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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery  

SciTech Connect

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Adriaan van Heiningen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

2

Effects of recycling peroxide liquor on brightness of mechanical pulp  

SciTech Connect

The high cost of bleaching softwood mechanical pulps to 80% brightness with peroxide can be partly offset by recycling the unreacted peroxide in the effluent. However, the situation is complicated by the presence of dissolved organic material, aged silicate, and calcium extracted from the pulp. This study examines the effects of these materials on brightening efficiency. Dissolved organic material did not consume peroxide in subsequent cycles. Aged silicate stabilized peroxide as efficiently as fresh silicate. Interaction of silicate with calcium and magnesium caused silicon residue to precipitate on the fibers, with deposition increasing with the number of cycles. Calcium silicate adhered strongly to stainless steel, while magnesium silicate did not.

Froass, W.C. (International Paper Co., Tuxedo, NY (United States)); Omori, S.; Francis, R.C.; Dence, C.W. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Empire State Paper Research Inst.)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors by the addition of pulverized coal  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors which can be accomplished by the addition of pulverized coal to increase the heat content and generate the proper reducing conditions. Samples from a 78%-yield sodium bisulfite pulping process employing a hardwood furnish were mixed with 10-50% pulveriized coal and burned at 950[degrees]C under reducing conditions in a box furnace. Even in these uncontrolled combustion conditions 76. 5% of the sulfur found in the soluble portion of the smelt was converted from lignousulfonates to useful sulfide ion. For the remainder of the sulfur, analyses determined it to be 19. 5% as sulfite ion, 3. 1% as thiosulfate ion, and 0.9% as sulfate ion.

Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. (Natural and Applied Sciences, Univ. of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping This factsheet describes a...

5

Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

6

Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four residues generated in a Kraft, pulp and paper plant, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimmetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. Emphasis was given on the identification of the mineral components of each material. The green liquor dregs and the lime mud contain Calcite and Gipsite. The slaker grits contains Calcite, Portlandite, Pirssonite, Larnite and Brucite. The Calcite phase, present in the dregs and in the lime mud, has small amounts of magnesium replacing calcium. The wood ash contains Quartz as the major crystalline mineral phase.

Fernanda Machado Martins; Joaniel Munhoz Martins; Luiz Carlos Ferracin; Carlos Jorge da Cunha

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Kraft Liquor Corrosion Margaret Gorog  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Kraft Liquor Corrosion Margaret Gorog Federal Way, WA Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute November 2014 · Brown Stock Corrosion · Alkaline Liquor Corrosion · Black Liquor Corrosion ­ Evaporators ­ Research · High Solids Black Liquor Corrosion of Stainless Steel

Das, Suman

8

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Effect of raw material and Kraft Pulping Conditions on Characteristics of Dissolved Lignin.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Lignin is one of the main components in wood and during the chemical pulping processes it is degraded and dissolved into the cooking liquor. (more)

Svrd, Antonia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NAICS Code Sub-Sector Pulp mills Paper (except newsprint) mills Newsprint mills Paperboard mills Total % of Total Total Black Liquor Natural Gas

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

HPLC of Anthraquinone in Wood Pulps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......anthraquinone content: Analysis of pulp and paper-type materials and pulping liquors by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Tappi 62(8): 73-76 (1979). 2. J.O. Broenstad, K.H. Schroeder, and H.D. Friestad. Determina- tion of trace amounts......

K.H. Nelson; D. Schram

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Chapter 2 - Black Liquor Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Black liquor gasification (BLG) is being considered primarily as an option for production of biofuels in recent years due to the focus on the transport sectors high oil dependence and climate impact. BLG may be performed either at low temperatures or at high temperatures, based on whether the process is conducted above or below the melting temperature range of the spent pulping chemicals. The development of various BLG technologiesSCA-Billerud process, the Copeland recovery process, Weyerhaeusers process, the St. Regis hydropyrolysis process, the Texaco process, VTTs circulating fluidized bed BLG process, Babcock and Wilcoxs bubbling fluidized bed gasification process, NSP process (Ny Sodahus Process), DARS (Direct Alkali Recovery System) process, BLG with direct causticization, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International fluidized bed gasification, Chemrec gasification, catalytic hydrothermal gasification of black liquoris discussed in this chapter. The two main technologies under development are pressurized gasification and atmospheric gasification, being commercialized by Chemrec AB and ThermoChem Recovery International, respectively.

Pratima Bajpai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

15

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

NETL: News Release - DOE Opens Competition for Black Liquor/Biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

January 7, 2000 January 7, 2000 DOE Opens Competition for Black Liquor/Biomass Gasification Program Intended to Boost Efficiency, Reduce Greenhouse Gases from Pulp and Paper Mills A new competition begun this week by the Department of Energy could make the pulp and paper mills of the 21st century cleaner and more energy efficient by demonstrating improved technologies to convert their spent cooking liquor streams into new sources of energy. The advanced processes would also simultaneously recover and recycle pulping chemicals. MORE INFO Download the solicitation The department's National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued a call for projects to demonstrate advanced ways to gasify the black liquor or biomass of pulp and paper mills. The gases can be more easily cleaned of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute November 2014 Digester Corrosion Margaret Gorog Federal Way, WA 2 · Chips plus a mixture of white and black liquor · The pulp is then blown from the bottom of the vessel into a blow tank · Corrosion occurs during filling

Das, Suman

22

Black liquor gasification combined cycle with Co2 capture Technical and economic analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The pulp and paper sector is intensive in the use of energy, and presents a high participation in the industrial context, specially based in the black liquor, a renewable source generated in the pulp process. Black liquor gasification is not still completely dominated; however, it has the potential of becoming an important alternative for the pulp and paper sector. In this article, the traditional steam cycle based on chemical recovery and biomass boilers associated to backpressure/extraction turbine is compared to black liquor gasification combined cycle schemes, associated to biomass boiler, considering the technical and economic attractiveness of capturing and sequestering CO2. Results show that despite its interesting exergetic efficiency, the adoption CO2 capture system for BLGCC did not prove to be attractive under the prescribed conditions without major incentive.

Elzimar Tadeu de Freitas Ferreira; Jos Antonio Perrella Balestieri

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

24

Biomass gasification project gets funding to solve black liquor safety and landfill problems  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on biomass gasifications. The main by-product in pulp making is black liquor from virgin fiber; the main by-product in paper recycling is fiber residue. Although the black liquor is recycled for chemical and energy recovery, safety problems plague the boilers currently used to do this. The fiber residue is usually transported to a landfill. The system being developed by MTCI will convert black liquor and fiber residue into a combustible gas, which can then be used for a wide variety of thermal or power generation applications.

Black, N.P.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2  

SciTech Connect

Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

Fricke, A.L.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

The preparation and analysis of ammonia base sulfite pulping liquor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NH3 Concentrations . . . . . , ~ . ~ . . ~ ~ . ~ q IV The Distribution of S02 in a 2. 82$ RR3 Solution for Various Total SO2 Concentrations . . . . . . , . . . ~ . . . 31 FIGURES l. Variation of pH with Percent NH3 in Solution. . . . . ~. . . 25... 2. Variation of pH with S02 Concentration in Solutions of Various NH Concentrations . . . . ~ . . . ~ . ~ o ~ . o . ~ 27 3 ~ Composition of Solutions to give a Constant pH of T and 2. 5 , ~ 2Q 4. The Variation of the Ratio of Free S02 to Total SO2...

Honstead, John Frederick

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

cautious pipeline trench blasting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

cautious pipeline trench blasting, pipeline trench blasting (with)in built-up areas...n in bebauten Gebieten

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

CORN STEEP LIQUOR IN MICROBIOLOGY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...is a by-product of the corn wet-milling industry it would be insufficient...invention of much of the modern wet milling process, suggested corn steep liquor as a nutrient...general flowsheet of the corn wet-milling process; and to Dr. L...

R. Winston Liggett; H. Koffler

1948-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Production of high quality and low energy chemithermomechanical pulp  

SciTech Connect

Chemithermomechanical pulps (CTMP) were produced from Eastern black spruce chips in a two-stage pilot plant using different conditions of chemical pretreatment and refining intensity. The conventional CTMP was produced by impregnating chips with sulfite liquor at a pH of approximately 10 and the conducting the first-stage refining in a double disc refiner at 1,200 rpm. The distribution of specific energy and refining intensity was about the same in the two stages. The experiments showed that, by decreasing the impregnating liquor pH to approximately 4.5 and conducting the first-stage refining at a relatively low specific energy and high refining intensity (by operating the refiner at 1,800 rpm), an energy saving of up to 33% could be achieved without any adverse effect on the pulp quality.

Stationwala, M.I. (Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Chapter 5 - Environmental Impact of Black Liquor Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmental impact of black liquor gasification (BLG) is discussed. Biofuels from a BLG process excel in terms of well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emission reduction and energy efficiency. Forest biorefinery utilizing gasification (in a black liquor gasification combined cycle (BLGCC) configuration) rather than a Tomlinson boiler is predicted to produce significantly fewer pollutant emissions due to the intrinsic characteristics of the BLGCC technology. Syngas cleanup conditioning removes a considerable amount of contaminants and gas turbine combustion is more efficient and complete than boiler combustion. Also, there could be reductions in pollutant emissions and hazardous wastes resulting from cleaner production of chemicals and fuels that are now manufactured using fossil energy resources. Production of power, fuels, chemicals, and other products from biomass resources creates a net zero generation of carbon dioxide as plants are renewable carbon sinks. BLG whether conducted at high or low temperatures is still superior to the current recovery boiler combustion technology. Implementation of IGCC power plants will cause net savings in cooling water requirements and net reductions in wastewater discharges. The most significant environmental impact caused by BLG will occur in air emissions. The overall reduction of Total reduced sulphur (TRS) gases using gasification technology will also reduce odor, which will improve public acceptance of pulp and paper mills, particularly in populated areas.

Pratima Bajpai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 2: Comparisons between different liquors  

SciTech Connect

This continuation of earlier work reports fuel nitrogen release for black liquors at two temperatures during pyrolysis of single droplets in an oxygen-free environment. Approximately half of the 20--60% fuel nitrogen released was ammonia and half was molecular nitrogen. The total amount of fixed nitrogen released during pyrolysis was almost linearly proportional to the liquor nitrogen content. The yield of fixed nitrogen for birch liquors was significantly higher than for pine liquors, and the yield for bagasse liquor was extremely high.

Aho, K.; Nikkanen, S. (A. Ahlstrom Corp., Varkaus (Finland)); Hupa, M. (Abo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

December News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

December News Blast December News Blast December News Blast december2013newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications November 2013 News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast January...

33

October 2013 News Blast | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

October 2013 News Blast October 2013 News Blast October 2013 News Blast october2013newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications September 2013 News Blast BETO Monthly News Blast,...

34

Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that uses a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have studied include (1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, (2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and (3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is being processed. These tasks can be done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The magnetic field used for doing the NMR can come from either permanent magnets or superconducting magnets. The choice of the magnet is dependent on a number of factors, which include the size of the sample and field strength needed to do the sensing task at hand. This paper describes some superconducting magnet options that can be used in the pulp and paper industry.

Green, M.A.; Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Luft, P.A.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.S.

2001-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

35

ThermonucleotideBLAST  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ThermonucleotideBLAST ThermonucleotideBLAST ThermonucleotideBLAST ThermonucleotideBLAST is a software program for searching a target database of nucleic acid sequences using an assay specific query. October 10, 2013 software Given two samples of sequences, for which the user provides an input file with corresponding genetic distances (pairwise), the program performs a t-test to see whether the two mean genetic distances are significantly different. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email ThermonucleotideBLAST ThermonucleotideBLAST is a software program for searching a target database of nucleic acid sequences using an assay specific query. Licensing Status: Available for Express Licensing (?). This software is open source. To download, please visit ThermonucleotideBLAST website. For more

36

Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping  

SciTech Connect

In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

W.T. McKean

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Recovering Soaps and Greases from Wool-Scouring liquors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recovering Soaps and Greases from Wool-Scouring liquors ... A NEW process, illustrated in the accompanying flowsheet, has been devised for recovering soaps and greases from waste wool-scouring liquors. ...

C.H.S. TUPHOLME

1939-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

38

November 2013 News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

November 2013 News Blast November 2013 News Blast November 2013 News Blast november2013newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r January...

39

Monthly News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Multimedia Corner Monthly News Blast July 2013 Secretaries Moniz and Vilsack Speaking at Biomass 2013 Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack...

40

Lightweight blast shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

February 2014 News Blast | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 News Blast February 2014 News Blast February 2014 News Blast february2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications March 2014 Monthly News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast...

42

Manhattan Project: Blast  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Blast (Animation) Blast (Animation) Yucca Flat, Nevada (March 17, 1953) Resources > Photo Gallery Blast Animation The eight images above are a sequence of photographs of a house constructed 3,500 feet from "ground zero" at the Nevada Test Site being destroyed by the Annie test shot. The only source of light was the blast itself, detonated on March 17, 1953. The final image is two-and-one-third seconds after detonation. In the second image the house is actually on fire, but in the third image the fire has already been blown out by the blast. Annie, part of the "Upshot-Knothole" test series, had a yield of 16 kilotons, roughly the same size as the Trinity, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki explosions. Two photographs of the Annie mushroom cloud are at the bottom of this page.

43

Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used in Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect

Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials such as the refractory lining of the reactor vessel have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, an updated summary of the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for both the hot-face and back-up linings used in this application.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

April 2013 Monthly News Blast  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The monthly news blast for April 2013 highlights the Project Peer Review, upcoming events, BETO blog posts, and more.

45

Demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Big Island  

SciTech Connect

This Final Technical Report provides an account of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific LLC's Big Island, VA facility. This report covers the period from May 5, 2000 through November 30, 2006.

Robert DeCarrera

2007-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting  

SciTech Connect

On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

Not Available

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Estimating the Thickness of Pulped Wood Fibres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... J. Tech. Assoc. Pulp. and Paper Indust., 43, 143 (1960).TAPPI Standards and Suggested Methods (Tech. Assoc. Pulp and Paper Indust., New York, ...

O. J. KALLMES; G. A. BERNIER

1963-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

48

Monthly News Blast: January 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In the January 2013 Monthly News Blast, read about two new funding opportunities, the latest MYPP update, upcoming events, and more.

49

Monthly News Blast: February 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In the February 2013 Monthly News Blast, read about recent blog posts, the monthly staff spotlight video, upcoming events, and more.

50

Blast furnace taphole drill  

SciTech Connect

A blast furnace taphole drill has a flaring head with cutting edges at its cutting end formed by intersecting angled faces. A central bore carries cleaning air to the cutting end. To prevent blockage of the cleaning air bore by debris and possible jamming of the drill, the head has deep radial grooves formed at the bottoms of the valley shapes between the cutting edges. The grooves extend radially from the air bore and conduct the air so that it can get behind or under jammed debris. Reduced taphole drilling times can be achieved.

Gozeling, J.A.; de Boer, S.; Spiering, A.A.

1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

51

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Pilot scale gasification of spent cooking liquor from sodium sulfite based delignification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a pilot scale high pressure entrained flow gasification experiment with spent cooking liquor from a sodium sulfite based delignification process in the DP-1 black liquor gasifier in Pite, Sweden. Approximately 92 tons of sulfite ...

Erik Furusj; Ragnar Stare; Ingvar Landlv; Patrik Lwnertz

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

53

CHAMPAIGN-URBANA FOOD AND LIQUOR GUIDE 1. Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(217) 352-7467. Excellent Mexican and Latin American- influenced food. Service can be a bit slowCHAMPAIGN-URBANA FOOD AND LIQUOR GUIDE 1. Introduction This is a short, incomplete, and personally. It is standard to tip 15-20% for reasonable service. A indicates a place that we like, and indicates a place we

Athreya, Jayadev

54

Report on the WORKSHOP ON COMMERCIALIZATION OF BLACK LIQUOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

!iers have not seen convIncIng evidence of cycle (BLGCC) and biomass-gasifier/combined market opportunity -Denny Hunter gasification/combined cycle technology, sufficient Weyerhaeuser Company research exists for Key ideas from the workshop... commercializing black liquor gasifier/ combined Techno~og~ supp

55

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

56

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Monthly News Blast: March 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In the March 2013 Monthly News Blast, read about two upcoming webinars, two recently announced BETO events, recent blog posts, the monthly staff spotlight video, upcoming events, and more.

58

May 2013 Monthly News Blast  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Bioenergy Technologies Office's May 2013 Monthly News Blast highlights the upcoming Biomass 2013 conference, a webinar on ionic liquids, the new Multi-Year Program Plan, and more.

59

June 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 Monthly News Blast June 2014 Monthly News Blast June 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. june2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications July...

60

April 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

April 2014 Monthly News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. april2014newsblast.pdf More Documents &...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

September 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

September 2014 Monthly News Blast September 2014 Monthly News Blast September 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. september2014newsblast.pdf More...

62

July 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

July 2014 Monthly News Blast July 2014 Monthly News Blast July 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. july2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications...

63

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast, October 2012 | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Blast, October 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast, October 2012 Copy of the Biomass Program Monthly News Blast from October 2012. october2012newsblast.pdf More Documents &...

64

February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast News Blast from the February 2012 Biomass Program. february2012newsblast.pdf More Documents &...

65

Biomass Program December Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

December Monthly News Blast Biomass Program December Monthly News Blast The December News Blast from the Biomass Program's monthly newsletter contains important past and upcoming...

66

Biomass Program September 2012 News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

September 2012 News Blast Biomass Program September 2012 News Blast September 2012 Biomass Program monthly news blast. september2012newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications...

67

April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast April 2012 monthly news blast from the Biomass Program, highlighting news items, funding opportunities,...

68

August 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

News Blast August 2014 Monthly News Blast August 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. august2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications June...

69

"RSE Table N5.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;" 1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

70

RSE Table 3.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" 5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

71

Methanol-reinforced kraft pulping  

SciTech Connect

The addition of methanol to a high-sulfidity kraft cook on Scandinavian softwood chips was studied under different process conditions. Delignification and the degradation of carbohydrates were accelerated, but the effect on delignification was greater. Thus, methanol addition improved selectivity. The positive effect of methanol could also be observed for modified kraft cooks having a leveled out alkali concentration and lower concentration of sodium ions and dissolved lignin at the end of the cook. Methanol addition had no discernible effect on pulp strength or on pulp bleachability.

Norman, E.; Olm, L.; Teder, A. (STFI, Stockholm (Sweden))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Monthly News Blast: July 2013 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

News Blast: July 2013 Monthly News Blast: July 2013 July 2013 Monthly News Blast july2013newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Monthly News Blast: March 2013 BETO Monthly...

73

Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

Kelleher, E. G.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

BETO Monthly News Blast, June 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The June 2013 monthly news blast covers Biomass 2013, the Program Management Review, upcoming industry events, and more.

75

Chapter 4 - Obstacles to Implementation of Black Liquor Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Obstacles hindering the commercialization of black liquor gasification are discussed. The most important of them include financial risks, protection of the gasifier, increase in the causticizing demand, tar condensation, hot gas cleanup, and steam deficit. Gasification system demands significant capital investment. The high temperature and pressure and the alkaline conditions create aggressive environment. Protection from an aggressive environment is very important in the operation of a gasifier because it determines the lifetime and hence the feasibility of gasification as a technology as a whole.

Pratima Bajpai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Report blasts Patent Office automation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Report blasts Patent Office automation ... The Department of Commerce is moving quickly to implement a report highly critical of the Patent & Trademark Office's efforts to fully automate its patent search and retrieval operations. ... An Industry Review Panel found that the current automated patent system is over-designed and as a result needs a redundant communications network and redundant storage of all patent images at high resolution. ...

JANICE LONG

1988-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

77

Associations between Beer, Wine, and Liquor Consumption and Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...literature on beer, wine, and liquor intake and...alcoholic beverage (beer, wine, or liquor) and lung...per bottle, 150 mL of wine per glass, and 40 mL...beverage could potentially increase the risk of lung cancer...alcoholic beverages, and quality of smoking adjustment...

Chun Chao

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper,...

79

MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University of Tennessee Georgia Tech SURF 2010 Fellow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University Goodman Introduction In the papermaking industry, black liquor recovery boilers burn black liquor into the superheater region of the boiler, where the salt-deposit, or smelt, forms a scale on the superheater tubes.1

Li, Mo

80

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

economics of black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogenerationblack liquor and biomass gasifier/gas turbine technology".entrained flow booster gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina;

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Pulp & Paper Industry- A Strategic Energy Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry with yearly energy purchases of $5 billion per year including 50 billion kWh of power is one of the largest industrial energy producers in the U.S. However, structural changes in the global pulp and paper industry could...

Stapley, C. E.

82

Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technoeconomic Appraisal," December 1991. 5. DOE Annual Report on Contract No. AC02-83CH10093, Bozell, J. J., Hames, B., Chum, H. L., Dimmel, D. R, Althen, E., Caldwell, P. L., Daube, Oxidation ;; Diels-Alder .. I I -Methanol .. ~ 5 I 3 (C~O) OCH... - Hydrogen 3 (Q-IP) # Q-I 3 o o ~ o 1 2 ~ (H) Lignin DMBQ =two OCH3 groups Anthraquinone MMBQ =one OCH3 group A. K, and Kuroda, K-I.,"Sulfur-free Selective Pulping," March 1992. 6. DOE Annual Report on Contrac No. DE-AC02-83CH10093, Bozell, J. J...

Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

83

BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r Copy of the BETO Monthly News Blast from August 2013 august2013newsblast.pdf More Documents &...

84

May 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 Monthly News Blast May 2014 Monthly News Blast May 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. may2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications April 2014...

85

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast January 2012 | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Blast January 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast January 2012 This is a copy of the Biomass Program's monthly news blast from January 2012. january2012newsblast.pdf More...

86

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - May 2012 | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

May 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - May 2012 Biomass Program monthly news blast from May 2012 may2012newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications June 2012 News Blast:...

87

March 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

March 2014 Monthly News Blast March 2014 Monthly News Blast BETO Gets Innovative with New Interactive Tool march2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications April 2014 Monthly...

88

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Blast: May Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May News and updates from the Biomass Program in May 2011. maynewsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly...

89

August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast Monthly newsletter for August 2012 from the Department of Energy's Biomass Program....

90

Biomass Program News Blast: September | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

News Blast: September Biomass Program News Blast: September News and updates from the Biomass Program in September 2011. septembernewsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications...

91

July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast July 2012 monthly newsletter from the Department of Energy's Biomass Program....

92

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: November | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Monthly News Blast: November Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: November News and Updates from the Biomass Program in November 2011. novembernewsblast.pdf More Documents &...

93

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August News and updates from the Biomass Program in August 2011. augustnewsblast.pdf More Documents...

94

Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions  

SciTech Connect

Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gao, Huizhen (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

96

Green Destiny + mpiBLAST = Bioinfomatics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Green Destiny + mpiBLAST = Bioinfomatics Wu-chun Feng feng@lanl.gov For more on Green Destiny, go-6651 #12;Green Destiny + mpiBLAST = Bioinfomagic Wu-chun Feng feng@lanl.gov For more on Green Destiny, go The Components of "Bioinfomagic" · Green Destiny ­ A 240-node supercomputer in a "telephone booth" · Footprint: 6

Feng, Wu-chun

97

Waste to energy by industrially integrated supercritical water gasification Effects of alkali salts in residual by-products from the pulp and paper industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a method by which biomass can be converted intoa hydrogen-rich gas product. Wet industrial waste streams, which contain both organic and inorganic material, are well suited for treatment by SCWG. In this study, the gasification of two streams of biomass resulting from the pulp and paper industry, black liquor and paper sludge, has been investigated. The purpose is to convert these to useful products, both gaseous and solids, which can be used either in the papermaking process or in external applications. Simple compounds, such as glucose, have been fully gasified in SCWG, but gasification of more complex compounds, such as biomass and waste, have not reached as high conversions. The investigated paper sludge was not easily gasified. Improving gasification results with catalysts is an option and the use of alkali salts for this purpose was studied. The relationship between alkali concentration, temperature, and gasification yields was studied with the addition of KOH, K2CO3, NaOH and black liquor to the paper sludge. Addition of black liquor to the paper sludge resulted in similarly enhancing effects as when the alkali salts were added, which made it possible to raise the dry matter content and gasification yield without expensive additives.

