter delay period. Burning rate of the CRBME blend was slower and required a higher crank angle to complete the combustion cycle when compared to diesel. The brake thermal efficiency of the CRBME blend was lower than that of diesel at all speeds except at 2300rpm. As the measured combustion and performance parameters for CRBME blend differs only by a smaller magnitude when compared with diesel, this investigation ensures the suitability of the CRBME blend as fuel for heavy duty automotive engine without any design modifications [Received: August 12, 2010; Accepted: August 29, 2010

S. Saravanan; G. Nagarajan; S. Sampath

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Recovery and Blend-Down Uranium for Beneficial use in Commercial Reactors - 13373  

SciTech Connect

In April 2001 the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) signed an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 33 MT of off-specification (off-spec) highly enriched uranium (HEU) from DOE to TVA for conversion to commercial reactor fuel. Since that time additional surplus off-spec HEU material has been added to the program, making the total approximately 46 MT off-spec HEU. The disposition path for approximately half (23 MT) of this 46 MT of surplus HEU material, was down blending through the H-canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HEU is purified through the H-canyon processes, and then blended with natural uranium (NU) to form low enriched uranium (LEU) solution with a 4.95% U-235 isotopic content. This material was then transported to a TVA subcontractor who converted the solution to uranium oxide and then fabricated into commercial light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This fuel is now powering TVA reactors and supplying electricity to approximately 1 million households in the TVA region. There is still in excess of approximately 10 to 14 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for use in either currently designed light water reactors, ?5% enriched LEU, or be made available for use in subsequent advanced 'fast' reactor fuel designs, ?19% LEU. (authors)

Magoulas, Virginia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines  

SciTech Connect

Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

358

Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

A2: Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment). September 2013. A2: Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment). September 2013. Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment) Manufacturer Product Model Ethanol Compatibility Bravo Systems Fiberglass Fittings Series F, FF, FPE, FR, F Retrofit- S, RPE Retrofit-Si, F BLR, F D-BLR-S, TBF E0-E100 Bravo Systems Spill Buckets B3XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Tank Sumps & Covers B4XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Transition Sumps (planter, walkover, H-20 rated) B5XX, B6XX, B7XX, B8XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Transition Sumps B8XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Under Dispenser Contain- ment Sumps B7XXX, B8XXX, B9XXX E0-E100 Brugg Pipes FLEXWELL-HL, SECON-X, NIROFLEX, LPG E0-E100 KPS Petrol Pipe Systems Pipes and Associated Products All single- and double-wall plastic pipes, flexible

359

Role of dopant counter-anion functionality in polyaniline salts/blends and implications to morphology  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, wide and small angle X-ray scattering techniques (i.e., WAXS and SAXS) and light microscopy are used to characterize the influence of the dopant`s structure on the morphology of both polyaniline salt and blend. In an attempt to modify the morphology of the PANI-ES, the authors have evaluated a number of doping acids (i.e., methane sulfonic acid (HMSA), butane sulfonic acid (HBSA), dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (HDBSA) and camphor sulfonic acid (HCSA)) that vary in size and polarity to better understand the role of the acid in PANI-ES`s morphology and the resulting electrical conductivity. These salts were solution blended with polycaprolactam using hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as a solvent. The other goal was to investigate the effect of the counter-anion structure on the nature of the phase separated PANI-ES network. The shape of the PANI-ES network in the host polycaprolactam has important implications on the nature of conduction behavior and the final electrical conductivity of the blend.

Hopkins, A.R.; Rasmussen, P.G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Basheer, R.A. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States). Polymers Dept.; Annis, B.K.; Wignall, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement Final Environmental Impact Statement January 1996  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1996/01eis0197_map.html[6/27/2011 12:03:04 PM] 1996/01eis0197_map.html[6/27/2011 12:03:04 PM] Map Section Map #1 Map #2 Map #3 Map #4 Map #5 Map #6 Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement Final Environmental Impact Statement January 1996 file:///I|/Data%20Migration%20Task/EIS-0197-FEIS-1996/eis0197_1.html[6/27/2011 12:03:02 PM] Chapter 1: Purpose of and Need for Action 1.1 Need for Action The Columbia River Treaty (Treaty) between Canada and the United States of America required three storage dams to be constructed on the Columbia River system in Canada and allowed for one in the United States. The dams help control floods in both countries, and the regulated streamflow provided by the three Canadian Treaty reservoirs enables dams downstream in the United States to produce additional power ("downstream power benefits"). Canada and the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Triangle zone and displacement transfer structures in the eastern Front Ranges, southern Canadian Rocky Mountains  

SciTech Connect

The geometry of a relict triangle zone at the boundary of the Foothills and Front Ranges in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains is constrained by detailed surface mapping over 700 m of relief and by seismic reflection data. The geometry and progressive development of the triangle zone along a strike length of 15-20 km, in the displacement transfer zone between the Coleman and Misty thrusts, is illustrated using closely spaced balanced cross sections, palinspastic restorations, and s sequentially restored cross section. Structural geometries show that a northeast- (foreland-) verging, mainly carbonate wedge of Mississippian to Triassic rock was inserted along a major upper detachment zone in shale, near the base of the Jurassic-Cretaceous clastic package. This was accompanied by southwest- (hinterland-) verging displacements along the upper detachment zone, tectonic thickening of the clastic package exceeding 200%, and backthrusting. Later northeast-verging deformation slightly modified the triangle zone by steepening structures, tightening folds, and minor thrusting. Recognition of relict triangle zones within the fold and thrust belt may document important changes in the rate of thrust front advancement, and aid in the delineation of potential hydrocarbon traps, similar to those discovered along the present-day thrust-belt margin in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains.

Sanderson, D.A. (Petrel Robertson Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Spratt, D.A. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Wheelchair cleaning and disinfection in Canadian health care facilities: That's wheelie gross!  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background Wheelchairs are complex equipment that come in close contact with individuals at increased risk of transmitting and acquiring antibiotic-resistant organisms and health careassociated infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of wheelchair cleaning and disinfection in Canadian health care facilities. Methods Acute care hospitals (ACHs), chronic care hospitals (CCHs), and long-term care facilities (LTCFs) were contacted and the individual responsible for oversight of wheelchair cleaning and disinfection was identified. A structured interview was conducted that focused on current practices and concerns, barriers to effective wheelchair cleaning and disinfection, and potential solutions. Results Interviews were completed at 48 of the 54 facilities contacted (89%), including 18 ACHs, 16 CCHs, and 14 LTCFs. Most (n=24) facilities had 50-200 in-house wheelchairs. Respondents were very concerned about wheelchair cleaning as an infection control issue. Specific concerns included the lack of reliable systems for tracking and identifying dirty and clean wheelchairs (71%, 34/48), failure to clean and disinfect wheelchairs between patients (52%, 25/48), difficulty cleaning cushions (42%, 20/48), lack of guidelines (35%, 27/48), continued use of visibly soiled wheelchairs (29%, 14/48) and lack of resources (25%, 12/48). Conclusion Our results suggest that wheelchair cleaning and disinfection is not optimally performed at many Canadian hospitals and LTCFs. Specific guidance on wheelchair cleaning and disinfection is necessary.

Paula Gardner; Matthew P. Muller; Betty Prior; Ken So; Jane Tooze; Linda Eum; Oksana Kachur

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Attributes and practices of oral and maxillofacial radiology departments in US and Canadian dental schools  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Objective: To assess the actual state of oral and maxillofacial radiology departments in US and Canadian dental schools against the ideal characteristics defined by the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (AAOMR) 1997 position paper. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey of all 65 US and Canadian dental schools. Results: Sixty-four surveys were returned (98%). At most schools, oral and maxillofacial radiology (OMR) was an identifiable division of a department, established policies, and had operational authority for radiographic practices in the primary radiology clinic. The majority of full-time faculty (72%) had formal training in OMR; the majority of part-time faculty (86%) did not. Full-time faculty spent approximately 60% of their time teaching, with the remainder of their time divided among research and scholarship, faculty practice, and service. Routine x-ray equipment was universally available; advanced imaging technologies were not. OMR faculty involvement in the interpretation of radiographs varied across diseases and conditions. Most published scholarship (85%+) was produced by full-time faculty. Average output was 1 paper per person per year, but a relatively small cadre of OMR faculty generated most papers. Conclusions: In some attributes, the status of OMR closely approximated the ideal characteristics established in the AAOMR report. Among the remaining attributes, bridging the difference between the actual and the ideal will be the challenge for the next 5 years. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001;91:101-8)

Mel L. Kantor; Dona Schneider; M.Kevin O Carroll

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB {number_sign}2 diesel in a DCC 6V92TA MUI engine  

SciTech Connect

A Detroit Diesel 6V92TA MUI engine was operated on several blends of EPA No. 2 diesel, California ARB No. 2 diesel, soya methyl ester (SME) and canola methyl ester (CME). Various fuels and fuel blend characteristics were determined and engine emissions from these fuels and blends were compared. Increasing percentages of SME and CME blended with either ARB or EPA diesels led to increased emissions of NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and soluble particulate matter. Also noted were reductions in total hydrocarbons, CO and insoluble particulate matter. Chassis dynamometer tests conducted on a 20/80 SME/ARB blend showed similar emissions trends. The data suggest that certain methyl ester/No. 2 diesel blends in conjunction with delays in engine timing and technologies that reduce the soluble fraction of particulate emissions merit further exploration as emissions reducing fuel options for North American mass transits (except in California, which mandates ARB diesel).

Spataru, A.; Romig, C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB No. 2 diesel in a DDC 6V92TA MUI engine  

SciTech Connect

A Detroit Diesel 6V92TA MUI engine was operated on several blends of EPA No. 2 diesel, soya methyl ester (SME) and canola methyl ester (CME). Various fuels and fuel blend characteristics were determined and engine emissions from these fuels and blends were compared. Increasing percentages of SME and CME blended with either ARB or EPA diesels led to increased emissions of NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and soluble particulate matter. Also noted were reductions in total hydrocarbons, CO and insoluble particulate matter. Chassis dynamometer tests conducted on a 20/80 SME/ARB blend showed similar emission trends. The data suggest that certain methyl ester/No. 2 diesel blends in conjunction with technologies that reduce the soluble fraction of particulate emissions merit further exploration as emissions reducing fuel options for North American mass transit sectors (except California, which mandates ARB diesel).

Spataru, A.; Romig, C. [ADEPT Group, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Changes in Food Web Structure Alter Trends of Mercury Uptake at Two Seabird Colonies in the Canadian Arctic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Changes in Food Web Structure Alter Trends of Mercury Uptake at Two Seabird Colonies in the Canadian Arctic ... Publication Date (Web): November 4, 2014 ... Arctic ecosystems are changing in response to climate change and some Arctic food web structures are being affected in ways which may have potential consequences for the biomagnification of environmental contaminants. ...

Birgit M. Braune; Anthony J. Gaston; Keith A. Hobson; H. Grant Gilchrist; Mark L. Mallory

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

368

Lead Speciation in House Dust from Canadian Urban Homes Using EXAFS, Micro-XRF, and Micro-XRD  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lead Speciation in House Dust from Canadian Urban Homes Using EXAFS, Micro-XRF, and Micro-XRD ... As lead carbonate and basic lead carbonates were common ingredients in lead-based paints,(23) lead paint appears as the most probable source of the lead carbonates in the oldest home (CHDS-020). ...

Lachlan C. W. MacLean; Suzanne Beauchemin; Pat E. Rasmussen

2011-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

369

In-Vehicle Exposures to Particulate Air Pollution in Canadian Metropolitan Areas: The Urban Transportation Exposure Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In-Vehicle Exposures to Particulate Air Pollution in Canadian Metropolitan Areas: The Urban Transportation Exposure Study ... Commuters may be exposed to increased levels of traffic-related air pollution owing to close proximity to traffic-emissions. ... We collected in-vehicle and roof-top air pollution measurements over 238 commutes in Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver, Canada between 2010 and 2013. ...

