National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for blast furnace gas

  1. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  2. Operating a blast furnace using dried top gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundrat, D.M.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described of operating a blast furnace, comprising: introducing into the top of the furnace a charge containing metal oxide, coke and flux, collecting a top gas CO, H[sub 2], carbon dioxide and water from the furnace, increasing the reducing potential of said collected top gas by removing water but without removing carbon dioxide from at least a portion of said collected top gas thereby forming a dried top gas, heating said dried top gas to form a heated dried top gas, introducing said heated dried top gas into the lower half of the stack of the furnace at a position above which said coke is not reactive and introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrogenaceous fuel into the bosh of the furnace whereby said metal oxide is reduced to a molten metal using said heated dried top gas.

  3. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  4. Model of the radial distribution of gas in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an on-line model for estimating the radial gas distribution in blast furnaces. The model is based on molar and energy flow balances for the blast furnace throat region, and utilizes the top gas temperature and gas temperature measurements from a fixed above-burden probe. The distribution of the gas flux is estimated by a Kalman filter. The method is illustrated to capture short-term dynamics and to detect sudden major changes in the gas distribution in Finnish blast furnace.

  5. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  6. Blast furnace gas fired boiler for Eregli Iron and Steel Works (Erdemir), Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.; Strickland, A.; Kimsesiz, E.; Temucin, I.

    1996-11-01

    Eregli Demir ve Celik Fabriklari T.A.S. (Eregli Iron and Steel Works Inc.), known as Erdemir, is a modern integrated iron and steel works on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, producing flat steel plate. Facilities include two blast furnaces, coke ovens, and hot and cold rolling mills, with a full supporting infrastructure. Four oil- and gas-fired steam boilers provide steam for electric power generation, and to drive steam turbine driven fans for Blast Furnace process air. Two of these boilers (Babcock and Wilcox Type FH) were first put into operation in 1965, and still reliably produce 100 tons/hour of steam at a pressure of 44 bar and a temperature of 410 C. In 1989 Erdemir initiated a Capacity Increase and Modernization Project to increase the steel production capability from two million to three million tons annually. This project also incorporates technology to improve the product quality. Its goals include a reduction in energy expenses to improve Erdemir`s competitiveness. The project`s scheduled completion is in late 1995. The by-product gases of the blast furnaces, coke ovens, and basic oxygen furnaces represent a considerable share of the consumed energy in an integrated iron and steel works. Efficient use of these fuels is an important factor in improving the overall efficiency of the operation.

  7. Minimization of Blast Furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-08-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose proposed CFD model will focus on the complex physics and chemistry found within the upper part of the blast furnace.

  8. Integrated use of burden profile probe and in-burden probe for gas flow control in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordemann, F.; Hartig, W.H.; Grisse, H.J.; Speranza, B.E.

    1995-12-01

    Gas flow in the blast furnace is one of the most important factors in controlling a furnace. It not only determines the production but also the fuel consumption and the campaign life. At Nos. 4 and 5 blast furnaces of ROGESA, probes are installed for detection of the burden profiles and of the gas flow distribution. For an optimum use of these probes a program system has been developed by ROGESA and Dango and Dienenthal. With this program system it is possible to analyze the operating condition of a blast furnace by means of a fuzzy logic analysis. In case of deviations from the defined desired condition, recommendations for corrective measures for the material distribution are made. Both furnaces are equipped with a bell-less top, a coal injection system, high-temperature hot blast stoves with heat recovery and a top gas pressure recovery turbine. Most of the time it is impossible to control all the required parameters. For this reason it is meaningful to measure the actual material distribution at the furnace top by means of a burden profile probe which permits quick and repeated measurements without any retroactive effects. The paper describes the instrumentation of the furnace, correlation of measuring methods, and a program system for analysis of measuring data.

  9. Burden distribution control for maintaining the central gas flow at No. 1 blast furnace in Pohang Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Suh, Y.K.; Ahn, T.J.; Kim, S.M.

    1995-12-01

    The causes for temperature lowering at the upper shaft center in Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were investigated. The test operation with charging notch change in the actual blast furnace and with a 1/12 scale model to Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were carried out in order to improve central gas flow in the shaft. Finally, rebuilding of the lower bunker interior was performed using the results of model experiments. It was confirmed that the main reason for the gas temperature lowering at the upper shaft center was the smaller particle size at center than the wall according to the discharging characteristics of center feed bunker with stone box. The central gas flow could be secured through modifying the stone box in the bunker.

  10. Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van

    1995-12-01

    The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

  11. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs State-of-the-Art Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Optimizes Fuel Rate in Blast Furnaces The blast furnace (BF) is the most widely used ironmaking process in the U.S. A major advance in BF ironmaking has been the use of pulverized coal which partially replaces metallurgi- cal coke. This results in substantial improvement in furnace effciency and thus the reductions of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Direct injection of natural gas in blast furnaces at high rates: Preliminary statistical analysis of blast furnace carbon balance at Armco-Middletown. Topical report, January 1990-September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neels, J.K.; Brown, F.C.

    1992-09-01

    The economic benefits of supplemental fuel injections depend, in part, on the coke replacement ratio. An assessment of the accuracy with which blast furnace coke rate may be measured and a determination of the key drivers of coke rate uncertainty are offered, to provide guidance for experiments in high-rate gas injection. Using statistical analysis tools, an expression for the measurement error associated with the various terms of blast furnace carbon balance is developed. Coke rate calculations based on the material balance are most sensitive to coke carbon content and to proper tracking of hot metal tapping schedule.

  13. Rebuilding of Rautaruukki blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallo, S.; Pisilae, E.; Ojala, K.

    1997-12-31

    Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel rebuilt its blast furnaces in 1995 (BF1) and 1996 (BF2) after 10 year campaigns and production of 9,747 THM/m{sup 3} (303 NTHM/ft{sup 3}) and 9,535 THM/m{sup 3} (297 NTHM/ft{sup 3}), respectively. At the end of the campaigns, damaged cooling system and shell cracks were increasingly disturbing the availability of furnaces. The goal for rebuilding was to improve the cooling systems and refractory quality in order to attain a 15 year campaign. The furnaces were slightly enlarged to meet the future production demand. The blast furnace control rooms and operations were centralized and the automation and instrumentation level was considerably improved in order to improve the operation efficiency and to reduce manpower requirements. Investments in direct slag granulation and improved casthouse dedusting improved environmental protection. The paper describes the rebuilding.

  14. Geneva Steel blast furnace improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Hills, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    Geneva Steel is located in Utah and is situated near the western edge of the Rocky Mountains adjacent to the Wasatch Front. Geneva's No. 1, 2 and 3 are the only remaining operating blast furnaces in the United States west of the Mississippi River. They were originally constructed in 1943 to support steelmaking during World War II. During the early 60's all three furnaces were enlarged to their current working volume. Very few major improvements were made until recently. This discussion includes a brief historical perspective of operating difficulties associated with practice, design and equipment deficiencies. Also included is an overview of blast furnace improvements at Geneva found necessary to meet the demands of modern steelmaking. Particular emphasis will be placed on casthouse improvements.

  15. Injection of natural gas in the blast furnace at high rates: Field experiments at Armco Steel Company. Topical technical report, January 1990-September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwall, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Frydenlund, A.R.

    1993-04-01

    A study of the benefits of the injection of natural gas as a supplemental fuel for commercial blast furnaces is presented. Tests were carried out for sustained periods at natural gas injection levels of 150 and 200 pounds per therm (lb/thm). Average coke replacement ratios of 1.30 pounds of coke per pound of natural gas injected and productivity increases of about 10% were achieved at a gas injection rate of 200 lb/thm. The results were obtained without adverse effects on hot metal chemistry or furnace operability. The ability of natural gas to effectively replace an appreciable amount of coke should enable a decrease in coke production levels.

  16. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs cfdblastfurnace.pdf (552.85 KB) More ...

  17. Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.W.; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K.

    1996-12-31

    Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

  18. Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P.

    2009-01-15

    A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

  19. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. . Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  20. Blast furnace supervision and control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M.

    1997-12-31

    On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas -- operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.

  1. High productivity in Australian blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nightingale, R.J.; Mellor, D.G.; Jelenich, L.; Ward, R.F.

    1995-12-01

    Since the emergence of the Australian domestic economy from recession in 1992, the productivity of BHP`s blast furnace has increased significantly to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets. BHP Steel operates six blast furnaces at its three Australian integrated plants. These furnaces vary widely in their size, feed, technology and current campaign status. This paper reviews the principal issues associated with productivity improvements over recent years. These gains have been achieved through activities associated with a wide range of process, equipment and human resource based issues.

  2. Improvement of tap holes at Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, M.; Kashiwada, M.; Shibuta, H.

    1995-12-01

    The service life of blast furnaces, as the result of various improvement measures, has been extended from the conventional 5 to 7 years to 15 to 20 years. Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace adopted SiC bricks. Though SiC brick excelled in strength and durability, it has raised problems such as tap hole inside temperature lowering attributable to its high thermal conductivity, insufficient mud burning and gas blow-out. Nevertheless, various countermeasures described within have been taken against such problems, and as the result it has now become possible to maintain tap holes in stable conditions.

  3. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  4. Blast furnace control after the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gyllenram, R.; Wikstroem, J.O.; Hallin, M.

    1996-12-31

    Rapid technical development together with developments in work organization makes it important to investigate possible ways to achieve a cost efficient process control of different metallurgical processes. This paper describes a research project, and proposes a human oriented Information Technology Strategy, ITS, for control of the Blast Furnace process. The method used is that of deductive reasoning from a description of the prevailing technological level and experiences from various development activities. The paper is based on experiences from the No. 2 Blast Furnace at Luleaa Works but the conclusions do not at this stage necessarily reflect the opinion of the management and personnel or reflect their intentions for system development at SSAB.

  5. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  6. Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H.

    1995-12-01

    Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

  7. Temperatures in the blast furnace refractory lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebel, R.; Streuber, C.; Steiger, R.; Jeschar, R.

    1995-12-01

    The campaign life duration of a blast furnace is mainly determined by the condition of the refractory lining in heavy-duty zones such as the hearth, bosh, belly and lower stack. To achieve a desired lifetime, the temperature of the lining in these areas thereby proved to be the decisive controllable parameter. Low operating temperatures result in prolonged service life and are attained through high cooling efficiency. Besides the refractory grade chosen, the wear profile is mainly determined by the type of cooling system applied and the cooling intensity. Therefore, an appropriate compromise between long service life and energy losses has to be found in each case. In order to predict the service life of a lining it is important to know the wear condition at all times during the campaign. The paper describes the approaches the authors have made so far on European blast furnaces, on a theoretical and practical basis, on how to analyze the lining wear.