I. Rnnlund; L. Myren; K. Lundqvist; J. Ahlbeck; T. Westerlund

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 1: Laboratory measurements at different conditions  

SciTech Connect

Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis is high. There is only minor release during the drying stage. Ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen species formed. The rate of fixed nitrogen release increases with increasing temperature. The level of fixed nitrogen released by birch liquor is almost twice the level for pine liquor. Assuming complete conversion to NO, fixed nitrogen yields gave NO concentrations near typically measured values for flue gases in full scale recovery boilers. The purpose of this work was to gain more detailed information about the behavior of the fuel nitrogen in black liquor combustion. The work focused on the pyrolysis or devolatilization of the combustion process. Devolatilization is the stage at which the majority (typically 50--80%) of the liquor organics release from a fuel particle or droplet as gaseous species due to the rapid destruction of the organic macromolecules in the liquor. In this paper, the authors use the terms devolatilization and pyrolysis interchangeably with no difference in their meaning.

Aho, K.; Vakkilainen, E. (A. Ahistrom Corp., Varkaus (Finland)); Hupa, M. (Abo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Advanced Oxidation Technology for Pulp Mill Effluent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

parameters. The dissolved solids consist of the chemicals derived from the wood material plus the chemicals added to the specific pulping process. No one technology can adequately treat these effluent streams, rather a combination of treatment methods... suspended or dissolved solids. We are herein considering only the treatment of the dissolved solids portion, assuming the removal of the suspended material by some other means. Dependent upon the nature of the pulping process and the particular...

Hart, J. R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The laboratory immersion test system built and operated at ORNL was found to successfully screen samples from numerous refractory suppliers, including both commercially available and experimental materials. This system was found to provide an accurate prediction of how these materials would perform in the actual gasifier environment. Test materials included mullites, alumino-silicate bricks, fusion-cast aluminas, alumina-based and chrome-containing mortars, phosphate-bonded mortars, coated samples provided under an MPLUS-funded project, bonded spinels, different fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinels with magnesia content ranging from 2.5% to about 60%, high-MgO castable and brick materials, spinel castables, and alkali-aluminate materials. This testing identified several candidate material systems that perform well in the New Bern gasifier. Fusion-cast aluminas were found to survive for nearly one year, and magnesia-alumina spinels have operated successfully for 18 months and are expected to survive for two years. Alkali-aluminates and high-MgO-content materials have also been identified for backup lining applications. No other material with a similar structure and chemical composition to that of the fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel brick currently being used for the hot-face lining is commercially available. Other materials used for this application have been found to have inferior service lives, as previously discussed. Further, over 100 laboratory immersion tests have been performed on other materials (both commercial and experimental), but none to date has performed as well as the material currently being used for the hot-face lining. Operating experience accumulated with the high-temperature gasifier at New Bern, North Carolina, has confirmed that the molten alkali salts degrade many types of refractories. Fusion-cast alumina materials were shown to provide a great improvement in lifetime over materials used previously. Further improvement was realized with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the refractory material systems identified for lining material applications may be applicable for use in this

Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

102

Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment  

SciTech Connect

The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

Kevin Whitty

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

Formation of fuel NO[sub x] during black-liquor combustion  

SciTech Connect

Fuel NOx and thermal NOx were measured in combustion gases from black liquors in two laboratory furnaces. Combustion at 950 C in air (8% O[sub 2]) produced NOx concentrations of 40-80ppm. Combustion at 950 C in synthetic air containing no nitrogen (21% 0[sub 2] in Ar) produced the same result, demonstrating that all of the NOx produced during combustion at 950 C was fuel NOx. Formation of fuel NOx increased moderately with increasing temperature in the range of 800-1,000 C, but temperature sensitivity of fuel NOx was much less than that of thermal NOx. The results imply that the major source of NOx in recovery furnace emissions is the fuel NOx in recovery furnace formed by conversion of liquor-bound nitrogen during combustion. This is consistent with thermal NOx theory, which postulates that black-liquor combustion temperatures are too low to generate significant amounts of thermal NOx.

Nichols, K.M. (Weyerhaeuser Paper Co., Tacoma, WA (United States)); Lien, S.J. (Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Originally Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

August 2009" August 2009" "Revised: October 2009" "Next MECS will be conducted in 2010" "Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,"Waste" ,,,,"Blast",,,,"Pulping Liquor",,"Oils/Tars" "NAICS",,,,"Furnace/Coke",,,"Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total",,"Oven Gases","Waste Gas",,"Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

105

Released: March 2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste" " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

106

Testing and analysis of structural steel columns subjected to blast loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with four blast generators distributed over the height ofwith four blast generators distributed over the height of

Stewart, Lauren K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Blast overpressure relief using air vacated buffer medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Blast waves generated by intense explosions cause damage to structures and human injury. In this thesis, a strategy is investigated for relief of blast overpressure resulting from explosions in air. The strategy is based ...

Avasarala, Srikanti Rupa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

The response of mechanical and chemical pulps to refining  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on theoretical equations describing the flow of pulp in refiners were used to analyze the experimental results obtained in a series of pilot plant trials. Western red cedar and loblolly pine wood chips were refined in 1-3 stages at rotational speeds of 1200 and 1800 rpm to produce thermomechanical pulps (TMP). Also, sulfate semibleached and low-yield sulfite pulps were refined at low (5%), medium (12%), and high (25%) consistency. The results indicate that the number of refining stages did not affect mechanical pulp quality. At a given specific energy, increasing the rotational speed increased the specific energy per impact and decreased the total number of impacts, resulting in a faster rate of fines generation for mechanical pulps. For chemical pulps higher pulp consistency produced gentler refining and yielded a higher rate of freeness decrease.

Miles, K.B.; Karnis, A. (Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, 570 St. John's Rd., Pointe Claire, Quebec H9R 3J9 (CA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Combat-related blast injuries : injury types and outcomes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

blast and PTSD diagnosis as covariates. The interaction of PTSD and injury severity was initially assessed prior to model

Eskridge, Susan Lindsay

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Blast-induced phenotypic switching in cerebral vasospasm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the cerebrovasculature is a common manifestation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) reported among combat is not required for vasospasm in bTBI, which suggests that the unique mechanics of blast injury could potentiate. These results suggest that an acute, blast-like injury is sufficient to induce a hypercontraction

Parker, Kevin Kit

111

Blast injuries to the lung: epidemiology and management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham...blast injuries|blast lung|radiology of blast lung injury|conventional...context, clinical symptoms and radiology. Symptoms may include respiratory...patients (67%) for whom role 3 radiology was available and given that...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Fast high-pressure freezing of protein crystals in their mother liquor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Protein crystals were vitrified using high-pressure freezing in their mother liquor at 210 MPa and 77 K without cryoprotectants or oil coating. The method was successfully applied to photosystem II, which is representative of a membrane protein with a large unit cell and weak crystal contacts.

Burkhardt, A.

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler  

SciTech Connect

This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

1999-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1 *, Yew , Krishnan Subramaniam5 , Soon-Sen Leow1 , Kenneth C. Hayes6 and Mohd Basri Wahid1 1 Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang Selangor, Malaysia 2 Malaysian Palm Oil

Sinskey, Anthony J.

115

" Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

S5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" S5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

116

Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

117

Table N5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

118

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect

Project Abstract for Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporations pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: energy is used in process heat and power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries through the pulping phases. Most water used in the pulping process ends up as warm waste water in the mills effluent discharge, which subsequently pollutes receiving waterways and carries an enormous amount of energy with it. Wash water reduction in brown stock washing with the Steam Cycle Washers (SCW) will save energy, up to 1+ million BTUs per ton of pulp in the evaporators alone. Reduction of liquid volume through bleaching stages will save process heat energy in the amount of 2+ million BTUs per ton of pulp, and as much as 80 100 kWhrs of electrical power per ton of pulp due to reduced pumping costs. Currently, the technical barriers to water reduction in chemical pulping are basically as follows: conventional pulp washers wash the pulp at 10 - 14% consistency, conventional pulp washers use 12 16 tons of wash water per ton of pulp, and they leave 30 70 lbs of soda (Na2SO4) per ton of pulp as soda loss into the washed pulp. The amount of wash water in excess of the amount of process liquid in the pulp is called Dilution Factor (DF), even though it is not a factor in the mathematical sense but an addition. Modern pulp washing lines can wash efficiently with a DF of 3 but most pulp mills in the United States are washing with a DF of 5-7. Therefore, at 10% washing consistency 14-16 tons of wash water is required and 14% consistency requires 11-13 tons of wash water.

Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

120

Sorption of Chlorophenols to Wood Pulp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The good fit indicates that the ionized form of 2,4,5-TCP does not sorb to the pulp fibers, at least not under the low ionic strength conditions used. Figure 4, which plots the sorption of both 2,4-DCP and 2,4,5-TCP to a ? number 69.8 softwood pulp as a function of pH, further confirms these results and also shows an interesting situation in which the sorption of the trichlorophenol, which typically has the higher sorption, drops below that for the dichlorophenol in the pH range of about 7.7?9. ... Increasing quantities of sorbed humic substances increased the sorption of HOC. ... The present work demonstrates that a 3rd variable is important, i.e., the concn. of the sorbing solid phase in the system. ...

Steven J. Severtson; Sujit Banerjee

1996-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Microsoft Word - Blast Energy.112706.DOC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

partnership successfully tests new, less expensive drilling technology partnership successfully tests new, less expensive drilling technology Casper, Wyo. - Nov. 28, 2006 - The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and its partner Blast Energy Services Inc. have successfully tested an innovative new oil and gas drilling technology that when commercialized should facilitate lower production costs and increased access to reserves. "It's our mission to partner with industry to help bring new ideas to the marketplace that can ensure clean, reliable and affordable supplies of oil and natural gas for American consumers," said Clarke Turner, RMOTC director. The new technology is expected to provide oil and gas producers with an alternative to existing well stimulation services at a lower cost, while having the ability to access previously uneconomical reserves. Blast's

122

A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting  

SciTech Connect

A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

Not Available

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Interrelated Effects of Aeration and Mixed Liquor Fractions on Membrane Fouling for Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Processes in Wastewater Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interrelated Effects of Aeration and Mixed Liquor Fractions on Membrane Fouling for Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Processes in Wastewater Treatment ... using hollow fibers was applied to wastewater treated by the activated-sludge process. ...

Fengshen Fan; Hongde Zhou

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

125

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: October | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

October Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: October News and updates from the Biomass Program in October 2011. octobernewsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass Program...

126

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: July | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

July Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: July News and updates from the Biomass Program in July 2011. julynewsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News...

127

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - March 2012 | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

March 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - March 2012 Monthly updates from the Biomass Program in March 2012. march2012newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass...

128

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: June | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

June Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: June News and updates from the Biomass Program in June 2011. junenewsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News...

129

Traumatic Brain Injury Protection: Blast Pressure Sensors in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Find More Like This Return to Search Traumatic Brain Injury Protection: Blast Pressure Sensors in Helmets Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology...

130

Remark on the energy content of a blast wave  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this note a comment is made on the total energy content of a blast wave in a stellar...et al. (1951).

G. Deb Ray

131

Biologic response to complex blast waves  

SciTech Connect

Small, bare charges were detonated inside an M59 armored personnel carrier (APC) in an attempt to simulate the complex blast waves generated by the jets from shaped-charge warheads penetrating into armored vehicles. Anesthetized sheep were placed inside the APC at 92- and 122-cm ranges from 57- or 113-g pentolite charges. Pressure-time was measured by pressure transducers either mounted on the animals or free standing at comparable ranges on the opposite side of the vehicle. In general, the waveforms were characterized by an initial shock wave of less than 1-msec duration followed by repeated reflections of decreasing magnitude. No deaths nor lung hemorrhages were observed, but all the animals sustained severe ear injury. Animals subjected to peak overpressures of 1.2 to 2.3 bar from the 113-g explosions also received slight non-auditory blast injuries to the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts; those exposed to peak overpressures of just under 1 bar from the 57-g charges did not. The non-auditory blast injuries inside the APC were more severe than those sustained by sheep at comparable distances from 113-g charges in the open. The results suggested that the biological consequences of a complex wave of the type encountered in this study can be equated approximately to a Friedlander wave with a peak overpressure equal to that of the complex wave and with a total impulse equal to the impulse over the first 2 to 3 msec of the complex wave. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Richmond, D.R.; Yelverton, J.T.; Fletcher, E.R.; Phillips, Y.Y.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Pulping black liquor used directly as a green and effective source for neat oil and as an emulsifier of catalytic cracking heavy oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of emulsified heavy oils to conduct the FCC reaction. The emulsified heavy oil was prepared by homogenizing. Properties of emulsified heavy oil, including int...

Ge Xu; Ji-he Yang; Hui-hui Mao; Zhi Yun

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Development of coke properties during the descent in the blast furnace.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The efficiency in use of reducing agents in blast furnace (BF) ironmaking has been significantly improved over the years. At most blast furnaces, auxiliary fuels (more)

Maria Lundgren

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Processing automotive shredder fluff for a blast furnace injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Processing automotive shredder fluff for a blast furnace injection S. GUIGNOT* , M. GAMET, N. *Corresponding author: s.guignot@brgm.fr, (+33)238643485 Abstract Automotive shredder fluff is a byproduct. Keywords: automotive shredder residues, fluff, iron recovery, process, blast furnace hal-01017129

Boyer, Edmond

135

Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, July 1993--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

Regeneration of the Fe{sup II}-EDTA scrubbing liquors for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in flue gas involves removing the nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) compounds accumulated in the liquor. In this paper, the authors investigated a simple regeneration process which selectively precipitates the N-S compounds as potassium salts and then hydrolyzes them to yield ammonium/potassium sulfate as a marketable byproduct. They believe this is the first report on precipitation and hydrolysis characteristics of the N-S compounds in actual waste scrubbing liquor. Precipitation of the N-S compounds was achieved by adding K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the scrubbing liquor. Effects of the amount of added K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the amount of removed N-S compounds, precipitated crystals, and the potassium left over in the scrubbing liquor were studied. Hydrolysis of the precipitated N-S compounds to ammonium sulfate was performed in a sulfuric acid environment. Effects of acidity, concentration of N-S compounds, and temperature on the hydrolysis are discussed. Analysis of the observed hydrolysis pattern showed that the reaction proceeded following first order kinetics in terms of N-S compound concentration.

Randolph, A.D.; Kwon, T.M.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Gas turbine considerations in the pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect

The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest users of energy in the industrial arena, requiring large quantities of process steam and electrical energy per unit of production. Developing power generation as an integral part of its power plant systems is one way for the industry to meet these requirements. Gas turbine-based cogeneration systems can also be a desirable approach. In recent years, competitive pressures, environmental concerns, the cost and availability of various fuels, and new power generation opportunities have awakened interest in power generation in the pulp and paper industry and other industries. This paper provides a strategic review of these issues of the pulp and paper industry.

Anderson, J.S. (International Paper Co., Purchase, NY (US)); Kovacik, J.M. (GE Co., Schenectady, NY (US))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Organosolv pulping: a versatile approach to wood refining  

SciTech Connect

The fractionation of hardwoods into pulp, lignin, and hemicellulose has been studied in a multi-stage alcohol extraction pilot plant. By adjusting processing conditions, pulps of different properties were obtained. They have been found to be suitable to furnish components for writing, printing, and high-absorbency papers and as dissolving grades. By-product lignin and hemicelluloses are recovered in separate, high-yield fractions for which several potential commercial applications have been identified. The process is a low-capital-cost, low-environmental-impact alternative to kraft and sulfite pulping.

Lora, J.H.; Aziz, S.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Effects of pulp consistency and mixing intensity on ozone bleaching  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom holds that ozone bleaching is feasible only at low or high pulp consistencies. However, recent research suggests that ozone bleaching at medium consistency is possible under conditions of high-intensity mixing. This article presents experimental results for softwood and hardwood pulps that were ozone-bleached over a range of consistencies (3-40%) and mixing conditions. Ozone was pressurized and delivered by a proprietary automated system. Results indicate that ozone bleaching at medium consistency can be as effective as bleaching at high consistency. Medium-consistency bleaching has the advantage of greater selectivity, resulting in higher pulp viscosity.

Hurst, M.M. (Quantum Technologies, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Reducing NO[sub x] emissions from magnesium sulfite liquor boilers  

SciTech Connect

The Current design of liquor-combustion boilers is reviewed, along with options for lowering exhaust-gas emissions, particularly NOx. In many cases, modern boilers are being operated at or near optimal conditions for minimum NOx emissions. Possible upgrades to further reduce NOx emissions include addition of a selective noncatalytic reduction step, design modifications to lower the sectional load, a flue-gas recirculation system, and air staging. Calculated and experimental results show that these applications can lower NOx emissions by 40% or more.

Bobik, M. (Austrian Energy and Environment, Graz (Austria))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

requirements Pre-combustion Syngas is concentrated in CO 2combustion carbon capture involves reacting black liquor with oxygen or air to give mainly a syngas

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp  

SciTech Connect

Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

142

Alabama Pine Pulp Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pulp Biomass Facility Pulp Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Alabama Pine Pulp Biomass Facility Facility Alabama Pine Pulp Sector Biomass Location Monroe County, Alabama Coordinates 31.5119068°, -87.460397° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.5119068,"lon":-87.460397,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

143

Energy Management and Computers in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dryer hood waste heat. o Biomass feedstocks for the production of specialized chemial products. o Crossing of the stone groundwood process with the thermomechanical pulping process. 236 ESL-IE-81-04-42 Proceedings from the Third Industrial Energy...

Sommerfeld, J. T.; Hartley, E. M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measuring the moisture content of wood chips. pulp or blackmeasurements of the moisture content in wood chips and blackwood species in the incoming chip stream, 3) a measurement of the moisture content

Green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry; A review  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry. As to biopulping and biobleaching, little effort is being devoted to improving strength properties of pulps. However, positive results have been reported in improving tensile properties by treating mechanical pulps with white-rot organisms and in enzymatic beating of chemical pulps with hemicellulase enzymes. Papermaking is another seemingly overlooked area, although biological systems and processes have been used in the past and ought to be important still. On the other hand, waste treatment has been a stronghold of biotechnology within the industry for years. New possibilities may emerge via biotechnology for removing color and AOX from bleach plant effluents. New research on the use of white-rot organisms and soil bacteria to detoxify chlorinated organics in soils and groundwater may yield technologies that the industry can apply.

Trotter, P.C. (Biotechnology Awareness, Weyerhaeuser Co., Technology Center, Tacoma, WA (US))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

The Blast Energy Efficiency of GRBs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using data mostly assembled by previous authors, we consider the linear correlation between the apparent radiative efficiency $\\epsilon_{\\gamma}$ (defined as the ratio of isotropic equivalent radiative output to inferred isotropic equivalent kinetic energy of the blast) and $E_{peak}^{\\alpha}$ where $1.4<\\alpha<2$, for 17 of 22 GRBs (Lloyd-Ronning and Zhang, 2004). We note in a quantitative manner that this is consistent with the hypothesis that $\\epsilon_{\\gamma}$ and $E_{peak}$ are influenced by viewing angle. We suggest a more general theoretically derived expression for this correlation that could be tested with a richer data set. If the reduction in both $\\epsilon_{\\gamma}$ and $E_{peak}$ is due to viewing angle effects, then the actual radiative efficiency is $\\sim 7$. We also find preliminary evidence (with a small sample) for a separate class of weak GRB afterglows.

David Eichler Daniel Jontof-Hutter

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

147

Blast mitigation capabilities of aqueous foam.  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests involving detonation of high explosive blanketed by aqueous foam (conducted from 1982 to 1984) are described in primarily terms of recorded peak pressure, positive phase specific impulse, and time of arrival. The investigation showed that optimal blast mitigation occurs for foams with an expansion ratio of about 60:1. Simple analyses representing the foam as a shocked single phase mixture are presented and shown inadequate. The experimental data demonstrate that foam slows down and broadens the propagated pressure disturbance relative to a shock in air. Shaped charges and flyer plates were evaluated for operation in foam and appreciable degradation was observed for the flyer plates due to drag created by the foam.

Hartman, William Franklin; Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Boughton, Bruce A.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Raw Gas Composition from a Black Liquor GasifierComparison with Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Raw Gas Composition from a Black Liquor GasifierComparison with Experiments ... The black liquor spray was represented by 1003 discrete particles having a fitted Rosin Rammler distribution of power 2 and a characteristic size of 200 ?m. ... Additional PFR calculations were performed using different inlet gas compositions with similar results (not presented here), i.e. the Jones and Lindstedt model showed a significantly higher reformation rate of methane than GRI-Mech at gasification conditions in the medium temperature range (1150 < T < 1500 K). ...

Per Carlsson; Kristiina Iisa; Rikard Gebart

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

150

Rat injury model under controlled field-relevant primary blast conditions: Acute response to a wide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 1 Rat injury model under controlled field-relevant primary blast conditions: Acute response.edu Keywords: Traumatic Brain Injury, Primary Blast, Mortality, Cellular Membrane Permeability, Lung Injury the risk of sustaining blast induced injury by military personnel and civilians. The blast injury

Farritor, Shane

151

Strategic evaluation of investments in coal-dust fuel for blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the evaluation of venture investment projects in pulverized coal injection into blast furnaces.

S.V. Bogdanov; S.M. Kornilaev [State University of Management, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Biosolids recycling at a pulp and paper mill  

SciTech Connect

The Bio Gro Division of Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc. has traditionally been involved in recycling biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants. The biosolids, or primarily organic residuals that result from the treatment of wastewater, have long been used in agriculture as a soil conditioner, fertilizer, organic lime material and also for other soil fertility practices. It has long been known that residuals from certain industrial wastewater processes are very high in nutrients and organic matter which can also be successfully used in agricultural activities. One of these industrial biosolids with well-documented agricultural value is the organic residual from the treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper mills. Most pulp and paper producers in the US recognize the value of pulp and paper biosolids as a material that can fertilize their own tree stands or can be used in normal agricultural practices. In 1995, Bio Gro entered into a contract with a two large pulp and paper mills in Maine for the management of its pulp and paper biosolids. Bio Gro was responsible for implementing the beneficial use options for a mixture of primary and secondary biosolids from the wastewater treatment process which was combined with combustion ash from the facility`s power generation facilities. The contract included the layout of spreading areas, mixing of the residuals and spreading the material on the sites. This paper will explain the process that Bio Gro employed to manage the pulp and paper biosolids generated at the mill.

Gratton, P.F. [Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States). Bio Gro Div.; Montgomery, K.L. [Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc., Fredericksburg, VA (United States). Bio Gro Div.; Page, S.H. [Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc., Portland, ME (United States). Bio Gro Div.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction  

SciTech Connect

Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

154

Characterising the acceleration phase of blast wave formation  

SciTech Connect

Intensely heated, localised regions in uniform fluids will rapidly expand and generate an outwardly propagating blast wave. The Sedov-Taylor self-similar solution for such blast waves has long been studied and applied to a variety of scenarios. A characteristic time for their formation has also long been identified using dimensional analysis, which by its very nature, can offer several interpretations. We propose that, rather than simply being a characteristic time, it may be interpreted as the definitive time taken for a blast wave resulting from an intense explosion in a uniform media to contain its maximum kinetic energy. A scaling relation for this measure of the acceleration phase, preceding the establishment of the blast wave, is presented and confirmed using a 1D planar hydrodynamic model.

Fox, T. E., E-mail: tef503@york.ac.uk; Pasley, J. [York Plasma Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

Kablammo: an interactive, web-based BLAST results visualizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......brief-report Applications Note Kablammo: an interactive, web-based BLAST results visualizer Jeff A. Wintersinger 1 * James...Associate Editor: Dr. John Hancock Motivation: Kablammo is a web-based application that produces interactive, vector-based......

Jeff A. Wintersinger; James D. Wasmuth

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Analysis of blast mitigation strategies exploiting fluid-structure interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Blast attacks have become the most pervasive threat in both civil and military contexts. However, there is currently a limited understanding of the mechanisms of loading, damage and failure of structures, and injury to ...