Scott Weichenthal; Keith Van Ryswyk; Ryan Kulka; Liu Sun; Lance Wallace; Lawrence Joseph

2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

370

Optimization of combustion bowl geometry for the operation of kapok biodiesel Diesel blends in a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of this research work is to optimize the combustion bowl geometry of a single cylinder stationary diesel engine for the effective operation of KME (kapok methyl ester) diesel blends. Considering that the reported design modification would render the benefit of adaptation of higher blends of KME, in this study, two different combustion chamber geometries such as TRCC (trapezoidal combustion chamber) and TCC (toroidal combustion chamber) were chosen in addition to the convention design of HCC (hemispherical combustion chamber). In the experimental investigation, suitable blends such as B25 (25% KME+75% diesel), B50 (50% KME+50% diesel), B75 (75% KME+25% diesel) and B100 (100% KME) were tested in a diesel engine with various combustion chamber geometries as mentioned above. Based on the results obtained from this study, TCC was shown to exhibit better performance and emission than TRCC and HCC for all test blends. Further, when compared to diesel, B25 and B50 were found to be the optimum blends with HCC and TCC, respectively, while TRCC seldom evinced better engine characteristics for any of the blends. Categorically, B50 showed a 5.2% increase in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) than diesel with TCC, whereas emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were reduced by 15.7% and 7.8%, respectively, with a comparable NOX (nitrogen oxides) emission with diesel. Similarly, combustion for B50 with TCC was found to be better than diesel, manifesting an increase in maximum heat release rate that that of diesel. Conclusively, from the experimental study, TCC was recognized as an ideal choice of combustion chamber design for the operation of blends up to B50 in a diesel engine.

S. Vedharaj; R. Vallinayagam; W.M. Yang; C.G. Saravanan; P.S. Lee

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

CANADIAN CHEMISTRY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The past five years show expenditure of $226 million for modernization of chemical industry, while trend toward encouragement of research in pure science is increasingly evident on the part of National Research Council ... For the years 1945 to 1949 inclusive, capital expenditures totaled $143 million, according to an estimate compiled by the Department of Trade and Commerce. ...

S. J. COOK

1950-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ignition Using Isooctane, Ethanol and Natural Gas - AModel for High Temperature Ethanol Oxidation," Internationalof Bio-Derived Carbon from Ethanol-in-Diesel Blends in the

Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

pmm.vp  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Monthly December 2013 Table 26. F.O.B. a Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) Year Quarter Month Canadian Lloydminster Iraqi Basrah Light Mexican Mayan Nigerian Qua Iboe Venezuelan Merey 1985 Average .................................. 23.79 - 24.23 - - 1986 Average .................................. 12.77 - 10.93 - - 1987 Average .................................. 15.12 - 15.72 - - 1988 Average .................................. 11.28 - 11.26 - - 1989 Average .................................. W - 14.71 - - 1990 Average .................................. 18.50 - 17.29 - - 1991 Average .................................. 13.51 - 13.02 - - 1992 Average .................................. W -

374

Selection of best biodiesel blend for IC engines: an integrated approach with FAHP-TOPSIS and FAHP-VIKOR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to select the best blend using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique. The six alternative fuel blends diesel, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 are prepared by varying the amount of diesel in biodiesel. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), smoke, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are considered as evaluation criteria. A single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine (4.4 kW) was used for exploratory analysis of evaluation criteria at different load conditions. Two models fuzzy analytical hierarchy process-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FAHP-TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (FAHP-VIKOR, in Serbian) are proposed to evaluate the best blend. Here, the FAHP is used to analyse the structure of best blend selection and to determine the weights of the criteria. The TOPSIS and VIKOR are used to obtain the final ranking of the blend. [Received: July 10, 2012; Accepted: October 16, 2012].

G. Sakthivel; M. Ilangkumaran; G. Nagarajan; P. Shanmugam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision Summary; 08Nov1996  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration Of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration US Army Corps of Engineers, North Pacific Division Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision Summary The United States Entity (the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration [BPA] and the Division Engineer, North Pacific Division of the US Army Corps of Engineers [Corps]) has decided to fulfill its obligation under the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty) between the United States of America (United States) and Canada by delivering Canada's Entitlement under the Treaty to points on the border between Canada and the United States near Blaine, Washington and Nelway, British Columbia (BC). Delivering the full Entitlement at existing interconnections at those locations will require no new transmission facilities in the

376

MegaPipe: the MegaCam image stacking pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the MegaPipe image processing pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre. The pipeline combines multiple images from the MegaCam mosaic camera on CFHT and combines them into a single output image. MegaPipe takes as input detrended MegaCam images and does a careful astrometric and photometric calibration on them. The calibrated images are then resampled and combined into image stacks. The astrometric calibration of the output images is accurate to within 0.15 arcseconds relative to external reference frames and 0.04 arcseconds internally. The photometric calibration is good to within 0.03 magnitudes. The stacked images and catalogues derived from these images are available through the CADC website:

Stephen. D. J. Gwyn

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Evolution of the core physics concept for the Canadian supercritical water reactor  

SciTech Connect

The supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the advanced reactor concepts chosen by the GEN-IV International Forum (GIF) for research and development efforts. Canada's contribution is the Canadian SCWR, a heavy water moderated, pressure tube supercritical light water cooled reactor. Recent developments in the SCWR lattice and core concepts, primarily the introduction of a large central flow tube filled with coolant combined with a two-ring fuel assembly, have enabled significant improvements compared to earlier concepts. These improvements include a reduction in coolant void reactivity (CVR) by more than 10 mk, and an almost 40% increase in fuel exit burnup, which is achieved via balanced power distribution between the fuel pins in the fuel assembly. In this paper the evolution of the physics concept is reviewed, and the present lattice and core physics concepts are presented.

Pencer, J.; Colton, A.; Wang, X.; Gaudet, M.; Hamilton, H.; Yetisir, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement Final Environmental Impact Statement January 1996  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Summary-1996.html[6/27/2011 12:01:22 PM] Summary-1996.html[6/27/2011 12:01:22 PM] Summary Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Purpose of and Need for Action The Columbia River Treaty (Treaty) between Canada and the United States of America (United States), signed in 1961, required three storage dams to be constructed on the Columbia River system in Canada (Duncan, Keenleyside, and Mica Dams), and allowed for one additional dam in the United States (Libby Dam). The dams help control floods in both countries, and the regulated stream flow provided by the three Treaty reservoirs in Canada enables dams downstream in the United States to produce additional power (the "downstream power benefits"). Under the Treaty, Canada and the United States share the downstream benefits equally.

379

Outdoor field evaluation of passive tritiated water vapor samplers at Canadian power reactor sites  

SciTech Connect

Tritium is one of several radioactive nuclides routinely monitored in and around CANDU{reg_sign} (CANada Deuterium Uranium) power reactor facilities. Over the last ten years, passive samplers have replaced active sampling devices for sampling tritiated water vapor in the workplace at many CANDU stations. The potential of passive samplers for outdoor monitoring has also been realized. This paper presents the result of a 1-y field trial carried out at all five Canadian CANDU reactor sites. The results indicate that passive samplers can be used at most sampling locations to measure tritiated water vapor in air concentrations as low as 1 Bq m{sup -3} over a 30-d sampling period. Only in one of the five sampling locations was poor agreement observed between active and passive monitoring data. This location, however, was very windy and it is suspected that the gusty winds were the source of the discrepancies observed. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Wood, M.J. [Chalk River Lab., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes  

SciTech Connect

This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased. (author)

Boehm, H. [Physikalische Chemie I, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Braun-Unkhoff, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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381

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Ordovician petroleum source rocks and aspects of hydrocarbon generation in Canadian portion of Williston basin  

SciTech Connect

Accumulation of rich petroleum source rocks - starved bituminous mudrocks in both the Winnipeg Formation (Middle Ordovician) and Bighorn Group (Upper Ordovician) - is controlled by cyclical deepening events with a frequency of approximately 2 m.y. Tectonics control both this frequency and the location of starved subbasins of source rock accumulation. Deepening cycles initiated starvation of offshore portions of the inner detrital and medial carbonate facies belts. Persistence of starved offshore settings was aided by marginal onlap and strandline migration in the inner detrital facies belt, and by low carbonate productivity in the medial carbonate facies belt. Low carbonate productivity was accompanied by high rates of planktonic productivity. Periodic anoxia, as a consequence of high rates of planktonic organic productivity accompanying wind-driven equatorial upwellings, is the preferred mechanism for suppressing carbonate productivity within the epeiric sea. The planktonic, although problematic, form Gloecapsamorpha prisca Zalesskey 1917 is the main contributing organism to source rock alginites. A long-ranging alga (Cambrian to Silurian), it forms kukersites in Middle and Upper Ordovician rocks of the Williston basin as a consequence of environmental controls - starvation and periodic anoxia. Source rocks composed of this organic matter type generate oils of distinctive composition at relatively high levels of thermal maturity (transformation ratio = 10% at 0.78% R/sub o/). In the Canadian portion of the Williston basin, such levels of thermal maturity occur at present depths greater than 2950 m within a region of geothermal gradient anomalies associated with the Nesson anticline. Approximately 193 million bbl (30.7 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/) of oil has been expelled into secondary migration pathways from thermally mature source rocks in the Canadian portion of the basin.

Osadetz, K.G.; Snowdon, L.R.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Study on ash deposition under oxyfuel combustion of coal/biomass blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combustion in an O2/CO2 mixture (oxyfuel) has been recognized as a promising technology for CO2 capture as it produces a high CO2 concentration flue gas. Furthermore, biofuels in general contribute to CO2 reduction in comparison with fossil fuels as they are considered CO2 neutral. Ash formation and deposition (surface fouling) behavior of coal/biomass blends under O2/CO2 combustion conditions is still not extensively studied. Aim of this work is the comparative study of ash formation and deposition of selected coal/biomass blends under oxyfuel and air conditions in a lab scale pulverized coal combustor (drop tube). The fuels used were Russian and South African coals and their blends with Shea meal (cocoa). A horizontal deposition probe, equipped with thermocouples and heat transfer sensors for on line data acquisition, was placed at a fixed distance from the burner in order to simulate the ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces (e.g. water or steam tubes). Furthermore, a cascade impactor (staged filter) was used to obtain size distributed ash samples including the submicron range at the reactor exit. The deposition ratio and propensity measured for the various experimental conditions were higher in all oxyfuel cases. The SEM/EDS and ICP analyses of the deposit and cascade impactor ash samples indicate K interactions with the alumina silicates and to a smaller extend with Cl, which was all released in the gas phase, in both the oxyfuel and air combustion samples. Sulfur was depleted in both the air or oxyfuel ash deposits. S and K enrichment was detected in the fine ash stages, slightly increased under air combustion conditions. Chemical equilibrium calculations were carried out to facilitate the interpretation of the measured data; the results indicate that temperature dependence and fuels/blends ash composition are the major factors affecting gaseous compounds and ash composition rather than the combustion environment, which seems to affect the fine ash (submicron) ash composition, and the ash deposition mechanisms.

L. Fryda; C. Sobrino; M. Cieplik; W.L. van de Kamp

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Optical transitions in semiconductor superlattices with zinc-blende structure in the k?p approximation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transition-matrix elements for superlattices consisting of materials with the zinc-blende structure are presented in analytical form in the k?p approximation including the ?6, ?7, and ?8 bands. The resulting selection rules for cases where the magnetic field is absent, and where the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the superlattice layers, are discussed. The results can be used for type-I, -II, and -III superlattices. They can also be used for other systems, such as a single quantum well.

H. Luo and J. K. Furdyna

1990-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Combustion and Emissions Characterization of Biodiesel Blends in a City-Car Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Whereas in the available literature, most of the researches addressed the multicylinders diesel engine of large displacement;(7, 22-27) only some works have investigated the light duty engines, designed for agricultural purpose and mainly tested for a fixed value of the engine speed. ... Rakopoulos, C. D.; Antonopoulos, K. A.; Rakopoulos, D. C.; Hountalas, D. T.; Giakoumis, E. G.Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection Diesel engine using blends of diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins Energy Convers. ... Heywood, J. B. Internal combustion engine fundamentals; Mcgraw-Hill: New York, 1988. ...

Giancarlo Chiatti; Ornella Chiavola; Fulvio Palmieri; Stefano Albertini

2014-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

386

Preliminary report on blending strategies for inert-matrix fuel recycling in LWRs.  

