National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for black lung disability

  1. T-579: BlackBerry Device Software Bug in WebKit Lets Remote Users...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or instant messages. BlackBerry has described a workaround (disabling the use of JavaScript in the BlackBerry Browser) in their advisory. BlackBerry Device storage space...

  2. Disability Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are an estimated 54 million Americans with disabilities. We see them at work, on the street, in our neighborhoods. They may be sitting next to you right now, but if the disability is not...

  3. Accommodations for Hearing Disabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department offers a variety of accommodations to individuals with hearing disabilities. Available computer and telecommunications access products include:

  4. Disability Employment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Disability Employment Disability Employment DOE's Statement on Disability Hiring The U. S. Department of Energy is committed to fostering a culture of diversity. We recognize that individuals with disabilities are an untapped talent pool and possess skills and competencies that the Department needs to remain competitive. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fully committed to improving our efforts to employ Federal workers with disabilities and targeted disabilities through increased recruiting,

  5. American Disabilities Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits private employers, state and local governments, employment agencies and labor unions from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities in job application procedures, hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, job training, and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment.

  6. Disability Employment Awareness Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utilizing the talents of all Americans is essential for our Nation to out-innovate, out-educate, and out-build the rest of the world.  During National Disability Employment Awareness Month, we...

  7. Disability Employment Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy is committed to fostering a culture of diversity. We recognize that individuals with disabilities are an untapped talent pool and possess the skills and competencies that...

  8. Recruiting People with Disabilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Employers can post job opportunities or search resumes to find qualified persons with disabilities. Careers and the Disabled Career Expo for People with Disabilities Brings ...

  9. Frizzled-8 as a putative therapeutic target in human lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hua-qing; Department of Medical Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Tianjin 300060 ; Xu, Mei-lin; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Yi; Xie, Cong-hua

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fzd-8 is over-expressed in human lung cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knock-down of Fzd-8 inhibits proliferation and Wnt pathway in lung cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knock-down of Fzd-8 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knock-down Fzd-8 sensitizes lung cancer cells to chemotherapy Taxotere. -- Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. It is necessary to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung cancer in order to develop more effective therapeutics for the treatment of this disease. Recent reports have shown that Wnt signaling pathway is important in a number of cancer types including lung cancer. However, the role of Frizzled-8 (Fzd-8), one of the Frizzled family of receptors for the Wnt ligands, in lung cancer still remains to be elucidated. Here in this study we showed that Fzd-8 was over-expressed in human lung cancer tissue samples and cell lines. To investigate the functional importance of the Fzd-8 over-expression in lung cancer, we used shRNA to knock down Fzd-8 mRNA in lung cancer cells expressing the gene. We observed that Fzd-8 shRNA inhibited cell proliferation along with decreased activity of Wnt pathway in vitro, and also significantly suppressed A549 xenograft model in vivo (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we found that knocking down Fzd-8 by shRNA sensitized the lung cancer cells to chemotherapy Taxotere. These data suggest that Fzd-8 is a putative therapeutic target for human lung cancer and over-expression of Fzd-8 may be important for aberrant Wnt activation in lung cancer.

  10. Black Pine Engineering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Pine Engineering is commercializing a disruptive technology in the turbomachinery industry. Using a patented woven composite construction, Black Pine Engineering can make turbomachines (turbines, compressors) that are cheaper and lighter than competing technologies. Using this technology, Black Pine Engineering will sell turbo-compressors which solve the problem of wasted steam in geothermal power plants.

  11. Joshua DeLung

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Joshua DeLung is an Account Manager at ENC Marketing & Communications and the Executive Editor at Relatively Journalizing.

  12. BLACK HISTORY MONTH

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black History Month is an annual celebration of achievements by black Americans and a time for recognizing the central role of African Americans in U.S. history. The event grew out of “Negro History Week,” created by historian Carter G. Woodson and other prominent African Americans. Other countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, also devote a month to celebrating black history.

  13. with Disabilities Act Requirements Workplace ADA Requirements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal civil rights law that prohibits discrimination in public places against individuals with disabilities. As an employer installing...