Kambouchev, Nayden Dimitrov, 1980-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Energy expenditures and carbon-dioxide emissions at blast furnaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic analysis of the reduction of iron and the material balances of carbon shows that the CO2 levels in the blast-furnace gas may be maintained by lowering the carbon consumption in the direct reduction ...

G. V. Korshikov; V. N. Titov; V. G. Mikhailov

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

LTC 1073 vacuum blasting (concrete) human factors assessment -- Baseline (summary)  

SciTech Connect

The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high capacity, direct pressure blasting system incorporating a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast head. A vacuum system removes dust and debris from the surfaces as it is blasted. After cleaning the surface, the abrasive, together with the rust or coating that was removed from the surface, is vacuumed into the machine through the suction hose. The dust separator contains angled steel collision pads, working with the force of gravity, to allow any reusable abrasive to fall back into the pressure vessel. The filters are manually back flushed to prevent clogging. After back flushing, dust is dumped from the dust chamber into the dust collection bag or drum by operation of the bellows valve. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on dust and noise exposure. Dust exposure was found to be minimal, but noise exposure was potentially significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may cause the results to be inapplicable to indoor settings. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD waste liquors. First quarterly technical report, [January--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Hydrolysis of Nitrogen-Sulfur Containing Compounds (N-SCC) derived from desulfurization liquors was carried out at high temperature and pressure with varying sulfuric acid concentration in order to determine the influence of temperature and acid concentration on time required for complete hydrolysis. An ammonia specific electrode (gas sensing) was used to monitor the concentration of ammonium ion in the hydrolyzed liquor. The results indicated a large shortening of time for complete hydrolysis of the Ca salt of N-SCC but varying acid concentration did influence the rate of hydrolysis. Since the physical-chemical analysis of the N-SCC obtained by re-liming the waste scrubbing liquor (containing the Fe-EDTA complex) was found to contain a high quantity of sodium, the N-SCC is believed to be a double salt of calcium and sodium. The final product, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, was obtained in experimentation using an evaporative crystallizer. The clean hydrolyzed liquor was neutralized with a strong NH{sub 2} solution before the final crystallization of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}.

Randolph, A.D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Unrau, E.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports  

SciTech Connect

Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jett, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills December 13, 2011 - 4:12pm Addthis Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Neil Rossmeissl General Engineer What does this project do? Breathes new life into shuttered factories and mills. Saves and creates jobs. Despite Americans' voracious appetite for paper products -- a staggering 700 pounds per person annually -- America's pulp and paper industry has been struggling as of late due to competition from countries where

162

Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Metabolic network simulation using logical loop algorithm and Jacobian matrix. Metab. Eng. 6...grown in cocoa pulp simulation medium, and fermentation...cultures in cocoa pulp simulation medium (Fig. S1). PDF, 440K Supplemental...

Philipp Adler; Christoph Josef Bolten; Katrin Dohnt; Carl Erik Hansen; Christoph Wittmann

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

163

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills December 13, 2011 - 4:12pm Addthis Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Neil Rossmeissl General Engineer What does this project do? Breathes new life into shuttered factories and mills. Saves and creates jobs. Despite Americans' voracious appetite for paper products -- a staggering 700 pounds per person annually -- America's pulp and paper industry has been struggling as of late due to competition from countries where

164

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

8 Figure 8. Final energy mix in China's pulp and paperFigure 8 shows the final energy mix in Chinas pulp andstatistics). Although the energy mix shows a trend toward

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

ITP Forest Products: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The United States is the world's leading producer, consumer, and exporter of pulp, paper, and paperboard products.

166

Social Movements and Ecological Modernization: The Transformation of Pulp and Paper Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) short-course, IntroductionInternational (PPI), the TAPPI Journal, and others. The

Sonnenfeld, David A.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

EXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBERAND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH OPACITY PAPER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, precipitates calcium carbonate (PCC) in situ within pulp fibers. Because paper made from fiber-loaded pulp increasing the recovery and utilization of recycled fiber and optimizing virgin fiber yield by relying moreEXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBERAND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH

Abubakr, Said

168

Continuous on-line measurement of lignin concentration in wood pulp  

SciTech Connect

We are working toward the development of an instrument for the continuous, on-line measurement of the lignin concentration in wood pulp. The instrument is based on laser induced fluorescence of the wood pulp and is to be used as a primary sensor for both feedback control of the pulping and feedforward control of bleaching. We report here the results of a series of laboratory tests that characterized the fluorescence properties of wood pulp and demonstrated a correlation between various fluorescence functions and the Kappa number of the pulps as determined by TAPPI Procedure T236.

Jeffers, L.A.; Roman, G.W.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Modeling and Simulating Blast Effects on Electric Substations  

SciTech Connect

A software simulation tool was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to estimate the fragility of electric substation components subject to an explosive blast. Damage caused by explosively driven fragments on a generic electric substation was estimated by using a ray-tracing technique to track and tabulate fragment impacts and penetrations of substation components. This technique is based on methods used for assessing vulnerability of military aircraft and ground vehicles to explosive blasts. An open-source rendering and ray-trace engine was used for geometric modeling and interactions between fragments and substation components. Semi-empirical material interactions models were used to calculate blast parameters and simulate high-velocity material interactions between explosively driven fragments and substation components. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was added to model the random nature of fragment generation allowing a skilled analyst to predict failure probabilities of substation components.

Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F. Jeffers; Kent E. McGillivary; Tony D. Paul; Ryan Jacobson

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Selection of Coal Gasification Parameters for Injection of Gasification Products Into a Blast Furnace  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytical study was performed on the influence of blast parameters on the course of the processes in the volume of a blast furnace and smelting rates by injection of low-grade coal gasification products. It w...

I. G. Tovarovsky; A. E. Merkulov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

In Silico Investigation of Intracranial Blast Mitigation with Relevance to Military Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury is the most prevalent military injury in Iraq and Afghanistan, yet little is known about the mechanical effects of blasts on the human head, and still less is known about how personal ...

Nyein, Michelle K.

172

The BLAST 250 ?m-selected galaxy population in GOODS-South  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......provided by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST). BLAST is a 1.8-m diameter stratospheric balloon telescope that operates at an altitude of approximately 35 km, above most of the atmospheric water vapour which......

J. S. Dunlop; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; E. L. Chapin; M. Cirasuolo; K. E. K. Coppin; M. J. Devlin; M. Griffin; T. R. Greve; J. O. Gundersen; M. Halpern; P. C. Hargrave; D. H. Hughes; R. J. Ivison; J. Klein; A. Kovacs; G. Marsden; P. Mauskopf; C. B. Netterfield; L. Olmi; E. Pascale; G. Patanchon; M. Rex; D. Scott; C. Semisch; I. Smail; T. A. Targett; N. Thomas; M. D. P. Truch; C. Tucker; G. S. Tucker; M. P. Viero; F. Walter; J. L. Wardlow; A. Weiss; D. V. Wiebe

2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

173

Nanocellulose A sustainable nanomaterial derived from wood pulp with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanocellulose A sustainable nanomaterial derived from wood pulp with applications in composites, sensors, and biomedical devices. The Sustainable Nano-Biocomposites lab in the chemical engineering-renewable resources while offering better performance. #12;Research Program Research in the Sustainable Nano

Thompson, Michael

174

Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions  

SciTech Connect

Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Continuum modeling of a neuronal cell under blast loading Antoine Jrusalem a,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2012 Keywords: Continuum model Neuron Blast Cell damage Traumatic brain injury a b s t r a cContinuum modeling of a neuronal cell under blast loading Antoine Jérusalem a, , Ming Dao b by proposing a continuum model of a neuronal cell submitted to blast loading. In this approach, the cytoplasm

Suresh, Subra

176

The influence of heterogeneous meninges on the brain mechanics under primary blast loading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/interphase C. Finite element analysis Blast wave a b s t r a c t In the modeling of brain mechanics subjected mismatch. ? 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Blast-related traumatic brain injury, 88% of those injuries were caused by expo- sure to blasts resulting from improvised explosive devices

Farritor, Shane

177

Measurement and analysis of near-field blast vibration and damage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Blast vibration and its attenuation within the rock mass immediately adjacent to a blast hole (215 m) were monitored for a blast hole diameter of 100 mm and a 2.4 m column of an emulsion explosive charge. Pea...

R. L. Yang; P. Rocque; P. Katsabanis; W. F. Bawden

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" 5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,"Waste",," " ,,,"Blast",,,"Pulping Liquor",,"Oils/Tars" "NAICS",,,"Furnace/Coke",,"Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials" ,,"Total United States" , 311,"Food",9.1,"X",25,"X","X",6,55.6 3112," Grain and Oilseed Milling",8.9,"X",47.4,"X","X",0,0 311221," Wet Corn Milling",0,"X",0,"X","X",0,"X"

179

Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier  

SciTech Connect

Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

STANDARD OF CARE FOR BLASTING Timothy D. Stark1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STANDARD OF CARE FOR BLASTING NEGLIGENCE By Timothy D. Stark1 ABSTRACT: Blasters are usually but should be liable only if their conduct is proven to be negligent. This change in legal standard be related to the level of care exercised by the blaster. It is anticipated that a negligence standard

182

Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel  

SciTech Connect

Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Time series of a CME blasting out from the Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Time series of a CME blasting out from the Sun Composite image of the Sun in UV light with the naked eye, the Sun seems static, placid, constant. From the ground, the only notice- able variations in the Sun are its location (where will it rise and set today?) and its color (will clouds cover

Christian, Eric

185

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30 -->'' at 250 ?m. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of ~30 -->''; postflight pointing reconstruction to 5 -->'' rms is achieved. The onboard telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a preselected set of maps, with the option of manual override. In this paper we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hr flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hr, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, in 2006 December.

E. Pascale; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; E. L. Chapin; J. Chung; M. J. Devlin; S Dicker; M. Griffin; J. O. Gundersen; M. Halpern; P. C. Hargrave; D. H. Hughes; J. Klein; C. J. MacTavish; G. Marsden; P. G. Martin; T. G. Martin; P. Mauskopf; C. B. Netterfield; L. Olmi; G. Patanchon; M. Rex; D. Scott; C. Semisch; N. Thomas; M. D. P. Truch; C. Tucker; G. S. Tucker; M. P. Viero; D. V. Wiebe

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Trends and guidelines in water pollution control in the Finnish pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect

There are about 50 paper and pulp mills in Finland. In this paper, their production capacities in 1988 are illustrated. Pulp and paper production has increased quite rapidly during the last few decades. The greatest increase incurred in the production of bleached kraft pulp and mechanical pulp. The production of sulfite pulp has decreased during recent years. Within paper the production of printing papers has had the biggest increase. Estimates predict that the production capacity of the finish pulp and paper industry will show an average increase of 4% per year by the middle of this decade. Final production in 1987 and one estimate of production in 1992 are given. Wastewater loadings per production output are decreasing.

Junna, J. (National Board of Waters and the Environment, P.O. Box 250, SF-00101 Helsinki (FI)); Ruonala, S. (Environmental Research and Development Programme of the Finnish Forest Industry, P.O. Box 250, SF-00101 Helsinki (FI))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Microsoft Word - Pulp and Paper EPI Documentation FINAL 05212012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE - DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE DEVELOPMENT OF ENERGY STAR® ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD MILLS GALE A. BOYD AND YI FANG GUO DUKE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS BOX 90097, DURHAM, NC 27708 MAY 21, 2012 SPONSORED BY THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AS PART OF THE ENERGY STAR PROGRAM. 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the U.S. EPA Climate Protection Partnerships Division's ENERGY STAR program. The research has benefited from comments by participants involved with the ENERGY STAR Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry Focus meetings. The research in this paper was conducted while the author was a Special Sworn Status researcher of the U.S. Census Bureau at the Triangle Census

188

Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007. Dual pressure recovery boiler. Patent No. : US 7243619Cycle Power or Recovery Boiler into an Existing Pulp Mill".Monacelli. 2009. "Recovery Boiler Reheat Steam Cycle". Paper

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Dried Citrus Peel and Pulp as a Feed for Lactating Cows.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

between the three esperiments. DISCUSSION diffi grol I!! i>n 14 ,>,,. ( t!le:: ftl![l fere esults of the effects of feeding citrus peel and pulp in the dairy :entrate mixture using 5070 of the entire concentrate mixture as us pulp as compared... between the three esperiments. DISCUSSION diffi grol I!! i>n 14 ,>,,. ( t!le:: ftl![l fere esults of the effects of feeding citrus peel and pulp in the dairy :entrate mixture using 5070 of the entire concentrate mixture as us pulp as compared...

Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas); Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah)

1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wastewater treatment and sludge handling at pulp and paperutilization b -2.52 e Sludge recovery and utilization butilization, incorporating sludge recovery and utilization,

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge  

SciTech Connect

The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

The intoxicating brew of black liquor and son of black liquor: Deciphering the tax planning, research, policy and financial statement implications of tax credits via financial reporting income tax disclosures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 2007, a change in the law regarding the alternative fuel mixture credit opened the door for paper mills to qualify a byproduct of paper manufacturing, black liquor, as a fuel eligible for the credit. The credit is a refundable credit of $0.50 per gallon. Paper mills can produce hundreds of millions of gallons of black liquor per year and qualified for the credit in 2009. In addition, in 2010 the IRS determined that these firms qualified for the cellulosic biofuels producer credit. Paper mill companies could amend their 2009 tax returns and swap their alternative fuel mixture credits for cellulosic biofuels producer credits worth $1.01 per gallon. The catch was that the alternative fuels mixture credit was refundable; the cellulosic biofuels producer credit was nonrefundable. This paper provides a series of mini cases exploring the tax planning, tax research, tax policy and financial statement implications of Packaging Corporation of Americas use of the alternative fuel mixture tax credit and subsequent amendment of its 2009 tax return in 2010 to swap its alternative fuel mixture tax credits for cellulosic biofuel producer credits. These cases may be directed for use in either upper-division undergraduate courses or graduate courses.

Beth B. Kern

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

The effect of TMP refining using an adjustable-speed drive on energy consumption and pulp quality. [ThermoMechanical Pulp  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of TMP refining using adjustable-speed drive (ASD) on energy consumption and pulp quality. The project is based on the studies of disc refiner models at high- and low-consistency refining. The primary objectives is to examine the potential energy efficiency improvement of a TMP system by evaluating the effect of TMP refining using ASD in pilot scale at the Center for High Yield Pulping Science. The pilot experimental results show that certain benefits of TMP refining using ASD can be obtained. Preliminary results demonstrate that increasing the first stage of refining speed reduces electrical energy at similar pulp quality.

Su, W.; Hsieh, J. (Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Assessment of the potential of CHP technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries.

197

Airblast and ground vibration generation and propagation from contour mine blasting. Report of investigations/1984  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines studied airblast and ground vibrations produced by surface coal mine blasting in Appalachia to determine the topographic or other region-specific effects on generation and propagation. Arrays of seismographs were used to measure blast effects in both rolling-terrain and steep-slope contour coal mining areas. Comparisons were then made with previous blasting data from studies of midwest coal mines located in flat areas.

Stachura, V.J.; Siskind, D.E.; Kopp, J.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

EXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBER AND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH OPACITY PAPER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alkalinity, precipitates calcium carbonate (PCC) in situ within pulp fibers. Because paper made from fiber include increasing the recovery and utilization of recycled fiber and optimizing virgin fiber yieldEXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBER AND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH

Abubakr, Said

199

Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/0702/citing-global- warming-georgia-judge-blocks-coal-plant/picture1.jpg/5307532-1-eng-US/picture1.jpgColor Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power color from pulp mill effluent using coal ash. Prevent coal ash adsorbent from leaching arsenic

Hutcheon, James M.

200

Characterization of Coke Properties at Tuyere Level of an Operating Blast Furnace.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coke performance in an operating blast furnace is often empirically related to popular bench-scale tests, which are performed at relative much lower temperatures. Due to (more)

Ye, Zhuozhu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Investigation of Primary Blast Injury and Protection using Sagittal and Transverse Finite Element Head Models.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The prevalence of blast related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in recent military conflicts, attributed in part to an increased exposure to improvised explosive devices (more)

Singh, Dilaver

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Mathematical modelling of the flow and combustion of pulverized coal injected in ironmaking blast furnace.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology is widely practised in blast furnace ironmaking due to economic, operational and environmental benefits. High burnout of pulverized coal in (more)

Shen, Yansong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Department of Energy Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp and Paper Industry Department of Energy Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp and Paper Industry December 20, 2005 - 4:50pm Addthis Total Cost-Shared Value of Research is $4.3 Million WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded $2.2 million in research and development grants for projects to save energy in the pulp and paper industry. The research will focus on removing water from pulp in the paper making process and determining the technical and commercial feasibility of next generation manufacturing concepts. "New efficient technologies and processes are key to reducing our energy consumption now and in the future," said Douglas L. Faulkner, Acting Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

204

The Fractionation of Loblolly Pine Woodchips Into Pulp For Making Paper Products  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project was to test the PureVision biomass fractionation technology for making pulp from loblolly pine. A specific goal was to produce a pulp product that is comparable to pulp produced from the kraft process, while reducing the environmental effects of the kraft process, known to be a highly pollutant process. The overall goal of the project was met by using the biomass fractionation concept for making pulp product. This proof-of-concept study, done with Southern pine pinchips as feedstock, evaluated NaOH concentration and residence time as variables in single-stage cocurrent pulping process. It can be concluded that 1% NaOH is adequate for effective delignification using the PureVision process; this is about ? of that used in the kraft process. Also, the PureVision process does not use sulfur-based chemicals such as N2S and hence, is environmentally more benign.

Kiran Kadam, PhD

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

205

Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

206

Cogeneration handbook for the pulp and paper industry. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the pulp and paper industry. Appendices B and O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

Griffin, E.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Compaction of wood chips - physical and pulping characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The temperatures of the uncompacted chips of Pinus taeda were, in general, higher than those of compacted chips when stored outdoors in containers for 236 days. The results of the study after storage indicated that the moisture content (MC) of compacted chips is the same as that of green chips, the uncompacted equivalent mass of chips exhibits a substantial loss in MC, and there is approximately 18% increase in MC of the uncompacted chips simulating a stockpile when compared with MC of green chips. The compaction process neither damaged wood fibers nor altered the chip response to conventional pulping.

Hassan, A.E.; Reeves, R.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Blasting of the Twin Creek`s highwall failure  

SciTech Connect

On December 26, 1994, at 1:00 a.m., the Twin Creeks Mine experienced a major highwall failure involving over 2.5 million tons. The long chain of events that led up to this failure actually started in late August when a truck driver first noticed the cracks in the highwall. Soon after, an intense survey prism monitoring program was initiated. An electronic, continuous monitor linked to Dispatch was soon in place which monitored the crack that was most likely to fail into the active pit area first. It wasn`t until early December when the graphs started showing greater increases in movement. On December 22, the acceleration curves skied-out. The 600 ft. highwall finally collapsed about three days later and left material spread 800 ft. across the bottom of the pit. Not knowing if the large overhangs above the slide would soon give away sending more material into the pit or if the numerous tension cracks on the surface would result in yet another major failure, it was only after restoring the rigid monitoring program and observing no movement that the company decided to drill and blast the overhanging material. The purpose of the blast wasn`t to cast the material into the pit, but to kick-out the toe so that the weight of material above would fall upon itself. After two months of preparation and almost three weeks of drilling and loading, the shot occurred on March 21, 1995. Approximately one million tons were successfully blasted that day, and presently they have completed mining the slough material itself and reestablished benches from the top.

Gray, C.J.; Bachmann, J.A. [Santa Fe Pacific Gold Corp., Winnemucca, NV (United States). Twin Creeks Mine

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Fundamental study of black liquor gasification kinetics using a pressurized entrained-flow reactor (PEFR). Quarterly progress report for the period July 1999 to September 1999  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the program is to identify the optimal operating window for black liquor gasification. The goals during this year are to prepare the PEFR for operation, conduct a series of preliminary screening tests to bracket BLG operating conditions, and develop a process model that can guide identification of the optimal operating window.

NONE

1999-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

210

Effectiveness of advanced coating systems for mitigating blast effects on steel components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effectiveness of advanced coating systems for mitigating blast effects on steel components C. Chen1 tool for steel components. The response of polyurea coated steel components under blast loading of polyurea onto armor grade steel plates and an examination of resulting failure modes and governing design

211

Blast-Induced Biomechanical Loading of the Rat: An Experimental and Anatomically Accurate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computational Blast Injury Model Aravind Sundaramurthy, Aaron Alai, Shailesh Ganpule, Aaron Holmberg, Erwan head injuries. This has led to an increased number of blast studies of animal models, head surrogates traumatic brain injury (TBI) in soldiers and civilians. In vivo animal models that use shock tubes

Farritor, Shane

212

Quantification and characterization of regional seismic signals from cast blasting in mines: a linear elastic model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......detonalions that sometimes accompany standard blasting operations. The models...past signal character. We also plan to study the effects of imperfect...pulse with, xf.A thorough review by Michael Hedlin is also appreciated...explosions from simultaneous mining blasts, Bull. seism. Soc......

Sridhar Anandakrishnan; Steven R. Taylor; Brian W. Stump

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Analysis of seismic waves generated by surface blasting at Indiana coal mines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of seismic waves generated by surface blasting at Indiana coal mines A project pursuant is to investigate the characteristics of mine blast seismic waves in southern Indiana. Coal mines are prevalent implications for understanding different seismic sources, earthquake structures in Indiana, and wave

Polly, David

214

A METHOD FOR RAPID VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURES LOADED BY OUTSIDE BLASTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the structural reliability information for the vulnerability analysis. 1 Corresponding Author: Jamova 39, SI-1000 , Matjaz Leskovar, Marko Cepin, Borut Mavko "Jozef Stefan" Institute, Reactor Engineering Division Keywords blast loads, buildings, rapid assessment, structural reliability ABSTRACT The blast loads have in most

Cizelj, Leon

215

The Utilization and Recovery of Energy from Blast Furnaces and Converters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE UTILIZATION AND RECOVERY OF ENERGY FROM BLAST FURNACES AND CONVERTERS Dr.-Ing. Rolf-D. Baare, Ober-Ing. Karl-Rudolf Hegemann and Ing. (grad.) Theodor Niess Gottfried Bischoff GmbH &Co. KG Essen, W. Germany ABSTRACT The Bischoff Blast...

Hegemann, K. R.; Niess, T.; Baare, R. D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Incineration of Residue from Paint Stripping Operations Using Plastic Media Blasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i INCINERATION OF RESIDUE FROH PAINT STRIPPING OPERATIONS USING PLASTIC MEDIA BLASTING J. E. HELT N. MALLYA Group Leader Chemist Chemical Technology Division Chemical Technology Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National... Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Argonne, Illinois ABSTRACT A preliminary investigation has been performed on the environmental consequences of incinerating plastic-media-blasting (PHB) wastes from paint removal operations. PHB is similar to sandblasting...

Helt, J. E.; Mallya, N.

217

Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition  

SciTech Connect

The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD waste liquors. Quarterly technical report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

During this quarterly period, an experimental investigation was performed to study the precipitation kinetics and hydrolysis characteristics of calcium imido disulfonate crystals (CaADS). The CaADS crystals were precipitated by a metathetical reaction of lime, supplied by Dravo Lime Co., with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber waste liquor. Before approaching for the continuous Double Draw-Off (DDO) crystallization studies, the influence of a Dravo lime slurry on the precipitation characteristics of N-S compounds will be established. A series of N-S compound batch crystallization studies were completed in a wide range of pH (7.0--9.0), and the influence of pH on the amount of lime required, as well as the amount of precipitate obtained, was investigated. Although the amount of precipitate increased with increase in solution pH, the safe or optimum pH for the precipitation of CaADS lies in the vicinity of 8.2 to 8.3. For studying the crystallization characteristics of CaADS crystals, a bench scale 7.0 liter DDO crystallizer was built. DDO crystallizer is found to be superior compared to Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer. The precipitated crystals were analyzed for elemental composition by chemical analysis. The crystals were also examined under optical microscope for their morphological features. The present studies confirmed our prediction that N-S compounds in the waste liquor can be precipitated by a reaction with lime slurry. The precipitated crystals were mostly calcium imido disulfonate.