SciTech Connect

Various recycle strategies have been proposed to manage the inventory of transuranics in commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), with a particular goal of increasing the loading capacity of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes in the Yucca Mountain repository. Transuranic recycling in commercial LWRs can be seen as a viable means of slowing the accumulation of transuranics in the nationwide CSNF stockpile. Furthermore, this type of approach is an important first step in demonstrating the benefits of a nuclear fuel cycle which incorporates recycling, such as envisioned for Generation-IV reactor systems under development. Recycling strategies of this sort are not proposed as an attempt to eliminate the need of a geologic nuclear waste repository, but as a means to enhance the usefulness of the repository currently under construction in the U.S., perhaps circumventing the need for a second facility. A US-DOE Secretarial recommendation on the need for the construction of a second geologic repository is required by 2010. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) has supported a breadth of work to evaluate the ideal transuranic separation and recycle strategy. Previous AFCI studies of LWR-based transmutation have considered the benefits of homogeneously recycling plutonium, plutonium and neptunium, and all transuranic (TRU) species. A study of a wide range of hypothetical separation schemes (Pu, Pu+Np, Pu+Np+Am, etc.) with multi-recycling has also been performed, focusing on the proliferation resistance of the various fuel cycles and fuel handling issues. The direct recycle of the recovered TRU from spent inert-matrix fuel (IMF) into new IMF was found to be quite limited due to the rapid burndown of the fissile plutonium. The IMF is very effective at destroying the fissile fraction of the TRU with destruction rates in excess of 80% of the fissile material without recycling the IMF. Blending strategies have been proposed to mitigate the rapid burndown of the fissile plutonium by mixing high fissile feed from new sources (e.g., spent UO{sub 2} pins) with the low fissile material recovered from the recycled transmutation fuel. The blending of the fuels is anticipated to aid the multi-recycle of the transuranics. A systematic study of blending strategies (for both IMF and MOX) has been initiated and is currently ongoing. This work extends the previous study that considered separation strategies for plutonium, neptunium, and americium recycling in MOX, CORAIL, and IMF{sub 6} by considering blending schemes and approach to continuous recycle. Plutonium and americium are recycled in order to reduce the intermediate term (100 to 1500 years after spent fuel irradiation) decay heat of the disposed waste which accounts for the bulk of the repository heating. Since the long-term released dose from the repository is dominated by neptunium, it is sensible to consume it by transmutation in a reactor, as well. Curium accounts for {approx}0.6% of the TRU mass in spent UO{sub 2} fuel ({approx}0.008% of the heavy metal), but does constitute significantly higher fractions in spent transmutation fuels. This initial evaluation will focus on blending strategies for the multirecycling of Pu+Np+Am. The impact of curium recycle will be investigated as part of the systematic study of blending strategies. The initial study focuses on understanding a simple strategy for IMF recycle and blending. More complex strategies (i.e., heterogeneous assemblies) will be evaluated later in the year, including enriched uranium support options. Currently, a preliminary study of a serial blending strategy has been performed in order to evaluate the impact of blending on the performance of the IMF recycle and to evaluate the potential for continuous or infinite recycle. The continuous recycle of Pu+Np+Am in IMF would allow for complete destruction of all heat contributing actinides in the same LWRs that originally produced them. The only transuranics sent to the repository would be those lost in reprocessing and curium if it is not eventually recycled.

Hoffman, E. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

387

The Use of Triangular-Shaped PV Arrays to Better Blend into Historical Structures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

When considering the installation of a solar PV array on a designated historical structure, placement of each solar panel requires extra attention to aesthetic considerations. If the solar array cannot be installed behind the structure or hidden on a roof plane that is not visible from the public street or sidewalk, it can sometimes be installed as an architectural feature that blends into the historical structure. One way to do this is to utilize triangular-shaped PV panels that conform with the buildings roof lines.

388

Phase identification and interfacial transitions in ternary polymer blends by ToF-SIMS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Phase identification and the study of the interphase region in multi-component polymer blends with a chemically similar structure using conventional techniques is a challenge. In this work, the detailed morphological analysis of such systems is examined. A ternary blend comprised of poly butylene succinate (PBS); poly lactic acid (PLA); and polycaprolactone (PCL) with a partial wetting morphology is carefully selected since all three components are polyesters with low interfacial tensions. It will be shown that a novel technique by applying multivariate analysis (MVA) on time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) data can effectively identify the complex phase structure, especially in blends with chemically similar components. Furthermore, for the first time for such systems, this technique provides detailed information about interfacial thicknesses and transitions. By employing the principal component analysis (PCA) method on the ToF-SIMS data of pure polymers, specific peaks with a certain molecular ion mass related to each polymer are determined. Using overlaid mappings on the surface of the blend by ToF-SIMS and selected ion masses to identify each polymer results in the differentiation of the various phases represented as a morphological image. In a second step, the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method is used as a self modeling curve resolution for the recovery of pure components from a multi-component mixture when little or no prior information is available. Total pseudo-color RGB images of PBS/PLA/PCL show that PLA droplets unambiguously partially wet the PBS and PCL phases. Since each pixel from the analysis in the high lateral resolution image represents a 200nm diameter, the interfacial transitions can also be studied for both PLA/PBS and PLA/PCL interfaces. The results show the concentration variation of phases across the interfaces. A complete trace line across the two interfaces (PLA/PBS and PLA/PCL) allows for the quantitative determination of interfacial thickness for the first time for such systems.

Sepehr Ravati; Suzie Poulin; Konstantinos Piyakis; Basil D. Favis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Performance Synergies between Low-Temperature and High-Temperature Fischer?Tropsch Diesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With both LTFT and HTFT diesels being nontraditional, alternative diesel fuels that can be used directly in the current fuelling infrastructure, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential synergies in fuel properties with blends of LTFT diesel and HTFT DHT diesel. ... Regulated exhaust emissions measured over the engine dynamometer test cycle in grams of pollutant per unit of mechanical energy delivered by the engine (g/kW h) included total hydrocarbon (THC), generally referred to as HC, CO, carbon dioxide (CO2), NOx, and PM. ... However, the general consumer should most probably not be able to notice the difference in volumetric fuel consumption. ...

Delanie Lamprecht; Luis P. Dancuart; Kaveer Harrilall

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Powertrain Component Inspection from Mid-Level Blends Vehicle Aging Study  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls on the nation to significantly increase its use of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law expands the renewable fuel standard to require use of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Given that ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the U.S. market, ethanol will likely make up a significant portion of the 36-billion-gallon requirement. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10-gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85 - a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). Consumption of E85 is at present limited by both the size of the FFV fleet and the number of E85 fueling stations. Gasoline consumption in the United States is currently about 140 billion gallons per year; thus the maximum use of ethanol as E10 is only about 14 billion gallons. While the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market represented less than 1% of the ethanol consumed in 2010 and will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Because of these factors, DOE and others have been assessing the viability of using mid-level ethanol blends (E15 or E20) as a way to accommodate growing volumes of ethanol. The DOE Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program has been under way since 2007, supported jointly by the Office of the Biomass Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program. One of the larger projects, the Catalyst Durability Study, or Vehicle Aging Study, will be completed early in calendar year 2011. The following report describes a subproject of the Vehicle Aging Study in which powertrain components from 18 of the vehicles were examined at Southwest Research Institute under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

Shoffner, Brent [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Johnson, Ryan [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Heimrich, Martin J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Lochte, Michael [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Measurement of Turbulent Flame Speeds of Hydrogen and Natural Gas Blends (C1-C5 Alkanes) using a Newly Developed Fan-Stirred Vessel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in displacement speeds were observed for blends of NG2/H_(2) and CH_(4)/H_(2), thus validating the newly established experimental technique. Additionally, turbulent flame speeds of hydrogen and a generic, high-hydrogen-content syngas blend (50:50 H_(2):CO) were...

Ravi, Sankaranarayana

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

393

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Poly(lactide)s:? Effects of Molecular Weight, l-Lactide Content, and Enantiomeric and Diastereoisomeric Polymer Blending  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonblended poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) films having different molecular weights and nonblended poly(lactide) (PLA) films, enantiomeric blend films from PLLA and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA), and diastereoisomeric blend films of poly(dl-lactide) (PDLLA) with either ...

Hideto Tsuji; Shinya Miyauchi

2001-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

394

A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of feedstock; and a blender unit which blends feedstock and gasoline stock (at no loss). (Note that "ONA blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production in feedstock (maximum 200,000 bbl/day) and produces gasoline stock with 98 ON at a rate of .5 bbl per bbl

Galvin, David

395

Morphological origin for the stratification of P3HT:PCBM blend film studied by neutron reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the origin for the film stratification of electron donor/acceptor blend is crucial for high efficiency organic photovoltaic cell. In this study, P3HT:PCBM blend is deposited onto hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrate to examine the film stratifications. The neutron reflectivity results show that, on the different surfaces, PCBM diffuses toward the two interfacial regions in an identical fashion during thermal annealing. This evidences that the film stratification is not affected by the substrates. Instead, since P3HT remains more amorphous in the interfacial regions and PCBM is miscible with amorphous P3HT, PCBM preferentially diffuses to the interfacial regions, resulting in the stratification.

Keum, Jong Kahk [Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States) [Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Browning, James F.; Halbert, Candice E. [Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Xiao, Kai; Shao, Ming; Hong, Kunlun [Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

396

Narrow spectral linewidth of single zinc-blende GaN/AlN self-assembled quantum dots  

SciTech Connect

We study by microphotoluminescence the optical properties of single self-assembled zinc-blende GaN/AlN quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. As opposed to previous reports, the high quality of such zinc-blende GaN quantum dots allows us to evidence a weak acoustic phonon sideband as well as a limited spectral diffusion. As a result, we report on resolution-limited quantum dot linewidths as narrow as 500 50 ?eV. We finally confirm the fast radiative lifetime and high-temperature operation of such quantum dots.

Sergent, S. [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)] [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Kako, S. [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)] [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Brger, M.; As, D. J. [Department Physik, Universitt Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)] [Department Physik, Universitt Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Arakawa, Y. [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan) [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

2013-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

397

Role of dopant counter-anion functionality in polyaniline salts/blends and implications to morphology  

SciTech Connect

Polyanilines are of particular current interest primarily due to their relative ease of synthesis, low cost and stable conductivity in air. The insulating, polyaniline emeraldine base (PANI-EB) form becomes electrically conducting by preferential protonation or doping the imine nitrogen sites to yield an electrically conducting polyaniline emeraldine salt (PANI-ES). In this paper, wide and small angle X-ray scattering techniques (i.e., WAXS and SAXS) and light microscopy are used to characterize the influence of the dopant`s structure on the morphology of both polyaniline salt and blend. In an attempt to modify the morphology of the PANI-ES, the authors have evaluated a number of doping acids (i.e., methane sulfonic acid (HMSA), butane sulfonic acid (HBSA), dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (HDBSA) and camphor sulfonic acid (HCSA)) that vary in size and polarity to better understanding the role of the acid in PANI-ES`s morphology and the resulting electrical conductivity. The other goal was to investigate the effect of the counter-anion structure on the nature of the phase separated PANI-ES network. The shape of the PANI-ES network in the host polycaprolactam has important implications on the nature of conduction behavior and the final electrical conductivity of the blend.

Hopkins, A.R.; Rasmussen, P.G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Basheer, R.A. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States). Polymers Dept.; Annis, B.K.; Wignall, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Relationship between the technical parameters of cokes produced from blends of three Polish coals of different coking ability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The demand for metallurgical coke for blast furnaces is forcing the coking industry to look for new sources of coking coals. The physical and chemical parameters of coals used in coking blends determine the quality (reactivity and strength) of the finished cokes. This study examines the technical properties of the cokes produced from various blends of three Polish coals with different coking. These coals were collected from three mines: Zofiwka, Szczyg?owice, and Krupi?ski (Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland). The coal charges were coked in the laboratory scale, at temperatures of up to 1000C, in an inert atmosphere. The coke reactivity (index CRI) and the coke strength after reaction (CSR) were measured and correlated to the properties of parent coals using statistical analysis. The result of this study shows strong relationships between the concentration of the best coking coal (Zofiwka) in the blend and the CRI and CSR of the resulting coke. The CRI and CSR parameters for cokes obtained from single coals and from their blends show the additive character. This study also confirms the linear relationship between CRI and CSR parameters of the cokes.