  8. Recent improvements in casthouse practices at the Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Y.S.; Han, K.W.; Kim, K.Y.; Cho, B.R.; Hur, N.S.

    1997-12-31

    POSCO`s Kwangyang blast furnaces have continuously carried out high production and low fuel operation under a high pulverized coal injection rate without complications since the Kwangyang No. 1 blast furnace was blown-in in 1987. The Kwangyang blast furnaces have focused on improving the work environment for the increase of competitive power in terms of increased production, cost savings, and management of optimum manpower through use of low cost fuel and raw material. At this time, the casthouse work lags behind most work in the blast furnace. Therefore, the Kwangyang blast furnaces have adopted a remote control system for the casthouse equipment to solve complications in the casthouse work due to high temperature and fumes. As the result, the casthouse workers can work in clean air and the number of workers has been reduced to 9.5 personnel per shift by reduction of the workload.

  9. Pulverized coal injection operation on CSC No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, C.M.; Hsu, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The pulverized coal injection system was introduced for the first time in No. 1 and No. 2 blast furnace at China Steel Corporation (CSC) in 1988. Currently the coal injection rate for both blast furnaces has steadily risen to 70--89 kg/thm (designed value). No 3 blast furnace (with an inner volume of 3400 m3) was also equipped with a PCI system of Armco type and started coal injection on November 17, 1993. During the early period, some problems such as injection lance blocking, lance-tip melting down, flexible hose wear, grind mill tripping occasionally interrupted the stable operation of blast furnace. After a series of efforts offered on equipment improvement and operation adjustment, the PC rate currently reaches to 90--110 kg/thm and furnace stable operation is still being maintained with productivity more than 2.20.

  10. Use of sinter in Taranto blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palchetti, M.; Palomba, R.; Tolino, E.; Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M.

    1995-12-01

    Lowering the production cost of the crude steel is the ultimate aim when planning operations in an integrated steelworks. Designing the Blast Furnace burden is a crucial point in this context, for which account must be taken not only of the raw materials cost but also of other important aims such as maximum plants productivity, minimum possible energy consumption, a proper product quality at the various production stages. This paper describes the criteria used in Ilva Laminati Piani (ILP) Taranto Works to design the BF burden, based on sinter, using the results of extensive research activity carried out by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), the Research Center with major involvement with the R and D of the Italian Steel Industry. Great attention is paid at ILP to the sinter quality in order to obtain the optimum performance of the BFs, which are operating at high productivity, high pulverized coal rate and low fuel consumption.

  11. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs cfd_blastfurnace.pdf (552.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry EA-1745: Finding of No Significant Impact

  12. No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

  13. Using Coke Oven Gas in a Blast Furnace Saves Over $6 Million Annually at a Steel Mill (U.S. Steel Edgar Thompson Plant)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    Like most steel companies, U.S. Steel (USS) had been using coke oven gas (COG), a by-product of coke manufacturing, as a fuel in their coke ovens, boilers, and reheat furnaces.

  14. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  15. Simplified simulation of the transient behavior of temperatures in the upper shaft of the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxen, H.

    1998-06-01

    The blast furnace is the principal process in the world for production of iron for primary steelmaking. The furnace acts as a huge countercurrent heat exchange and chemical reactor with complicated heat and mass transfer phenomena and chemical reactions. The flows of burden and gas in the blast furnace shaft strongly affect the fuel economy of the process. An optimal gas flow distribution, which is obtained by controlling the burden distribution, leads to a high utilization degree of the reducing gas, smooth burden descent, and little wear of the furnace lining. Here, a one-dimensional dynamic model of the upper part of the blast furnace shaft is applied to study the evolution of gas and burden temperatures, mainly in order to shed light on the transient phenomena after charging dumps of burden. The effects of irregularities in the burden descent and charging are also studied briefly. The simulations demonstrate that the temperatures of the burden layers in the lower part of the simulated region assume a quasi-steady state, indicating that the changes in the top gas temperature experienced immediately after a dump of burden arise primarily because of heat transfer between the gas and the dump. These results support the idea that such temporary changes can be interpreted in terms of distribution of the dumps on the burden surface.

  16. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

    2002-01-21

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

  17. Operational results of shaft repair by installing stave type cooler at Kimitsu Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oda, Hiroshi; Amano, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Aiichiro; Anzai, Osamu; Nakagome, Michiru; Kuze, Toshisuke; Imuta, Akira

    1997-12-31

    Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces in Nippon Steel Corporation Kimitsu Works were both initially fitted with cooling plate systems. With the aging of each furnace, the damage to their respective inner-shaft profiles had become serious. Thus, in order to prevent operational change and prolong the furnace life, the inner-shaft profile of each furnace was repaired by replacing the former cooling plate system with the stave type cooler during the two-week-shutdowns. With this repair, stability of burden descent and gas flow near the wall part of the furnace have been achieved. Thus the prolongation of the furnace life is naturally expected.

  18. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

  19. Studies of charging stream trajectories and burden distribution in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M.J.; Mayfield, P.L.; Zulli, P.; Rex, A.J.; Tanzil, W.B.U.

    1993-01-01

    This work discusses the sensitivity of key blast furnace performance parameters to different gas flow distributions achieved by altering the burden distribution. The changes in burden distribution are brought about by different charging stream trajectories, and methods developed and evaluated for measuring the trajectories both on and off line are described.

  20. Pulverized coal injection (PCI) at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.L.; Greenawald, P.B.; Ranade, M.G.; Ricketts, J.A.; Zuke, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    Fuel injection at the tuyeres has always been part of normal operating practice on this blast furnace. It has been used as much because of the beneficial effects on furnace operation as for the replacement of some of the coke that would otherwise be consumed. Fuel oil was used at first, but since the early 1980s it was more economical to inject natural gas. Studies in 1990 indicated that natural gas could be increased to 75 kg/tHM on No. 7 Furnace, and this would result in a coke rate of approximately 360 kg/tHM. It was apparent that coal injection offered significantly more opportunity for coke savings. Coke rate could be lowered to 300 kg/tHM with coal injected at 175 kg/tHM. Some combustion limitations were expected at that level. A coke rate of 270 kg/tHM with coal at 200 kg/tHM may be possible once these limitations are overcome. Furnace permeability was expected to limit the ability to reduce coke rate any further. In addition, the relative cost of coal would be significantly lower than the cost of coke it replaced. This lead to the decision late in 1991 to install pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment for all of Inland`s blast furnaces. This paper will deal with PCI experience at No. 7 Blast Furnace.

  1. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, D.G.; Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  2. Hot repair of ceramic burner on hot blast stoves at USS/Kobe`s {number_sign}3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernarding, T.F.; Chemorov, M.; Shimono, S.; Phillips, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    During the 1992 reline of the No. 3 blast furnace, three new stoves were constructed. The design of the stoves, equipped with internal ceramic burners, was for providing a hot blast temperature of 2,000 F at a wind rate of 140,000 SCFM. After 3 years the performance had deteriorated so the burners were cleaned. When a second cleaning did not improve the performance of No. 3 blast furnace, it was decided to repair the refractory while still hot. The paper describes the hot repair procedures, taking a stove off for repairs, maintenance heat up during repairs, two stove operation, stove commissioning, repair of a ceramic burner, and wet gas prevention.

  3. The formation of an ore free blast furnace center by bell charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exter, P. den; Steeghs, A.G.S.; Godijn, R.; Chaigneau, R.; Timmer, R.M.C.; Toxopeus, H.L.; Vliet, C. van der

    1997-12-31

    A research program has been started to clarify and support the central gas flow control philosophy of Hoogovens` bell-charged No. 7 blast furnace. Small scale burdening experiments and sampling of the stock surface during shut-downs suggest that a sufficiently high central gas flow is an important condition for maintenance of an ore free, highly permeable furnace center and that fluidization of coke plays a part in its formation. On the basis of these experiments a hypothesis was formulated regarding the formation of an ore free blast furnace center, but could not be confirmed satisfactorily. Forthcoming full-scale burdening experiments will provide a better insight in the burden distribution and its control.

  4. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

  5. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

  6. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P.

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  7. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, P.W.

    1995-12-01

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  8. Raceway behaviors in blast furnace with pulverized coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, J.K.; Han, J.W.; Cho, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    The blast furnace raceway shows different characteristics with PCR (pulverized coal injection rate). It was found in this study that with the increase of PCR the raceway depth decreases, and the size of birds nest and sometimes with liquid holdup, increases. Oxygen enrichment with co-axial lances was known to be very effective on the extension of raceway depth and size reduction of birds nest. It was also found that there are various factors which affect the coke properties at tuyere level of the blast furnace. Coke traveling time was calculated to be extended with PCR and it had a close relationship with the coke size in bosh. Coke mean size decreased with the increase of coke traveling time, that is, with the increase of PCR. Both DI (the strength of coke in cold) and CSR (the strength of coke after reaction) were also decreased with PCR. RAFT (Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature) had a tendency to be decreased with the increase of PCR, which is obtained by the estimation of coke temperature via XRD analysis. From the analysis of alkali contents in coke sampled along the radius of the blast furnace, it was understood that no difference in alkali contents between fine and lump coke represents that coke fines generated from upper burden might appear at tuyere level.

  9. Single taphole blast furnace casthouse performance optimizing cost and availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Searls, J.B.; Peay, W.R.; Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    The No. 2 blast furnace is a single taphole furnace with a convection air-cooled iron trough. The iron runner system is designed to fill four 90 ton open-top ladles per cast, which are transported by locomotive to the steel shop. The slag runner system is capable of filling three 800 ft{sup 3} slag pots per cast. The No. 2 blast furnace was blown in from mini-reline with this new casthouse configuration in early December 1991. It was operated for nearly three years until it was banked for planned stove repairs and a trough rebuild in late September 1994. During this period, the furnace produced just over 2.5 million tons of hot metal across the original trough refractory lining system, with 13 intermediate hot patch castable repairs. The entire casthouse refractory usage (main trough, runner systems, and covers) during this campaign was 1.06 pounds per net ton of hot metal. Investigation of the lining during demolition indicated that the trough lining campaign could have been extended to at least 3.0 million tons. This paper will discuss how operating practices, mechanical design, refractory design, maintenance philosophy, and attention to detail synergistically contributed to the long campaign life and low refractory consumption rate.

  10. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  11. A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabi, G.

    1996-12-31

    Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

  12. A system for interpretation of blast furnace stockrod measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinnelae, J.; Saxen, H.