Randolph, A.D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Unrau, E.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

Drilling and blasting techniques and costs for strip mines in Appalachia  

SciTech Connect

On-site investigations of blasting techniques were conducted at twenty surface coal mining operations in the steep slopes of Appalachia. The mine sites represented a range of mountain mining methods and annual coal production levels; all sites used similar techniques and equipment for the removal of fragmented waste rock. Hole loading characteristics and constraints limiting blast designs were observed at each mine site. This report summarizes technical blasting data and geological conditions which require special design considerations. Three mine sites were selected for future research in fragmentation efficiency. Detailed economic data on drilling and blasting were gathered from the three research sites and are reported herein. A great deal of fragmentation difficulties stem from tough, unpredictable geology with specific bedding characteristics and local zones of defined structural weaknesses such as jointing and vertical seams. Exceptionally hard bedrock, existing as a caprock or as the basal layer above the coal seam, persists as the cause of oversize rock breakage or, in the latter case, damage to the coal unless special precautions are taken. Federal blasting regulations strictly control the amount of explosives used as well as throw of the fragmented rock. This requires that blasting modifications be employed. The nature and extent of blast modifications were observed to be related to terrain and demographic conditions around the mine site. Drilling and blasting costs reported for the three mine sites averaged $0.21 per cubic yard of material blasted. Drilling costs varied widely, as drilling time was indicative of geologies and often, drilling costs remained the greatest percentage of total blasting and drilling costs.

Aimone, C.T.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures Emerald Article: A study of the blast-induced brain white-matter damage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures Emerald Article: A study of the blast, (2012),"A study of the blast-induced brain white-matter damage and the associated diffuse axonal injury Abstract Purpose ­ Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a signature injury of the current military

Grujicic, Mica

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Computational Modeling of Human Head Under Blast Shailesh Ganpule, Dr. Linxia Gu, Dr. Guoxin Cao, Dr.Namas Chandra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computational Modeling of Human Head Under Blast Loading Shailesh Ganpule, Dr. Linxia Gu, Dr;Presentation Objective: To understand role of helmet in blast induced Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI: To understand underlying mechanisms of blast induced Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and develop mitigation

Farritor, Shane

222

Continuous On-Line Measurement of Lignin Concentration in Wood Pulp  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). In the second, the pulp is loaded into an open j so that the laser directly illuminates the pulp. Res Il~ obtained with the two methods are comparable e ut the open jar approach allows better control and wider variation of the pulp consistency. In both... spanning the range of Kappa numbers from approximately 15 to 55. The range of Kappa numbers was achieved by removing samples from the digester at different times so that within a set. each of the samples came from the same parent wood-chip stock...

Jeffers, L. A.; Roman, G. W.

223

Refining intensity, energy consumption, and pulp quality in two-stage chip refining  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on thermomechanical pulps produced in two pilot plant installations. Both installations were conventional two-stage systems in which the first stage was pressurized and the second was atmospheric. At a given specific energy, pulp quality was improved. Alternatively, for a given pulp quality, the energy consumption was reduced when refining in the first stage was carried out at a high refining intensity. High refining intensity was reached by operating the first stage either at a high rotational speed or low consistency. There were indications that these benefits could be enhanced if the second stage were operated at a low refining intensity.

Miles, K.B.; May, W.D.; Karnis, A. (Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, 570 St. John's Boulevard, Pointe Claire, Quebec H9R 3J9 (CA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

screen out thick chips, boiler maintenance, steam trapSteamProductionandEfficiency Boilermaintenance Improvedofblackliquorinrecoveryboiler Hightemperaturevideo

Xu, Tengfang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency with regard to carbon capture". Energy 31 (15):67 3.6. Emerging Carbon Capture Technologies for the Pulp2011. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage in

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Surface selective removal of xylan from refined never-dried birch kraft pulp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the effect of enzyme treatment on refined, never-dried bleached birch kraft pulp was investigated, using an endo-1,4-?-xylanase, that is substantially free from cellulase activity. The xylanase tre...

Esa Saukkonen; Katja Lyytikinen; Pavel Geydt; Kaj Backfolk

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and the petroleum refining industries. The report also estimates the energy savings potential available from implementing steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

228

Advanced Powerhouse Controls Save Pulp Mill $500 in Purchased Energy in First Month  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This case study describes the application of advanced regulatory and supervisory controls to powerhouse operations at a large pulp mill in central British Columbia. Substantial reductions in mill operating costs were achieved by actively managing...

Morrison, R.; Hilder, S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

DOE Joint Genome Institute: Breaking down cellulose without blasting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 2011 4, 2011 Breaking down cellulose without blasting lignin: "Dry rot" genome offers lessons for biofuel pretreatment WALNUT CREEK, Calif.-Feared by realtors and homeowners alike, dry rot due to the fungus Serpula lacrymans causes millions of dollars worth of damage to homes and buildings around the world. This brown rot fungus' capacity to break down the cellulose in wood led to its selection for sequencing by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in 2007, with the goal of identifying the enzymes involved in the degradation process and using the information to improve cellulosic biofuels production. Photo: A variant of Serpula lacrymans causes dry rot. (Dave Brown via Flickr/Creative Commons Attribution 2.0) As reported online July 14 in Science Express, an international team of

230

A Thoracic Mechanism of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Blast Pressure Waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic mechanism is considered in light of ballistic and blast pressure wave research. Ballistic pressure waves, caused by penetrating ballistic projectiles or ballistic impacts to body armor, can only reach the brain via an internal mechanism and have been shown to cause cerebral effects. Similar effects have been documented when a blast pressure wave has been applied to the whole body or focused on the thorax in animal models. While vagotomy reduces apnea and bradycardia due to ballistic or blast pressure waves, it does not eliminate neural damage in the brain, suggesting that the pressure wave directly affects the brain cells via a thoracic mechanism. ...

Courtney, Amy; 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.08.015

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin [Enakievo Metallurgical Plant, Enakievo (Ukraine)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Blast-furnace smelting with the injection of natural gas and coke-oven gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A multizone mathematical model developed at Nekrasov Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy reveals the internal relations between the processes in a blast furnace. Using this model, the smelting processes and parameter...

I. G. Tovarovskii; A. E. Merkulov

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Quantification of dilatory resistance in four rice cultivars to rice blast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dilatory resistance of two rice Cultivars, Jackson and Maybelle, to rice blast was expressed as decreases in different components of resistance. Incubation period was found to be more important in determining dilatory resistance than the other...

Katsar, Catherine Susan

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

1982-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

235

The design and retrofit of buildings for resistance to blast-induced progressive collapse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, concern has risen drastically regarding the suitability of structural design for blast resistance. Historic events have proven that buildings that are designed in compliance with conventional building codes ...

Abbott Galvo Sobreira Lopes, Isabel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Instrumentation is needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. This paper describes the development and characterization of oxy-acetylene driven, laboratory scale shock tubes for use in studying blast injury, candidate armor materials, and material properties at blast loading rates. The pressure-time profiles show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of blast waves and have relevant durations. The modular design includes shock tube diameters of 27 mm and 41 mm, and a selection of peak pressures from 204 kPa to 920 kPa can be produced by selection of the driver section diameter and placement of the test sample. Characterization studies of several driver/driven section combinations showed consistent results, with peak pressures having 0.8 - 6.9 percent uncertainty in the mean. This shock tube design provides a more realistic blast profile than current air-driven shock tubes. In addition, operation does not require specialized personnel or facilities like most blast-driven...

Courtney, Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Treatment of pulp mill sludges by supercritical water oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is new process that can oxidize organics very effectively at moderate temperatures (400 to 650{degree}C) and high pressure (3700 psi). It is an environmentally acceptable alternative for sludge treatment. In bench scale tests, total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) reductions of 99 to 99.9% were obtained; dioxin reductions were 95 to 99.9%. A conceptual design for commercial systems has been completed and preliminary economics have been estimated. Comparisons confirm that SCWO is less costly than dewatering plus incineration for treating pulp mill sludges. SCWO can also compete effectively with dewatering plus landfilling where tipping fees exceed $35/yd{sup 3}. In some regions of the US, tipping fees are now $75/yd{sup 3} and rising steadily. In the 1995 to 2000 time frame, SCWO has a good chance of becoming the method of choice. MODEC's objective is to bring the technology to commercial availability by 1993. 10 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

Modell, M.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp  

SciTech Connect

This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

Simo Sarkanen

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

239

Ketchikan Pulp's hog-fuel-boiler energy retrofits  

SciTech Connect

Ketchikan Pulp Co. (KPC) is a 600-b.d. Ton/day sulfite mill located 679 Alaska Airlines miles north of Seattle on the island of Revillagigedo. Designed to produce 860 psig steam at 825[degrees]F, each of the boilers is fired off a combination of No. 6 oil and waste wood. This paper reports that in 1984, a rotary bark dyer was installed in series between the existing boiler I.D. fans and the boiler stack. This system consists of a direct-contact rotary dryer unit followed by an additional I.D. fan and four cyclone separators. The combustion gases then return to the existing stack by way of the existing I.D. fan discharge ducting. This unit was designed to operate at a flue-gas inlet temperature of 550[degrees]F and maintained a discharge temperature of 300[degrees]F. The unit was designed to process approximately 360 units of hog fuel per day, drying it from 60% moisture to 40% moisture in a single-pass operation.

Sweet, R.N. (Howard Needles Tammen and Bergendoff, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation  

SciTech Connect

The deployment and use of lithium-ion batteries in automotive and stationary energy storage applications must be optimized to justify their high up-front costs. Given that batteries degrade with use and storage, such optimizations must evaluate many years of operation. As the degradation mechanisms are sensitive to temperature, state-of-charge histories, current levels, and cycle depth and frequency, it is important to model both the battery and the application to a high level of detail to ensure battery response is accurately predicted. To address these issues, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) suite of tools. This suite of tools pairs NREL's high-fidelity battery degradation model with a battery electrical and thermal performance model, application-specific electrical and thermal performance models of the larger system (e.g., an electric vehicle), application-specific system use data (e.g., vehicle travel patterns and driving data), and historic climate data from cities across the United States. This provides highly realistic, long-term predictions of battery response and thereby enables quantitative comparisons of varied battery use strategies.

Neubauer, J.

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report; Summary  

SciTech Connect

The LTC coating removal system consists of several hand tools such as a Roto Peen scaler and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The PTC-6 is a vacuum system designed to be used with surface decontamination equipment. Dust and debris are captured by a high efficiency particulate filter (HEPA) vacuum system that deposits the waste directly into an on-board 23-gallon waste drum. The PTC-6 utilizes compressed air delivered from a source via an air hose connected to the air inlet to drive the hand held power tools. The control panel regulated the air pressure delivered to the tool. A separate compressed air flow powers the vacuum generator. The vacuum hoses connect the power tools to the dust chamber, returning paint chips and dust from the surface. A third compressed air flow is used to clean filters by pulsing air through a pipe with slots. The blasts of air shake dust and debris from the filter fabric.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

Overview of the government/industry workshop on opportunities for new materials in pulp and paper processing  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a synopsis of the presentations made at the two-day workshop conducted in Portland, Oregon, on August 12 and 13, 1993, for the Advanced Industrial Concepts division (AICD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) and DOE national laboratory representatives from the pulp and paper industry. The information from the presentations is supplemented by additional statistics, as appropriate. The workshop objectives were (1) to develop a strategy and framework for collaboration between the pulp and paper industries and DOE`s national laboratories, (2) to identify major challenges to pulp and paper industry modernization, and (3) to identify research objectives for DOE national laboratories to improve materials and process technology in pulp and paper mills. Prior to the workshop, participants had the opportunity to tour paper mills and gain familiarity with pulp and paper processing methods. During the workshop, research needs for materials and processing that were identified at earlier AICD workshops were reviewed. Major problems of the pulp and paper industry were addressed, and ways in which DOE national laboratories are interacting with other industries to foster innovation and solve problems were presented. As a result of this and other workshops, a Pulp Paper Mill of the future strategy is being developed to address challenges identified in these proceedings. Continued efforts are expected by AICD to match candidate materials and processes from DOE national laboratories with the technology needs of pulp and paper mills.

Young, J.K.; Fowler, R.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

On the conversion of blast wave energy into radiation in active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been suggested that relativistic blast waves may power the jets of AGN and gamma-ray bursts (GRB). We address the important issue how the kinetic energy of collimated blast waves is converted into radiation. It is shown that swept-up ambient matter is quickly isotropised in the blast wave frame by a relativistic two-stream instability, which provides relativistic particles in the jet without invoking any acceleration process. The fate of the blast wave and the spectral evolution of the emission of the energetic particles is therefore solely determined by the initial conditions. We compare our model with existing multiwavelength data of AGN and find remarkable agreement.

Martin Pohl; Reinhard Schlickeiser

1999-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

244

Proceedings of the 6th international Conference on Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Advances in Applied and Fundamental Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of the 6th international Conference on Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry during refining, improved paper strength properties, and reduced the environmental impact of pulping (2 for pulping. The chemical demand can also be lessened due to prior degradation of the lignin by the fungus

Abubakr, Said

245

Low effluent processing in the pulp and paper industry: Electrodialysis for continuous selective chloride removal  

SciTech Connect

Pollution prevention is currently a major focus of the United States pulp and paper industry. Significant process changes are inevitable to implement low effluent processing. The kraft pulping process is prevalent for the production of wood pulp. About 50 million tons of wood pulp are produced annually in the United States alone using the kraft process. Water consumption is currently roughly between 30 and 200 m{sup 3} of water per ton of air dry bleached kraft pulp. In-process recycling of water is now being implemented by many mills to reduce the use of increasingly scarce water resources and to reduce the need for waste-water treatment. Mass balance considerations and industrial experience show that nonprocess elements, which are detrimental to the kraft process, such as chloride and potassium, will quickly build up once water use is significantly reduced. High concentrations of chloride and potassium can cause corrosion and lead to more frequent mill shutdowns due to fouling of heat exchanger surfaces in the kraft recovery furnace. Electrodialysis will monovalent selective anion and cation exchange membranes was explored here to selectively remove chlorine as sodium and potassium chloride from a feed stream with very high ionic strength. Experiments with model solutions and extended tests with the actual pulp mill materials were performed. Very good selectivities and current efficiencies were observed for chloride over sulfate. The outstanding performance of the process with actual mill materials containing organic and inorganic contamination shows great promise for rapid transfer to the pilot scale. This work is an example of the usefulness of membrane separations as a kidney in low effluent industrial processing.

Pfromm, P.H. [Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use | ENERGY  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources

247

Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittals Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

Seaman, John

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

248

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

249

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

250

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and NAICS Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas from Local

251

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas

252

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace

253

DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 5 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 iii COVER SHEET Responsible Agency: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Title: Final Environmental Assessment for the Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture Project at the ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. Indiana Harbor Steel Mill, East Chicago, Indiana

254

A Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Philip Hahnfeldt Tufts University School of Medicine Abstract Among radiation-induced cancers, some leukemias, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have especially high excess relative risks. CML, sporadic or radiogenic, is also thought to be comparatively very well understood. Accordingly, CML is considered an important model for assessing radiogenic cancer risk. CML is characterized by a specific chromosome translocation, the BCR-ABL fusion gene, and it has been widely postulated that an advanced stage, CML blast crisis originates mainly via cell-autonomous mechanisms such as secondary mutations or genomic instability. However, there is growing evidence that intercellular interactions can play a critical role

255

Skull flexure from blast waves: a mechanism for brain injury with implications for helmet design  

SciTech Connect

Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various possibilities have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that nonlethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for the diagnosis of soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.

Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

256

soft X-ray background as a supernova blast wave viewed from inside: solar abundance models  

SciTech Connect

A model of the soft X-ray background is presented in which the Sun is assumed to be inside an active supernova blast wave. The blast wave evolves in a preexisting cavity. The broad band surface brightnesses is explained by such a blast wave with an explosion energy of E sub approx. 5 x 10 to the 50th power ergs and radius 80 to 100 pc, using solar abundances. An approach to treating the problem of large anisotropies in the ambient medium is also explored, accommodating the observed anticorrelation between the soft X-ray surface brightness and the 21 cm column density. It is found that only for post shock temperatures below 10 6 K a shock propagating into a density enhancement will be dimmer than a similar shock in a lower density region.

Edgar, R.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Performance testing of lead free primers: blast waves, velocity variations, and environmental testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results are presented for lead free primers based on diazodinitrophenol (DDNP)compared with tests on lead styphnate based primers. First, barrel friction measurements in 5.56 mm NATO are presented. Second, shot to shot variations in blast waves are presented as determined by detonating primers in a 7.62x51mm rifle chamber with a firing pin, but without any powder or bullet loaded and measuring the blast wave at the muzzle with a high speed pressure transducer. Third, variations in primer blast waves, muzzle velocities, and ignition delay are presented after environmental conditioning (150 days) for two lead based and two DDNP based primers under cold and dry (-25 deg C,0% relative humidity), ambient (20 deg C, 50% relative humidity), and hot & humid (50 deg C, 100% relative humidity) conditions in 5.56 mm NATO. Taken together, these results indicate that DDNP based primers are not sufficiently reliable for service use.

Courtney, Elya; Summer, Peter David; Courtney, Michael

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

What Efficiency Projects are Being Installed in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Wisconsin Focus on Energy program has seven years of experience on the actual projects that are being installed in the Pulp and Paper industry. The program has a broad perspective on the types and trends of investments in energy efficiency...

Nicol, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Study on the modification of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp using birch xylan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, birch xylan was deposited onto elementally chlorine free (ECF) bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp, and the corresponding changes in physical properties were determined. An aqueous 5% birch xylan solution at pH 9 was added to 5wt% slurry of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers, with stirring at 70C for 15min after which the pH was adjusted to 56. The xylan enriched fibers were isolated by filtration and used for physical testing. A 1.15wt% adsorption of birch xylan on the kraft fibers at 8% xylan addition increased the tensile index, strain and tensile energy absorption values by ?10%, while the burst index increased by 20.15%. The tear index increased by 2.55% with the adsorption of 0.87wt% birch xylan on the eucalyptus kraft pulp at 3% xylan addition. The pulp beatability was also improved by adding birch xylan. The surface morphology of the unmodified and modified pulp samples were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode. The analysis revealed the differences in the fine structure of fibers which showed micrometer-sized xylan structures spreading over the fiber surfaces.

Wenjia Han; Chuanshan Zhao; Thomas Elder; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang; Dongho Kim; Yunqiao Pu; Jeffery Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Energy Conservation Progress and Opportunities in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1980 the pulp and paper industry was the third ranking consumer of total purchased fuels and energy in the U.S. industrial sector and the highest single industry in terms of residual oil consumption. Over the past decade in response to rapidly...

Watkins, J. J.; Hunter, W. D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

In situ SEM micro-indentation of single wood pulp fibres in transverse direction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Fibre deformation and sheet strength. TAPPI (1996) 79:105-111. 4 Page DH , El-Hosseiny...compression loading of single pulp fibres. TAPPI (1986) 69:98-102. 6 Dunford JA...method, yield, beating, and drying. TAPPI (1970) 53:820-823. 11 Sedighi Gilani......

Ramesh-Babu Adusumalli; Rejin Raghavan; Patrick Schwaller; Tanja Zimmermann; Johann Michler

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

In situ SEM micro-indentation of single wood pulp fibres in transverse direction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......loading of single pulp fibres. TAPPI (1986) 69:98-102. 6 Dunford...yield, beating, and drying. TAPPI (1970) 53:820-823. 11...ESEM and video image analysis. TAPPI (1995) 78:143-148. 14...Fiber Sci. (1996) 28:429-437. 15 Gindl W , Gupta HS. Cell-wall......

Ramesh-Babu Adusumalli; Rejin Raghavan; Patrick Schwaller; Tanja Zimmermann; Johann Michler

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Planar blast scaling with condensed-phase explosives in a shock tube  

SciTech Connect

Blast waves are strong shock waves that result from large power density deposition into a fluid. The rapid energy release of high-explosive (HE) detonation provides sufficiently high power density for blast wave generation. Often it is desirable to quantify the energy released by such an event and to determine that energy relative to other reference explosives to derive an explosive-equivalence value. In this study, we use condensed-phase explosives to drive a blast wave in a shock tube. The explosive material and quantity were varied to produce blast waves of differing strengths. Pressure transducers at varying lengths measured the post-shock pressure, shock-wave arrival time and sidewall impulse associated with each test. Blast-scaling concepts in a one-dimensional geometry were then used to both determine the energy release associated with each test and to verify the scaling of the shock position versus time, overpressure versus distance, and impulse. Most blast scaling measurements to-date have been performed in a three-dimensional geometry such as a blast arena. Testing in a three-dimensional geometry can be challenging, however, as spherical shock-wave symmetry is required for good measurements. Additionally, the spherical wave strength decays rapidly with distance and it can be necessary to utilize larger (several kg) quantities of explosive to prevent significant decay from occurring before an idealized blast wave has formed. Such a mode of testing can be expensive, require large quantities of explosive, and be limited by both atmospheric conditions (such as rain) and by noise complaints from the population density near the test arena. Testing is possible in more compact geometries, however. Non-planar blast waves can be formed into a quasi-planar shape by confining the shock diffraction with the walls of a shock tube. Regardless of the initial form, the wave shape will begin to approximate a planar front after successive wave reflections from the tube walls. Such a technique has previously been used to obtain blast scaling measurements in the planar geometry with gaseous explosives and the condensed-phase explosive nitroguanidine. Recently, there has been much interest in the blast characterization of various non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) materials. With non-ideals, the detonation reaction zone is significantly larger (up to several cm for ANFO) than more ideal explosives. Wave curvature, induced by charge-geometry, can significantly affect the energy release associated with NIHEs. To measure maximum NIHE energy release accurately, it is desirable to minimize any such curvature and, if possible, to overdrive the detonation shock to ensure completion of chemical reactions ahead of the sonic locus associated with the reaction zone. This is achieved in the current study through use of a powerful booster HE and a charge geometry consisting of short cylindrical lengths of NIHE initiated along the charge centerline.

Jackson, Scott L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

264

Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Computational Modeling and Optimization of a Novel Shock Tube to Study Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Various 2D models to simulate the shock wave propagation in a shock tube to see the effects of varying shock tube geometry and working fluid on the blast profiles were developed. Ranges of different parameters evaluated are: tube length - 5ft to 25ft; tube...

Anumolu, Pratima

2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

266

Material Modeling and Development of a Realistic Dummy Testing Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Material Modeling and Development of a Realistic Dummy Head for Testing Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury S. G. M. Hossain1, C. A. Nelson1, T. Boulet2, M. Arnoult2, L. Zhang2, A. Holmberg2, J. Hein occurrence rate of traumatic brain injury (TBI) ­ 1.4 million people in US per year ­ 50,000 deaths ­ 235

Farritor, Shane

267

Shock Tube Design for High Intensity Blast Waves for Laboratory Testing of Armor and Combat Materiel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from ~1 MPa to ~5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods were investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral priming section which works by increasing the turbulent flow of the deflagration wave, thus increasing its speed and pressure. This approach increased the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (Friedlander waveform). The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increased the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. Using a 1...

Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Blasting Attenuation Study Crystal Ridge, MacDonald Ranch and MacDonald Highlands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;#12;#12;#12;Blasting Attenuation Study Crystal Ridge, MacDonald Ranch and MacDonald Highlands Ridge, MacDonald Ranch, and MacDonald Highlands. The purpose of this study was to · evaluate seismograph recorded in the Crystal Ridge, MacDonald Ranch, and MacDonald Highlands areas from 2/25/05 to 3

269

MICRO-METER MEASUREMENT OF CRACKS TO COMPARE BLAST AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to development of a new approach to vibration monitoring called autonomous crack measurement (ACM vibration time histories. Measurements reported herein show that weather- induced response of cracksMICRO-METER MEASUREMENT OF CRACKS TO COMPARE BLAST AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS. Charles H Dowding

270

Underwater blast loading of sandwich beams: Regimes of behaviour M.T. Tilbrook 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, with a time constant h on the order of millisec- onds. The magnitude of the shock wave peak pressure and decay are charted on maps using axes of blast impulse and core strength. The simulations indicate that continued (1948) and Swisdak (1978) and are repeated briefly here in order to underpin the current study

Fleck, Norman A.

271

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......material such as iron ore, coal and limestone in steel production...road construction can bring economic and environmental advantages...properties of concrete incorporating coal bottom ash and granulated blast...fly ashes produced in Turkish coal-burning thermal power plants......