A. Koszorek; M. Krzesi?ska; S. Pusz; B. Pilawa; B. Kwieci?ska

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Experiences from a Novel Sensor for Fireside Corrosion Monitoring during Grate Combustion of Corn Stover/Wood Chip Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The operation of a pilot-scale online corrosion sensor system was studied at VTTs 100 kW grate pilot plant. The feedstock composition in tests was varied from 100% wood chips to a blend that also contained 40 en-% d.b. corn stover. The mass flow of ...

Timo J. Leino; Martti J. Aho; S. Juhani Gynther; Tommi A. Ruuskanen; Matti H. Hkkinen

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

400

AFM/LFM surface studies of a ternary polymer blend cast on substrates covered by a self-assembled monolayer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AFM/LFM surface studies of a ternary polymer blend cast on substrates covered by a self force microscopy; Friction; Self-assembly; Surface thermodynamics (including phase transitions); Growth are of utmost current interest. In many practical appli- cations films of incompatible mixtures are pre- pared

Zbigniew, Postawa

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401

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

Alvarez, Pedro J.

402

Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

Melaina, M. W.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

By Earle B. Amey Tungsten's unique high-temperature in Metal Bulletin (London). ferrotungsten, carbide powder blends, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). ferrotungsten, carbide powder blends, and properties can be utilized advantageously in the As a result properties of its carbide continue to scrap, and sodium tungstate and away from the provide important items increased in all imported tungsten materials. the cemented carbide end-use sectors that A summary

404

Key Aspects Blended Library draw strength by building on users'pre-existing knowledge of the everyday, non-digital  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Key Aspects » Blended Library draw strength by building on users'pre-existing knowledge University of Konstanz http://hci.uni-konstanz.de/blendedlibrary Contact: Roman Rädle Tel. +49 7531 88-2868 Fax +49 7531 88-4772 roman.raedle@uni-konstanz.de Caused by the proceeding digitalization, real

Reiterer, Harald

405

Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report  

SciTech Connect

Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Properties and performance of cotton seed oildiesel blends as a fuel for compression ignition engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the evaluation of properties of straight vegetable cotton seed oil (CSO) and its blends with diesel fuel in various proportions to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine at constant speed of 1500 rev ? min . Diesel and CSO oil fuel blends (10% 30% 50% and 70%) were used to conduct engine performance and smoke emission tests at varying loads of 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% and 100% of full load in addition to their straight CSO and diesel fuel. The performance parameters of brake specific energy consumption (BSFC) brake thermal efficiency (BTE) mechanical efficiency (ME) exhaust gas temperature (EGT) and exhaust emission (smoke) were evaluated to find the optimum CSO and diesel fuel blend. From the experimental results the CSO10D90 blend fuel showed 3.7% reduction in BSFC 1.7% increase in BTE 6.7% increase in ME and 21.7% reduction in the smoke emissions in comparison with conventional diesel operated engine. Finally it is concluded that CSO10D90 can be used straight away in CI engines without any major modifications to the engine as it showed good performance and improved emission compared to all other fuels tested for the entire range of engine operation in comparison with diesel.

B. Murali Krishna; J. M. Mallikarjuna

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Amon Millner draft short paper submitted to the Interaction Design and Children 2011 conference Modkit: Blending and Extending Approachable Platforms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

programming environment and the Arduino platform. The demonstration will feature the current Modkit components, activities, and projects that illustrate how the toolkit blends Scratch and Arduino platforms to extend what). General Terms Design, Human Factors, Languages. Keywords Modkit, Scratch, Arduino, informal learning

409

Preparation and properties of chitosansoybean trypsin inhibitor blend film with anti-Aspergillus flavus activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The chitosan-based blend films were prepared from chitosan, soybean trypsin inhibitor extract (STI)/wild soybean trypsin inhibitor extract (WTI) and glycerol (Gly) solutions, the properties of which were also investigated, including thickness, mechanical property, water vapor transmission, optical transmittance, and solubility. In addition, the resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The result of SEM images showed the surface and cross-section of chitosanSTI/WTIGly blend film had more smooth and dense morphology than pure chitosan film, which suggested there was a better compatibility among the three components. XRD and FTIR spectra indicated that the possible interaction force among the components might be the hydrogen bonds of NH?OC and OH?OC. Furthermore, the antifungal activity against A. flavus by the prepared blend films had been investigated. The facts that the germination and growth of A. flavus were strongly inhibited by chitosanSTI/WTIGly film indicated the blend films might be useful as potential bio-control packaging against A. flavus during the peanuts and other cereals storage.

Bin Zhang; Dong-Feng Wang; Hai-Yan Li; Ying Xu; Li Zhang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Development of decision support system to select the best fuel blend in IC engines to enhance the energy efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes an application of hybrid MCDM technique for the selection of optimum blend in fish oil biodiesel among the six alternative fuel blends diesel, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 which is prepared by varying the amount of diesel with biodiesel. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), smoke, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ignition delay (ID), combustion duration (CD) and maximum rate of pressure rise (MRPR) are considered as evaluation criteria. A single cylinder, constant speed and direct injection diesel engine with a rated output of 4.4 kW was used for exploratory analysis of evaluation criteria at different load conditions. The proposed model, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) is integrated with elimination et and choice translating reality (ELECTRE) to evaluate the optimum blend. Here the FAHP is used to determine the relative weights of the criteria, whereas ELECTRE is used for obtaining the final ranking of alternative blends.

G. Sakthivel; M. Ilangkumaran

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Annual Technical Progress Report for Project Entitled "Impact Annual Technical Progress Report for Project Entitled "Impact of DME-Diesel Fuel Blend Properties on Diesel Fuel Injection Systems" May 16, 2002 - May 15, 2003 Elana M. Chapman, Andre Boehman, Kimberly Wain, Wallis Lloyd, Joseph M. Perez, Donald Stiver, Joseph Conway Report Issue Date: June 2003 DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-01NT41115 The Pennsylvania State University The Energy Institute University Park, PA 16802 ii DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus,

412

Results of Research Engine and Vehicle Drive Cycle Testing during Blended Hydrogen/Methane Operation  

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Results of Research Engine and Results of Research Engine and Vehicle Drive Cycle Testing during Blended Hydrogen/Methane Operation Thomas Wallner, Henning Lohse-Busch, Henry Ng Argonne National Laboratory Robert Peters University of Alabama at Birmingham NHA Annual Hydrogen Conference 2007 San Antonio/Texas March 19 th - 22 nd 2007 DOE-Sponsors: Lee Slezak, Gurpreet Singh Government license The submitted manuscript was developed by the UChicago Argonne LLC as Operator of Argonne National Laboratory ("Argonne") under Contract No. DE-AC-02-06CH11357 with DOE. The U.S. Government retains for itself, and others acting on its behalf, a paid-up, nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in said article to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on

413

Production and characterization of natural rubberCa/P blends for biomedical purposes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study presents the development of natural rubberCa/P blends, as promising candidates for biomedical purposes. The specific objective was the incorporation of Ca/P into a natural rubber polymeric matrix. Ca/P crystalline phases were synthesized by the solgel method and the polymeric matrices were produced using natural rubber extracted from latex of the Hevea brasiliensis. The shape and size of natural rubber particles present in the NR membrane, as well as, the way the Ca/P powder grains aggregate in the polymeric matrix were investigated, giving information about the interactions between the Ca/P and the natural rubber particles. Confocal fluorescence scanning microscopy measurements allowed us to propose a structure where the Ca/P grains are surrounded by natural rubber particles. This structure may mediate Ca2+ release for tissue regeneration. The system investigated may open new horizons for development of a bandage which provides the controlled-release of biomaterials.

R.M. Nascimento; F.L. Faita; D.L.S. Agostini; A.E. Job; F.E.G. Guimares; I.H. Bechtold

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.  

SciTech Connect

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

415

Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Performance of a spark ignition engine fueled with methanol or methanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

Engine torque and specific energy consumption of an automotive engine were studied under steady state condition using gasoline, methanol gasoline blends and straight methanol as fuel. At first the engine was run without any modification. Next the diameters of metering orifices in carburetor were modified to give the same excess air factor regardless of fuel type under each fixed engine operating condition. Finally the engine was run with 15% mixture methanol in gasoline by volume using the carburetor modified to have approximately 10% larger fuel flow area than the production carburetor. From the results of this study the effects of using methanol on engine torque and specific energy consumption can be explained on the basis of change in stoichiometry caused by the use of methanol.

You, B.C.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Southwest region solar pond study for three sites: Tularosa Basin, Malaga Bend, and Canadian River  

SciTech Connect

In the study, the Bureau of Reclamation investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using solar salt-gradient ponds to generate power and to produce freshwater in Bureau projects at three sites--the Canadian River at Logan, New Mexico; Malaga Bend on the Pecos River near Carlsbad, New Mexico; and the Tularosa Basin in the vicinity of Alamogordo, New Mexico. The ponds would be used to generate electric power that could be integrated with the Bureau's power grid or used in combination with thermal energy from the ponds to power commercially available desalination systems to produce freshwater. Results of the economic analysis, which concentrated primarily on the Tularosa Basin site, showed that solar-pond-generated intermediate load power would cost between 62 and 90 mills/kWh and between 52 and 83 mills/kWh for baseload power. This results in benefit-cost ratios of approximately 2.0 and 1.3 for intermediate and baseload, respectively, when compared to similar facilities powered by fossil fuels. The cost savings are even more pronounced when comparing the two (solar versus fossil fuel) as a source of power for conventional distillation and membrane-type desalination systems.

Boegli, W.J.; Dahl, M.M.; Remmers, H.E.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

PUBLIC AND REGULATORY ACCEPTANCE OF BLENDING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE VS DILUTION  

SciTech Connect

On April 21, 2009, the Energy Facilities Contractors Group (EFCOG) Waste Management Working Group (WMWG) provided a recommendation to the Department of Energy's Environmental Management program (DOE-EM) concerning supplemental guidance on blending methodologies to use to classify waste forms to determine if the waste form meets the definition of Transuranic (TRU) Waste or can be classified as Low-Level Waste (LLW). The guidance provides specific examples and methods to allow DOE and its Contractors to properly classify waste forms while reducing the generation of TRU wastes. TRU wastes are much more expensive to characterize at the generator's facilities, ship, and then dispose at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) than Low-Level Radioactive Waste's disposal. Also the reduction of handling and packaging of LLW is inherently less hazardous to the nuclear workforce. Therefore, it is important to perform the characterization properly, but in a manner that minimizes the generation of TRU wastes if at all possible. In fact, the generation of additional volumes of radioactive wastes under the ARRA programs, this recommendation should improve the cost effective implementation of DOE requirements while properly protecting human health and the environment. This paper will describe how the message of appropriate, less expensive, less hazardous blending of radioactive waste is the 'right' thing to do in many cases, but can be confused with inappropriate 'dilution' that is frowned upon by regulators and stakeholders in the public. A proposal will be made in this paper on how to communicate this very complex and confusing technical issue to regulatory bodies and interested stakeholders to gain understanding and approval of the concept. The results of application of the proposed communication method and attempt to change the regulatory requirements in this area will be discussed including efforts by DOE and the NRC on this very complex subject.

Goldston, W.

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

419

Analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal blends by means of nano-liquid chromatography  

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In this study, a rapid and simultaneous separation of 12 synthetic cannabinoids and ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) in herbal blends was obtained by means of nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). The nano-LC experiments were performed in a 100?m i.d. capillary column packed with Cogent bidentate C18 silica particles for 25.0cm. All compounds were resolved using an isocratic elution mode in less than 30min. A mobile phase containing ACN/MeOH/H2O/formic acid 69/5/25/1 (v/v/v/v) was employed for the chromatographic separation. The developed analytical method was validated in terms of precision, linearity, sensitivity and accuracy. Under optimal nano-LCUV conditions, the resulting RSD percentages for intra-day and inter-day repeatability, related to retention time and peak area, were below 2.98 and 6.40%, respectively. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.2 and 0.5?g/mL, respectively, for all the studied compounds. Linearity was assessed in the concentration range of interest for all analytes with determination coefficients r2?0.9975. The method was then applied to the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal blends. Quantitative analyses of the cannabimimetic compounds in six products showed that there was a wide difference in the concentration of the studied compounds among different products. Further, the nano-LC system was coupled with a mass spectrometer measuring the MS and MSMS spectra to unequivocally identify the cannabinoids present in smoking mixtures.