    1997-12-31

    A system for intelligent monitoring and interpretation of signals from blast furnace stockrods is presented. The system visualizes the measurements and estimates the local burden layer thickness (under the rods) after every dump. Furthermore, it analyzes the burden descent rate to distinguish between slips, hangings, normal descent and peaks, etc., and also combines the stockrod information with findings of temperature measurements from an above-burden probe. The preprocessing of the signals and some features of the system, which is under development, are treated in this paper.

  13. The limitation of hearth sidewall wear at Redcar blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parratt, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    The Redcar blast furnace with 14m hearth diameter was blown-in for its second campaign in August 1996. It is currently in its 10th year of operation and to date has produced just over 30 million tonnes. Current plans are to continue the second campaign to the year 2000 and beyond, producing over 40 million tonnes. In order to achieve this objective, any further wear on the lining, and in particular the hearth sidewall, needs to be minimized. This paper describes the present hearth design, the monitoring of hearth wear, the predicted wear profile, and the protection measures that have been taken or are being considered.

  14. Record production on Gary No. 13 blast furnace with 450 lb./THM co-injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Coal injection was initiated on No. 13 Blast Furnace in 1993 with 400 lb/THM achieved in 9 months. In early 1994, cold weather and coal preparation upsets led to the use of a second injectant, oil atomized by natural gas, to supplement the coal. Various combinations of coal and oil were investigated as total injection was increased to 450 lb/THM. Beginning in the last half of 1994, a continuing effort has been made to increase furnace production while maintaining this high co-injection level. Typical furnace production is now in excess of 10,000 THM/day compared with about 8500 THM/day in late 1993.

  15. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. )

    1993-01-01

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  16. Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Improving Gas Furnace Performance-A Field and Lab Study at End of Life Location: ...

  17. Gary No. 13 blast furnace achieves 400 lbs/THM coal injection in 9 months

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, G.J.; Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.; O`Donnell, E.M.

    1995-12-01

    Number 13 Blast Furnace at Gary began injecting Pulverized Coal in March 1993. The injection level was increased over the next nine months until a level off 409 lbs/THM was achieved for the month of December 1993. Several major areas were critical in achieving this high level of Pulverized coal injection (PCI) including furnace conditions, lance position, tuyere blockage, operating philosophy, and outages. The paper discusses the modifications made to achieve this level of injection. This injection level decreased charged dry coke rate from 750 lbs/THM to about 625 lbs/THM, while eliminating 150 lbs/THM of oil and 20 lbs/THM of natural gas. Assuming a 1.3 replacement ratio for an oil/natural gas mixture, overall coke replacement for the coal is about 0.87 lbs coke/lbs coal. Gary Works anticipates levels of 500 lbs/THM are conceivable.

  18. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J.; Sirgado, M.

    1995-12-01

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  19. Optimization of ferrous burden high temperature properties to meet blast furnace requirements in British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergstrand, R.

    1996-12-31

    The high temperature properties of ferrous burden materials have long been an important consideration in the operation of British Steel blast furnaces. Previous research presented at this conference has shown that the behavior of materials in the lower stack and bosh can have a significant effect on furnace permeability and stability of operation. However, with increasing levels of hydrocarbon injection via the tuyeres, the reduction conditions inside British Steel blast furnaces have significantly altered over recent years. This paper focuses on the further work that has been undertaken to study the effect on ferrous burden high temperatures properties of the widely differing reduction regimes which can be experienced in today`s blast furnaces. The implications of the findings, and how they have been used in optimizing blast furnace operation and burden quality, are discussed.

  20. Process control techniques at the blast furnaces of Thyssen Stahl AG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Beppler, E.; Kreibich, K.; Muelheims, K.; Peters, M.; Wieters, C.U.

    1995-12-01

    Process improvements, capacity increases and the use of modern measuring and process control techniques have helped to ensure that the blast furnace will remain an indispensable means of supplying steelworks with hot metal until well into the next century. The survival of a future-oriented company such as Thyssen Stahl AG depends on long-term improvements in economic viability. Today, Thyssen Stahl AG operates two blast furnace plants comprising a total of five blast furnaces with hearth diameters ranging from 9.3 to 14.9m. This choice of furnaces permits flexible adjustment to changing workload situations and enables about ten million tons of hot metal to be produced each year. The wide range of measuring devices specially fitted on Schwelgern blast furnace No. 1 made a vital contribution to the development of blast furnace models. The purpose of these models was to make a general assessment of the state of the furnace and so create an objective basis for furnace operation. The paper describes the development of these measuring techniques and process model and the application of the model.

  1. Titanium addition practice, and maintenance for the hearths in AHMSA`s blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, A.G.; Jimenez, G.; Castillo, J.

    1997-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is a steel company located in Northern Mexico, in the state of Coahuila. Currently there are three blast furnaces in operation and one more about to finish its general repair. This last one is to remain as a back-up unit. Because of blast furnace hearth wear outs AHMSA has developed some maintenance procedures. These procedures are based on titanium ore additions and hearth thermic control monitoring. There are also some other maintenance practices adopted to the working operations to assure that such operations detect and avoid in time hearth wear outs that place personnel and/or the unit in danger (due to hearth leaks). This paper describes titanium ore addition to No. 2 blast furnace during the final campaign and it also illustrates maintenance practices and continuous monitoring of temperature trends both of which were implemented at AHMSA`s No. 5 blast furnace.

  2. Hearth monitoring experiences at Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stothart, D.W.; Chaykowski, R.D.; Donaldson, R.J.; Pomeroy, D.H.

    1997-12-31

    As a result of a 1994 taphole breakout at Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace, extensive effort has gone into monitoring, understanding and controlling hearth wear. This paper reviews the hearth monitoring system developed and the various hearth operating and maintenance techniques used to ensure No. 4 Blast Furnace safely reaches its 1998 reline date. The impact of changes in coke quality, productivity, casting practice and leaking cooling members on hearth refractory temperature fluctuations will also be examined.

  3. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B.

    2009-03-15

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics study of pulverized coal combustion in blast furnace raceway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Y.S.; Maldonado, D.; Guo, B.Y.; Yu, A.B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

    2009-12-15

    In this work, a numerical model is used to study the flow and coal combustion along the coal plume in a large-scale setting simulating the lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway region of a blast furnace. The model formulation is validated against the measurements in terms of burnout for both low and high volatile coals. The typical phenomena related to coal combustion along the coal plume are simulated and analyzed. The effects of some operational parameters on combustion behavior are also investigated. The results indicate that oxygen as a cooling gas gives a higher coal burnout than methane and air. The underlying mechanism of coal combustion is explored. It is shown that under the conditions examined, coal burnout strongly depends on the availability of oxygen and residence time. Moreover, the influences of two related issues, i.e. the treatment of volatile matter (VM) and geometric setting in modeling, are investigated. The results show that the predictions of final burnouts using three different VM treatments are just slightly different, but all comparable to the measurements. However, the influence of the geometric setting is not negligible when numerically examining the combustion of pulverized coal under blast furnace conditions.

  5. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  6. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  7. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

  8. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    natural gas meter. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels....

  9. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential gas furnaces, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  10. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

  11. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  12. Burden distribution tests of Siderar`s No. 2 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingiardi, O.; Partemio, C.; Burrai, O.; Etchevarne, P.

    1997-12-31

    Siderar is a company which was created through the merger of Propulsora Siderurgica and the privatized Aceros Parana (the former Somisa, a state-owned steel company). This plant manufacturers flat steel products: hot and cold rolled coils, as well as tin plate coils. After the privatization of the former Somisa in 1992, the new owners decided to modernize the Blast Furnace 2. The relining involved the following: complete furnace with bell less top; cast house with dust collection; INBA granulation system; gas cleaning system; cooling system; modern control system; and revamping of the stock house and the stoves. Burden distribution tests allowed the staff to familiarize themselves with the operation of the top under the three operation modes (manual, semiautomatic and automatic), and also to make adjustments to the top control system. In addition, the tests allowed them to see how materials behave during discharge and building up of ore and coke layers. All this information, together with the available instrumentation, such as fixed probes and heat flux monitoring system, proved to be of use for the gas flow control.

  13. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

  14. Up-grade of process control system, U.S. Steel Fairfield No. 8 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camlic, R.L. [U.S. Steel, Fairfield, AL (United States). Fairfield Works; Goodman, N.J. [Kvaerner Davy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The No. 8 blast furnace at US Steel`s Fairfield, AL facility is the only blast furnace remaining in operating at the plant. The blast furnace has a production capacity of 5,500 tons per day of hot metal and provides 100% of the iron requirements for the steel plant that has an annual production capacity of 2,200,000 tons of steel. Therefore, any outage on No. 8 blast furnace has a major impact on the operation of the total Fairfield facility. During the planning stages of the latest reline outage of No. 8 blast furnace, significant measures were taken to insure that maximum production of iron was maintained before and immediately after the outage. A significant portion of the reline activity was centered on the total replacement of the existing process control system. The scope of replacement was so extensive that it was determined that if all areas of the process control system were replaced during the reline outage, then the installation and commissioning of the new system would have been the critical path on the project. In addition, the requirements for training and start-up of the new process control system would have imposed risks to obtaining maximum production after the reline outage, as operators experienced the learning curve of the new system. It was therefore decided that the critical areas of the new process control system would be installed before the reline outage. In addition, all training and start-up activities would take place on the new working system while it was operating in a `shadow` mode in parallel with the existing system. This would provide a proven process control system for blast furnace operations before the reline outage, and eliminate the learning curve after the outage. The reline outage is described.

  15. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  16. Altos Hornos de Mexico blast furnace No. 5 certification in ISO-9002 standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamez, O.; Liceaga, F.; Arredondo, J.

    1997-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico`s Blast Furnace No. 5, as a means to improve its product quality, sought and obtained the certification of its quality system based on the international standard ISO-9002. The certification was obtained under this quality standard in Dec. 1995 and has successfully been maintained after two continuance audits. For blast furnace No. 5 (BF5) the benefits are reflected by a reduction in the hot metal silicon content variability, a decrease in fuel consumption and a higher productivity. Benefits were also obtained in the working environment where the personnel became more highly motivated, procedures were carried out to completion and the quality records were filled correctly.

  17. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M.; Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  18. Development and application of new techniques for blast furnace process control at SSAB Tunnplaat, Luleaa Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braemming, M.; Hallin, M.; Zuo, G.