F. A. Ugur; S. Turhan; H. Sahan; M. Sahan; E. Gren; F. Gezer; Z. Yegingil

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Computational Hydrocode Study of Target Damage due to Fragment-Blast Impact  

SciTech Connect

A target's terminal ballistic effects involving explosively generated fragments, along with the original blast, are of critical importance for many different security and safety related applications. Personnel safety and protective building design are but a few of the practical disciplines that can gain from improved understanding combined loading effects. Traditionally, any engineering level analysis or design effort involving explosions would divide the target damage analysis into two correspondingly critical areas: blast wave and fragment related impact effects. The hypothesis of this paper lies in the supposition that a linear combination of a blast-fragment loading, coupled with an accurate target response description, can lead to a non-linear target damage effect. This non-linear target response could then stand as the basis of defining what a synergistic or combined frag-blast loading might actually look like. The table below, taken from Walters, et. al. categorizes some of the critical parameters driving any combined target damage effect and drives the evaluation of results. Based on table 1 it becomes clear that any combined frag-blast analysis would need to account for the target response matching similar ranges for the mechanics described above. Of interest are the critical times upon which a blast event or fragment impact loading occurs relative to the target's modal response. A blast, for the purposes of this paper is defined as the sudden release of chemical energy from a given material (henceforth referred to as an energetic material) onto its surrounding medium. During the coupling mechanism a discrete or discontinuous shockwave is generated. This shockwave travels outward from the source transferring energy and momentum to any surrounding objects including personnel and engineering structures. From an engineering perspective blast effects are typically characterized by way of physical characteristics such as Peak Pressure (PP), Time of Arrival (TOA), Pressure-Impulse (PI) and Time of Duration (TD). Other peculiarities include the radial decrease in pressure from the source, any fireball size measurement, and subsequent increase in temperature from the passing of the shockwave through the surrounding medium. In light of all of these metrics, the loading any object receives from a blast event becomes intricately connected to the distance between itself and the source. Because of this, a clear distinction is made between close-in effects and those from a source far away from the object of interest. Explosively generated fragments on the other hand are characterized by means of their localized damage potential. Metrics such as whether the fragment penetrates or perforates a given object is quantified as well as other variables including fragment's residual velocity, % kinetic energy decrease, residual fragment mass and other exit criteria. A fragment launched under such violent conditions could easily be traveling at speeds in excess of 2500 ft/s. Given these speeds it is conceivable to imagine how any given fragment could deliver a concentrated load to a target and penetrates through walls, vehicles or even the protection systems of nearby personnel. This study will focus on the individual fragment-target impact event with the hopes of expanding it to eventually include statistical procedures. Since this is a modeling excursion into the combined frag-blast target damage effects the numerical methods used to frame this problem become important in-so-far as the simulations are done in a consistent manner. For this study a Finite-Element based Hydrocode solution called ALE3D (ALE=Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) was utilized. ALE3D is developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA), and as this paper will show, successfully implemented a converged ALE formulation including as many of the different aspects needed to query the synergistic damage on a given target. Further information on the modeling setup is included.

Hatch-Aguilar, T; Najjar, F; Szymanski, E

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

273

Mineralized and osteoid tissue from dental pulp stem cells on micro-arc oxidation titanium in vitro  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The presence of insufficient bone volume affects the implant healing and success. The aim of this study was to evaluate osteogenic capacity of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on micro-arc oxidation (MAO) titanium ...

Yi Huang ? ?; Ting Chang ? ?; Cheng Yang ? ?

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

primary stage consistency TAPPI Journal 80 (1). Allan, G. ;drying of pulp and paper, TAPPI Journal 8 (80). Pp. 175-impulse- drying temperature, TAPPI Journal 77(2). Pages:

Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Bleaching Miscanthus x giganteus Acetosolv Pulps with a New Totally Chlorine-free Sequence and the Effect of Carbohydrate Protectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The bleaching of semibleached Miscanthus x giganteus Acetosolv pulp, after alkaline and peroxyacetate treatments, was investigated by a novel totally chlorine-free (TCF) sequence. Oxygen delignification (O-stage), peroxide (P-stage), and oxygen-...

Juan Jos Villaverde; Pablo Ligero; Alberto de Vega

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

276

Diagnosing and modifying off-site blast effects by seismic means -- A case study  

SciTech Connect

A series of complaints were received from the owners of a 130 year-old farmhouse that had been converted into a bed and breakfast establishment. It was determined that blast effects were most noticeable on the third floor of the farmhouse. A vibration study was proposed aimed at isolating the actual cause of the perceived vibration. To aid in this determination, a customized, split-cable seismograph utilizing three single component transducers was deployed both in the interior and exterior of the farmhouse for two primary blasts. By utilizing a monitoring technique involving both interior and exterior sensors from a single seismograph, vibration time-histories from the three locations could be time-linked, providing an accurate assessment as to the actual mechanism responsible for the complaints. In this case, the split-cable array provided data indicating a low frequency ground vibration effect. Amplification of structure vibration due to the matching of the natural frequency of the farmhouse and the transmitted ground vibration was identified as the probable cause of the complaints. Given the potential impact of low frequency energy with surrounding properties, an analytical approach based on the concept of linear superpositioning was used to determine optimum delay intervals to reduce the off-site impact of future production blasts. Single-hole test blast data was recorded with traditional seismographs and analyzed using vibration control software. Utilization of recommended blasthole sequencing, combined with a change in blast orientation, resulted in the elimination of complaints at the farmhouse, in reduced vibration values at other neighboring properties and in a reduction in the overall liability exposure.

Brashear, S.; Brush, R.; Cook, B.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

Originally Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

August 2009 August 2009 Revised: October 2009 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Waste Blast Pulping Liquor Oils/Tars NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, and Waste Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Materials Total United States 311 Food 10 0 3 0 0 7 Q 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 7 0 1 0 0 6 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling 5 0 * 0 0 4 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food Q 0 * 0 0 0 Q 3115 Dairy Product * 0 * 0 0 0 0 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 1 0 1 0 0 * * 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products

278

Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010; 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Blast Pulping Liquor NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Total United States 311 Food 11 0 7 0 0 1 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 5 0 2 0 0 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling * 0 * 0 0 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing * 0 * 0 0 * 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 1 0 1 0 0 0 3115 Dairy Products 1 0 1 0 0 0 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 4 0 4 0 0 * 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 3 0 2 0 0 1 3121 Beverages 3 0 2 0 0 1 3122 Tobacco 0 0 0 0 0 0 313 Textile Mills 0 0 0 0 0 0 314 Textile Product Mills

279

Conifer tissue culture and how it may impact the pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on the state-of-the-art of tissue culture of conifers. Developments in organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are looked at. This technology is expected to help the pulp and paper industry in achieving its goal of maximum productivity in two principal ways: (a) by providing rapid and efficient in vitro propagation methods for elite trees, and (b) by providing a technology for producing desired hybrids via somatic cell genetics and hybridization.

Verma, D.C.; Einspahr, D.W.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Corn steep liquor and fermented ammoniated condensed whey as protein sources for lactating cows and yearling heifers grazing winter native range  

SciTech Connect

Corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermented ammoniated condensed whey (FACW) were compared to cottonseed meal (CSM) as protein sources for wintering 61 lactating first-calf Hereford heifers and 32 yearling Hereford heifers on native range. Cattle were allotted by weight and individually fed 6 days per week for 12 weeks one of four protein treatments: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), CSL and FACW to provide .7, 1.5, .15 and 1.5 lb crude protein (CP) per day, respectively, to the lacating heifers and .2, .4, .4 and .4lb cP per day, respectively, to the yearling heifers. CMS was supplied in the CSL and FACW treatments at the same level as in the negative control. Lactating heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight and body condition (120 lb and 1.6 units) than those fed the PC (45.8 lb and .9 units). Weight and condition losses were similar (P more than .05) for lactating heifers fed PC, CSL and FACW. Yearling heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (49.4 vs 10.6 lb). Yearling heifers fed CSL and FACW gained more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (17.6 and 9.3 vs - 10.6 lb). Feeding CSL resulted in signficantly lower rumen pH, lower ruminal acetate and higher ruminal butyrate, isovalerate and caproate levels than did feeding either control. Supplementing with FACW produced significantly lower rumen pH, higher rumen ammonia and soluble carbohydrate levels, lower ruminal acetate, and higher ruminal propionate and butyrate concentrations than did either control supplement. Corn steep liquor and FDCW appear to be effective protein sources for cows and heifers grazing winter native range.

Wagner, J.J.; Lusby, K.S.; Horn, G.W.; Dvorak, M.J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Recycling of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by using electrodialysis.  

SciTech Connect

Conservation of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by recycling the bleach plant effluent directly without treatment will cause accumulation of inorganic ''non-process elements'' (NPEs) and serious operational problems. In this work, an electrodialysis process is being developed for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached kraft pulp mills. In this process, electrodialysis functions as a selective kidney to remove inorganic NPEs from bleach plant effluents, before they reach the recovery cycle. Acidic bleach plant effluents from several mills using bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The total dissolved solids were mostly inorganic NPEs. Sodium was the predominant cation and chloride was present at significant levels in all these effluents. In laboratory electrodialysis experiments, selective removal of chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently. Rejection of organic compounds was up to 98%. Electrodialysis was shown to be resistant to membrane fouling and scaling, in a 100-hour laboratory experiment. Based on a model mill with 1,000 ton/day pulp production, the economic analysis suggests that the energy cost of electrodialysis is less than $200/day, and the capital cost of the stack is about $500,000.

Fracaro, A. T.; Henry, M. P.; Pfromm, P.; Tsai, S.-P.

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Investigation of sonic/subsonic air-blast atomization using Rayleigh- and Mie-scattering visualization techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To examine the jet mixing in air-blast twin fluid atomization, the sonic and supersonic air jet developments have been exclusively visualized using the Rayleigh scattering principle and the development of liquid spray has been separately visualized...

Kim, Tae-Kyun

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

284

Confined blasts, and the impact of shock wave reflections on a human head and the related traumatic brain injury  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine the effects of blast waves in a confined space on a human head model. A finite element human model (FEHM) is exposed to blast waves from explosions, as well as, to the reflected waves from the confinement walls. The intensity of the travelling blast shock waves is measured computationally and compared with experimental results. We monitor the mechanical response of the brain of the FEHM at different stand-off positions, either close to, or away from the surrounding walls in interaction with the travelling blast waves. The skull pressure, brain intracranial pressure (ICP), acceleration, shear stress, and principal stresses and strains are measured as the biomechanical parameters for injury diagnosis and compared for all the situations and stand-off positions considered. The results illustrate that the additional reflected shock waves due to the surrounding walls can dramatically change the brain biomechanical parameters.

Asghar Rezaei; Mehdi Salimi Jazi; Samad Javid; Ghodrat Karami; Mariusz Ziejewski

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Genes encoding multiples forms of phospholipase A2 are expressed in immature forms of human leukemic blasts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

leukemic blasts Letter to the Editor Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 position, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine which of PLA2 mRNAs were expressed

Boyer, Edmond

286

Placement of the dam for the no. 2 kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: some observations  

SciTech Connect

Results of complex instrument observations of large-scale blasting during construction of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Republic of Kirgizia are analyzed. The purpose of these observations was: to determine the actual parameters of the seismic process, evaluate the effect of air and acoustic shock waves, and investigate the kinematics of the surface formed by the blast in its core region within the mass of fractured rocks.

Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S. [JSC 'SPII Gidroproekt' (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

A Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Philip Hahnfeldt 1 , Lynn Hlatky 1 , Rainer Sachs 2 1 Center of Cancer Systems Biology, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA; and 2 Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA Among radiation-induced cancers, some leukemias, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have especially high excess relative risks. CML, sporadic or radiogenic, is also thought to be comparatively very well understood. Accordingly, CML is considered an important model for assessing radiogenic cancer risk. CML is characterized by a specific chromosome translocation, the BCR-ABL fusion gene, and it has been widely postulated that an advanced

288

An Integrated Model of Coal/Coke Combustion in a Blast Furnace  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A three?dimensional integrated mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance?blowpipe?tuyere?raceway?coke bed to simulate the operation of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates two parts: pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe?tuyere?raceway?coke bed and the coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements in terms of coal burnout and gas composition respectively. The comprehensive in?furnace phenomena are simulated in the raceway and coke bed in terms of flow temperature gas composition and coal burning characteristics. In addition underlying mechanisms for the in?furnace phenomena are analyzed. The model provides a cost?effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in?furnace flow?thermo?chemical characteristics of the PCI process in full?scale blast furnaces.

Y. S. Shen; B. Y. Guo; A. B. Yu; P. Austin; P. Zulli

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Thermal-destruction products of coal in the blast-furnace gas-purification system  

SciTech Connect

The lean, poorly clinkering coal and anthracite used to replace coke in blast furnaces has a considerable content of volatile components (low-molecular thermaldestruction products), which enter the water and sludge of the blast-furnace gas-purification system as petroleum products. Therefore, it is important to study the influence of coal on the petroleum-product content in the water and sludge within this system. The liberation of primary thermal-destruction products is investigated for anthracite with around 4 wt % volatiles, using a STA 449C Jupiter thermoanalyzer equipped with a QMC 230 mass spectrometer. The thermoanalyzer determines small changes in mass and thermal effects with high accuracy (weighing accuracy 10{sup -8} g; error in measuring thermal effects 1 mV). This permits experiments with single layers of coal particles, eliminating secondary reactions of its thermal-destruction products.

A.M. Amdur; M.V. Shibanova; E.V. Ental'tsev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Russia Institute of Metallurgy

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

ITP Forest Products: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Use by Fuel for Paper Manufacturing Purchased Electricity 7% Fuel Oil 5% Natural Gas 18% Self Generated & Renewable Energy (Spent Pulping Liquors, Bark, Wood, Hydropower)...

291

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and...

292

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March 1993--31 May 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. The basic program is designed to determine the reactivity of both coal and its derived char under blast furnace conditions and to compare the results to similar properties of blast furnace coke. The results of the first two experiments in which coal char pyrolyzed in nitrogen at 1000{degrees}C in an EPR were reacted isothermally in air at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. The reactivity values of the same char in these two experiments were different by an order of magnitude. The char reactivity at 1000{degrees}C was 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} grams per minute while the reactivity. of the char at 1200{degrees}C was 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} grams per minute. These results suggest that the temperature of the blast air in the tuyere may be critical in achieving complete carbon burnout.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Beryl Bravo -- Blast wells conversion: Development and testing of steel/carbon fiber composite  

SciTech Connect

Preparation of the Safety Case for Mobil`s Beryl B platform indicated that 2 non-structural fire walls required to be converted to blast walls be able to withstand overpressures from hydrocarbon explosions. Mobil has adopted a novel and innovative reinforcement using high strength, high modulus carbon fibers. The background to the project is described, together with the selection of the solution, the properties of the composite materials and the derivation of the application process.

Galbraith, D.N.; Barnes, F.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

NO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW BLAST WAVES ENCOUNTERING SUDDEN CIRCUMBURST DENSITY CHANGE  

SciTech Connect

Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power-law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called RAM, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreading, collimation, and edge effects of the blast wave as it encounters the change in circumburst medium. In all cases considered in this paper, we find that a flare will not be observed for any of the density changes studied.

Gat, Ilana; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

295

Using coal-dust fuel in Ukrainian and Russian blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Ukrainian and Russian blast-furnace production falls short of the best global practices. It is no secret that, having switched to oxygen and natural gas in the 1960s, the blast-furnace industries have improved the batch and technological conditions and have attained a productivity of 2.5 and even 3 t/(m{sup 3} day), but have not been able to reduce coke consumption below 400 kg/t, which was the industry standard 40 years ago. The situation is particularly bad in Ukraine: in 2007, furnace productivity was 1.5-2 t/m{sup 3}, with a coke consumption of 432-530 kg/t. Theoretical considerations and industrial experience over the last 20 years show that the large-scale introduction of pulverized fuel, with simultaneous improvement in coke quality and in batch and technological conditions, is the only immediately available means of reducing coke consumption considerably (by 20-40%). By this means, natural-gas consumption is reduced or eliminated, and the efficiency of blast-furnace production and ferrous metallurgy as a whole is increased.

A.A. Minaev; A.N. Ryzhenkov; Y.G. Banninkov; S.L. Yaroshevskii; Y.V. Konovalov; A.V. Kuzin [Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

297

Modeling and simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm{sup 3} voxels), 5 material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female dataset. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior and lateral directions. Three dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric (shear) stress within the first 2 milliseconds of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 msec time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.

Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Taylor, Paul Allen

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Formation of chlorinated dioxins during production of bleached kraft pulp from sawmill chips contaminated with polychlorinated phenols  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, sawmills used polychlorinated phenol (polyCP) formulations to prevent sap-staining of undried lumber. Bleached kraft pulp mills that used chips from polyCP-treated lumber were found to have elevated levels of hexachlorinated dioxins (hexaCDD) in their pulps, effluents, and sludges. This report presents the results of an investigation to elucidate the mechanism of hexaCDD formation during kraft pulping of polyCP-contaminated sawmill chips. The major constituents of the polyCP formulations- tetraCP and pentaCP-play a negligible role in hexaCDD formation. Polychlorinated phenoxyphenol (polyCPP) contaminants in the polyCP formulations are the key contributing factors, with hexaCDD contamination occurring as a consequence of digester-mediated condensation of polyCPP (i.e., predioxin) contaminants.

Luthe, C.E.; Berry, R.M.; Voss, R.H. (Paprican, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect

This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

2001-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

300

Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping  

SciTech Connect

Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Survey of hydrogen peroxide bleaching of mechanical and chemimechanical pulp - factors affecting brightness  

SciTech Connect

The literature upon which this survey is based covers the period from 1975 to June 1985 and was searched both manually and by computer. More than 100 articles and patents were examined, and of these almost half were singled out as meriting citation. Several recent surveys can be identified as sources that provide a general overview of current peroxide bleaching practice as specifically applied to mechanical and chemimechanical pulps. Additionally, an article by Allison, although not intended as a review, nevertheless serves as one by virtue of the broad scope of its content. 44 references.

Dence, C.W.; Omori, S.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete  

SciTech Connect

This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

303

Suppressor for reducing the muzzle blast and flash of a firearm  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are several examples of apparatuses for suppressing the blast and flash produced as a projectile is expelled by gases from a firearm. In some examples, gases are diverted away from the central chamber to an expansion chamber by baffles. The gases are absorbed by the expansion chamber and desorbed slowly, thus decreasing pressure and increasing residence time of the gases. In other examples, the gases impinge against a plurality of rods before expanding through passages between the rods to decrease the pressure and increase the residence time of the gases.

Klett, James W

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

304

Delayed-blasting tests to improve highwall stability - a final report. Report of Investigations/1986  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines conducted a series of delayed-blasting experiments at a Barbour County, WV, contour coal mine that resulted in smoother highwalls. The highwalls were smoother due to reduced overbreak (excessive rock breakage beyond the excavation limit) and were inherently safer due to reduced likelihood of rockfall. The experiments were directed at reducing overbreak without special drilling or significant additional cost. Reduced overbreak was accomplished by increasing the highwall hole delays, which changed the effective delay-pattern geometry and the direction of burden movement.

Stachura, V.J.; Fletcher, L.R.; Peltier, M.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Biomechanical pulping of aspen chips; Energy savings resulting from different fungal treatments  

SciTech Connect

Besides increasing paper strength, fungal treatments can also reduce the electrical energy needed for fiberizing chips during mechanical pulping. Fungal species, chip movement, and treatment duration affected the extent of energy savings. This paper reports that four-week-long treatment with white-rot fungi, including Phlebia species or Pholiota mutabilis, in a stationary wire tray bioreactor resulted in at least 35% energy savings for pulping chips to 100 mL CSF in a 300-mm-diameter disc refiner. With Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating-drum bioreactor, the optimal treatment duration was four weeks. Treatment with a brown-rot fungus also resulted in energy savings. Over the range of fungi and conditions tested, neither chip weight loss nor lignin loss correlated with energy savings. Some treatments giving the least chip weight loss ({lt}5%) saved the most energy. Wood modifications responsible for energy savings differed from those that increased strength. Treatments that saved the most energy did not necessarily give the highest strength properties.

Leatham, G.F.; Myers, G.C.; Wegner, T.H. (USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (US))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Burden distribution control for maintaining the central gas flow at No. 1 blast furnace in Pohang Works  

SciTech Connect

The causes for temperature lowering at the upper shaft center in Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were investigated. The test operation with charging notch change in the actual blast furnace and with a 1/12 scale model to Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were carried out in order to improve central gas flow in the shaft. Finally, rebuilding of the lower bunker interior was performed using the results of model experiments. It was confirmed that the main reason for the gas temperature lowering at the upper shaft center was the smaller particle size at center than the wall according to the discharging characteristics of center feed bunker with stone box. The central gas flow could be secured through modifying the stone box in the bunker.

Jung, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Suh, Y.K.; Ahn, T.J.; Kim, S.M. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Presentation 3.1: Report on energy efficient technologies and CO2 reduction potentials in the pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, at the International Energy Agency in Paris. The goal of the workshop is to better quantify the global potentialPresentation 3.1: Report on energy efficient technologies and CO2 reduction potentials in the pulp, and it will imply a fundamental rethinking of the sector's strategy. 251 #12;#12;INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY AGENCE

308

Blast wave radiation source measurement experiments on the Z Z-pinch facility  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Hohlraum (DH) radiation on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories [R. B. Spielman, W. A. Stygar, J. F. Seamen et al., Proceeding of the 11th International Pulsed Power Conference, Baltimore, 1997, edited by G. Cooperstein and I. Vitkovitsky (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1997), Vol. 1, p. 709] is a bright source of radiant energy that has proven useful for high energy density physics experiments. But the radiation output from a DH on Z needs to be well known. In this paper, a new method is presented for measuring the radiation fluence deposited in an experiment, specifically, an experiment driven by a Z DH. This technique uses a blast wave produced in a SiO{sub 2} foam, which starts as supersonic but transitions to subsonic, producing a shock at the transition point that is observable via radiography. The position of this shock is a sensitive measure of the radiation drive energy from the Z DH. Computer simulations have been used to design and analyze a Z foam blast wave experiment.

Peterson, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.; Watt, R.G.; Idzorek, G.; Tierney, T.; Lopez, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets  

SciTech Connect

Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim [Abishev Chemicometallurgical Institute, Abishev (Kazakhstan)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

Chipman, V D

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

311

DOE Joint Genome Institute. Pulp NonFiction: Fungal Analysis Reveals Clues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

March 22, 2012 March 22, 2012 Pulp NonFiction: Fungal Analysis Reveals Clues for Targeted Biomass Deconstruction Without fungi and microbes to break down dead trees and leaf litter in nature, the forest floor might look like a scene from TV's "Hoarders." Ceriporiopsis subvermispora mycelium on wood Photo: Scanning electron micrograph of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora mycelium on wood. (R. Blanchette, University of Minnesota) Massive-scale genome sequencing projects supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and being carried out at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) highlight the importance of learning how the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin that serve as a plant's infrastructure can be broken down by these forest organisms to extract needed nutrients. Among the fungi being

312

Changing Trends in the Bulk Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Compared with the experience of the 1990s, rising energy prices in recent years have led to questions about expectations of growth in industrial output, particularly in energy-intensive industries. Given the higher price trends, a review of expected growth trends in selected industries was undertaken as part of the production of Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO). In addition, projections for the industrial value of shipments, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in AEO2004, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) in AEO2005. The change in industrial classification leads to lower historical growth rates for many industrial sectors. The impacts of these two changes are highlighted in this section for two of the largest energy-consuming industries in the U.S. industrial sector-bulk chemicals and pulp and paper.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Decontamination of surfaces by blasting with crystals of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

A major mission of the US Department of Energy during the 1990s is site and environmental cleanup. In pursuit of this mission, numerous remediation projects are under way and many others are being planned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this report, tests using two proposed methods for decontaminating surfaces one using water ice crystals [Crystalline Ice Blast (CIB)], the other using dry ice crystals (CO{sub 2} Cleanblast{trademark}) -- are described. Both methods are adaptations of the commonly used sand blasting technology. The two methods tested differ from sand blasting in that the particles are not particularly abrasive and do not accumulate as particles in the wastes. They differ from each other in that the CO{sub 2} particles sublime during and after impact and the ice particles melt. Thus, the two demonstrations provide important information about two strong candidate decontamination methodologies. Each process was tested at ORNL using contaminated lead bricks and contaminated tools and equipment. Demonstrations with the prototype Crystalline Ice Blast and the CO{sub 2} Cleanblast systems showed that paint, grease, and oil can be removed from metal, plastic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces. Furthermore, removal of contamination from lead bricks was highly effective. Both processes were found to be less effective, under the conditions tested, with contaminated tools and equipment that had chemically bonded contamination or contamination located in crevices since neither technology abrades the substrates or penetrates deeply into crevices to remove particulates. Some process improvements are recommended.