Gustavo Merola; Zeineb Aturki; Giovanni DOrazio; Rossella Gottardo; Teodora Macchia; Franco Tagliaro; Salvatore Fanali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Experimental study on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of rubber seed oil-diesel blends in a DI diesel engine  

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In the present work, experiments have been carried out to assess the suitability of rubber seed oil and its blends with diesel in a diesel engine. Tests were conducted with different blends of R80-D20 (80% of rubber seed oil and 20% of diesel by volume) and R70-D30 (70% of rubber seed oil and 30% of diesel by volume). Experimental results indicate that the brake thermal efficiency increases from 26.5% to 27.7% with the optimum blend of R70-D30. There is a reduction in emissions is also observed except NOx level at all loads. Smoke emission reduces drastically from 6.1 to 4.7 BSU. Combustion parameters indicated a decrease in ignition delay and combustion duration compared with neat RSO. This will also contribute to higher heat release rate in the premixed combustion phase. Current investigations reveal that the performance of R70-D30 blend is closer to diesel.

V. Edwin Geo; G. Nagarajan; B. Nagalingam

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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421

Characteristics of the performance and emissions of a HSDI diesel engine running with cottonseed oil or its methyl ester and their blends with diesel fuel  

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An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the use of various blends of cottonseed oil or its methyl ester (bio-diesel) with diesel fuel, in blend ratios from 10/90 up to 100/0, in a fully instrumented, four-stroke, High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' diesel engine. The tests were conducted using each of the above fuel blends or neat fuels, with the engine working at a medium and a high load. Volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust-regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons were measured. The differences in the performance and exhaust emissions from the baseline operation of the engine, that is, when working with neat diesel fuel, were determined and compared, as well as the differences between cottonseed oil or its methyl ester and their blends. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion were used to aid the correct interpretation of the engine behaviour.

Constantine D. Rakopoulos; Kimon A. Antonopoulos; Dimitrios C. Rakopoulos; Emmanuel C. Kakaras; Efthimios G. Pariotis

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Use of functionalized metallocene copolymers from ethylene and polar olefins as compatibilizers for low-density-polyethylene/starch and low-density-polyethylene/dextran blends .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Functionalized metallocene copolymers synthesized from ethylene with 5-hexen-1-ol and ethylene with 10-undecen-1-ol were used as compatibilizers in LDPE/starch and LDPE/dextran blends in order to improve (more)

Domnguez Barcel, Ana Mara

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Use of SEBS/EPR and SBR/EPR as binary compatibilizers for PE/PP/PS/HIPS blends: A work oriented to the recycling of thermoplastic wastes .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recycling of thermoplastic wastes consisting using SEBS/EPR and SBR/EPR as compatibilizers. The effect of PE/PP/PS/HIPS blends was investigated by The effect of the binary compatibilizer (more)

Equiza, Nilton

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Dynamically Coupled 3D Pollutant Dispersion Model for Assessing Produced Water Discharges in the Canadian Offshore Area  

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Dynamically Coupled 3D Pollutant Dispersion Model for Assessing Produced Water Discharges in the Canadian Offshore Area ... The collected samples of produced water and seawater were analyzed by the COOGER (Centre for Offshore Oil and Gas Environmental Research) at the Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Engineering labrotary at the Concordia University, and the Trace Analysis Facility (TAF) at the University of Regina. ... In Offshore Oil and Gas Environmental Effects Monitoring Approaches and Technologies; Armsworthy, S. L.; Cranford, P. J.; Lee, K., Eds.; Battelle Memorial Institute: Columbus, OH 2005; pp 319 342. ...

Lin Zhao; Zhi Chen; Kenneth Lee

2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

425

Household equipment of Canadians -- features of the 1993 stock and the 1994 and 1995 purchases: Analysis report  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the results of three surveys that collected information on household equipment: The 1994 and 1995 Household Equipment Surveys and the 1993 Survey of Household Energy Use. The goal of the report is to highlight the features of energy-consuming equipment bought by Canadian households in 1994 and 1995 in comparison to those owned by households in 1993. Results are presented by type of equipment: Refrigerators, stoves, dishwashers, freezers, automatic washers, automatic dryers, air conditioning systems, heating systems, and water heaters. Appendices include information on survey methodology and a copy of the survey questionnaire.

Not Available

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Effect of different percentages of biodieseldiesel blends on injection, spray, combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine  

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Abstract A comparative study of effect of different biodieseldiesel blends (B5, B10, B15, B20, B25, B50 and B100) on injection, spray, combustion, performance, and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine at constant speed (1500rpm) was carried out. The penetration distance increased with increase in percentage of biodiesel in diesel due to enhanced in-line fuel pressure. The simulation results indicate the spray penetration with biodieseldiesel blend up to B15 does not lead to wall impingement but B20 is to be a critical limit of wall impingement (within uncertainty 1.3%). However, it is observed clearly from the simulation results that probability of wall impingement is more with higher blends (B25, B50 and B100). The ignition delay period decreased with all biodiesel blends due to higher cetane number resulting in less rate of pressure rise and the smooth engine running operation. The engine torque does not change significantly with biodieseldiesel blends up to 20% (B20). However, the torque reduction is about 2.7% with B100 at the rated load. Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions decreased with all biodieseldiesel blends. However, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission increased in the range of 1.422.8% with all biodieseldiesel blends at rated load due to oxygenated fuel, automatic advance in dynamic injection timing (DIT), higher penetration and higher in-cylinder temperature. A notable conclusion emerged from this study is the optimum biodieseldiesel blend based on no wall impingement (B15: 0% and B20 1.3% uncertainty limit) and increase in \\{NOx\\} emission (B15: 4.1% and B20: 15.6%) in a conventional (unmodified) diesel engine is up to B15.

Subhash Lahane; K.A. Subramanian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Co-coking of Hydrotreated Decant Oil/Coal Blends: Effect of Hydrotreatment Severity on the Yield Distribution and Quality of Distillate Fuels  

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The coke yield from delayed co-coking of hydrotreated DOs and coal blends was observed to be in the range of 15.924.4%. ... The coal used in this study (EI-106) was a 50:50 blend of the Powellton and Eagle seams, both very similar coals of high-volatile A bituminous rank from West Virginia. ... One of the hydrotreated DOs (EI-133) was coked alone. ...

mer Gl; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert

2013-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

428

Investigation of BiodieselDiesel Fuel Blends on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Using OpenFOAM  

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Investigation of BiodieselDiesel Fuel Blends on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Using OpenFOAM ... (1) In addition, biodiesel can be used in existing compression ignition (CI) or diesel engines with minimal or no modifications because its physicochemical characteristics are very similar to those of fossil diesel. ... However, when CME, PME, and SME are blended with 50 vol % of diesel fuel, the general trend as discussed above is not reproduced. ...

Harun Mohamed Ismail; Hoon Kiat Ng; Suyin Gan; Xinwei Cheng; Tommaso Lucchini

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

429

Combustion analysis of a direct injection diesel engine when fuelled with sunflower methyl ester and its diesel blends  

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Uncertainty in the availability of petroleum-based fuels in the near future and stringent pollution norms have triggered a search for renewable and clean-burning fuels. The use of vegetable oil as an alternative fuel has for long been in the pipeline, but its direct use has been limited because of its higher viscosity. In this work, sunflower oil was taken as feedstock and the feasibility of sunflower oil methyl ester (SFME) as an alternative fuel for diesel engines was investigated. Tests were conducted in a 4.4 kW, single cylinder, naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. It was observed that the premixed combustion phase of SFME and its blends were less intense compared with diesel oil. In addition, it was observed that SFME and its blends had slightly lower thermal efficiency and lower tailpipe emissions than diesel oil.

G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao; S. Saravanan; P. Selva Ilavarasi; G. Devasagayam

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Performance and Emissions of a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Diesel/Oxygenate Blends for Various Fuel Delivery Advance Angles  

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State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China ... In the application of pure oxygenated fuels, Fleisch et al.,1 Kapus and Ofner,2 and Sorenson and Mikkelsen3 have studied dimethyl ether (DME) in a modified diesel engine, and their results showed that the engine could achieve ultralow-emission prospects without a fundamental change in combustion systems. ... Although some previous work has revealed the characteristics of diesel/ethanol blends in a compression ignition engine (Satge de Caro et al.,14 Ali et al.15), there, however, is still much work that needs to be done in regard to the application of diesel/methanol blends in compression ignition engines, especially in clarifying the basic combustion and emission. ...

Zuohua Huang; Hongbing Lu; Deming Jiang; Ke Zeng; Bing Liu; Junqiang Zhang; Xibin Wang

2005-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

431

The comparative analysis of diesel engine combustion and emission parameters fuelled with palm oil methyl esters and its diesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel-Palm Oil Methyl Ester (POME) blends are investigated. This study shows that the ignition delay decreases with increase in the POME addition. The maximum rate of pressure rise and maximum rate of heat release decreases with increase in POME addition at all loads. As the percentage of POME in the blend increases, the crank angle at which the maximum rate of heat release takes place advances. The brake thermal efficiency decreases with increase in POME addition. The unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and soot intensity decreases, while nitrogen oxides (NOx) increase with increase in POME addition. [Received: April 4, 2008; Accepted: November 24, 2008

G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao; S. Saravanan; P. Selva Ilavarasi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt  

SciTech Connect

This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

433

Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

Andile B. Mzinyati [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Microstructure and Crystal-Amorphous Interphases in Melt-Miscible Semicrystalline Polymer Blends. Ph.D. Thesis  

SciTech Connect

Small-angle x ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis were performed to study the microstructure of the semicrystalline polymers poly(etylene oxide) (PEO) and poly (epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) as well as several melt miscible blends. Four amorphous polymers were blended with PEO: two which interact weakly with PEO poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and two which are considered strongly interacting due to the formation of hydrogen bonds with PEO (two random copolymers, one containing 50% styrene and 50% hydroxystyrene (50/50 ScHS) and another of ethylene with 55% methacrylic acid (EMA55)). Further, one of the weakly interacting amorphous polymers and one of the strongly interacting polymers was selected based on its relatively high T(sub g)s. The other amorphous polymers have relatively low T(sub g)s (i.e., at or below the crystallization temperature). The solid state microstructure of miscible blends containing a semicrystalline and an amorphous polymer is shown to be critically dependent on two factors: (1) the strength of interactions between the two copolymers; and (2) the mobility of the amorphous material at the crystallization temperature. The influence of interaction strength on the region of partial order at the crystal surface (the crystal-amorphous interphase) is demonstrated. The results are consistent with theoretical predictions that this region changes from pure crystallizable material to a mixture containing both the crystalizable and the amorphous components as chi becomes more favorable. In the blends which contain a high T(sub g) amorphous polymer and in those with strong intermolecular interactions, there were no observed changes in the microstructure with crystallization temperature. Apparently, in the high T(sub g) systems, the amorphous polymer is unable to escape the interlamellar zone since it has insufficient mobility.

Barron, C.A.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Measurement of Enthalpies of Vaporization of Isooctane and Ethanol Blends and Their Effects on PM Emissions from a GDI Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of Enthalpies of Vaporization of Isooctane and Ethanol Blends and Their Effects on PM Emissions from a GDI Engine ... The enthalpy of vaporization is very important for the performance of spark ignition engines, especially those that use gasoline direct injection (GDI). ... However, measurements reported here show that the increased enthalpy of vaporization has an adverse effect on the particulate matter (PM) emissions from a GDI engine. ...

Longfei Chen; Richard Stone

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

436

Effect of palm methyl ester-diesel blends performance and emission of a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to investigate engine performance and exhaust emission when using several blends of neat palm oil methyl ester (POME) with conventional diesel (D2) in a small direct injection diesel engine and to compare the outcomes to that of the D2 fuel. Engine performances exhaust emissions and some other important parameters were observed as a function of engine load and speed. In addition the effect of modifying compression ratio was also carried out in this study. From the engine experimental work neat and blended fuels behaved comparably to diesel (D2) in terms of fuel consumption thermal efficiency and rate of heat released. Smoke density showed better results than that emitted by D2 operating under similar conditions due to the presence of inherited oxygen and lower sulphur content in the biofuel and its blends. The emissions of CO CO2 and HC were also lower using blended mixtures and in its neat form. However NOx concentrations were found to be slight higher for POME and its blends and this was largely due to higher viscosity of POME and possibly the presence of nitrogen in the palm methyl ester. General observation indicates that biofuel blends can be use without many difficulties in this type of engine but for optimized operation minor modifications to the engine and its auxiliaries are required.