    1995-12-01

    SSAB Tunnplaat AB operates two blast furnaces (M1 and M2) in Luleaa. In recent years research efforts have to a great extent been aimed at the development of new techniques for blast furnace process control. An example is the installation of a burden profile measurement system, which was useful in the development of a new burden distribution praxis on the big furnace (M2), equipped with a bell-less-top. Hearth level detection and continuous measurement of the hot metal temperature in the runner are under evaluation. The purpose of these techniques is to give earlier information concerning the state of the blast furnace process. Parallel to this work, models for prediction of silicon in hot metal, the position and shape of the cohesive zone and slip-warning are being developed and tested off-line. These new models and information from new measuring techniques will be integrated into a new Operating Guidance System, hopefully resulting in a powerful tool in the efforts to stabilize blast furnace operations.

  19. Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule DOE Furnace Rule (111.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Focus Series: Philadelphia Energyworks: In the City of Brotherly Love, Sharing Know-How Leads to Sustainability The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- December 2013 Collaborating With Utilities on Residential Energy Efficiency

  20. American Gas Association (AGA) for DOE Furnace Product Class | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy (AGA) for DOE Furnace Product Class American Gas Association (AGA) for DOE Furnace Product Class Thank you for the opportunity to brief your staff in recent weeks on an impact analysis of a national condensing furnace standard, which was conducted jointly by the American Gas Association (AGA), the American Public Gas Association (APGA), and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). AGA e-mail for DOE Furnace Product Class (83.56 KB) AGA Cover Letter for Furnace Product Class White Paper

  1. Monitoring lining and hearth conditions at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quisenberry, P.; Grant, M.; Carter, W.

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes: furnace statistics; mini-reline undertaken in November, 1993; the stack condition; throat gunning; stabilizing the graphite bricks; the hearth condition; reactions to temperature excursions; future instrumentation; and hot blast system areas of concern. The present data from monitoring systems and inspections indicate that the furnace should be able to operate well beyond the expectation for the 1993 mini-reline (3--5 years) with: (1) consistent, high quality raw materials; (2) instrumentation, diagnostic, remedial, and preventative techniques developed; and (3) stopping quickly any water leaks into the furnace. The longevity of this campaign has undoubtedly been a result of this monitoring program.

  2. Development of quick repairing technique for ceramic burner in hot stove of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Atsushi; Doura, Kouji; Nakamura, Hirofumi

    1997-12-31

    Refractories of ceramic burner in hot stoves at Wakayama No. 4 blast furnace were damaged. There are only three hot stoves, so repairing must be done in a short. Therefore, a quick repairing technique for ceramic burners has been developed, and two ceramic burners were repaired in just 48 hours.

  3. Blast-furnace ironmaking -- Existing capital and continued improvements are a winning formula for a bright future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshnock, T.W.; Colinear, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Throughout the years the blast-furnace process has been improved upon significantly. Increases to the hot-blast temperature, improvements to the physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties of coke and burden materials, the use of more fuel injectants, and improvements to the design of the furnace facilities have led to significant decreases in furnace coke rate, increases in productivity, and increases in furnace campaign life. As a result, many of the alternative cokeless reduction processes have not replaced blast-furnace hot-metal production in North America. In the future, these continued blast-furnace improvements will potentially result in coke rates decreasing to 400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM) as more pulverized coal is injected. These improvements, coupled with the fact that existing blast furnaces and coke plants can be refurbished for approximately $110 per annual ton of hot metal [$100 per annual net ton of hot metal (NTHM)], will result in extending the life of the North American blast furnaces well into the twenty-first century.

  4. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the...

  5. Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, J.C.; Tilley, F.H.

    1983-06-14

    Pieces of shredded tires are fed into the top of a vertical pyrolyzing furnace in a measured amount using a weighing hopper feed mechanism. Heated gas is introduced through inlet and pyrolyzing the tire pieces on a countercurrent flow principle to produce useful hydrocarbon volatiles and residues. The pyrolyzed residue including tire reinforcing wires are efficiently removed from the furnace by a plurality of downwardly inclined screw conveyors disposed in troughs. Each screw conveyor extends into an inclined conduit and discharges into a vertical branch conduit disposed at least partially within the cross-section of the furnace so that even discharge of the pyrolyzed residue is ensured by the combined action of gravity and the screw conveyors.

  6. Pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and other new ironmaking processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Oshnock, T.W.

    1995-12-01

    The requirements for the physical, chemical and metallurgical properties of pellets have continued to become more stringent as blast-furnace productivity and coke rate have been rapidly improved during the last decade. In addition, the age and deterioration of the North American coke batteries, the lack of capital to sufficiently rebuild them, and the threat of increasingly more stringent environmental controls for the coke batteries has forced North American ironmakers to begin implementing pulverized coal injection to minimize the coke requirements for the blast furnace and to seriously investigate developing other ironmaking processes that use coal instead of coke. Therefore, the next major step in North American ironmaking has included injecting pulverized coal (PC) at 200 kilograms per ton of hot metal (kg/ton) [400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM)] or greater which will result in the coke rate decreasing to less than 300 kg/ton (600 lb/NTHM) or less. As a result, the pellets will spend more time in the furnace and will be required to support more total weight. Pellets can also be a major iron unit source for other cokeless ironmaking processes such as the COREX process or the AISI direct ironmaking process. This paper will explore the pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and cokeless ironmaking processes.

  7. Continuous measurement of blast furnace burden profile at SSAB Tunnplat AB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virtala, J.; Edberg, N.; Hallin, M. . Ironmaking Division)

    1993-01-01

    A unique profile meter system is installed on Blast Furnace No. 2 in SSAB - Swedish Steel AB, Lulea, Sweden. This system measures the charge material burden profile across the furnace top diameter before and after each charge. The system generates real-time data, which is graphically presented by the system on a monitor and includes burden descent speed, layer thickness of the coke and ore (corrected for descent), ore to coke ratio, and burden skewing. The system is described along with operational results.

  8. Bosh repairs No. 3 blast furnace, Edgar Thomson Plant Mon Valley Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoupis, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes in detail the steps taken from quenching to dry out of the furnace to repair the bosh area of the No.3 blast furnace. Inspection of the area revealed that there was no brick anywhere in the bosh. Brick in the tuyere breast area had been peeled back to reveal the steel plate, and descaling revealed 14 pipes fully exposed. None were leaking, but one seemed badly deteriorated. Conventional repairs could not take place before the scheduled blow-in. Installation of coolers were instead tried.

  9. Determination of the fundamental softening and melting characteristics of blast furnace burden materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakker, T.; Heerema, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental technique to investigate the fundamental mechanisms taking place on a microscale in the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace, is presented. In the present paper, attention is focused on determination of the softening viscosity of porous wustite. The technique may be potentially useful to investigate more complex samples of ironbearing material, as occurring in the blast furnace. In comparison with the results obtained by other researchers the viscosity of porous wustite found in the present work is substantially higher than reported elsewhere for sinter and pellets. This may be an indication that softening is not merely a reflection of the solid state deformation under load of wustite. An important factor may be local melting of some of the phases present within the sinter and pellet structures.

  10. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael F. Riley

    2002-10-21

    Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and

  11. Hoogovens blast furnace No. 6 -- The first eleven years of a continuing campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tijhuis, G.; Toxopeus, H.; Berg, H. van den; Vliet, C. van der

    1997-12-31

    Blast furnace No. 6 of Hoogovens Steel has just completed its eleventh year of the fourth (running) campaign, with a total production of approx. 23 million metric tonnes of hot metal. During the last reline in 1985 the furnace was equipped with a third taphole and a bell-less top. The lining consists of graphite and semi-graphite and the cooling consists of a dense pattern of copper plate coolers. The current campaign is marked by several important operational events, in particular the high productivity and PCI rates, but also by the remarkable performance of the lining which has shown limited wear in the first four years of the campaign, and hardly any reduction of the lining thickness in the last seven years. This paper discusses the design of the furnace, and the history of the current campaign with respect to its productivity, PCI rates and lining wear.

  12. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March 1993--31 May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. The basic program is designed to determine the reactivity of both coal and its derived char under blast furnace conditions and to compare the results to similar properties of blast furnace coke. The results of the first two experiments in which coal char pyrolyzed in nitrogen at 1000{degrees}C in an EPR were reacted isothermally in air at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. The reactivity values of the same char in these two experiments were different by an order of magnitude. The char reactivity at 1000{degrees}C was 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} grams per minute while the reactivity. of the char at 1200{degrees}C was 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} grams per minute. These results suggest that the temperature of the blast air in the tuyere may be critical in achieving complete carbon burnout.

  13. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-05-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposed study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. The Amanda furnace of Armco is the only one in North America currently using coal injection and is, therefore, the only full scale testing facility available. During this quarter complete petrographic analyses of all of the samples so far collected were completed.

  14. Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim

    2008-08-15

    Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

  15. Gary Works No. 13 blast furnace: A new removable trough design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; Pawlak, J.P.; Traina, L.; Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    No. 13 Blast Furnace at US Steel`s Gary Works is a 35 tuyere furnace with a 36.5 ft. hearth capable of producing over 9,000 tons of hot metal per day. The current casthouse design was placed in service following the second reline in the fall of 1979. This design anticipated daily production rates averaging 7,500 tons of hot metal per day and provided for removable troughs at two of the three tapholes. At the time, the troughs were rammed with a high alumina/silicon carbide granular ramming material that provided the operators with trough campaign lives between 60,000--70,000 tons of hot metal produced. As refractory technology progressed, low cement/low moisture castables were introduced to the trough systems on No. 13 Blast Furnace. The immediate success of the castables was tempered by emergence of a new unexpected problem. That problem was the thermal expansion of the castable. The paper describes the problems that resulted in the need to modify the trough design, the new design of the trough, and its improvement in iron trough campaign life and reliability.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  17. A method for burden distribution estimation from probe data in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H.; Bulsari, A.

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach for estimation of burden distribution in the blast furnace is presented. The proposed model makes use of only temperature measurements from an above-burden probe, and interprets the changes in temperature at charging in terms of burden distribution. In this study it is demonstrated that the temperature changes can be predicted quite accurately for all dumps in a charging sequence using neural networks., The basic structures of both an on-line and an off-line model are presented.

  18. Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W.