Benson, C.E.; Parfitt, J.E.; Patton, B.D.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

A MANUAL FOR THE PREDICTION OF BLAST AND FRAGMENT LOADINGS ON STRUCTURES  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

A MANUAL FOR THE A MANUAL FOR THE PREDICTION OF BLAST AND FRAGMENT LOADINGS ON STRUCTURES U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ALBUQUERQUE OPERATIONS OFFICE AMARILLO AREA OFFICE AMARILLO, TEXAS DOE/TIC-11268 Change 1 , ' - 15 August 1981 \ \ DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or

315

Study of radiative blast waves generated on the Z-beamlet laser.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the original goals of the project to study the Vishniac Overstability on blast waves produced using the Z-Beamlet laser facility as well as the actual results. The proposed work was to build on earlier work on the facility and result in the best characterized set of data for such phenomena in the laboratory. To accomplish the goals it was necessary to modify the existing probe laser at the facility so that it could take multiple images over the course of 1-2 microseconds. Troubles with modifying the probe laser are detailed as well as the work that went into said modifications. The probe laser modification ended up taking the entire length of the project and were the major accomplishment of the research.

Edens, Aaron D.; Schwarz, Jens

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

317

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment June 2000 U. S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein

318

Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

4-O-Methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid linked to xylan from kraft pulp: isolation procedure and characterisation by NMR spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The tetrasaccharide 2?-O-(4-O-methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid)xylotriose was isolated from enzymatically hydrolysed, unbleached, birch kraft pulp by anion-exchange chromatography in two steps. The primary structure of the tetrasaccharide was determined by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, using homonuclear and heteronuclear two-dimensional techniques. NOE data and 3JH.H coupling constants show that the 4-O-methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid in the tetrasaccharide is predominantly in the 1C4 chair conformation. The pKa value (3.17) for 4-O-methyliduronic acid attached ?-(1 ? 2) to xylose was determined from the pH-dependent chemical shift of H-5. The amount of 4-O-methyliduronic acid (0.10.5 mol%) in surface xylan of unbleached birch and pine kraft pulps was determined by extensive xylanase treatment and further analysis by NMR spectroscopy and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography.

Anita Teleman; Matti Siika-aho; Harri Sorsa; Johanna Buchert; Marjukka Perttula; Tiina Hausalo; Maija Tenkanen

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Effect of radiation on the response of dental pulp to operative and endodontic procedures: an experimental study  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-six 56-day-old male Sprague-Dawley albino rats served as two groups of experimental animals. Group 1 was irradiated with 400 rads delivered as total-body radiation from a cesium source. Group 2 served as the control group and was not irradiated. Three weeks later, the dental microscope was used to facilitate various dental procedures in both groups of animals (cavity preparation filled with zinc oxide-eugenol, pulp exposure capped with zinc oxide-eugenol, and pulp exposure left open). Two animals for each procedure from Groups 1 and 2 were killed at time intervals of 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The results showed that (1) radiation at this dose resulted in a depression of the normal response of the dental pulp to the trauma and infection induced by pulpal exposure, (2) there were no pathologic changes in the untreated molars of the irradiated animals, and (3) the use of the dental microscope greatly facilitated cavity preparation in the molars of rats.

Fawzi, M.I.; Shklar, G.; Krakow, A.A.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Improved tribo-mechanical behavior of CaP-containing TiO2 layers produced on titanium by shot blasting and micro-arc oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combination of shot blasting (SB) and micro-arc oxidation (or anodic oxidationAO) in titanium surfaces was shown to...2 layers were produced on AO and SB+AO. The latter presented small pore size and inhomo...

Eduardo M. Szesz; Gelson B. de Souza

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Reply to Moss et al.: Military and medically relevant models of blast-induced traumatic brain injury vs. ellipsoidal heads and helmets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moss et al. (1) acknowledge the second main conclusion of Nyein et al. (2): that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, they obviate the first and most important ...

Nyein, Michelle K.

323

Survey of blasting effects on ground water supplies in Appalachia. Part 2. Open file report, August 1980-August 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report covers an 18-month study of the performance of a 300-ft-deep test water well located at the Ayrshire Mine of the AMAX Coal Co. near Evansville, IN. Well performance, as characterized by 10-hr drawdown tests, was monitored as the strip mining operation approached the well site from distances of 2,000 to 15 ft (overburden removal). Blast-induced ground motion was measured at the surface next to the test well, and peak particle velocities in excess of 4 in/s were obtained. No evidence of changes in water quantity or quality could be directly attributed to the blasts. However, some lowering of the static water level in the observation well, and a simultaneous increase in the adjusted specific capacity of the test well, suggest that overburden removal caused lateral stress relief with consequent opening of vertical fractures.

Berger, P.R.; Froedge, D.T.; Gould, J.A.; Kreps, L.F.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength  

SciTech Connect

Examinations of polished and dry cut sections of feed and tuyere coke revealed some possible mechanisms for the physical influence of mineral compounds on the reactivity and strength of coke. It was observed that rounded particles of mineral phases that are exposed to the pore walls and surface of coke at high temperature create an inorganic cover, thus reducing the surface available for gas-solid reactions. The particles of mineral matter that have a low melting point and viscosity can affect the coke at earlier stages in the blast furnace process, acting in the upper parts of the blast furnace (BF). The temperature-driven redistribution of mineral phases within the coke matrix probably leads to the creation of weak spots and in general to anisotropy in its properties, thus reducing its strength. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Thermodynamics of TiO{sub x} in blast furnace-type slags  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium studies between CaO-SiO{sub 2}-10 pct MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 1.5}-TiO{sub 2} slags, carbon-saturated iron, and a carbon monoxide atmosphere were performed at 1773 K to determine the activities of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} in the slag. These thermodynamic parameters are required to predict the formation of titanium carbonitride in the blast furnace. In order to calculate the activity of titanium oxide, the activity coefficient of titanium in carbon-saturated iron-carbon-titanium alloys was determined by measuring the solubility of titanium in carbon-saturated iron in equilibrium with titanium carbide. The solubility and the activity coefficient of titanium obtained were 1.3 pct and 0.023 relative to 1 wt pct titanium in liquid iron or 0.0013 relative to pure solid titanium at 1773 K, respectively. Over the concentration range studied, the effect of the TiO{sub x} content on its activity coefficient is small. In the slag system studied containing 35 to 50 pct CaO, 25 to 45 pct SiO{sub 2}, 7 to 22 pct Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 10 pct MgO, the activity coefficients of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} relative to pure solid standard states range from 2.3 to 8.8 and from 0.1 to 0.3, respectively. Using thermodynamic data obtained, the prediction of the formation of titanium carbonitride was made. Assuming hypothetical TiO{sub 2}, i.e., total titanium in the slag expressed as TiO{sub 2}, and using the values of the activity coefficients of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} determined, the equilibrium distribution of titanium between blast furnace-type slags and carbon-saturated iron was computed. The value of [pct Ti]/(pct TiO{sub 2}) ranges from 0.1 to 0.2.

Morizane, Y.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke  

SciTech Connect

Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Experimental study on the effects of blast-cap configurations and charge patterns on coke descending in CDQ cooling shaft  

SciTech Connect

The coke descending behavior in a CDQ cooling shaft is studied experimentally by means of a tracing method with a digital camera. For three different blast-caps, the law of coke flow is studied under five conditions of coke charge. The experimental results show that, for the sake of the uniformity of the coke burden descending, a blast-cap with elliptical cross-section is a better choice than that with circular cross-section regardless of high or low placement. A coke charge pattern with a flat top burden surface is preferable to that with peak-valley surface, a double-peak superior to a one-peak. Trajectory and average velocity distribution of coke behavior depend weakly on whether the coke is continuously fed or not as the discharging began. The blast-caps have local effects on the descending coke and hardly affect whether the cokes flow smoothly or not in the case of coke burden with enough depth.

Y.H. Feng; X.X. Zhang; M.L. Wu [University of Science & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Behavior of Concrete Panels Reinforced with Synthetic Fibers, Mild Steel, and GFRP Composites Subjected to Blasts  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents experimental data generated for calibrating finite element models to predict the performance of reinforced concrete panels with a wide range of construction details under blast loading. The specimens were 1.2 m square panels constructed using Normal Weight Concrete (NWC) or Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC). FRC consisted of macro-synthetic fibers dispersed in NWC. Five types of panels were tested: NWC panels with steel bars; FRC panels without additional reinforcement; FRC panels with steel bars; NWC panels with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars; and NWC panels reinforced with steel bars and external GFRP laminates on both faces. Each panel type was constructed with three thicknesses: 152 mm, 254 mm, and 356 mm. FRC panels with steel bars had the best performance for new construction. NWC panels reinforced with steel bars and external GFRP laminates on both faces had the best performance for strengthening or rehabilitation of existing structures. The performance of NWC panels with GFRP bars was strongly influenced by the bar spacing. The behavior of the panels is classified in terms of damage using immediate occupancy, life safety, and near collapse performance levels. Preliminary dynamic simulations are compared to the experimental results.

C. P. Pantelides; T. T. Garfield; W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson; J. E. Blakeley

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue  

SciTech Connect

On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Greenhouse gas emission by wastewater treatment plants of the pulp and paper industry Modeling and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of the pulp and paper industry were modeled and estimated. Aerobic, anaerobic, and hybrid biological processes were used for the removal of contaminants. In addition to the removal of carbonaceous compounds, anaerobic digestion of the produced sludge and the removal of excess nitrogen in the effluent of treatment plants by nitrification/denitrification processes were incorporated in the model. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide were the major \\{GHGs\\} generated during the biological treatment, combustion, energy generation, and transportation. The generated biogas from the anaerobic processes was assumed to be recovered and used as a source of energy for the treatment plant, in an effort to reduce GHG emissions while decreasing the total energy needs of the WWTP. The established kinetic relationships of wastewater treatment processes along with mass and energy balances were employed for the simulation of different treatment systems and estimation of GHG emissions. Various sources of GHG emission were divided into on-site and off-site sources to simplify the modeling and simulation procedure. The overall GHG generation in the presence of biogas recovery was equal to 1.576, 3.026, and 3.271kg CO2-equivalent/kg BOD by the three examined systems. The energy produced by the recovery and combustion of biogas could exceed the energy demands of all different treatment plants examined in this study and reduce off-site GHG emission. The generation of \\{GHGs\\} from aerobic and hybrid processes increased by 27% and 33.2%, respectively, when N2O emission from nitrogen removal processes was taken into consideration.

Omid Ashrafi; Laleh Yerushalmi; Fariborz Haghighat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Blast Wave Fits to Elliptic Flow Data at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} =$ 7.7--2760 GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present blast wave fits to elliptic flow ($v_{2}(p_{\\rm T})$) data in minimum bias collisions from the $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} =$ 7.7--200 GeV at RHIC, and 2.76 TeV at LHC. The fits are performed separately for particles and corresponding anti-particles. The mean transverse velocity parameter $\\beta$ shows an energy dependent difference between particles and corresponding anti-particles, which increases as the beam energy decreases. Possible effects of feed down, baryon stopping, anti-particle absorption, and early production times for anti-particles are discussed.

Sun, X; Poskanzer, A M; Schmah, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Wastewater from Straw Pulp and Paper Mill by Fe2O3/UV/H2O2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to examine the photo catalytic degradation of real effluents from wheat straw pulp and paper mill by nano-Fe2O3 catalyst. Four different ferric oxide samples were synthesized by homogeneous precipitation of reflux at different ... Keywords: potocatalysis, ?-Fe2O3, efluent, COD

Aimei Li; Haizhen Yang; Yiren Zhu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates  

SciTech Connect

Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Type B Accident Investigation of the April 8, 2003, Electrical Arc Blast at the Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation TRU Waste Processing Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

At approximately 0330 hours on April 8, 2003, a phase-to-phase arc blast occurred in the boiler electrical control panel at the Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Facility. The boiler was providing steam for the evaporator and was reportedly operating at about 10% of its capacity.

335

Management of post-mining large-scale ground failures: blast swarms field experiment for calibration of permanent microseismic early-warning systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Management of post-mining large-scale ground failures: blast swarms field experiment. To ensure post-mining risk management and public safety, wherever remediation is not possible, numerous real of the water level in the underground working caused by the halt of the de-watering system (Didier, 2008

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

Results of multiyear studies on the dynamics of pollution of lake Baikal by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the area waste water discharge from the Baikal Pulp and Paper Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New data on the concentration and spatial distribution of the benz(a)pyrene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediments in the testing area ... Baikal Pulp and Paper Plant (BPPP) waste water discharg...

A. M. Nikonorov; A. A. Matveev; S. A. Reznikov; V. S. Arakelyan

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Production of Kaon and $?$ in nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energy from a blast wave model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The particle production of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ are studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energy based on a chemical equilibrium blast-wave model. The transverse momentum spectra of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ at the kinetic freeze-out stage from our model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The kinetic freeze-out parameters of temperature ($T_{kin}$) and radial flow parameter $\\rho_{0}$ are presented for the FOPI, RHIC and LHC energies. And the resonance decay effect is also discussed. The systematic study for beam energy dependence of the strangeness particle production will help us to better understand the properties of the matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the kinetic freeze-out stage.

Song Zhang; Yu-Gang Ma; Jin-Hui Chen; Chen Zhong

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

338

Production of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ in nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energy from a blast wave model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The particle production of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ are studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energy based on a chemical equilibrium blast-wave model. The transverse momentum spectra of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ at the kinetic freeze-out stage from our model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The kinetic freeze-out parameters of temperature ($T_{kin}$) and radial flow parameter $\\rho_{0}$ are presented for the FOPI, RHIC and LHC energies. And the resonance decay effect is also discussed. The systematic study for beam energy dependence of the strangeness particle production will help us to better understand the properties of the matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the kinetic freeze-out stage.

Zhang, Song; Chen, Jin-Hui; Zhong, Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O`Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Biology, ecology, and biotechnological applications of anaerobic bacteria adapted to environmental stresses in temperature, pH, salinity, or substrates.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...liquors from the pulp and paper industry and oil shale rock refining wastes from the synfuel industry. Effective biodegradation of these wastes may require salt-tolerant...anaerobic bacteria. Coal gasification and waste treatment. The...

S E Lowe; M K Jain; J G Zeikus

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

This document must be cited according to its final version which is published in a conference proceeding as  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. White liquor and pre- steamed chips are introduced at the top of the digester into the impregnation zone of cold, dilute liquor. This effectively quenches the delignification reaction. The quality of the resulting pulp is described by Kappa #, which is a measure of the residual lignin content. A typical control

Boyer, Edmond

342

Independent Oversight Targeted Review of the Safety Significant Blast Door and Personnel Door Interlock Systems and Review of Federal Assurance Capability at the Pantex Plant, December 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Targeted Review of the Targeted Review of the Safety Significant Blast Door and Personnel Door Interlock Systems and Review of Federal Assurance Capability at the Pantex Plant December 2013 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Scope.................................................................................................................................................... 1 3.0 Background........................................................................................................................................... 2

343

Creation of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: analysis of planning experience and lessons learned  

SciTech Connect

Results of complex instrument observations and video taping during large-scale blasts detonated for creation of the dam at the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Kyrgyz Republic are analyzed. Tests of the energy effectiveness of the explosives are evaluated, characteristics of LSB manifestations in seismic and air waves are revealed, and the shaping and movement of the rock mass are examined. A methodological analysis of the planning and production of the LSB is given.

Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S. [JSC 'Gidrospetsproekt' (Russian Federation)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Carbon emissions reduction potential in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries by applying CHP technologies  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and the pulp/paper industries combined provide 55% of CHP generation in the US industry. Yet, significant potential for new CHP capacities exists in both industries. From the present steam consumption data, the authors estimate about 50 GW of additional technical potential for CHP in both industries. The reduced carbon emissions will be equivalent to 44% of the present carbon emissions in these industries. They find that most of the carbon emissions reductions can be achieved at negative costs. Depending on the assumptions used in calculations, the economic potential of CHP in these industries can be significantly lower, and carbon emissions mitigation costs can be much higher. Using sensitivity analyses, they determine that the largest effect on the CHP estimate have the assumptions in the costs of CHP technology, in the assumed discount rates, in improvements in efficiency of CHP technologies, and in the CHP equipment depreciation periods. Changes in fuel and electricity prices and the growth in the industries' steam demand have less of an effect. They conclude that the lowest carbon mitigation costs are achieved with the CHP facility is operated by the utility and when industrial company that owns the CHP unit can sell extra electricity and steam to the open wholesale market. Based on the results of the analyses they discuss policy implications.

Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.; Einstein, D.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Big Island Demonstration Project Black Liquor  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program research and development project.

346

Black liquor gasification. Phase 2 final report  

SciTech Connect

The experimental work included 23 bench-scale tests in a 6-in.-diameter gasifier and two extended runs in a 33-in.-ID pilot-scale unit. The two pilot-scale runs included 26 test periods, each evaluated separately. The engineering analysis work consisted primarily of the correlation of test results and the development of a computer model describing the gasification process. 4 refs., 13 figs., 23 tabs.

Kohl, A.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Stewart, A.E.; Estes, G.R.

1984-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

347

Summary of Blast Shield and Material Testing for Development of Solid Debris Collection at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)  

SciTech Connect

The ability to collect solid debris from the target chamber following a NIF shot has application for both capsule diagnostics, particularly for fuel-ablator mix, and measuring cross sections relevant to the Stockpile Stewardship program and nuclear astrophysics. Simulations have shown that doping the capsule with up to 10{sup 15} atoms of an impurity not otherwise found in the capsule does not affect its performance. The dopant is an element that will undergo nuclear activations during the NIF implosion, forming radioactive species that can be collected and measured after extraction from the target chamber. For diagnostics, deuteron or alpha induced reactions can be used to probe the fuel-ablator mix. For measuring neutron cross sections, the dopant should be something that is sensitive to the 14 MeV neutrons produced through the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Developing the collector is a challenge due to the extreme environment of the NIF chamber. The collector surface is exposed to a large photon flux from x-rays and unconverted laser light before it is exposed to a debris wind that is formed from vaporized material from the target chamber center. The photons will ablate the collector surface to some extent, possibly impeding the debris from reaching the collector and sticking. In addition, the collector itself must be mechanically strong enough to withstand the large amount of energy it will be exposed to, and it should be something that will be easy to count and chemically process. In order to select the best material for the collector, a variety of different metals have been tested in the NIF chamber. They were exposed to high-energy laser shots in order to evaluate their postshot surface characterization, morphology, degree of melt, and their ability to retain debris from the chamber center. The first set of samples consisted of 1 mm thick pieces of aluminum that had been fielded in the chamber as blast shields protecting the neutron activation diagnostic. Ten of these pieces were fielded at the equator and one was fielded on the pole. The shields were analyzed using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and chemical leaching followed by mass spectrometry. On each shield, gold debris originating from the gold hohlraum was observed, as well as large quantities of debris that were present in the center of the target chamber at the time of the shot (i.e., stainless steel, indium, copper, etc.) Debris was visible in the SEM as large blobs or splats of material that had encountered the surface of the aluminum and stuck. The aluminum itself had obviously melted and condensed, and some of the large debris splats arrived after the surface had already hardened. Melt depth was determined by cross sectioning the pieces and measuring the melted surface layers via SEM. After the SEM analysis was completed, the pieces were sent for NAA at the USGS reactor and were analyzed by U. Greife at the Colorado School of Mines. The NAA showed that the majority of gold mass present on the shields was not in the form of large blobs and splats, but was present as small particulates that had most likely formed as condensed vapor. Further analysis showed that the gold was entrained in the melted aluminum surface layers and did not extend down into the bulk of the aluminum. Once the gold mass was accounted for from the NAA, it was determined that the aluminum fielded at the equator was collecting a fraction of the total gold hohlraum mass equivalent to 120% {+-} 10% of the solid angle subtended by the shield. The attached presentation has more information on the results of the aluminum blast shield analysis. In addition to the information given in the presentation, the surfaces of the shields have been chemically leached and submitted for mass spectrometric analysis. The results from that analysis are expected to arrive after the due date of this report and will be written up at a later time. Based on the results of the aluminum b

Shaughnessy, D A; Gostic, J M; Moody, K J; Grant, P M; Lewis, L A; Hutcheon, I D

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

348

Blast resistant vehicle seat  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

Ripley, Edward B

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

349

CONGRESS BLASTS OIL INDUSTRY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

IN PACKED HEARINGS last week before angry members of Congress, the heads of BP, ExxonMobil, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and Shell Oil defended their industry in light of the April 20 BP oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, which has led to the worst ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

350

January 2014 News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and accomplishments on the BETO blog and the EERE blog. Past and Upcoming Events with Bioenergy Office Representation * BIO Pacific Rim Summit; December 8-11, 2013; Jim Spaeth;...

351

June 2014 News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

22nd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition; June 23-26, 2014; Hamburg, Germany 11th Renewable Energy Finance Forum Wall Street; June 25-26, 2014; New York, New...

352

November 2013 News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Montreal, Canada * 7th International Algae Congress; December 3-4, 2013; Hamburg, Germany * 11th International Conference on Biofuels: Fuels of the Future 2014; January 20-21,...

353

December News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biofuels Initiatives The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) recently launched a new Web page that houses information about all of the Office's research and development efforts...

354

January 2014 News Blast  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Congratulations Jonathan Male, Valerie Reed, and Joynce Yang of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) for being voted into the "Top 100 People in the Bioeconomy." In December 2013, the readers and editors of Biofuels Digest announced BETO's own staff members as the 15th most influential leaders in the bioeconomy for 2013-2014, outranking Members of Congess, leaders of large trade associations, and international bioenergy companies.

355

In vitro testing of blast transformation, immune rosette formation, and IF-detectable IgG-positive cell counts indicated a 40-50 p. 100 decrease of immunological responsiveness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

highlands or in dry, hot areas provided that management is good. In hot, humid areas, European-type cattleIn vitro testing of blast transformation, immune rosette formation, and IF-detectable Ig of GSH-Px types revealed that they are controlled by a pair of autosomal genes, the genes for GSH-Px high

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Establish the multi-source data fusion model of the shape of blast furnace burden surface based on co-universal kriging estimation method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a multi-source data fusion model method which could improve the blast furnace (BF) burden surface model accuracy. First, the three sections of straight line are used to describe the cross section of BF burden surface, and apply the motion law of the furnace burden to constrain the specific parameters of the three sections of straight line. Secondly, a multi-source data fusion method based on co-universal kriging estimation method is proposed. The temperature and height data are combined to build the unbiased estimation for the burden surface shape. Finally, an example of surface shape model using our proposed method in a 2500 m BF of a steel plant is discussed. The application shows that, contrasted with the traditional model, the model accuracy has arisen by 8%, and the resolution of surface shape has arisen by 0.32. The novel method can provide necessary guidance for energy saving and emission reduction in operation of the BF.