Mazlan Said; Azhar Abdul Aziz

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

A novel technique for assessing the coking potential of coals/coal blends for non-recovery coke making process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In an effort to broaden the scope of coal selection, the authors have developed a novel procedure based on a coefficient, named as Composite Coking Potential (CCP). CCP value assesses the suitability of a coal/coal blend for producing coke of desired quality; measured by the parameter coke strength after reaction (CSR). The coking potential takes into account of various properties of the coals and their proportions in a given coal blend and convert them into a single value. This technique is having advantage since each of these parameters represents different aspects of the coking phenomena along with inter dependence of some of these parameters also exists. This makes the coal selection process extremely difficult and in majority of the cases, decision is taken based on experience. In this investigation, CCP model has been used for selecting the least expensive coal blends which will comply with the minimum coke quality requirements of blast furnace. The study confirms the inter relations between the CCP and the hot strength of coke i.e. CSR. Actual plant data of a non-recovery coke oven have been used for developing and validation of the model. The technique was successfully used in identifying cheaper coals for producing coke with desired quality.

H.P. Tiwari; P.K. Banerjee; V.K. Saxena

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

A field test using coal:DRDF blends in spreader stoker-fired boilers. Final report, June 1976-July 1978  

SciTech Connect

This program was conducted to characterize and demonstrate the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of combustion densified forms of refuse derived fuel (dRDF) blended with coal in spreader stoker-fired boilers. A total of 258.5 Mg (285 tons) of pelletized 1/2-inch-diameter x 3/4-inch-long dRDF was co-fired with coal in 2.7 x 7.5 kg/sec (60,000 lb/hr) and 3.6 x 10 kg/sec (75,000 lb/hr) of 1.03 MPa (150 psig) saturated steam. The results indicate that coal:dRDF blends up to 1:2 can be handled and burned in conventional spreader stoker-fired boilers without major equipment modification. As more dRDF was substituted for coal, the flame volume increased, the opacity decreased, the fly ash carbon burnout improved, and the turndown ratio of boiler operation increased. The emissions from the blend firing decreased slightly in mass flux, dropped significantly in particulate size and stack opacity, and had satisfactory particulate resistivities.

Degler, G.H.; Rigo, H.G.; Riley, B.T. Jr.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

Agung Sudrajad; Ismail Ali; Khalid Samo; Danny Faturachman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

THE EFFECTS OF BIODIESEL BLENDS AND ARCO EC-DIESEL ON EMISSIONS from LIGHT HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES  

SciTech Connect

Chassis dynamometer tests were performed on 7 light heavy-duty diesel trucks comparing the emissions of a California diesel fuel with emissions from 4 other fuels: ARCO EC-diesel (EC-D) and three 20% biodiesel blends (1 yellow grease and 2 soy-based). The EC-D and the yellow grease biodiesel blend both showed significant reductions in THC and CO emissions over the test vehicle fleet. EC-D also showed reductions in PM emission rates. NOx emissions were comparable for the different fuel types over the range of vehicles tested. The soy-based biodiesel blends did not show significant or consistent emissions differences over all test vehicles. Total carbon accounted for more than 70% of the PM mass for 4 of the 5 sampled vehicles. Elemental and organic carbon ratios varied significantly from vehicle-to-vehicle but showed very little fuel dependence. Inorganic species represented a smaller portion of the composite total, ranging from 0.2 to 3.3% of the total PM. Total PAH emissions ranged from approximately 1.8 mg/mi to 67.8 mg/mi over the different vehicle/fuel combinations representing between 1.6 and 3.8% of the total PM mass.

Durbin, Thomas

2001-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Combustion Characteristics and Heat Release Analysis of a Spark-Ignited Engine Fueled with Natural Gas?Hydrogen Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It can be seen that the laminar-burning velocity of hydrogen is 5 times that of natural gas and that the quenching distance of hydrogen is one-third that of natural gas, while the latter is beneficial to reduce the unburned hydrocarbons near the wall and from the top-land crevice. ... The signal of cylinder pressure was acquired for every 0.5 deg CA, the acquisition process covered 254 completed cycles, and the averaged value of these 254 cycles was outputted as the pressure data for calculation of the combustion parameters. ... Two factors are considered to influence the cylinder pressure:? one is the increase in flame propagation speed or combustion speed with the increase of the hydrogen fraction in the blends, and this will cause a rapid rising in the cylinder pressure and bring a higher value of the peak cylinder pressure; another is the decrease in the heating value of the fuel blends with the increase of the hydrogen fraction in natural gas?hydrogen blends, and this will decrease the volumetric heat release rate and the cylinder pressure rising, leading to the lower value of the peak cylinder pressure. ...

Zuohua Huang; Bing Liu; Ke Zeng; Yinyu Huang; Deming Jiang; Xibin Wang; Haiyan Miao

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

The effect of wood biomass blending with pulverized coal on combustion characteristics under oxy-fuel condition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, combustion from the co-firing of coal and wood biomass, and thermal characteristics such as ignition temperature, burn-out temperature, and activation energy were discussed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). We investigated the effects of biomass blending with two kinds of pulverized coal (bituminous Shenhua, and sub-bituminous Adaro) under air and oxy-fuel conditions. The coal fraction in the blended samples was set to 1, 0.8, and 0.5. The oxygen fraction in the oxidant was set to 0.21, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8. The ignition temperature was governed by the fuel composition, particularly in the blended biomass which has a much higher content of volatile matter comparing to coal. However, the burnout temperature, which shows a strong relationship with char combustion, depended on the oxidant ingredients rather than on the fuel components. Thermal characteristics such as ignition, burnout temperature, reaction region, and heat flow were very similar between air and a 0.3 oxygen concentration under oxy-fuel conditions with Shenhua coal.

Seongyool Ahn; Gyungmin Choi; Duckjool Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Norsk Hydro's communication to international capital markets: A blend of accounting principles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Companies operating internationally are faced with the dilemma of how to attract investors from multiple exchanges to provide capital. While each investor may prefer a report tailored to his or her country's generally accepted accounting and auditing framework, such an approach can be prohibitively expensive. The selection of International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) guidance for reporting suffers from its lack of acceptance to date by the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO). The choice of the United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S.GAAP) and Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (U.S. GAAS) facilitate access to large capital markers on the New York Stock Exchange, AMEX or NASDAQ but may not communicate effectively to the European or other markets. Norsk Hydro, the subject of this paper, chose to blend its domestic and U.S. accounting principles, with some episodic integration of European audit report language. The potential communication and regulatory challenges that resulted are described, as are the plethora of topics for future research, given such experimentation in financial reporting.

Norvald Monsen; Wanda A. Wallace

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Eight-band k?p model of strained zinc-blende crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Second-order Lwdin perturbation theory is used to calculate the interaction matrices for an eight-band k?p model (near the ? point) of zinc-blende crystals under a uniform strain. The model treats the ?6 conduction bands, ?8 valence bands, and ?7 spin-orbit split-off bands. The model includes strain interactions arising from both the orbital and spin-orbit terms of the Hamiltonian. In addition to the usual Pikus-Bir deformation-potential constants, a, b, and d, which describe the coupling of the valence band to strain, two new deformation-potential constants arise, a and b, which describe the coupling of the conduction band to strain. The constant a couples the conduction band to hydrostatic deformations and the constant b, which results from a lack of inversion symmetry, couples the conduction band to shear deformations. The strain also introduces a k-dependent conduction-bandvalence-band mixing that is linear in strain, in wave vector, and in the momentum matrix element between the conduction and valence bands. In the absence of strain, the eight-band Kane model is recovered. Under a finite strain, in the limit of a large conduction-bandvalence-band gap and large spin-orbit splitting, the four-band Luttinger model with strain is recovered.

Thomas B. Bahder

1990-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Study of polymers and their blends using TOF-SIMS ion imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was used to see the feasibility of viewing polymer directionality initially of simple polymers like polyethylene (PE) and then graduating to relatively more complex polymer composites involving poly-urethene (PU) and Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) admixture with different mixture concentrations using the Bi ion source. Based on the ion images obtained, it is suggested that directional characteristics of polyethylene, or polyurethane were not visible. However, CNT clusters were identifiable in the pure form of the material and so was CNT inside the admixture. Change in cluster shape inside the admixture at different concentrations indicated the extent of change in strength in the polymer mixture to expect. It was possible to correlate such information with the polymer tensile strength and hardness data measured separately by traditional methods. Similar analysis of high resolution TOF-SIMS ion imaging of other polymer blends are likely to fetch important information on why certain compositions are stronger or why certain compositions do not have the desired or expected properties.

N. Karar; T.K. Gupta

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

449

Fate of Sulfur, Chlorine, Alkali Metal, and Vanadium Species during High-Temperature Gasification of Canadian Tar Sand Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-feed of alternative fuels, e.g., petcoke, gains increasing importance for energy conversion in not only Germany but also worldwide. ... The aim of this work was to obtain detailed information on the influence of fuel composition of the refinery product line tar sand, bitumen, and petcoke in comparison to the standard fuel hard coal on the release of sodium, potassium, chlorine, sulfur, and vanadium species during high-temperature gasification. ... In addition to the pure fuels, blends of hard coal and petcoke were gasified in lab-scale experiments in a helium/oxygen atmosphere at 1500 C. ...

Marc Blsing; Kaveh Nazeri; Michael Mller

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Montreal, Quebec, September 5-8, 1995. ATREF: Application des Technologies Robotiques aux Equipements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Montreal, Quebec, September 5 this issue, by bringing together key players within the province of Quebec: Den- harco, one of Canada- tion: Denharco (Ste-Hyacinthe, Quebec) and Autolog (Laval, Quebec). The project is partly funded

Papadopoulos, Evangelos

451

Lead Isotopic Composition of Trinitite Melt Glass: Evidence for the Presence of Canadian Industrial Lead in the First Atomic Weapon Test  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lead Isotopic Composition of Trinitite Melt Glass: Evidence for the Presence of Canadian Industrial Lead in the First Atomic Weapon Test ... (1-7) The PDMs produced subsequent to the first atomic weapon test, Trinity, are available for public research. ... The Trinity atomic weapon test took place on July 16, 1945, at 5:29:45 a.m. ...

Jeremy J. Bellucci; Antonio Simonetti; Christine Wallace; Elizabeth C. Koeman; Peter C. Burns

2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

452

Moisture Transport and Other Hydrometeorological Features Associated with the Severe 2000/01 Drought over the Western and Central Canadian Prairies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The 54-yr (19482001) NCEPNCAR reanalysis data as well as other information were used to study the moisture transport and associated circulation features for the severe 2000/01 drought over the western and central Canadian Prairies. Most of the ...