    1995-12-01

    On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

  19. Chromium stabilization chemistry of paint removal wastes in Portland cement and blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    The use of cement based systems for solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes has been proposed. The stabilization of Cr contaminated paint removal wastes in ordinary Portland cement and in a Portland cement and blast furnace slag matrix was investigated. A loading by volume of 75% waste and 25% cement (or cement + slag) was used. The expression of pore solution was utilized to determine the chemical environment encountered by the waste species in the cement matrix. The highly alkaline conditions of ordinary Portland cement determined the stability of the metal species, with Cr being highly soluble. The replacement of 25% of the Portland cement by blast furnace slag was found to decrease the [OH-] of the pore solution resulting in a decrease of the Cr concentration. For cement wastes forms hydrated for 28 days, the Cr concentration decreased in the expressed pore solution. During the TCLP tests the cement waste form and extraction solution were found to react, changing the chemistry of the extraction solution. The expression of pore solution was found to give a direct measure of the chemistry of the waste species in the cement matrix. This avoids the reaction of the TCLP extraction solution with the cement matrix which changes the solubility of the hazardous metals. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter a sample of the feed coal that is being used for injection into the No. 7 Blast Furnace of Inland Steel has been analyzed petrographically and compared to both the Herrin No. 6 coal and Armco feed coal. Additional characterization is underway and an advanced program of pyrolysis and reactivity testing has been initiated.

  1. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

  2. Chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated by sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovtun, Maxim Kearsley, Elsabe P. Shekhovtsova, Julia

    2015-06-15

    This paper presents results of a study on chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated using sodium carbonate. As strength development of alkali-activated slag cements containing neutral GBFS and sodium carbonate as activator at room temperature is known to be slow, three accelerators were investigated: sodium hydroxide, ordinary Portland cement and a combination of silica fume and slaked lime. In all cements, the main hydration product is C–(A)–S–H, but its structure varies between tobermorite and riversideite depending on the accelerator used. Calcite and gaylussite are present in all systems and they were formed due to either cation exchange reaction between the slag and the activator, or carbonation. With accelerators, compressive strength up to 15 MPa can be achieved within 24 h in comparison to 2.5 MPa after 48 h for a mix without an accelerator.

  3. A study on the flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, Y.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Baik, C.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace was investigated by using a water model test and a numerical simulation. The water model apparatus was set up in order to evaluate the effects of coke size, coke bed structure, drain rate, and coke free space on the fluidity of molten iron through measurement of residence time and visualization of flow pattern. In addition, the flow was calculated by solving momentum equation in porous media using finite element method. The residence time increased with the coke size decrease, but decreased with the drain rate increase. If small coke was placed in the center of deadman, peripheral flow was enhanced. The flow path was changed due to the coke free space.

  4. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A coal based dri and molten metal process for long range replacement of blast furnaces and coke ovens

  5. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  6. Measure Guideline: High-Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces L. Brand and W. Rose Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit October 2012 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors or affiliates makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

  7. Effect of blast furnace slag on self-healing of microcracks in cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Haoliang; Ye, Guang; Damidot, Denis

    2014-06-01

    The physico-chemical process of self-healing in blast furnace slag cement paste was investigated in this paper. With a high slag content i.e., 66% in cement paste and saturated Ca(OH)₂ solution as activator, it was found that the reaction products formed in cracks are composed of C-S-H, ettringite, hydrogarnet and OH–hydrotalcite. The fraction of C-S-H in the reaction products is much larger than the other minerals. Large amount of ettringite formed in cracks indicates the leaching of SO₄⁻² ions from the bulk paste and consequently the recrystallization. Self-healing proceeds fast within 50 h and then slows down. According to thermodynamic modeling, when the newly formed reaction products are carbonated, the filling fraction of crack increases first and then decreases. Low soluble minerals such as silica gel, gibbsite and calcite are formed. Compared to Portland cement paste, the potential of self-healing in slag cement paste is higher when the percentage of slag is high. Highlights: • Self-healing reaction products in slag cement paste were characterized. • Self-healing reaction products formed in time were quantified with image analysis. • Self-healing in slag cement paste was simulated with a reactive transport model. • Effect of carbonation on self-healing was investigated by thermodynamic modeling. • Effect of slag on self-healing was discussed based on experiments and simulation.

  8. Characterisation of magnesium potassium phosphate cements blended with fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Laura J.; Bernal, Susan A.; Walling, Samuel A.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Provis, John L.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2015-08-15

    Magnesium potassium phosphate cements (MKPCs), blended with 50 wt.% fly ash (FA) or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) to reduce heat evolution, water demand and cost, were assessed using compressive strength, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on {sup 25}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 29}Si, {sup 31}P and {sup 39}K nuclei. We present the first definitive evidence that dissolution of the glassy aluminosilicate phases of both FA and GBFS occurred under the pH conditions of MKPC. In addition to the main binder phase, struvite-K, an amorphous orthophosphate phase was detected in FA/MKPC and GBFS/MKPC systems. It was postulated that an aluminium phosphate phase was formed, however, no significant Al–O–P interactions were identified. High-field NMR analysis of the GBFS/MKPC system indicated the potential formation of a potassium-aluminosilicate phase. This study demonstrates the need for further research on these binders, as both FA and GBFS are generally regarded as inert fillers within MKPC.

  9. Phase Development of NaOH Activated Blast Furnace Slag Geopolymers Cured at 90 deg. C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Bo; Bigley, C.; Ryan, M. J.; MacKenzie, K. J. D.; Brown, I. W. M.

    2009-07-23

    Geopolymers were synthesized from blast furnace slag activated with different levels of NaOH and cured at 90 deg. C. The crystalline and amorphous phases of the resulting geopolymers were characterized by XRD quantitative analysis, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR. Amorphous species are predominant in materials at all NaOH levels. In the amorphous phase, aluminium substituted silicate species (Q{sup 2}(1Al)) dominated among the species of Q{sup 0}, Q{sup 1}, Q{sup 2}(1Al) and Q{sup 2}(where Q{sup n}(mAl) denotes a silicate tetrahedron [SiO{sub 4}] with n bridging oxygen atoms and m adjacent tetrahedra substituted with an aluminate tetrahedron [AlO{sub 4}]). In addition, it was also found that 4-fold coordination aluminium [AlO{sub 4}] species ({sup 27}Al chemical shift 66.1 ppm) in low NaOH containing materials differs from the species ({sup 27}Al chemical shift 74.3 ppm) in high NaOH containing materials.

  10. Technical and economic aspects of coal injection at blast furnace tuyeres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, L.N.

    1981-01-01

    The basic factors in selection of an auxiliary fuel have been mentioned. These include availability and cost of the auxiliary fuel, cost of injection facilities, and coke availability. Operating factors such as coal particle size, hot blast temperature, lance location, and flame temperature were discussed as they relate to the efficiency of coal combustion, therefore the economics of a system. Safety is a must when preparing and storing pulverized coal. An unsafe system will never be economical. Based on years of experience at Bellefonte a safe system has been installed at Amanda with no problems in seven years of operation. Coal quality must be considered primarily as regards ash content. A significant penalty is paid for injected ash. Both coking and non-coking coals with the same ash content have been injected with equally successful results. A simplified economic analysis gives an indication of the possible justification of a coal injection system. Replacing 130 lbs oil per net ton of hot metal with an equivalent amount of coal will result in an annual savings of 12.3 million dollars for a 5000 TPD furnace, and a cost payback of three (3) years after start-up. 3 figures, 1 table.

  11. Trials with a 100% pellet burden in blast furnace No. 6 at Hoogovens IJmuiden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoone, E.; Toxopeus, H.; Vos, D.

    1995-12-01

    The burden consists of 50% high basicity sinter and 50% home made olivine pellets. Two coke oven plants produce the required coke, about 340 kg/t (680 lb/NT). The average pulverized coal injection rate is 150 kg/t (300 lb/NT). To anticipate the aging coke oven plant No. 2 the coal injection capacity will e increased by 50% in 1996, by the installation of a third coal grinding line. In the Netherlands environmental issues have a high impact on further developments. In particular the environmental regulations require a significant decrease of dust, SO{sub 2} and dioxins emitted by the sinter plant. The appropriate measures must be concluded in the second part of this decade. To avoid costly conventional solutions Hoogovens has been testing since April, 1994 the Emission Optimized Sintering (EOS). In case of failure of EOS, the situation of a (partially) closed sinter plant was tested. Purchased pellets replaced sinter, leading to a 100% pellet and an 80% pellet/20% sinter trial. The trials were executed in the first half of 1994 at blast furnace No. 6, equipped with a PW-bell less top. Results are described.

  12. Long life hearth in blast furnace -- Kokura No. 2 B.F. of Sumitomo Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Takaiku; Sunahara, Kouhei; Inada, Takanobu; Takatani, Kouji; Miyahara, Mitsuo; Sato, Yasusi; Hatano, Yasuhiko; Takata, Kouzo

    1997-12-31

    The factors elongating hearth life of Sumitomo Kokura No. 2 B.F. were investigated by use of an estimation system of the furnace hearth condition, which consisted of four mathematical simulation models. Lowered heat load operation together with integrated design of both refractories and cooling enabled the furnace life to be extended for over 16 years without severe damage in the hearth.

  13. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency ...

  14. Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothgeb, S.; Brand, L.

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  16. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are theSavings?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-05-12

    Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This paper examines both types of blower motors in non-condensing non-weatherized gas furnaces at a range of static pressures. Fan performance data is based on manufacturer product literature and laboratory tests. We use field-measured static pressure in ducts to get typical system curves to calculate how furnaces would operate in the field. We contrast this with the electricity consumption of a furnace blower operating under the DOE test procedure and manufacturer rated conditions. Furnace electricity use is also affected by operating modes that happen at the beginning and end of each furnace firing cycle. These operating modes are the pre-purge and post-purge by the draft inducer, the on-delay and off-delay of the blower, and the hot surface ignitor operation. To accurately calculate this effect, we use the number of firing cycles in a typical California house in the Central Valley of California. Cooling hours are not considered in the DOE test procedure. We also account for furnace blower use by the air conditioner and stand-by power. Overall BPM motors outperform PSC motors, but the total electricity savings are significantly less than projected using the DOE test procedure conditions. The performance gains depend on the static pressure of the household ducts, which are typically much higher than in the test procedures.

  17. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  18. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, Larry

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  19. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  20. Building America Expert Meeting: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  1. The rule of the stock distribution with large bell in blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Yuncai

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes in detail, starting from the basic equation of materials falling from a two bell furnace top system, how a number of mathematical expressions which govern the stock distribution of the throat were derived. An analysis was then made by applying these equations on topics, such as stockline levels, charging sequences, stock grain size, large bell angle and batch weight. This demonstrates that a reasonable two bells top charging system and practice could be established theoretically. Furthermore, character numbers for stock distribution, such as E{sub B} and D{sub K}, were developed for a possible computer application.