Liangliang Miao; Xianzhong Chen; Shilong Zhao; Zhenlong Bai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

PEER REVIEWED FIBER SUPPLY Beetle-killed spruce utilization in the Kenai peninsula  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a stainless-steel digester with pumped liquor circulation and indirect steam heating. Each log was pulped wood. Burst and tensile strength were strongly depen- dent on the amount of log decay, as measured quality when com- pared to the control. 48 TAPPI JOURNAL JUNE 2000 #12;

Abubakr, Said

359

Preparedfor theTAPPIInternationalChemicalRecoveryConference .Tampa, Florida, 1-4June1998  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

processing rates corresponding to mill production rates of 500 to 2000 air-dry metric tonnes per day of pulp and paper production (and, possibly, the cost-effectiveness of generating excess power for sale), while] consider "rubber" gas turbines, i.e., turbines that match a specified black liquor rate

360

FINAL_2013_Blast-Email  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

send an email to all your building tenants, colleagues, or stakeholders to let them know send an email to all your building tenants, colleagues, or stakeholders to let them know about the competition and how they can help. Subject Line: We're competing in the 2013 ENERGY STAR National Building Competition! Dear , Our [building/space] has been selected to participate in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR National Building Competition: Battle of the Buildings! For the next several months, we'll battle it out against more than 3,200 buildings and tenants nationwide to see who can reduce their energy waste the most. Last year, the top 15 finishers all reduced their energy use by more than 30%, so we have our work cut out for us! What are we doing to take home the prize? [Insert details about your green team's efforts]

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A blast from the past  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......energy in the neutral atmosphere through collision...latitudes. The local plasma frequency, and...Earth's upper atmosphere long before the...meteor showers, atmospheric waves and long-term...from about 1 to 15 MHz and detects the...positive photographic prints, after which they......

Chris Davis; Sarah James; Kate Clements; Ben Clarke

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

A blast from the past  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......in the solar atmosphere. The effects...within the upper atmosphere. Around 17...resulted in large areas being without...the neutral atmosphere through collision...The local plasma frequency...about 1 to 15 MHz and detects......

Chris Davis; Sarah James; Kate Clements; Ben Clarke

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Monthly News Blast: February 2013  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

April 15-17, 2013; Zia Haq; Washington, D.C. Upcoming Industry Events Canadian Biogas Conference and Exhibition; March 4-6, 2013; London, Ontario, Canada Biomass...

364

March 2014 Monthly News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

March 2014 BETO Gets Innovative with New Interactive Web Tool Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) website visitors can view the updated Integrated Biorefineries (IBR) Map, which...

365

Sample H-Blast Doomed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reasoning that personal experience is more vivid than propaganda, Murray proposes to give representatives of all nations a closeup view of the awesome power of a thermonuclear explosion. ...

1955-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

366

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY (B&W)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY (B&W) BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY (B&W) FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO.. DE-FC36-94GO 10002; W(A)-94-030; CH-0847 This waiver request is for domestic and foreign rights for all subject inventions made by the Babcock & Wilcox Company's (B&W's) employees under the subject cooperative agreement. The object of the work to be performed under this cooperative agreement is to develop technologies to improve high solids firing of black liquor in pulp mill recovery boilers or to recover kraft pulping or mill process chemicals by alternate means involving black liquor gasification. Principally, the work involves evaluating and selecting either the high solids advanced combustion or black liquor gasification technology, designing, constructing and using a pilot scale unit to develop

367

Oxidation of sewage supernatant liquor by trickling filtration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tQ C?P?SSS SSQCS18 SPPXSQ'LSC9QQ XCC' ChS SSS1SCSQCS 4041 F4~ ISQSXVS6 KTCIIS 11QCQSSQ?S 8 S SQgX04I CQSECICSQ C94@X63SQ, gga4~g&SX Sod ~Cggaaieni Cages'S QS ISNESS'. 'Bg, t, Q?A, SC@ES1, . I Q' 5 I I glndgs digoseion tank snpsensennt ligose... tiie settled solids, & tbs-so~teston tank vithont pmdsoing- ssptio ( %is enisle. , contest of: chs. sledge, teen@id . ftoa-- chs sedisejcation, . tsnb 'dixeetlp, ass mfa cd tejsited scoiegs osiIeoicg; ef. ; icbj "s1ndge 'di " ' gsstioit' ~ ' Sie...

Styner, Pete

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

368

Black Liquor Gasification Process Review and Status Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

facilities (0.2 tph) focused on developing pressurized gasifiers. Their work is complemented by research at VIT (The Technical Research Centre of Finland) who have a 0.2 tph pressurized fluid bed test facility. The purpose of this paper is to describe...

Brown, C.

369

Lichen Planus after Consumption of a Gold-Containing Liquor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...brands of gold-containing cinnamon schnapps are available in the United States. Analysis of five 750-ml bottles of the Goldschlager brand showed 8 to 17 mg of gold flakes per bottle. The metallic flakes were 75 percent gold by weight, with 280 ?g of gold per deciliter dissolved in the liquid portion... To the Editor: Idiopathic lichen planus is a pruritic papulosquamous eruption that typically occurs in middle-aged persons. The estimated prevalence of this disorder is less than 1 percent, and its cause is unclear.1 Drug-induced lichen planus has been ...

1996-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

370

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasifier: Commercial Gasifiers: Gasifiers for Special Applications Gasifier: Commercial Gasifiers: Gasifiers for Special Applications Black Liquor Gasification What is Black Liquor? Industrial paper manufacture involves a procedure known as the Kraft process, where wood is converted into wood pulp and then into paper. The process, however, produces a toxic byproduct referred to as black liquor. This primarily liquid mixture of pulping residues (like lignin and hemicellulose) and inorganic chemicals from the Kraft process (sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, for example) is toxic and until the invention of recovery boilers in the early 20th century was often simply released into waterways. Recovery boilers allowed paper manufacturers to recover and reuse the inorganic chemicals and extract energy from the pulping residues. Many of these boilers were built in the 1960s and 70s and will need to be replaced sometime in the next few decades. The replacement of these boilers brings new interest in producing not only steam and electricity, but perhaps also fuels and chemicals via gasification of black liquor.

371

Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

RSE Table 3.6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.6;" RSE Table 3.6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.6;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,"Biomass" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Black Liquor","Total(b)","Waste(c)","from Trees(d)","Processing(e)","Refuse(f)"

372

Released: May 2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,"Biomass" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and"," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related"

373

Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2006;" Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,"Biomass" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related"

374

Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center  

SciTech Connect

This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipients campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

375

" and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Total Inputs of Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products for Heat, Power," 3. Total Inputs of Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products for Heat, Power," " and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group," " and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Billion Btu)" ,,,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,,,"Biomass" " "," ",," "," "," ","Wood Residues","Wood-Related"," " " "," ","Pulping Liquor",," ","Wood Harvested","and Byproducts","and","RSE" "SIC"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Directly","from","Paper-Related","Row"

376

July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to Drive Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products As part of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above strategy...

377

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: June  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

on topics surrounding the use of biomass as a replacement for petroleum to supply the energy, products, and power markets. Paul Bryan will be attending the conference for the...

378

July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Bioproducts; June 10-13, 2012; John Ferrell and Joyce Yang; San Diego, California Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop; June 11-13, 2012; Brian Duff; Golden, Colorado Biomass...

379

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - May 2012  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2012; Travis Tempel; Atlanta, Georgia U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Biogas Technology Market Summit, May 14, 2012, Brian Duff; Washington, D.C. Biomass R&D...

380

April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Chain & Logistics Conference, May 10-11, 2012, Travis Tempel, Atlanta, Georgia EPA Biogas Technology Market Summit, May 14, 2012, Brian Duff, Washington, DC Biomass R&D...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

The updated report and its supporting data improve our understanding of future biomass markets and will be a critical resource for landowners, businesses, and other potential...

382

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast, October 2012  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ferrell, Steve Thomas, and Bryce Stokes; New Orleans, Louisiana 2012 International Bioenergy and Bioproducts Conference; October 17-19, 2012; Zia Haq; Savannah, Georgia ...

383

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - March 2012  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Past and Upcoming Events with Biomass Representation International Energy Agency Bioenergy Task 42 Meeting, February 27-March 3, 2012, Melissa Klembara, Copenhagen,...

384

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biomass 2011: Replace the Whole Barrel, Supply the Whole Market - The New Horizons of Bioenergy July 26-27, 2011, at the Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center in...

385

February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

National Ethanol Conference, February 22-24, 2012, Howard Marks, Orlando, Florida IEA Bioenergy Task 42 Meeting, February 27-March 3, 2012, Melissa Klembara, Copenhagen,...

386

Biomass Program September 2012 News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2-5, 2012; John Ferrell and Bryce Stokes; New Orleans, Louisiana 2012 International Bioenergy and Bioproducts Conference; Zia Haq; October 17-19, 2012; Savannah, Georgia ...

387

BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Canada National Conference; August; 22-23, 2013; Ottawa, Ontario, Canada * International Bioenergy Fair and Conference; September 4-6, 2013; Jyvskyl, Finland * National...

388

Bioenergy Technologies Office May Monthly News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Mexico * 22nd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition; June 23-26, 2014; Hamburg, Germany * 11th Renewable Energy Finance Forum Wall Street; June 25-26, 2014; New York, New...

389

BETO Monthly News Blast, June 2013  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

June 2013 Don't Miss this Summer's Big Back-to-Back BETO Events Register now for Biomass 2013 and the Program Management Review This summer, the Bioenergy Technologies Office...

390

LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, Ramkrishna G. (San Antonio, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2014  

Energy Savers (EERE)

its grand opening September 3, 2014, becoming the first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plant to use corn waste as a feedstock. Developed through a joint venture between...

393

Spectator response to the participant blast  

SciTech Connect

The interplay between spectator and participant matter in heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the context of a microscopic transport model. Transport simulations show that flow patterns for the participant matter are strongly influenced by the presence of the nearby spectator matter. However, the influence is mutual. During the explosion of the participant zone, the spectator matter acquires a transverse momentum that shows sensitivity to the nuclear incompressibility and to the momentum dependence of the nuclear mean field (MF). An observed change in the net average momentum per nucleon, {Delta}|

|, can be associated with the momentum dependence of the MF. For a momentum-dependent MF and a low impact parameter in a heavy system, the spectators may emerge faster than in the initial state, accelerated by the violent participant explosion. The average excitation energy and the mass of the spectators, in contrast to the momentum, show little sensitivity to the nuclear equation of state.

Shi, L.; Danielewicz, P.; Lacey, R.

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Bioenergy Technologies Office April Monthly News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

about the event, and to find registration information, please visit the Biomass 2014 Web page. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Biological and Chemical Upgrading for Advanced...

395

September 2013 News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

update, read about our new director, some major staff changes, a new Accomplishments Web page, and more. september2013newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications October 2013...

396

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Wood Pulps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......capillary column inlet system which was main tained...great concern in this study because (a) their relative...McNally and J.R. Wheeler. J. Chromatogr. 447...Chaplin, and N.R. Foster. J. Supercrit. Fluids...Wells, and N.R. Foster. J. Supercrit. Fluids......

A.J. Sequeira; L.T. Taylor

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Energy management in pulp and paper mills  

SciTech Connect

The spectrum of energy management within the paper industry spans from large waste boilers at one end to lightning controls at the other, with the restrictions of a continuous process in between. Managerial challenges greatly outnumber the technical ones, and careful application of incremental cost principles is particularly important. There are situations in which increased energy use is justified by greater productivity, and other cases when extra energy can lower raw material costs. The future of law grade heat recovery is also considered.

Knapp, K.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

" Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A6. Total Inputs of Selected Byproduct Energy for Heat, Power, and" A6. Total Inputs of Selected Byproduct Energy for Heat, Power, and" " Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and" " Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," "," "," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","Pulping","Wood Chips,","And Waste","Row"

399

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioenerg. Res. (2010) 3:123133 DOI 10.1007/s12155-010-9091-has been shown to be an Bioenerg. Res. (2010) 3:123133 12.Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA, USA e-

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. M. Holmes Biomass Science and Conversion Technologyof the conversion of biomass into monosaccharides. However,enhance the conversion of IL-treated biomass polysaccharides

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Associations between Beer, Wine, and Liquor Consumption and Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...particularly risk at high consumption levels. (Cancer...cancer deaths in the world. Although tobacco...Alcoholic beverage consumption has been established...adjusted for total energy intake and consumption of fruits and vegetables...

Chun Chao

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Steel--Project Fact Sheet: Recycling Acid and Metal Salts from Pickling Liquors  

SciTech Connect

Regenerating hydrochloric acids from metal finishing pickling baths reduces costs, wastes, and produces a valuable by-product--ferrous sulfate. Order your copy of this OIT project fact sheet and learn more about how your company can benefit.

Poole, L.; Recca, L.

1999-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

403

Analysis of thermomechanical and failure behavior of refractory linings in a high temperature black liquor gasifier .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??"A coupled thermal-mechanical model accounting for chemical reaction is developed and implemented into a commercial finite element code to simulate the operational behavior of a (more)

Liang, Xiaoting, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic leach liquor Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NOx1 specified.2 Proler Rotary... of dioxins, acid gases and other problematic pollutants. The processes studied in detail; identified... -condensible compounds. Also, the...

405

The Use of Reverse Osmosis for the Purification of Coal Gasification Liquors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory trials have been conducted at the Westfield Development Centre to assess the potential of reverse osmosis as a stage in the treatment of ... effluent suitable for sewer or estuary discharge. Reverse osmosis

A. R. Williams

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

"RSE Table N5.2. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.2;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.2;" 2. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Black Liquor","Total(b)","Waste(c)","from Trees(d)","Processing(e)","Refuse(f)"

407

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 0 1 0 0 1 0 321 Wood Products 0 218 * 13 199 6 321113 Sawmills 0 100 * 5 94 1 3212 Veneer, Plywood, and Engineered Woods 0 95 * 6 87 2 321219 Reconstituted Wood Products 0 52 0 6 46 1 3219 Other Wood Products

408

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

409

Ultrafiltration. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning ultrafiltration, the separation of colloids or fine solid materials by filtration through microporous or semi-permeable materials. Citations discuss the use of the ultrafiltration process for removing dissolved toxic metals from groundwater, production of food-grade protein, treating kraft black liquor from pulp and paper processing, decontamination of low-level radioactive waste water, desalination, and hemodialysis. Topics also include ultrafiltration equipment and membrane descriptions. Procedures for preventing fouling and the cleaning of the filtration materials and membranes are also presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

411

Fluorescence analyzer for lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

Berthold, John W. (Salem, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Hubbard, OH); Jeffers, Larry (Alliance, OH)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

After the Blast: Building and Unbuilding Memories of Port Chicago  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Personnel Who Served at Port Chicago After Explosion Monday3f.htm. Comments Page: Port Chicago Historians SeekCommittee on Natural Resources. Port Chicago Naval Magazine

Arbona, Javier

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Processing Automotive Shredder Fluff for a Blast Furnace Injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automotive shredder fluff is a by-product vacuumed during ... ELV) hulks, and further refined in post-shredder lines of treatment (PST). To date...

S. Guignot; M. Gamet; N. Menad

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Prediction of blast damage from vapor cloud explosions  

SciTech Connect

The process industries handle a wide range of different materials and use them in different types of chemical reaction. Of particular concern is the prospect of damage and injury affecting the general public outside the boundary wall of the chemical plant. It is not wise to permit the construction of homes, schools or hospitals so close to chemical plants that they, and the people within, might be damaged or injured should there be an accidental explosion in the plant. The major hazard outside the plant is over-pressure, a consequence of an accidental explosion in a cloud of flammable gas or vapor (Vapor Cloud Explosion or VCE). It is the responsibility of plant management to ensure that any such accidental explosion is not so large as to endanger the public, and of the local planning authorities to ensure that homes, schools or hospitals are not sited so close to chemical plants that they may be endangered by accidental explosion. A vital tool for such authorities is a simple method of assessing the possible consequences of an accidental VCE. In this paper those methods of assessing the consequences are examined.

Phillips, H. [Phillips (H.), Buxton (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

416

Supernova blast wave within a stellar cluster outflow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the cluster wind velocity in units of...cluster, is the mass-loss rate...5pc, with mass-loss rate and wind velocities and v w...X-ray emission maps. APPENDIX...the radial velocity of the cluster wind, given in......

J. C. Rodrguez-Ramrez; A. C. Raga; P. F. Velzquez; A. Rodrguez-Gonzlez; J. C. Toledo-Roy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal) baseline report: Greenbook (chapter)  

SciTech Connect

The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

Three Complementary Approaches to Parallelization of Local BLAST Service on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the performance of one of the most common and increasingly important aspects of the Human Genome Project (HGP, the dominant component of the human genome project (HGP) has been the dis- covery of the entire 3 billion base mode. As the entire sequence of the human genome nears completion, the area of functional genomics

Cirne, Walfredo

419

Conserving Energy in Blast Freezers Using Variable Frequency Drives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Freezing Time vs Velocity 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 0 500 1000 1500 Air Velocity (fpm) Freezing Time (hr) Freezing Time vs Carton Thickness 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Carton Thickness (in.) Freezing Time (hr...: - Low-stage: 14? Hg vacuum (-50F); - Intermediate stage controlled to 14 psig ( -2.5F) and fluctuating some with load (increasing with higher load); - High-stage operates between 157 and 167 psig (87 and 91F). An automatic monitoring...

Kolbe, E.; Ling, Q.; Wheeler, G.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop  

SciTech Connect

In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova [OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), Magnitogorsk, (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Combat-related blast injuries : injury types and outcomes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. Soldiers returning from Iraq. N Engl J Med. Jan Helmickmilitary convoys in Iraq: an examination of battle injuriesdistinguishing injury of the Iraq war. Brain Injury Resource

Eskridge, Susan Lindsay

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

process in the U.S. A major advance in BF ironmaking has been the use of pulverized coal which partially replaces metallurgi- cal coke. This results in substantial improvement...

423

Blast of light fragments from central heavy-ion collisions  

SciTech Connect

The effects of collective expansion on light-fragment emission from central heavy-ion collisions are studied by carrying out calculations in a transport model with dynamic production of {ital A}{le}3 fragments. Beam energies of few hundred MeV/nucleon are considered. In the simulations the formation of a region of dense excited nuclear matter is observed, which expands in transverse directions. The expansion is reflected in the angular distributions and in the mean transverse energies of emitted fragments. At the late stage of expansion the characteristic features of local thermodynamic equilibrium are identified. Different particles share nearly the same collective energy per nucleon, and nearly the same thermal energy. The calculated mean transverse energies of the fragments reflect the collective energy whose magnitude varies with impact parameter. However, the fragment energies only partially agree with available data. The calculated spectra exhibit different slopes at angles around c.m. 90{degree} in central reactions.

Danielewicz, P.; Pan, Q. (National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Experimental characterization of energetic material dynamics for multiphase blast simulation.  

SciTech Connect

Currently there is a substantial lack of data for interactions of shock waves with particle fields having volume fractions residing between the dilute and granular regimes, which creates one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the simulation of energetic material detonation. To close this gap, a novel Multiphase Shock Tube has been constructed to drive a planar shock wave into a dense gas-solid field of particles. A nearly spatially isotropic field of particles is generated in the test section by a gravity-fed method that results in a spanwise curtain of spherical 100-micron particles having a volume fraction of about 19%. Interactions with incident shock Mach numbers of 1.66, 1.92, and 2.02 were achieved. High-speed schlieren imaging simultaneous with high-frequency wall pressure measurements are used to reveal the complex wave structure associated with the interaction. Following incident shock impingement, transmitted and reflected shocks are observed, which lead to differences in particle drag across the streamwise dimension of the curtain. Shortly thereafter, the particle field begins to propagate downstream and spread. For all three Mach numbers tested, the energy and momentum fluxes in the induced flow far downstream are reduced about 30-40% by the presence of the particle field. X-Ray diagnostics have been developed to penetrate the opacity of the flow, revealing the concentrations throughout the particle field as it expands and spreads downstream with time. Furthermore, an X-Ray particle tracking velocimetry diagnostic has been demonstrated to be feasible for this flow, which can be used to follow the trajectory of tracer particles seeded into the curtain. Additional experiments on single spherical particles accelerated behind an incident shock wave have shown that elevated particle drag coefficients can be attributed to increased compressibility rather than flow unsteadiness, clarifying confusing results from the historical database of shock tube experiments. The development of the Multiphase Shock Tube and associated diagnostic capabilities offers experimental capability to a previously inaccessible regime, which can provide unprecedented data concerning particle dynamics of dense gas-solid flows.

Beresh, Steven Jay; Wagner, Justin L.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Wright, Elton K.; Baer, Melvin R.; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

SCHOLARLY PAPERS Is Construction Blasting Still Abnormally Dangerous?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and quarries 15% Dowding 1996 .7 The mining, quarrying, and construction industries use over 4 billion pounds 1 quarry operations,13 mining,14 removing boulders from a stream bed to prevent flooding,15 sewer

426

Mitigation of blast effects on existing structures in austere environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Military commanders in austere environments often face challenges in setting up headquarters buildings that offer protected areas for sensitive equipment. One solution to this problem is simply to build a structure that ...

Maxa, Andrew J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Optimizing Aeration in Pulp Mill Secondary Treatment Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lagoon performance so as to prioritize which aerators could be shut off and under what conditions. The two major elements of the study were (a) detailed lithium tracer work to identify the relatively stagnant zones in the pond, and (b) a radiotracer study...

Mahmood, T.; Banerjee, S.; Welsh, J. T.; Sackellares, R. W.

428

Dried Citrus Pulp in Beef Cattle Fattening Rations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Animal Husbandry AGRICULTrRAL ,QND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President I rr+y-.-' -d - ." bg[j~~;Eura1 fJ,' , . ,* ,.. - '" re: SRt3$~;-P~~s" '+;+ [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] When dried citrus plp was fed to replace 25... of Range Animal Husbandry; Superintendent, Substation No. 1, ~eeviile; Animal Husbandman, Substation No. 1, Beeville; and Animal Hus- bandman, Division of Range Animal Husbandry, respectively. 6 BULLETIN KO. 613, TEXAS AGR.ICULTUaAL EXPERIMENT STATION...

Jones, J. M. (John McKInley)

1942-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Gas Turbine Considerations in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

37.8 90.1 104.4 ? Supp Fired 4201655 301.0 5960 338.0 5630 722.0 5410 1044.0 5350 lliS.4 5420 301.5 5540 6301755 289.5 5980 324.5 5670 695.0 5420 1004.0 5360 159.0 5430 290.0 5550 8951130 281.0 6030 '315.0 5710 676.0 5440 9n.0 5370 154.8 5440 282... 37.8 90.1 104.4 ? Supp Fired 4201655 301.0 5960 338.0 5630 722.0 5410 1044.0 5350 lliS.4 5420 301.5 5540 6301755 289.5 5980 324.5 5670 695.0 5420 1004.0 5360 159.0 5430 290.0 5550 8951130 281.0 6030 '315.0 5710 676.0 5440 9n.0 5370 154.8 5440 282...

Anderson, J. S.; Kovacik, J. M.

430

Pulp and paper research energized by DOE and IPST  

SciTech Connect

The DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) announced its partnerships with the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, University of Florida, Weyerhaeuser Co., and Wood Industries Co. for cost-shared projects to study the production of ethanol form dedicated energy crops and forestry product wastes. Weyerhaeuser, in collaboration with Amoco Corp., proposes to investigate expanding the use of biomass at the Weyerhaeuser facility in New Bern, NC. Weyerhaeuser will provide saw-mill wastes and other forestry residues to produce ethanol and electricity which would help the forestry industry attain self-sufficiency. Wood Industries Co. (WICO) of Visalia, CA, proposes to operate a 100-acre demofarm using plantation crops of seed sorghum, kenaf and hybrid poplar, willow, and eucalyptus to produce ethanol for gasoline blending and solid fuel for generating electricity. WICO will investigate cost-reduction strategies for the biomass-to-energy process. According to IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) President Richard A. Matula, the institute's research efforts can be categorized as follows: Fundamental, long-term research; Applied, mid-term research; Commercialization of new technology; and Process engineering products.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Pinpointing energy savings opportunities in a pulp mill  

SciTech Connect

In the exergetic analysis, which involves the application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the authors consider not only the quantity but also the quality of energy, recognizing, for example, that 1 J of heat at 300{sup 0}C is more useful than 1J at 30{sup 0}C. Because all operations are complexly interwoven, a number of indirect effects results from any change in a process. A simple example is the use of less fresh water during washing. The primary effect is related to the removal of soluble impurities and the recovery of chemicals. The secondary effect is that less energy is required to evaporate the excess water.