Jinliang Liu; Ronald E. Stewart; Kit K. Szeto

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

By the National Wetlands Working Group / Edited by B.G. Warner and C.D.A. Rubec The Canadian Wetland Classification System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By the National Wetlands Working Group / Edited by B.G. Warner and C.D.A. Rubec The Canadian Wetland Classification System Second Edition #12; 1997 by the Wetlands Research Centre, University Wetlands Conservation Council (Canada) · Wetlands Research Centre, University of Waterloo Copies

Laval, Université

454

Reducing hazardous waste incinerator emissions through blending: A study of 1,1,1-trichloroethane injection  

SciTech Connect

We investigate whether blending liquid hazardous wastes with hydrocarbons such as alkanes can improve the destruction efficiency and reduce the combustion byproduct levels in the post-flame region of a laboratory scale combustor. Outlet species concentrations are measured with an FTIR spectrometer for mixtures of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 25% (by volume) dodecane or heptane injected as a spray of droplets. We also inject sprays of liquid pure 1,1,1-trichloroethane, gaseous pure 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and gaseous 1,1,1-trichloroethane with 25% (by volume) heptane. Once vaporized, the 1,1,1-trichloroethane decomposes to form CO{sub 2} and HCl through the intermediates 1,1-dichloroethylene, phosgene, acetylene, and carbon monoxide. The 1,1,1-trichloroethane/alkane mixtures also form the intermediate ethylene. No significant differences are observed between injecting the compounds as a droplet spray or as a gaseous jet, not as unexpected result as the mixing time of the gas jet is longer than the vaporization time of the droplets. The addition of heptane or dodecane to 1,1,1-trichloroethane produces two principal effects: an increase in ethylene, acetylene and carbon monoxide levels for injection temperatures between 950 to 1040 K, and a decrease in 1,1-dichloroethylene, phosgene, acetylene, and carbon monoxide levels for injection temperatures greater than 1050 K. Reaction of the injected alkane causes the former effect, while the additional heat of combustion of the alkane additives causes the latter. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Thomson, M.; Koshland, C.P.; Sawyer, R.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

455

Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending  

SciTech Connect

Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Petroleum Gas Oil?Ethanol Blends Used as Feeds: Increased Production of Ethylene and Propylene over Catalytic Steam-Cracking (CSC) Hybrid Catalysts. Different Behavior of Methanol in Blends with Petroleum Gas Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Petroleum Gas Oil?Ethanol Blends Used as Feeds: Increased Production of Ethylene and Propylene over Catalytic Steam-Cracking (CSC) Hybrid Catalysts. ... Recently developed hybrid catalysts used in the catalytic steam cracking (CSC, formerly called selective deep catalytic cracking or SDCC(1, 2) and also thermal catalytic cracking or TCC(3, 4)) of hydrocarbon heavy feedstocks (naphthas and gas oils) are very efficient in the production of light olefins, particularly ethylene and propylene with a product propylene-to-ethylene ratio close to 1.0. ...

A. Muntasar; R. Le Van Mao; H. T. Yan

2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

457

VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD  

SciTech Connect

Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and biomass minerals.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Effects of Fuel Injection Timing on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel?Propane Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effects of Fuel Injection Timing on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel?Propane Blends ... State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China, and College of Vehicle & Motive Power Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, 471003, China ... It is the third most widely used vehicle fuel behind the gasoline and diesel fuels.1 Diesel fuel has been widely used in internal combustion engines due to its high thermal efficiency and low CO2 emission. ...

Zhihao Ma; Zuohua Huang; Chongxiao Li; Xinbin Wang; Haiyan Miao

2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

459

Prediction of the Effects of Ethanol-Diesel Fuel Blends on Diesel Engine Performance Characteristics, Combustion, Exhaust Emissions, and Cost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bilgin et al.s and ?ahins experimental studies which have been used in comparisons with numerical results of the present model have been performed in a single cylinder diesel engine at Karadeniz Technical University, Engineering Faculty Mechanical Engineering Department Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. ... Durgun, O. A practical method for calculation engine cycles Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects, Chamber of Mech. ... Dieselhols (blends of diesels, biodiesels, and alcohols) have received considerable attention because of their low emission of CO2. ...

Z. ?ahin; O. Durgun

2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

460

Low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol and ethanol-PRF blends: An experimental and modeling study  

SciTech Connect

In this brief communication, we present new experimental species profile measurements for the low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol under knock-prone conditions. These experiments show that ethanol exhibits no global low temperature reactivity at these conditions, although we note the heterogeneous decomposition of ethanol to ethylene and water. Similar behavior is reported for an E85 blend in n-heptane. Kinetic modeling results are presented to complement these experiments and elucidate the interaction of ethanol and primary reference fuels undergoing cooxidation. (author)

Haas, Francis M.; Chaos, Marcos; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blend canadian lloydminster" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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461

Evaluating the impact of R&D tax credits on innovation: A microeconometric study on Canadian firms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study examines the effect of R&D tax credits on innovation activities of Canadian manufacturing firms. Over the 19971999 period the Federal and Provincial R&D tax credit programs were used by more than one third of all manufacturing firms and by close to two thirds of firms in high-technology sectors. We investigate the average effect of R&D tax credits on a series of innovation indicators such as: number of new products, sales with new products, originality of innovation, etc. using a non-parametric matching approach. Compared to a hypothetical situation in the absence of R&D tax credits, recipients of tax credits show significantly better scores on most but not all performance indicators. We therefore conclude that tax credits lead to additional innovation output.

Dirk Czarnitzki; Petr Hanel; Julio Miguel Rosa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Experimental study on combustion characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gashydrogen blends combining with EGR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study on the effect of hydrogen fraction and EGR rate on the combustion characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gashydrogen blends was investigated. The results show that flame development duration, rapid combustion duration and total combustion duration are increased with the increase of EGR rate and decreased with the increase of hydrogen fraction in the blends. Hydrogen addition shows larger influence on flame development duration than that on rapid combustion duration. The coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure increases with the increase of EGR rate. And hydrogen addition into natural gas decreases the coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure, and this effectiveness becomes more obviously at high EGR rate. Engine fueled with natural gashydrogen blends combining with proper EGR rate can realize the stable low temperature combustion in gas engine.

Erjiang Hu; Zuohua Huang; Bing Liu; Jianjun Zheng; Xiaolei Gu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources  

SciTech Connect

In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

464

Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Evaluating the use of EN 14078 for determination of biodiesel in diesel blends sold in the Brazilian market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In Brazil, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP) is a regulatory agency responsible for monitoring the distribution and sale of fuels. After the introduction of biodiesel in Brazil, problems began to emerge as well as questions regarding the quality of diesel fuel in the country. One of the problems is related to the determination of biodiesel content in the diesel available in fuel stations. This work shows that biodiesel prepared from different feedstock during storage suffers oxidative degradation leading to different oxygenated compounds. The presence of these biodiesel oxidation products affects the accuracy of the result provided by the standard method EN 14078 in relation to the content of biodiesel in diesel. The result showed determination errors of almost 100%. Indeed, a B5 blend after accelerated oxidation was determined using EN 14078 as B10. Another problem observed using EN 14078 was that in countries like Brazil, where different oleaginous or alcohol are used to produce biodiesel, it is mandatory to calibrate the method with the same biodiesel present in diesel blends. Indeed, it was observed important changes in the position of the stretching related to the ester carboxyl group according to the raw materials used to prepare the biofuel, leading to significant errors in the biodiesel content determination.

David M.M. Pinho; Vianey O. Santos Jr.; Vitor M.L. dos Santos; Maria C.S. Oliveira; Monica T. da Silva; Patrcia G.T. Piza; Angelo C. Pinto; Michelle J.C. Rezende; Paulo A.Z. Suarez

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Effects of oxygenated fuel blends on carbonaceous particulate composition and particle size distributions from a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A systematic study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of blending five different oxygenated compounds, diglyme (DGM), palm oil methyl ester (PME), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl adipate (DEA) and butanol (Bu) with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD), on engine performance, particulate mass concentrations, organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of the particles and particle size distributions from a single cylinder, direct injection stationary diesel engine with the engine working at a constant engine speed and at three engine loads. A small increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was observed with the use of oxygenates blended with ULSD. All five oxygenates were found to be effective at reducing particulate mass emissions at medium and high engine loads, with butanol being the most effective and DGM being the least effective. Analysis of the relative contribution of changes in the OC and EC emissions to the reduction of particulate matter indicated that under the same oxygen content, EC made a dominant contribution to the reduction of particulate mass. The results also indicated that reduction in both particle mass and number emissions was affected not only by the oxygen content, but also by the chemical structure and thermophysical properties of oxygenates as well as engine operating conditions.

Zhi-Hui Zhang; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Gasification improvement of a poor quality solid recovered fuel (SRF). Effect of using natural minerals and biomass wastes blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The need to produce energy from poor quality carbonaceous materials has increased, in order to reduce European dependency on imported fuels, diversify the use of new and alternative fuels and to guarantee secure energy production routes. The valorisation of a poor quality solid residual fuel (SRF), with high content of ash and volatile matter, through its conversion into fuel gas was studied. The rise of gasification temperature and equivalent ratio (ER) led to higher gas yields and to lower undesirable gaseous components, though higher ER values led to a gas with lower energetic content. To reduce the negative effect of SRF unfavourable characteristics and to diversify the feedstocks used, SRF blended with three different types of biomass wastes: forestry pine, almond shells and olive bagasse was co-gasified. The use of biomass wastes tested was valuable for SRF gasification, as there was an increase in the overall reactivity and in H2 production and a reduction of about 55% in tar released, without great changes in gas yield and in its HHV. The use of natural minerals mixed with silica sand was also studied with the aim of improving SRF gasification performance and fuel gas quality. The best results were obtained in presence of dolomite, as the lowest tar and H2S contents were obtained, while an increase in gas yield was observed. Co-gasification of this poor quality SRF blended with biomass wastes in presence of dolomite increased gas yield by 25% while tar contents decreased by 55%.

Filomena Pinto; Rui Neto Andr; Carlos Carolino; Miguel Miranda; Pedro Abelha; Daniel Direito; Nikos Perdikaris; Ioannis Boukis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of gas to liquid (GTL) fuels and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Crude oil price hikes, energy security concerns and environmental drivers have turned the focus to alternative fuels. Gas to liquid (GTL) diesel is regarded as a promising alternative diesel fuel, considering the adeptness to use directly as a diesel fuel or in blends with petroleum-derived diesel or bio-diesel. GTL fuel derived from FischerTropsch synthesis is of distinctly different characteristics than fossil diesel fuel due to its paraffinic nature, virtually zero sulfur, low aromatic contents and very high cetane number. GTL fuel is referred to as a clean fuel for its inherent ability to reduce engine exhaust emission even with blends of diesel and bio-diesel. This paper illustrates feasibility of GTL fuel in context of comparative fuel properties with conventional diesel and bio-diesels. This review also describes the technical attributes of GTL and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel focusing their impact on engine performance and emission characteristics on the basis of the previous research works. It can introduce an efficacious guideline to devise several blends of alternative fuels, further the development of engine performance and constrain exhaust emission to cope with the relentless efforts to manufacture efficient and environment friendly powertrains.

H. Sajjad; H.H. Masjuki; M. Varman; M.A. Kalam; M.I. Arbab; S. Imtenan; S.M. Ashrafur Rahman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol?Diesel Fuel Blends at Different Injection Timings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol?Diesel Fuel Blends at Different Injection Timings ... Because of their fuel economy and high reliability, compression-ignition (CI) engines known as diesel engines have been penetrating a number of markets around the world. ...

Mustafa Canakci; Cenk Sayin; Metin Gumus

2008-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

470

High-Temperature Steam-Treatment of PBI, PEKK, and a PEKK-PBI Blend: A Solid-State NMR and IR Spectroscopic Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and PAEK components in a melt or dry blend systems. In this initial investigation, focus is placed or morphological transformations of the polymers. All changes detectable by 13 C cross-polarization with magic with the PBI component. In this study, the traditional Celazole-type PBI (poly[2,20 -(

Bluemel, Janet

471

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150  

SciTech Connect

Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

James E. Francfort

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Artificial neural networks based prediction of performance and exhaust emissions in direct injection engine using castor oil biodiesel-diesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using castor oil biodiesel (COB)-diesel blended fuels were investigated experimentally and then predicted by artificial neural networks. For this aim castor oil was converted to its biodiesel via transesterification approach. Then the effects of the biodiesel percentage in blend engine load and speed on brake power brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) nitrogen oxides (NOx) carbon dioxide (CO2) carbon monoxide (CO) and particle matter (PM) have been considered. Fuel blends with various percentages of biodiesel (0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% and 30%) at various engine speeds and loads were tested. The results indicated that blends of COB with diesel fuel provide admissible engine performance; on the other side emissions decreased so much. Two types of neural networks a group method of data handling (GMDH) and feed forward were used for modeling of the diesel engine to predict brake power BSFC and exhaust emissions such as CO CO2 NOx and PM values. The comparison results demonstrate the superiority of the feed forward neural networkmodels over GMDH type models in terms of the statistical measures in the training and testing data but in the number of hidden neurons and model simplicity GMDH models are preferred.