  2. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. Natural gas furnace performance can be measured in many ways. The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating provides a fixed value under specified conditions, akin to the EPA miles per gallon rating for new vehicles. The AFUE rating is provided by the manufacturer to the consumer and is a way to choose between models tested on the same basis. This value is commonly used in energy modeling calculations. ASHRAE 103 is a consensus furnace testing standard developed by the engineering community. The procedure provided in the standard covers heat-up, cool down, condensate heat loss, and steady-state conditions and an imposed oversize factor. The procedure can be used to evaluate furnace performance with specified conditions or with some variation chosen by the tester. In this report the ASHRAE 103 test result will be referred to as Annualized Efficiency (AE) to avoid confusion, and any non-standard test conditions will be noted. Aside from these two laboratory tests, steady state or flue loss efficiency can be measured in the field under many conditions; typically as found or tuned to the manufacturers recommended settings. In this report, AE and steady-state efficiency will be used as measures of furnace performance.

  3. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Paired Straight Hearth Furnace A Coal Based DRI and Molten Metal Process for Long Range Replacement of Blast Furnaces and Coke Ovens The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further signifcant gains in energy effciency will require the development of new, transformational iron and steelmaking processes. The Paired Straight Hearth Furnace (PSH) process is an emerging alterna- tive high productivity, direct reduced iron (DRI)

  4. A neural network model for predicting the silicon content of the hot metal at No. 2 blast furnace of SSAB Luleaa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo Guangqing; Ma Jitang; Bo, B.

    1996-12-31

    To predict the silicon content of hot metal at No. 2 blast furnace, SSAB, Luleaa Works, a three-layer Back-Propagation network model has been established. The network consists of twenty-eight inputs, six middle nodes and one output and uses a generalized delta rule for training. Different network structures and different training strategies have been tested. A well-functioning network with dynamic updating has been designed. The off-line test and the on-line application results showed that more than 80% of the predictions can match the actual silicon content in hot metal in a normal operation, if the allowable prediction error was set to {+-}0.05% Si, while the actual fluctuation of the silicon content was larger than {+-}0.10% Si.

  5. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  6. Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahla Keyvan

    2005-12-01

    A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

  7. Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollack, B.R.

    1996-05-01

    Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 {mu}m in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

  8. Plasma furnace treatment of metallurgical by-product streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whellock, J.G.; Heanley, C.P.; Chapman, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    It is a common misconception that plasma furnace technology only has application for exotic and very high temperature processes. With the increasing importance placed on waste minimization and the environmental constraints imposed on heavy metals present in byproducts from mainstream operations, plasma technology is finding widespread application. Tetronics is a premier supplier of plasma tundish heating systems for the steel industry. More recently the company has found growing interest in electric arc furnace dust treatment, lead blast furnace slag treatment and metal recovery, copper, nickel and cobalt scavenging from primary smelter slags, dross treatment, platinum group metals (PGM) recovery from catalysts and vitrification and detoxification of heavy metal contaminated waste byproducts. The principal advantages of the plasma arc technology are the close metallurgical control of the furnace environment, minimal off-gas handling requirements and overall high energy efficiency of the processes. A number of applications in the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry are described.

  9. Preliminary Results from Electric Arc Furnace Off-Gas Enthalpy Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Thekdi, Arvind; Keiser, James R; Storey, John Morse

    2015-01-01

    This article describes electric arc furnace (EAF) off-gas enthalpy models developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate overall heat availability (sensible and chemical enthalpy) and recoverable heat values (steam or power generation potential) for existing EAF operations and to test ORNL s new EAF waste heat recovery (WHR) concepts. ORNL s new EAF WHR concepts are: Regenerative Drop-out Box System and Fluidized Bed System. The two EAF off-gas enthalpy models described in this paper are: 1.Overall Waste Heat Recovery Model that calculates total heat availability in off-gases of existing EAF operations 2.Regenerative Drop-out Box System Model in which hot EAF off-gases alternately pass through one of two refractory heat sinks that store heat and then transfer it to another gaseous medium These models calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of EAF off-gases based on the off-gas chemical composition, temperature, and mass flow rate during tap to tap time, and variations in those parameters in terms of actual values over time. The models provide heat transfer analysis for the aforementioned concepts to confirm the overall system and major component sizing (preliminary) to assess the practicality of the systems. Real-time EAF off-gas composition (e.g., CO, CO2, H2, and H2O), volume flow, and temperature data from one EAF operation was used to test the validity and accuracy of the modeling work. The EAF off-gas data was used to calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases to generate steam and power. The article provides detailed results from the modeling work that are important to the success of ORNL s EAF WHR project. The EAF WHR project aims to develop and test new concepts and materials that allow cost-effective recovery of sensible and chemical heat from high-temperature gases discharged from EAFs.

  10. Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Min Sik; Jun, Yubin; Lee, Changha Oh, Jae Eun

    2013-12-15

    The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH){sub 2} and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH){sub 2} occurs only with the use of Ca(OH){sub 2}, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH){sub 2}. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH){sub 2} causes some degree of carbonation.

  11. Building America Technlogy Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this project, the PARR research team examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE.

  12. Characterisation of Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag cement-like composites for the immobilisation of sulfate bearing nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Hussain, Oday H.; Apperley, David C.; Kinoshita, Hajime; Provis, John L.

    2014-12-15

    Soluble sulfate ions in nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on cementitious wasteforms and disposal facilities based on Portland cement. As an alternative, Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composites are studied for immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes. Calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) with some barium substitution is the main binder phase, with barium also present in the low solubility salts BaSO{sub 4} and BaCO{sub 3}, along with Ba-substituted calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates, and a hydrotalcite-type layered double hydroxide. This reaction product assemblage indicates that Ba(OH){sub 2} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as alkaline activators and control the reaction of the slag in addition to forming insoluble BaSO{sub 4}, and this restricts sulfate availability for further reaction as long as sufficient Ba(OH){sub 2} is added. An increased content of Ba(OH){sub 2} promotes a higher degree of reaction, and the formation of a highly cross-linked C–A–S–H gel. These Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composite binders could be effective in the immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes.

  13. The operation results with the modified charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.J.; Pi, Y.J.; Kim, J.R.; Lee, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    There will be another blast furnace, the production capacity of which is 3.0 million tonnes per year in 1999 and mini mill plant, the production capacity of which is 1.8 million tonnes per year in 1996 at Kwangyang Works. Therefore, the coke oven gas and burnt lime will be deficient and more sinter will be needed. To meet with these situations, the authors modified the charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant in April 1995. After the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace, the consumption of burnt lime and coke oven gas could be decreased and the sinter productivity increased in spite of the reduction of burnt lime consumption. This report describes the operation results with the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace in No. 2 sinter plant Kwangyang works.

  14. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R.; Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B.

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  15. Waste gas to save steel firm $160,000/mo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1982-07-19

    An Armco Inc. plant at Houston will save $160,000 a month in avoided fuel costs by burning waste gas produced in its blast furnace. The $5.3 million Schack boiler system will have a three-year payback and a 25% return on investment. Armco will apply both the 10% business investment and the 10% energy-conservation tax credits. Armco decided not to renew a natural gas contract after prices rose to over $4 per thousand cubic feet. There will be no economic benefits, however, until improvements in the economy warrant restarting the blast furnace, which has been idle since mid-June. (DCK)

  16. Development of an Energy Efficient High temperature Natural Gas Fired Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mark G. Stevens; Dr. H. Kenneth Staffin; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-02-28

    The design concept is designated the ''Porous Wall Radiation Barrier'' heating mantle. In this design, combustion gas flows through a porous wall surrounding the retort, transferring its heat to the porous wall, which then radiates heat energy to the retort. Experiments demonstrate that heat transfer rates of 1.8-2.4 times conventional gas fired mantles are achievable in the temperature range of 1600-2350 degrees fahrenheit.

  17. Evaluating high-temperature intumescent insulation materials under fire and blast conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, A.J.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes recent testing conducted to evaluate the performance of high-temperature intumescent materials under adverse fire and blast conditions. Results from fire performance evaluations currently protecting offshore oil platforms are presented. Extensive fire and blast qualification testing of epoxy-based intumescent materials has been conducted utilizing specially designed blast chambers, jet fire facilities, and laboratory furnaces. Blast chambers are capable of loading up to a 3 x 3-m insulated bulkhead assembly to a 2 bar over pressure and having a duration of approximately 250 millisecond generated by a controlled flammable vapor cloud explosion. The jet fire test exposes an insulated test specimen to a fire environment characterized by temperatures of approximately 1100 C, sonic gas velocities, and peak heat flux levels in excess of 300 kW/m{sup 2}.

  18. Tube furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  19. Furnace assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  20. Furnace assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  1. Residential Condensing Gas Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards.

  2. Consumer Condensing Gas Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards.

  3. Simple Maintenance Saves Costly Furnace Repair/Replacement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the past few weeks, my forced-air gas furnace has been on the fritz. I blame this on the fact that I haven't been as diligent as I should have been with regular furnace maintenance.

  4. Furnace Pressure Controllers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet highlights the benefits of precise furnace pressure control in process heating systems.

  5. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  6. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  7. DOE Furnace Rule Ex Parte Communication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Furnace Rule Ex Parte Communication Philadelphia Gas Works (POW), the largest ... have on POW, its customers, the City of Philadelphia and the air quality of this region. ...

  8. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 6, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluating the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and preparing an R&D plan to develop the concept further. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degree}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degree}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only.

  9. Furnaces Data | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Furnaces Data Furnaces Data Furnaces Data Email (79.43 KB) Questions on 2014 LCC spreadsheet 2014-10-28 (378.96 KB) DOE Furnace Rule111414 Email (43.29 KB) 111414 Letter to DOE-c ...

  10. Furnace Standard Analysis Discussion Document

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standard * Using field intelligence and thoughtful analysis - assess and quantify the effects a regional or national condensing standard for natural gas furnaces could have on energy efficiency and environmental objectives.  Provide insight on the potential impact limiting customer choices for heating systems could have on overall energy usage, cost, and carbon emissions outcomes.  Provide all data, models and sources of information to DOE and other stakeholders, to gain their confidence

  11. Electromelt furnace evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

  12. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature

  13. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goals are to design, develop, and evaluate the scalability and commercial feasibility of the PSH Paired Straight Hearth Furnace alternative ironmaking process.

  14. High temperature furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  15. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  16. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  17. Furnace Pressure Controllers; Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 * September 2005 Industrial Technologies Program Furnace Pressure Controllers Furnace draft, or negative pres- sure, is created in fuel-fired furnaces when high temperature gases ...

  18. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Furnaces | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Furnaces Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Furnaces The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential furnaces, a product category ...

  19. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  20. The 1994 intermediate reline of H-3 furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, J.D.; Nanavati, K.S.; Spirko, E.J.; Wakelin, D.H.