Iribarne, J. (Gamma Ingenieros Ltd., Elidoro Yanez 2308, Santiago (CL))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)  

SciTech Connect

Pre-extractionkraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called near neutral pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the near-neutral green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid fr

van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

2010-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

433

Study on Conditioning of SO2EthanolWater Spent Liquor from Spruce Chips/Softwood Biomass for ABE Fermentation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study is an integral part of a project which aims at creating an economic process that can utilize cheap forestry residues such as twigs, cones, treetops, branches, and bark to produce renewable chemicals and liquid fuels. ... Further instruments were used for various analyses: furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural by HPLC (Dionex UltiMate 3000 equipped with diode array detector); acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol by an HP 1100 HPLC; aldonic acids by HPAEC equipped with a Dionex CarboPac PA10 column; uronic acids by methanolysis/GC-FID (Shimadzu GC-2010 Plus with NB-30 capillary column of 30 m length and 0.32 mm interior diameter) according to Sundberg et al.(17) and Iakovlev and van Heiningen;(2) concentrations of sulfate and sulfite anions (after adding NaOH) by ion chromatography (Dionex ICS 1500, Sunnyvale, CA, USA); inorganic analysis of the feedstocks by a Varian Liberty ICP-AAS; CHN/S analysis of the feedstocks by a 2400 Series II CHN/S PerkinElmer elemental analyzer (Jones factor of 6.25 used to convert nitrogen content to protein content according to Mariotti et al.(18)); sulfur content in the LCC by combustion in oxygen in a Schniger flask, followed by absorption of SO2 in H2O2 solution, and the formed sulfate anions were determined by ion chromatography (SCAN-CM 57:99). ...

Evangelos Sklavounos; Mikhail Iakovlev; Adriaan van Heiningen

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

434

Determination of taurine concentration during cheddar cheese manufacture and examination of antioxidant properties of whey, permeate, mother liquor, and taurine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objectives of this study were to determine the mass balance of taurine during the conversion of milk to cheese and during the processing of whey through lactose crystallization and to determine the antioxidant activity of whey fractions...

Li, Xin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

435

Prokaryotic Communities in Pit Mud from Different-Aged Cellars Used for the Production of Chinese Strong-Flavored Liquor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coordinates analysis (PCoA) in Fast UniFrac ( http://bmf.colorado.edu/fastunifrac/ ). The cluster analysis (CA) was conducted...assembly processes in soil bacterial communities following a wildfire disturbance. ISME J. 7 :1102-1111. doi: 10.1038...

Yong Tao; Jiabao Li; Junpeng Rui; Zhancheng Xu; Yan Zhou; Xiaohong Hu; Xiang Wang; Menghua Liu; Daping Li; Xiangzhen Li

2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Chemicals for enhanced oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The main objective has been to reduce barriers to implementation of micellar flooding arising from the cost and/or supply of chemicals. The effort has been comprised of search for suitable raw materials in waste streams or in low-cost byproducts, evaluation of these components, research supporting field production of biopolymers, microbiological production of cosurfactants, and search for competitive adsorbates or sacrifical agents. Emphasis has been on substances from other than petroleum sources. Because of the large volume of organic chemicals having low value produced in the pulping of wood, considerable attention has been given to the paper industry. Surfactant evaluation has centered on the fatty-acid fraction of tall oils, in which sodium oleate seems to dominate the interfacial properties. Phase and interfacial behavior of natural mixtures and chemical modifications of components have been investigated. Biopolymer research was centered on scleroglucans because of their superior potential for field production. Fermentation, evaluation of feeds alternative to glucose, wet separation of polymer from fermentation broth, reduction of difficulties in plugging formations, and beneficial disposal of biomass were all investigated. Several organic chemicals from pulping were found to have potential as sacrificial agents. Sodium saccarinates, weak black liquor, and caustic extract from the bleaching of pulp were the most promising from the kraft process. By selection, Clostridia strains capable of producing higher alcohols from various wood-pulping wastes were isolated. Analysis of separation processes indicated that, in spite of the lower alcohol content of the mash in comparison with yeast fermentation to ethanol, free energies of the neutral-solvent solutions made the costs of concentration in money and heat comparable.

Compere, A.L.; Gracey, R.A.; Griffith, W.L.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Jones, R.M.; Magid, L.J.; Triolo, R.; Westmoreland, C.G.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

438

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

11 - 6720 of 26,764 results. 11 - 6720 of 26,764 results. Download CX-004710: Categorical Exclusion Determination Highly Energy Efficient Directed-Green Liquor Pulping CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 12/14/2010 Location(s): Colorado Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004710-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-004025: Categorical Exclusion Determination Indiana-St. Joseph County CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 10/04/2010 Location(s): St. Joseph, Indiana Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004025-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-002188: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cedar Hill's Development of the Energy Efficiency Conservation Strategy

439

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Floor tube corrosion in recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect

Lower sulfur emissions at a pulp mill result in higher sulfidity levels and in the enrichment of potassium in the mill`s liquor system. The sulfidity values at Scandinavian kraft mills previously fluctuated between 28 and 35%; today they exceed 45%. Viscosity measurements show that the viscosity decreases drastically when the sulfidity increases from 30 mole% to 40 mole%, its potassium and chlorine levels are high enough, and the char bed is low, the smelt flows easily and may penetrate the char bed, approaching the floor tubes. In extreme cases, the hot smelt destroys the layer of solidified smelt on the floor tube`s surface and reacts very rapidly with the floor tube.

Klarin, A. [A. Ahistrom Corp., Helsinki (Finland)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Chemicals for enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Studies on the salinity range in which three liquid phases are observed for systems containing a tall oil ethoxylate or related nonionic surfactant, a cosurfactant, aqueous NaCl, and a hydrocarbon were extended. Increasing hydrophile-lipophile balance, HLB, causes an increase in the salinity needed to effect the transition of the surfactant from the lower to the upper phase. However, other factors besides HLB seem to be involved. Addition of the nonionic surfactant increases optimal salinity by an amount which depends on its hydrophilic character. Sodium-2-methyloleate,-2-butyloleate, -2-hexyloleate, -2,2-dimethyloleate, and -2,2-diethyloleate were synthesized and its phase behavior in aqueous/hydrocarbon systems studied. Adsorption of a commercial petroleum sulfonate from 0.1 M NaCl on the sodium form of montmorillonite was reduced a factor of ten by caustic extract from bleaching of wood pulp. In a comparison of several pulping wastes or byproducts as sacrificial agents, caustic extract and weak black liquor appeared most effective, and lignosulfonate only slightly less effective. Plugging tests of the filtrates obtained in the biomass-polymer separations indicated that polish filtration probably would be required. The microscreen is the most economical of the biomass separation methods. Small fermenter tests indicate that Sclerotium rolfsii cultures are able to tolerate salinity of 2 to 4% w/v NaCl in the fermentation broth makeup water; however, the organism was unable to grow in 6% w/v NaCl.

Johnson, J.S. Jr.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Tissue-Adapted Invasion Strategies of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to focus molecular analyses on the limited number...invasion. Expression analysis on rice leaf sheath...platform exposed to wind or dewdrop splash...set the infection cycle in motion starting...the Epidemiological Life Cycle of M. oryzae under...

Sylvain Marcel; Ruairidh Sawers; Edward Oakeley; Herbert Angliker; Uta Paszkowski

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

445

Machine learning techniques in disease forecasting: a case study on rice blast prediction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our case study demonstrated that SVM is better than existing machine learning techniques and conventional REG approaches in forecasting plant diseases. In this direction, we have also ... a SVM-based web server f...

Rakesh Kaundal; Amar S Kapoor; Gajendra PS Raghava

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Genetic and physical mapping of telomeres in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea  

SciTech Connect

Telomeric restriction fragments were genetically mapped to a previously described linkage map of Magnaporthe grisea, using RFLPs identified by a synthetic probe, (TTAGGG){sub 3}. Frequent rearrangement of telomeric sequences was observed in progeny isolates creating a potential for misinterpretation of data. Therefore a consensus segregation data set was used to minimize mapping errors. Twelve of the 14 telomeres were found to be genetically linked to existing RFLP markers. Second-dimensional electrophoresis of restricted chromosomes confirmed these linkage assignments and revealed the chromosomal location of the two unlinked telomeres. We were thus able to assign all 14 M. grisea telomeres to their respective chromosome ends. The Achilles` cleavage (AC) technique was employed to determine that chromosome 1 markers 11 and CH5-120H were {approximately}1.8 Mb and 1.28 Mb, respectively, from their nearest telomeres. RecA-AC was also used to determine that unlinked telomere 6 was {approximately}530 kb from marker CH5-176H in strain 2539 and 580 kb in Guy11. These experiments indicated that large portions of some chromosome ends are unrepresented by genetic markers and provided estimates of the relationship of genetic to physical distance in the regions of the genome. 41 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Farman, M.L.; Leong, S.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Blast simulator wall tests : experimental methods and mitigation strategies for reinforced concrete and concrete Masonry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combustion energy H f Heat of combustion of fuel H s Heightthe fuel, H f is the heat of combustion of the fuel, H TNTof the region by the heat of combustion Estimate the total

Oesterle, Michael G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Experimental and numerical correlation of a scaled containment vessel subjected to an internal blast load  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently in the design phase of a large Containment System that will be used to contain hydrodynamic experiments. The system in question is being designed to elastically withstand a 50 kg internal high explosive (PBX-9501) detonation. A one-tenth scaled model of the containment system was fabricated and used to obtain experimental results of both pressure loading and strain response. The experimental data are compared with numerical predictions of pressure loading and strain response obtained from an Eulerian hydrodynamic code (MESA-2D) and an explicit, non-linear finite element code (LLNL DYNA3D). The two-dimensional pressure predictions from multiple hydrodynamic simulations are used as loading in the structural simulation. The predicted pressure histories and strain response compare well with experimental results at several locations.

Romero, C.; Benner, J.C.; Berkbigler, L.W.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Modeling of Human Brain Tissues and Head Injuries Induced by Blast and Ballistic Impact  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

can result from direct impact on the skull, leading to skull fracture and subsequent damage to the brain tissue. Such injuries are penetrating TBIs, which are mainly caused by motor vehicle accidents, sports and work related accidents, and falls...

Kulkarni, Sahil G

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

450

Blast simulator wall tests : experimental methods and mitigation strategies for reinforced concrete and concrete Masonry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in reinforced concrete section d cfb Distance to bottom CFRPof bolt A c Area of concrete A cfb Cross-sectional area offunction for BG programmers F cfb Stress in bottom CFRP F

Oesterle, Michael G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Industrial Risks and Land use Planning Study of blast window resistance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

glasses with or without anti-explosion film, laminated glasses...), mobile frames or window locking a short time (inferior to 10 ms). Coevert and al. [5] also studied security window film and insulating/16/4 with Insulating glass fabricated with laminated glass (a) Figure 4: (a) security window film, (c) · The behaviour

Boyer, Edmond

452

E-Print Network 3.0 - air blast freezing Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alexander - Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia Collection: Geosciences 3 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics...

453

E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric blast wave Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alexander - Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia Collection: Geosciences 3 Classification of Seismic Data Dorothea Blostein Summary:...

454

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-containing cavities blast Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sciences 83 200MHz superconducting RF cavity development for RLAs1 Summary: 200MHz superconducting RF cavity development for RLAs1 R.L. Geng , H. Padamsee , D. Hartill ,...

455

The time-frequency characteristics of quarry blasts and calibration explosions recorded in Kazakhstan, USSR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......T. J., Jr & Orcutt, J. A., 1985b. Synthesis of realistic oceanic Pn wave trains, J. geophys. Res., 90, 12755-12776. Sharpe, J. A., 1942. The production of elastic waves by explosion pressures, I. Theory and empirical field observations......

Michael A. H. Hedlin; J. Bernard Minster; John A. Orcutt

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

The response of rigid plates to blast in deep water: fluidstructure interaction experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...speed of sound of water, respectively...is dictated by conservation of linear momentum...creating an extending pool of cavitated water. In figure-6...radiated into the water column in contact...Now write conservation of linear momentum...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Slag-washing water of blast furnace power station with supercritical organic Rankine cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant operating with supercritical ... of a supercritical power plant. Two typical organic fluids with sufficiently low critical parameters were ... study the efficiency of the s...

Song Xiao ??; Shu-ying Wu ???; Dong-sheng Zheng ???

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

BLAST: studying cosmic and Galactic star formation from a stratospheric balloon.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Understanding the history of the formation of stars and evolution of galaxies is one of the foremost goals of astrophysics. While stars emit most of (more)

Moncelsi, Lorenzo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Was the 18 May 1980 lateral blast at Mt St Helens the product of two explosions?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the t = 5:20{8:50 time window. Processes that may have contributed signi cantly...possible that some unspeci ed subsurface process within the magma contributed to the seismic...In Geol. Assoc. Canada 1990 Annual Mtg Program with Abstracts, p. 58. Hoblitt...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

REGIONAL OBSERVATIONS OF MINING BLASTS BY THE GSETT-3 SEISMIC MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of testing of any nuclear explosive devices in all environments is the goal of the Comprehensive Test Ban throughout the world. The goal of this system is the detection of any nuclear test. In preparation an international framework under which all nations can agree to stop the testing of nuclear explosions

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Blast simulator wall tests : experimental methods and mitigation strategies for reinforced concrete and concrete Masonry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

charge to target R eq Equivalent resistance for generalizedwhere R eq is the equivalent resistance function that can beequivalent mass and resisting force equals the actual mass and resistance

Oesterle, Michael G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Blast induced subsidence in the craters of nuclear tests over coral  

SciTech Connect

The craters from high-yield nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds are very broad and shallow in comparison with the bowl-shaped craters formed in continental rock at the Nevada Test Site and elsewhere. Attempts to account for the differences quantitatively have been generally unsatisfactory. We have for the first time successfully modeled the Koa Event, a representative coral-atoll test. On the basis of plausible assumptions about the geology and about the constitutive relations for coral, we have shown that the size and shape of the Koa crater can be accounted for by subsidence and liquefaction phenomena. If future studies confirm these assumptions, it will mean that some scaling formulas based on data from the Pacific will have to be revised to avoid overestimating weapons effects in continental geology. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Burton, D.E.; Swift, R.P.; Glenn, H.D.; Bryan, J.B.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population. Report Submitted toCouncil of Industrial Boiler Owners, Burke, Virginia. [23]Assessment Case Study. Boiler Blowdown Heat Recovery Project

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Emission Reduction Technologies. Food and AgriculturalIEA). 2009. Energy Technology Transitions for Industry -IEA). 2010. Energy Technology Perspectives - Scenarios and

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass Gasification Technologies for Fuels, Chemicals andEnergy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. CO ? Solution01GO10621. Industrial Technologies Progarm (ITP). 2006e.

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the maintenance efficiencies of disk refiners with the refining efficiency of a Jordan. The impact is reduced energy consumption, about 40% to 70% 41 , to develop fibers to...

468

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Input Determine penetration rate of technologies PrepareCTAPI 2011). For the penetration rate of energy-efficiencyhave the current penetration rate of each energy efficiency

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHP) units, one steam turbine, and a steam accumulator. Theand power (CHP) Steam expansion turbines Motor Systems MotorPinch analysis Steam injected gas turbines Cogeneration of

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) has been requested to manage a project to develop estimates of the present energy consumption.

471

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waste. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,Industry. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,Savings. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Rate of Industrial Conservation - Petroleum Refining, Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Manufacture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-31% of 1972 levels; through 1978 a 13-20% actual reduction in energy use has been achieved. 2) The additional can be realized by; 1982 by "strong action", or by 1987 by "moderate action". To date moderate action has been taken. 3) Overall energy conservation...

Prengle, H. W. Jr.; Golden, S. A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1639. [18] Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) (2008).Industrial Assessment Centers Database. Rutgers University,

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

72 3.6.2. Biomass Conversion with Pre-combustion Carbon73 Figure 33. Biomass conversion with CO 2UNIDO 2011. 3.6.2. Biomass Conversion with Pre-combustion

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products Industry Technology Roadmap. Agenda 2020 Technology2011. "The IEA CCS Technology Roadmap: One Year On". Energy1287- Reitzer, R. 2007. Technology Roadmap - Applications of

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuel) through biological and/or chemical synthesis from biomass containing carbohydrates Bioenergy carriers produced by micro- organisms (algae,

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Economic Modeling of Energy Supply from Burning Wood Wastes at British Columbia Pulp and Paper Mills  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the use of wood wastes to replace the extensive fossil-fuel consumption ... Columbia, and the further use of wood wastes to produce electricity at these mills. The ... would be willing to pay ...

A. J. Cox

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

adoption rates Fuel Electricity Cost- effective savings (PJ)of measures Fuel Electricity Cost- effective savings (PJ)2 ) IC ** Investment Cost (%) Electricity Cumulative CCF * (

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Pulp Production in Fray Bentos: Uruguayan Forest Development as a Source of Diplomatic Conflict  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bell, Stephen. Social Networks and Innovation in the SouthBell, Stephen. Social Networks and Innovation in the Souththe Bell. Social Networks and Innovation, 7. Pintos,

Schoorl, Daniel Mateo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Preparation of brightness stabilization agent for lignin containing pulp from biomass pyrolysis oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising: a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor; b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors; c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture; d) evaporating acetone and recovering pyrolysis oils; e) extracting the pyrolysis oils with water to obtain a water extract; f) slurrying the water extract with carbon while stirring, and filtering the slurry to obtain a colorless filtrate; g) cooling the solution and stabilizing the solution against thermally-induced gelling and solidification by extraction with ethyl acetate to form an aqueous phase lower layer and an organic phase upper layer; h) discarding the upper organic layer and extracting the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate, and discarding the ethyl acetate fraction to obtain a brown-colored solution not susceptible to gelling or solidification upon heating; i) heating the solution to distill off water and other light components and concentrating a bottoms fraction comprising hydroxyacetaldehyde and other non-volatile components having high boiling points; and j) decolorizing the stabilized brown solution with activated carbon to obtain a colorless solution.

Agblevor, Foster A. (Blacksburg, VA); Besler-Guran, Serpil (Flemington, NJ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "blast pulping liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

E-Print Network 3.0 - acai pulp euterpe Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 47 Press release For Immediate Release Seattle, USA. May 21, 2008 Summary: and...

482

Investment-Grade Compressed Air System Audit, Analysis, and Upgrade in a Pulp and Paper Mill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be of immense help in conducting such "systems analysis" of motor systems. This article presents a real-life successful project, with an investment of about $0.75 million dollars, documented energy savings of 2,935,000 kWh/year, and other non-energy benefits...

Parekh, P. S.

483

Coliform Bacteria and Nitrogen Fixation in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Treatment Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...performance of activated-sludge biotreatment systems...also cause rising sludge in the secondary...entrapment of N2 gas bubbles, resulting in biosolid...occur in activated-sludge aeration tanks or...samples onto 1/5-strength Trypticase soy agar...

Francis Gauthier; Josh D. Neufeld; Brian T. Driscoll; Frederick S. Archibald

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Manufacturing Energy Bandwidth Studies: Chemical, Peroleum Refining, Pulp and Paer, and Iron and Steel Sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

identify energy intensity and consumption for key manufacturing processes and the sector as a whole. Potential energy savings opportunities are identified by quantifying four measures of energy consumption for each process area: current average (year 2010...

Brueske, S.; Cresko, J.; Capenter, A.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to decrease). Since coal prices vary in different regions ofThe average unit price of coal with 5,500 kilocalories per

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessment Saves Energy and Reduces Waste. Office of EnergyAssessment Saves Energy and Reduces Waste. Office of Energytrading, energy and materials, and waste processing.

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

The Effects of Bleached Kraft Pulp-Mill Effluent on Periphyton DOE FRAP 1996-08  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 3.3.4 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 3.3.5 Dioxins

488

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gasification with combined cycles biological oxygen demandsintegrated gasification combined cycle Intergovernmentalbe integrated with combined-cycle (CC) technology (BLGCC),

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rate, electricity and fuel prices, investment costs, and therate, electricity and fuel prices, investment costs, and theSERC 2011a) is used as the fuel price in the fuel CSC. An

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to produce hydrogen, and biomass combustion to produceCommercial status for biomass combustion, biogas production;gasification over biomass combustion is that the power

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

PREVENTING LOSS AND RESTORING WATER RETENTION VALUES TO PULP BY FIBER LOADING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or service. 2000 TAPPI Recycling Symposium / 663 #12;Equipment A Hobart (Troy, OH) mixer was used to mix

Abubakr, Said

492

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

southern mixed hardwoods". TAPPI 94 (1). Zafeiris, T. 2010.for recycling in concrete". TAPPI 3 (12): 7-10. Cichoracki,forming: A new concept". TAPPI 84 (3). Ciferno, J. P. , and

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in China. Table 2. Energy savings and costs for energy-4 Table 2. Energy savings and costs for energy-efficientWorrell. 2009. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and cost assessment of energy efficiency improvement andin Thai cement industry". Energy Efficiency 4 (1): 93-113.2012a. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO 2

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

A Moderately Thermophilic Mixed Microbial Culture for Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite Concentrate at High Pulp Density  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...chalcopyrite) served as energy sources. After that...about 70% of copper reserves in the world (1). It is also the...chalcopyrite, and high lattice energy (1, 3, 4). Bioleaching...bioleaching of chalcopyrite. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol...

Yuguang Wang; Weimin Zeng; Guanzhou Qiu; Xinhua Chen; Hongbo Zhou

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

496

E-Print Network 3.0 - administration inhalation Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Attachment B... information. 1a. Abrasive Blasting in enclosed cabinet a) Loading blast media: Inhalation hazard b) Blasting... : Excessive noise Flying particles c)...

497

Newsletters and Updates | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

from the Advanced Manufacturing Office about financial opportunities. Subscribe Bioenergy Bioenergy News Blast The Bioenergy "News Blast" highlights program events,...

498

Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

like blast furnace slag, fly ash, coal gangue, limestone,Blast Furnace Slag Fly ash Cinder Coal gangue Lime- stone

Worrell, Ernst

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Preparation and Analysis of Biomass Lignins  

SciTech Connect

Lignin, comprised primarily of three randomly polymerized phenylpropenyl monomers, is, arguably, the second most common organic molecule on earth. In current biorefinery applications, lignin is burned, usually in concentrated pulping or hydrolysis liquor, as a source of process steam and both internal and exported electricity. The aromatic content of lignin makes it a potentially attractive feedstock for highly-valued aromatic chemicals, polymers, and carbon products (graphite, activated carbon, and carbon fiber). Revenue from production of lignin-based chemicals could play a major role in biorefinery profitability if cost-effective methods for lignin separation and purification can be developed. This article presents descriptions of methods for assessing and purifying biorefinery lignins so that they can be evaluated for use as feedstocks for production of chemical products. Areas covered are: 1) initial evaluations of as-received lignin samples (visual, microscopic, separable organics), 2) analysis of common contaminants (bulk and filterable ash and particulate contaminants in liquid and dry lignin samples), 3) preparation of lignins for experimental use as chemical feedstocks (prefiltration, filtration using bench-scale chemical apparatus and larger scale bag filters, one-step lignin precipitation, two-step carbohydrate and lignin precipitation, desalting of dry powdered or precipitated lignin, and lyophilization). These methods have been used successfully at bench-scale to produce the 1 50 kg amounts of wood and grass lignins typically required for bench-scale assessment as chemical feedstocks

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Guided wave acoustic monitoring of corrosion in recovery boiler tubing  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of tubing used in black-liquor recovery boilers is a major concern in all pulp and paper mills. Extensive corrosion in recovery boiler tubes can result in a significant safety and environmental hazard. Considerable plant resources are expended to inspect recovery boiler tubing. Currently, visual and ultrasonic inspections are primarily used during the annual maintenance shutdown to monitor corrosion rates and cracking of tubing. This Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies project is developing guided acoustic waves for use on recovery boiler tubing. The feature of this acoustic technique is its cost-effectiveness in inspecting long lengths of tubes from a single inspection point. A piezoelectric or electromagnetic transducer induces guided waves into the tubes. The transducer detects fireside defects from the coldside or fireside of the tube. Cracking and thinning on recovery boiler tubes have been detected with this technique in both laboratory and field applications. This technique appears very promising for recovery boiler tube application, potentially expediting annual inspection of tube integrity.

Quarry, M J; Chinn, D J

2004-02-19T23:59:59.000Z