M. H. Shojaeefard; M. M. Etghani; M. Akbari; A. Khalkhali; B. Ghobadian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Structural and morphological development in poly(ethylene-co-hexene) and poly(ethylene-co-butylene) blends due to the competition between  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structural and morphological development in poly(ethylene-co-hexene) and poly(ethylene 30 November 2004; accepted 12 January 2005 Abstract Isothermal crystallization behavior of poly(ethylene-co-hexene) (PEH) and the 50/50 blend (H50) of PEH with amorphous poly(ethylene- co-butylene) (PEB) was studied

Wang, Howard "Hao"

474

Engine performance and emissions from the combustion of low-temperature Fischer??Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel and biodiesel rapeseed methyl ester blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion of oxygenated biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester (RME)) improves the engine-out particulate matter, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, while the low-temperature Fischer??Tropsch synthetic paraffinic diesel fuel improves engine-out NOx, CO, hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions. Blending synthetic diesel (SD) fuel with oxygenated biodiesel could unlock potential performance synergies in the fuel properties (e.g. O2 content in RME and high cetane number of the synthetic fuels) of such blends and benefit engine performance and emissions. The combustion of synthetic diesel fuel/RME blend, named synthetic diesel B50, has shown similar combustion characteristics to diesel fuel, while simultaneous improvements in engine efficiency and smoke-NOx trade-off were achieved by taking advantage of the fuel's properties. The engine thermal efficiency was dependent on the fuel type, and followed the general trend: synthetic diesel > SDB50 > diesel > RME. Therefore, it has been shown that the design of a synthetic fuel with properties similar to the fuel blends presented in this work could improve engine-out NOx, smoke and hydrocarbon emissions and maintain or improve engine performance.

Kampanart Theinnoi; Athanasios Tsolakis; Sathaporn Chuepeng; Andrew P.E. York; Roger F. Cracknell; Richard H. Clark

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect

Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL] [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Foster, Prof. Dave [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Blending high sulfer coal with refuse derived fuel to make SO{sub 2} compliant slurry fuels  

SciTech Connect

The need for a better method of disposing of the international community`s garbage hardly needs emphasizing. In 1993, the United States alone generated approximately 207 million ton per year of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), with 62% landfilled, 220/6 recycled, and 16% combusted for energy recovery. Despite strenuous efforts to make these disposal methods meet present needs, the cost of disposal is rising dramatically. Concurrently, the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have severely restricted the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired boilers. Medium and high sulfur coals will not comply with the Phase II CAAA regulation limit of 1.2 lb SO{sub 2}/MM Btu, without advanced coal cleaning technologies or flue gas desulfurization, including the majority of the North Dakota lignite reserves. Utility power plants have attempted to burn refuse derived fuel (RDF), a heterogeneous solid fuel produced from MSW, with coal in utility scale boilers (generally referred to as co-firing). Co-firing of RDF with coal has been attempted in sixteen different boilers, five commercially. While lower SO{sub 2} emissions provided the impetus, co-firing RDF with coal suffered from several disadvantages including increased solids handling, increased excess air requirements, higher HCI, CO, NO{sub x} and chlorinated organic emissions, increased slag formation in the boiler, and higher fly ash resistivity. Currently, only two of the sixteen boilers are still regularly used to co-fire RDF. The overall objective of this research program was to assess the feasibility of blending RDF with lignite coal to form SO{sub 2} Compliant slurry fuels using EnerTech`s SlurryCarb{trademark} process. In particular, the objective was to overcome the difficulties of conventional co-firing. Blended slurry fuels were produced with the Energy & Environmental Research Center`s (EERC) bench-scale autoclave and were combusted in a pressurized fluidized-bed reactor (PFBR).

Klosky, M. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Anderson, C. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

477

Lead Speciation in House Dust from Canadian Urban Homes Using EXAFS Micro-XRF and Micro-XRD  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, micro-X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF), and micro-X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD) were used to determine the speciation of Pb in house dust samples from four Canadian urban homes having elevated Pb concentrations (>1000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). Linear combination fitting of the XAFS data, supported by {mu}XRF and {mu}XRD, shows that Pb is complexed in a variety of molecular environments, associated with both the inorganic and organic fractions of the dust samples. The inorganic species of lead identified were as follows: Pb metal, Pb carbonate, Pb hydroxyl carbonate, Pb oxide, and Pb adsorbed to iron oxyhydroxides. Pb carbonate and/or Pb hydroxyl carbonate occurred in all four dust samples and accounted for 28 to 75% of total Pb. Pb citrate and Pb bound to humate were the organic species identified. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of XAFS to identify Pb speciation in house dust and show the potential to identify Pb sources from new homes versus older homes. Understanding Pb speciation and how it influences bioaccessibility is important for human health risk assessment and risk management decisions which aim to improve indoor environmental health.

L MacLean; S Beauchemin; P Rasmussen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

478

Nuclear data sensitivity and uncertainty for the Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor II: Full core analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Uncertainties in nuclear data are a fundamental source of uncertainty in reactor physics calculations. To determine their contribution to uncertainties in calculated reactor physics parameters, a nuclear data sensitivity and uncertainty study is performed on the Canadian supercritical water reactor (SCWR) concept. The nuclear data uncertainty contributions to the neutron multiplication factor k eff are 6.31 mk for the SCWR at the beginning of cycle (BOC) and 6.99 mk at the end of cycle (EOC). Both of these uncertainties have a statistical uncertainty of 0.02 mk. The nuclear data uncertainty contributions to Coolant Void Reactivity (CVR) are 1.0 mk and 0.9 mk for BOC and EOC, respectively, both with statistical uncertainties of 0.1 mk. The nuclear data uncertainty contributions to other reactivity parameters range from as low as 3% of to as high as ten times the values of the reactivity coefficients. The largest contributors to the uncertainties in the reactor physics parameters are Pu-239, Th-232, H-2, and isotopes of zirconium.

S.E. Langton; A. Buijs; J. Pencer

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Efficiency and Emissions Study of a Residential Micro-cogeneration System based on a Modified Stirling Engine and Fuelled by a Wood Derived Fas Pyrolysis Liquid-ethanol Blend.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A residential micro-cogeneration system based on a Stirling engine unit was modified to operate with wood derived fast pyrolysis liquid (bio-oil)-ethanol blend. A pilot stabilized (more)

Khan, Umer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Permanent prostate implant using high activity seeds and inverse planning with fast simulated annealing algorithm: A 12-year Canadian experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report outcomes and toxicity of the first Canadian permanent prostate implant program. Methods and Materials: 396 consecutive patients (Gleason {<=}6, initial prostate specific antigen (PSA) {<=}10 and stage T1-T2a disease) were implanted between June 1994 and December 2001. The median follow-up is of 60 months (maximum, 136 months). All patients were planned with fast-simulated annealing inverse planning algorithm with high activity seeds ([gt] 0.76 U). Acute and late toxicity is reported for the first 213 patients using a modified RTOG toxicity scale. The Kaplan-Meier biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) is reported according to the ASTRO and Houston definitions. Results: The bFFS at 60 months was of 88.5% (90.5%) according to the ASTRO (Houston) definition and, of 91.4% (94.6%) in the low risk group (initial PSA {<=}10 and Gleason {<=}6 and Stage {<=}T2a). Risk factors statistically associated with bFFS were: initial PSA >10, a Gleason score of 7-8, and stage T2b-T3. The mean D90 was of 151 {+-} 36.1 Gy. The mean V100 was of 85.4 {+-} 8.5% with a mean V150 of 60.1 {+-} 12.3%. Overall, the implants were well tolerated. In the first 6 months, 31.5% of the patients were free of genitourinary symptoms (GUs), 12.7% had Grade 3 GUs; 91.6% were free of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIs). After 6 months, 54.0% were GUs free, 1.4% had Grade 3 GUs; 95.8% were GIs free. Conclusion: The inverse planning with fast simulated annealing and high activity seeds gives a 5-year bFFS, which is comparable with the best published series with a low toxicity profile.

Martin, Andre-Guy [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Roy, Jean [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Centre de Recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Pouliot, Jean [Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Harel, Francois [Centre de Recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Vigneault, Eric [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: Eric.Vigneault@chuq.qc.ca

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Geospatial analysis of oil discharges observed by the National Aerial Surveillance Program in the Canadian Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Oil pollution resulting from day to day human maritime activities contributes a high portion of the overall input into marine environments, constituting a major threat to marine ecosystems worldwide. In Canada, the National Aerial Surveillance Program (NASP) extensively monitors and collects information on oily discharges using remote sensing devices. Despite the availability of data from NASP and other surveillance programs internationally, there is a paucity of spatial analyses of oil pollution patterns, particularly in their association with human marine pursuits. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association between observed oily discharges and human maritime activities in the Canadian Pacific Ocean. This study used Poisson regression to spatially model detected oily discharges with marine traffic, coastal facilities and proximity to coast. Further, it developed localized (regional) models to address spatial heterogeneity. The models identify recreational activities, passenger traffic, commercial traffic, fisheries, and proximity to the coast as predictors of observed oily discharges. The regional models yield more accurate and reliable estimates of local associations, and identify more parsimonious sets of predictors for each region. By identifying and accounting for human activities most associated with oily discharge patterns, the models developed in this study could be used to estimate pollution rates in areas with less surveillance, and identify areas where NASP coverage may need to be increased. Spatially explicit rates estimated by these models can be used to monitor the effectiveness of programs and policy aimed at reducing discharge rates of oily pollution. This study can be used as a model approach for extending the analysis to the other coasts of Canada, using available NASP data.

Stefania Bertazzon; Patrick D. O'Hara; Olesya Barrett; Norma Serra-Sogas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

F.O.B. F.O.B. a Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) Year Quarter Month Canadian Lloydminster Iraqi Basrah Light Mexican Mayan Nigerian Qua Iboe Venezuelan Merey 1983 Average .......... 24.54 - 23.99 - - 1984 Average .......... 24.70 - 25.35 - - 1985 Average .......... 23.79 - 24.23 - - 1986 Average .......... 12.77 - 10.93 - - 1987 Average .......... 15.12 - 15.72 - - 1988 Average .......... 11.28 - 11.26 - - 1989 Average .......... W - 14.71 - - 1990 Average .......... 18.50 - 17.29 - - 1991 Average .......... 13.51 - 13.02 - - 1992 Average .......... W - 13.42 - - 1993 Average .......... W - 12.03 - - 1994 Average .......... W - 12.39 - - 1995 Average .......... 14.44 - 14.37 - - 1996 Average .......... 17.14 - 17.43 - - 1997 Average .......... 14.29 - 14.97 - -

483

Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses: October 15, 2002-September 30, 2004  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Development and Demonstration Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses October 15, 2002 - September 30, 2004 A. Del Toro SunLine Services Group Thousand Palms, California M. Frailey National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado F. Lynch Hydrogen Components Inc. Littleton, Colorado S. Munshi Westport Innovations Inc. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada S. Wayne West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia Technical Report NREL/TP-540-38707 November 2005 Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses October 15, 2002 - September 30, 2004 A. Del Toro SunLine Services Group Thousand Palms, California M. Frailey National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado

484

Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State  

SciTech Connect

There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Analytical descriptions of the band structure of direct-band-gap zinc-blende-structure semiconductors in the k?p Kane model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the framework of the well-known k?p Kane band theory, accurate analytical approximations of conduction- and valence-band dispersion of direct-band-gap zinc-blende-structure semiconductors are derived when the spin-orbit-splitting energy does not exceed the band-gap energy. These approximations include the interactions with the remote bands. The expressions of the eigenfunctions are also obtained. The present analysis elucidates and unifies previous analytical band descriptions.

H.-J. Drouhin and J. Peretti

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

Effect of Injection Pressure on the Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol-blended Diesel Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Injection Pressure on the Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol-blended Diesel Fuel ... Recently, the use of diesel engines has increased by virtue of their low fuel consumption and high efficiencies. ... Tests on the engine fuelled with diesel only were made, and the performance evaluated to form a basis for comparison for those of ethanol-diesel dual fuelling. ...

Mustafa Canakci; Cenk Sayin; Ahmet Necati Ozsezen; Ali Turkcan

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

487

Miscibility of blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) and oligodiols based on a bisphenol A nucleus and ethylene oxide or propylene oxide branches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cloud-point curves of blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with a series of oligodiols based on a bisphenol A nucleus and short branches of poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(propylene oxide) (BPA-EO or BPA-PO), and with PEO and PPO oligomers, were obtained using a light transmission device. Experimental results were fitted with the Flory- Huggins model using an interaction parameter depending on both temperature and