    1995-12-01

    LTV Steel`s Indiana Harbor Works H-3 Blast Furnace was rebuilt in 1988 to provide reliable operations at high production rates without damage to the shell for an overall campaign. This Rebuild included: (1) complete bosh and partial stack shell replacement; (2) a spray cooled carbon bosh; (3) a row of staves at the mantle and six rows of stack staves, all stack staves had noses (ledges at the top of the stave) with the exception of row 5; (4) silicon carbide filled semi graphite brick for the bosh, silicon carbide brick from the mantle area and to the top of stave row No. 1, super duty brick in front of the remaining staves and phosphate bonded high alumina brick in the upper stack; (5) movable throat armor; (6) upgraded instrumentation to follow furnace operation and lining wear occurring in the furnace. No work was done to the hearth walls and bottom, since these had been replaced in 1982 with a first generation graphite cooled design and has experienced 7.7 million NTHM. The furnace was blown in November 18, 1988 and operated through September 3, 1994, at which time it was blown down for its first intermediate repair after 7.85 million NTHM. This paper summarizes the operation of the furnace and then discusses the major aspects of the 1994 intermediate repair.

  1. Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a ...

  2. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D.; Li, X.

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  3. Other States Natural Gas Coalbed Methane, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    August 2009 Revised: October 2009 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Waste Blast Pulping Liquor Oils/Tars NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, and Waste Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Materials Total United States 311 Food 10 0 3 0 0 7 Q 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 7 0 1 0 0 6 *

  4. Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Furnaces and boilers Oil-fired boilers and furnaces Gas-fired boilers and furnaces ... Federal tax credits are available for geothermal heat pumps through 2016. Learn more. Federal ...

  5. Non-carbon induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  6. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Masters, David R.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  7. Post combustion trials at Dofasco's KOBM furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco's 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

  8. CUPOLA FURNACE COMPUTER PROCESS MODEL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of energy consumption and environmental pollution during melting in iron foundries - ... Although the benefits of refractory linings and heating of blast air are known to be ...

  9. HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, D.M.

    1961-01-31

    A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

  10. WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries Inc WFI Jump to: navigation, search Name: WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc (formerly: WaterFurnace Industries,...

  11. December News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December News Blast December News Blast December News Blast december_2013_newsblast.pdf (337.86 KB) More Documents & Publications November 2013 News Blast January 2014 News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast

  12. February 2014 News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 News Blast February 2014 News Blast February 2014 News Blast february_2014_newsblast.pdf (251.82 KB) More Documents & Publications March 2014 Monthly News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast January 2014 News Blast

  13. Bethlehem Steel Corporation Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Construction of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on air quality, noise, and land use at the Burns Harbor Plant area. Operation of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on the environment at the Burns Harbor Plant area. An increase of approximately 30 tons/yr for NO{sub x} and approximately 13 tons/yr for particulate matter (from the coal storage area) is expected. These emissions are within the currently permitted levels. Carbon dioxide emissions, which are unregulated, would increase by about 220,000 tons/yr at the Burns Harbor Plant. Water withdrawn and returned to Lake Michigan would increase by 1.3 million gal/d (0.4 percent of existing permitted discharge) for non-contact cooling water. No protected species, floodplains, wetlands, or cultural resources would be affected by operation of the proposed facility. Small economic benefits would occur from the creation of 5 or 6 permanent new jobs during the operation of the proposed demonstration project and subsequent commercial operation. Under the No Action Alternative, the proposed project would not receive cost-shared funding support from DOE.

  14. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  15. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, George G.

    1997-01-01

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  16. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  17. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  18. CenterPoint Energy (Gas)- Residential Heating and Hot Water Rebates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    CenterPoint Energy offers gas heating and water heating equipment rebates to its residential customers. Eligible equipment includes furnaces, back-up furnace systems, hydronic heaters, storage...

  19. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. ... can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces ...

  20. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  1. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  2. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  3. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  4. Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connors, John J.; McConnell, John F.; Henry, Vincent I.; MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B.; Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C.; Adams, Michael E.; Leadbetter, James M.; Tomasewski, Jack W.; Operacz, Walter J.; Houf, William G.; Davis, James W.; Marvin, Bart G.; Gunner, Bruce E.; Farrell, Rick G.; Bivins, David P.; Curtis, Warren; Harris, James E.

    2004-08-01

    solution of proprietary glass production problems. As a consequence of the substantial increase in scale and scope of the initial furnace concept in response to industry recommendations, constraints on funding of industrial programs by DOE, and reorientation of the Department's priorities, the OIT Glass Program is unable to provide the support for construction of such a facility. However, it is the present investigators' hope that a group of industry partners will emerge to carry the project forward, taking advantage of the detailed furnace design presented in this report. The engineering, including complete construction drawings, bill of materials, and equipment specifications, is complete. The project is ready to begin construction as soon as the quotations are updated. The design of the research melter closely follows the most advanced industrial practice, firing by natural gas with oxygen. The melting area is 13 ft x 6 ft, with a glass depth of 3 ft and an average height in the combustion space of 3 ft. The maximum pull rate is 25 tons/day, ranging from 100% batch to 100% cullet, continuously fed, with variable batch composition, particle size distribution, and raft configuration. The tank is equipped with bubblers to control glass circulation. The furnace can be fired in three modes: (1) using a single large burner mounted on the front wall, (2) by six burners in a staggered/opposed arrangement, three in each breast wall, and (3) by down-fired burners mounted in the crown in any combination with the front wall or breast-wall-mounted burners. Horizontal slots are provided between the tank blocks and tuck stones and between the breast wall and skewback blocks, running the entire length of the furnace on both sides, to permit access to the combustion space and the surface of the glass for optical measurements and sampling probes. Vertical slots in the breast walls provide additional access for measurements and sampling. The furnace and tank are to be fully instrumented

  5. AGA/APGA Questions re Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 AGA/APGA Questions re Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 AGA-APGA Questions_Ex Parte_Email (68.75 KB) AGA_APGA_Shipments_Questions_2015-04-23 (26.5 KB) More Documents & Publications AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR August 20, 2014 meeting with DOE representatives regarding the remand of the DOE Direct Final Rule as it relates to efficiency standards for non-weatherized gas furnaces 2015-12-30 Energy Conservation Program:

  6. Glass Furnace Model Version 2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-05-06

    GFM2.0 is a derivative of the GFM code with substantially altered and enhanced capabilities. Like its predecessor, it is a fully three-dimensional, furnace simulation model that provides a more accurate representation of the entire furnace, and specifically, the glass melting process, by coupling the combustion space directly to the glass batch and glass melt via rigorous radiation heat transport models for both the combustion space and the glass melt. No assumptions are made with regardmore » to interfacial parameters of heat, flux, temperature distribution, and batch coverage as must be done using other applicable codes available. These critical parameters are calculated. GFM2.0 contains a processor structured to facilitate use of the code, including the entry of teh furnace geometry and operating conditions, the execution of the program, and display of the computational results. Furnace simulations can therefore be created in a straightforward manner.« less

  7. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of a glass melting furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egelja, A.; Lottes, S. A.

    2000-05-09

    The glass production industry is one of the major users of natural gas in the US, and approximately 75% of the energy produced from natural gas is used in the melting process. Industrial scale glass melting furnaces are large devices, typically 5 or more meters wide, and twice as long. To achieve efficient heat transfer to the glass melt below, the natural gas flame must extend over a large portion of the glass melt. Therefore modern high efficiency burners are not used in these furnaces. The natural gas is injected as a jet, and a jet flame forms in the flow of air entering the furnace. In most current glass furnaces the energy required to melt the batch feed stock is about twice the theoretical requirement. An improved understanding of the heat transfer and two phase flow processes in the glass melt and solid batch mix offers a substantial opportunity for energy savings and consequent emission reductions. The batch coverage form and the heat flux distribution have a strong influence on the glass flow pattern. This flow pattern determines to a significant extent the melting rate and the quality of glass.

  8. November 2013 News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 News Blast November 2013 News Blast November 2013 News Blast november_2013_newsblast.pdf (397.02 KB) More Documents & Publications BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r January 2014 News Blast March 2014 Monthly

  9. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  10. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  11. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  12. research, Development, and Field Testing of Thermochemical Recuperation for High Temperature Furnace

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Project Objective b h b l h h l * Substantiate technical f l feasibility of f Thermochemical Recuperation (TCR) concept and economic viability including identification of technical scale up and including identification of technical scale up and manufacturability concerns * Increase furnace thermal efficiency to 61% Increase furnace thermal efficiency to 61% * Reduce Natural Gas usage ~ 21% * Reduce Carbon footprint ~ 21% * Reduce NO X > 21% (due to flue gas recirculation) 2 Technical

  13. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  14. Monthly News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    YouTube Facebook Twitter Blog Past Newsletters Bioenergy Social Media & Multimedia Corner Monthly News Blast July 2013 Secretaries Moniz and Vilsack Speaking at Biomass ...

  15. Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Heating Systems » Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces and Boilers Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Most U.S. homes are heated with either furnaces or boilers. Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through the house using ducts. Boilers heat water, and provide either hot water or steam for heating. Steam is distributed via

  16. Application of Argonne's Glass Furnace Model to longhorn glass corporation oxy-fuel furnace for the production of amber glass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golchert, B.; Shell, J.; Jones, S.; Energy Systems; Shell Glass Consulting; Anheuser-Busch Packaging Group

    2006-09-06

    The objective of this project is to apply the Argonne National Laboratory's Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the Longhorn oxy-fuel furnace to improve energy efficiency and to investigate the transport of gases released from the batch/melt into the exhaust. The model will make preliminary estimates of the local concentrations of water, carbon dioxide, elemental oxygen, and other subspecies in the entire combustion space as well as the concentration of these species in the furnace exhaust gas. This information, along with the computed temperature distribution in the combustion space may give indications on possible locations of crown corrosion. An investigation into the optimization of the furnace will be performed by varying several key parameters such as the burner firing pattern, exhaust number/size, and the boost usage (amount and distribution). Results from these parametric studies will be analyzed to determine more efficient methods of operating the furnace that reduce crown corrosion. Finally, computed results from the GFM will be qualitatively correlated to measured values, thus augmenting the validation of the GFM.

  17. EA-1745: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture Project At The Arcelormittal USA, Inc. Indiana Harbor Steel Mill, East Chicago, Indiana

  18. EA-1745: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture Project at the ArcelorMittal USA, Inc., Indiana Harbor Steel Mill, East Chicago, Indiana

  19. Intermountain Gas Company (IGC)- Gas Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Intermountain Gas Company's (IGC) Gas Heating Rebate Program offers customers a $200 per unit rebate when they convert to a high efficiency natural gas furnace that replaces a heating system...

  20. Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2:50pm Addthis Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Furnaces...

  1. Furnace Litigation Settled | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Furnace Litigation Settled Furnace Litigation Settled May 2, 2014 - 11:07am Addthis On June 27, 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published in the Federal Register a direct ...

  2. Lightweight blast shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

    1991-01-01

    A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

  3. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  4. New England Gas Company- Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In conjunction with Gas Networks, New England Gas Company offers its residential and commercial customers rebates for buying energy efficient gas boilers, furnaces, high efficiency water heaters,...

  5. October 2013 News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    October 2013 News Blast October 2013 News Blast October 2013 News Blast october_2013_newsblast.pdf (326.2 KB) More Documents & Publications September 2013 News Blast BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r BETO Monthly News Blast, June 2013

  6. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Joel B. Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-15

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  7. ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.F. fitch

    1995-03-13

    The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

  8. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  9. An Optical Sensor for Post-Combustion Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    Real-time measurement of off-gas composition could enable dynamic control of electric arc furnaces (EAFs), optimizing steelmaking electrical energy input and reducing carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. However, offgas measurement is very difficult due to the extremely dusty, hot, and gas-laden steelmaking environment.

  10. Thermal reclamation of used blast grit. Technology spotlight report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    Naval shipyards and other domestic port facilities generate thousands of tons of used blast grit annually. There are also thousands of steel bridges in the United States on a repaint schedule that requires grit blasting for surface preparation. All the used grit, along with the paint residue it contains, is currently disposed of in landfills. Cleaning and recycling used blast grit is an attractive alternative. Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed a fluidized-bed sand calciner that is well suited for cleaning and recycling used blast grit. Essentially, IGT researchers applied a transfer/adaptation of fluidized-bed calcination originally developed for the reclamation of foundry sand. The calciner has a patented sloped-grid design that enhances the combustion of paint residues and promotes the isolation of reusable material.

  11. Post combustion trials at Dofasco`s KOBM furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

    1992-12-31

    Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco`s 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

  12. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  13. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  14. Optical Furnace offers improved semiconductor device processing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capabilities - Energy Innovation Portal Optical Furnace offers improved semiconductor device processing capabilities Award winning solar manufacturing process National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology <p> <em>The highly versatile optical furnace provides semiconductor manufacturers with energy efficient methods to process devices in a high throughput capacity. &nbsp;</em></p> The highly versatile optical furnace provides semiconductor

  15. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M.; Mackintosh, Brian H.

    1982-06-15

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  16. April 2013 Monthly News Blast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The monthly news blast for April 2013 highlights the Project Peer Review, upcoming events, BETO blog posts, and more.

  17. Catalyst added to Claus furnace reduces sulfur losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luinstra, E.A.; d'Haene, P.E. (Shell Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Oakville Research Centre)

    1989-07-01

    Several substances effectively catalyze the reduction of carbon disulfide in Claus gas streams at Claus reaction furnace conditions (about 1,000{sup 0}C). Some conversion of carbonyl sulfide also occurs. Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well-known problem compounds that reduce sulfur recovery efficiency in many sulfur recovery plants. Installation of a suitable catalytic material in the reaction furnace promises significant improvement of Claus plant efficiency, and prolonged life of the catalytic converters. Almost every Claus sulfur recovery plant makes some carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the reaction furnace, and in many of these plants, these compounds constitute a significant problem. CS/sub 2/ and COS often comprise more than 50% of sulfur losses in the tail gas. This article reexamines the issue of CS/sub 2/ and COS in the Claus plant. The relative importance of these two troublesome components is explored with data accumulated from Shell Canada Claus plants. The authors discuss which factors tend to produce these components. Then a method for reducing CS/sub 2/ and COS virtually at the source will be introduced.

  18. Colorado Natural Gas- Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Colorado Natural Gas offers the Excess is Out Program for residential and commercial customers in Colorado. Incentives are available for purchasing and installing energy efficient furnaces, boilers...

  19. Columbia Gas of Ohio- Residential Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Gas of Ohio (CGO) offers energy efficiency rebates for furnaces, boilers, and customers that enroll in the Home Performance Solutions Program. 

  20. Liberty Utilities (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liberty Utilities' program for commercial natural gas customers provides incentives for energy efficient equipment installations and upgrades. Incentives are available for boilers, furnaces, unit...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    25, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on February 1, 2007) Natural gas spot prices across the country surged this week (Wednesday-Wednesday, January 17-24) as a blast of Arctic cold...

  2. Ex Parte Contact on Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Contact on Furnaces Ex Parte Contact on Furnaces PDF icon Ex Parte Email3-28-2015 More Documents & Publications Furnaces Data RE: EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 AGAAPGA Questions re...

  3. Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

    2003-02-28

    The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

  4. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  5. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines ...

  6. Furnace Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Furnace Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Furnace Creek...

  7. Toughened Graphite Electrode for High Heat Electric Arc Furnaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORNL to melt steel, titanium, and other scrap metal in industrial electric arc furnaces. ... Applications and Industries Electric arc furnace steel manufacturing Steel refinement and ...

  8. DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers November 19, 2007 - 4:31pm ...

  9. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  10. New additive retards coke formation in ethylene furnace tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-09

    Adding relatively small amounts of a new additive to the feed stream of a steam cracker can inhibit coke formation on the metal surfaces of processing equipment and increase furnace run time. The additive comprises a variable mixture of four to six inorganic salts in aqueous solution. The components of the additive mixture can be varied, as needed, for processing heavy feed materials such as heavy naphtha and gas oil. The process was first tested at a Korean petrochemical plant and is now operating successfully at a commercial facility in Russia. The results of the Korean trial are presented here.

  11. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, David E.; Lee, Steven G.

    1996-01-01

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics.

  12. Effect of chlorine on furnace wall corrosion in utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, S.C.; Daniel, P.L.; Seeley, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    The corrosion resistance of several commercial alloys was investigated in laboratory retort tests under a reducing/sulfidizing mixed gas at 700 and 900 F (371 and 482 C) for 1,000 hours. The test conditions were designed to simulate the corrosion of furnace walls in the combustion zone of utility boilers burning sulfur/chlorine-bearing coal substoichiometrically. Corrosion rates of these alloys were determined and compared to those obtained from a previous study in which the same alloys were evaluated under chlorine-free substoichiometric combustion environments. Results of the two studies reveal that the presence of chlorine in the reducing/sulfidizing mixed gas has a negligible effect on the corrosion behavior of these alloys in this gas at 700 F (371 C), whereas a beneficial effect was observed at 900 F (482 C). The beneficial effect implies that the presence of HCl may impede the sulfidation attack by H{sub 2}S under certain substoichiometric combustion environments.

  13. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

    1996-08-06

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

  14. Word Pro - S7

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial a Includes commercial sector. b Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas . Note: Data ...

  15. April 2013 Monthly News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KDF Social Media YouTube Facebook Twitter Blog Past Newsletters Bioenergy Social Media & Multimedia Corner Monthly News Blast April 2013 Register Now for the 2013 ...

  16. Monthly News Blast: February 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the February 2013 Monthly News Blast, read about recent blog posts, the monthly staff spotlight video, upcoming events, and more.

  17. Monthly News Blast: January 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In the January 2013 Monthly News Blast, read about two new funding opportunities, the latest MYPP update, upcoming events, and more.

  18. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  19. Inhibition of coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, Y.; Poindexter, M.K.; Rowe, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces, which thermally convert hydrocarbons to ethylene as well as other useful products, adversely affects product yields, causes furnace down time for coke removal, and shortens furnace coil life. A phosphorus-based chemical treatment program was developed to inhibit the coke formation. The anticoking performance of the phosphorus-based treatment program was studied using a bench scale coking rate measurement apparatus. The programs`s influence on coke morphology and reactor surface was addressed using SEM/EDX surface characterization techniques. For comparison, similar studies were carried out with sulfur-containing species which are conventionally used in industrial practice as furnace additives. The present work demonstrated that the phosphorus-based treatment program provided an efficient and durable surface passivation against coke formation.

  20. Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Furnace can Cut Solar Industry Costs A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF)-developed by the National Renew- able Energy Laboratory (NREL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy-uses optics to heat and purify solar cells at unmatched precision, while also boosting the cells' efficiency. As solar cells move through a manufacturer's production line, they must be oxidized, annealed, purified, diffused, etched, and layered. Heat is an

  1. Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a circular-shaped blower fan for furnaces and air conditioners. As homeowners switch on their forced-air furnaces in preparation for cold weather, they may be unaware of how furnace blowers can impact HVAC efficiency. In fact, studies show that the most common blowers have efficiencies of only 10%-15%.

  2. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Infiltration in Furnaces Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces This tip sheet describes how to save process heating energy and costs by reducing air infiltration in industrial furnaces; tips include repairing leaks and increasing insulation. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #5 Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (January 2006) (237.12 KB) More Documents & Publications Furnace Pressure Controllers Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired

  3. BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    BETO Monthly News Blast from August 2013 august2013newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Monthly News Blast: March 2013 BETO Monthly News Blast, June 2013 Monthly News...

  4. Columbia Gas of Virginia- Business Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Gas of Virginia offers rebates to commercial customers for the purchase and installation of energy efficient equipment. Water heaters, furnaces, boilers, controls, and infrared heaters are...

  5. PECO Energy (Gas)- Commercial Heating Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PECO offers financial incentives to its business and commercial gas customers to install energy efficient equipment. Incentives are available for energy efficient boilers, furnaces, and for fuel...

  6. Minnesota Energy Resources (Gas) - Low-Income New Construction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    State Minnesota Program Type Rebate Program Rebate Amount Gas Furnace: 500 Integrated Space and Water Heating System: 900 Electronic Programmable Set-Back...

  7. Philadelphia Gas Works- Residential and Small Business Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Philadelphia Gas Works' (PGW) Residential Heating Equipment rebates are available to all PGW residential or small business customers installing high efficiency boilers and furnaces, and programma...

  8. Columbia Gas of Virginia - Home Savings Rebate Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    State Virginia Program Type Rebate Program Rebate Amount High Efficiency Gas Furnace: 300 High Efficiency Windows (Replacement): 1sq. ft. Attic Insulation...

  9. Orange and Rockland Utilities (Gas)- Residential Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Orange and Rockland Utilities provides rebates for residential customers purchasing energy efficient natural gas equipment. Rebates exist for furnaces, water boilers and controls, steam boilers,...

  10. Washington Gas- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington Gas provides a number of rebates to residential customers who utilize energy efficient equipment and measures in the home. Rebates are limited to natural gas furnaces and programmable...