  14. Americans with Disabilities Act Signed (1990)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) prohibits discrimination and ensures equal opportunity for persons with disabilities in employment, State and local government services, public...

  15. Fluid blade disablement tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos; Hughs, Chance G.; Todd, Steven N.

    2012-01-10

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  16. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2015-01-10

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC4889, and NGC1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.

  17. ARM - Black Forest News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black Forest News ARM Mobile Facility Completes Field Campaign in Germany January 15, 2008 Microwave Radiometers Put to the Test in Germany September 15, 2007 Zeppelin NT Flies for ...

  18. Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function Scientists are developing a miniature, tissue-engineered artificial lung that ...

  19. Aspects of hairy black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  20. Lumens Placard (Black) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    File lumensplacard-black.eps More Documents & Publications Lumens Placard (Black) Lumens Placard (Green) Lumens Placard (Green)

  1. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  2. Black hole magnetospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathanail, Antonios; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2014-06-20

    We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.

  3. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  4. Lung pair phantom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsen, Peter C.; Gordon, N. Ross; Simmons, Kevin L.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an "authentic lung tissue" or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  5. Lung pair phantom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsen, P.C.; Gordon, N.R.; Simmons, K.L.

    1993-11-30

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an ``authentic lung tissue`` or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  6. Early Lung Cancer Detection Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since 2000, DOE has made screening for occupational lung cancer with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) scans available to workers at high risk for lung cancer. Because former workers undertook essential activities to fulfill the Department's mission, many of them were at risk for lung cancer.

  7. Black Pine Circle Project

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-09-15

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  8. Black Pine Circle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-03-31

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  9. Black Forest Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Forest Partners Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Forest Partners Place: San Francisco, California Zip: 94111 Product: San Francisco-based project developer focused on...

  10. BlackGold Biofuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BlackGold Biofuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: BlackGold Biofuels Place: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Zip: 19107 Product: Philadelphia-based developer of a waste...

  11. Black optic display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

  12. Self-Identification of Disability | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Self-Identification of Disability Self-Identification of Disability Self-Identification of Disability (556.76 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Emergency Special Needs Self-Identification Form Enforcement Letter, URS Energy and Construction, Inc. Operational Plan and Desktop Reference for the Disability Employment Program

  13. Black Warrior, Nevada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    or Black Warrior Spring coordinates Black Warrior is a property in Washoe County and Churchill County, Nevada that is south and east of Black Warrior Peak. References Nevada...

  14. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-07-15

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to

  15. Charged rotating dilaton black strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Farhangkhah, N.

    2005-02-15

    In this paper we, first, present a class of charged rotating solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with zero and Liouville-type potentials. We find that these solutions can present a black hole/string with two regular horizons, an extreme black hole or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and show that they satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Second, we obtain the (n+1)-dimensional rotating solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential. We find that these solutions can present black branes, naked singularities or spacetimes with cosmological horizon if one chooses the parameters of the solutions correctly. Again, we find that the thermodynamic quantities of these solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.

  16. Quantum Criticality and Black Holes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sachdev, Subir [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2009-09-01

    I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.

  17. Black Engineer of the Year Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black Engineer of the Year Award - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare Black Engineer of the Year Award Home...

  18. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-10-06

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of coded apertures. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  19. BNL Technical Services Awarded Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BNL Technical Services Awarded Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business of the Year BNL Technical Services Awarded Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business of the Year ...

  20. CIGNA Study Uncovers Relationship of Disabilities to Total Benefits Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The findings of a new study reveal an interesting trend. Integrating disability programs with health care programs can potentially lower employers' total benefits costs and help disabled employees get back to work sooner and stay at work.

  1. Celebrating the Anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This day in history - in 1990 to be exact - the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was signed into law. This civil rights legislation helps ensure that all citizens, regardless of disability,...

  2. Disability Employment POCs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Disability Employment POCs Disability Employment POCs NAME ORGANIZATION PH # EMAL Donna Friend Headquarters Policy 202-586-5880 donna.friend@hq.doe.gov Rhonda Kennedy Headquarters Operations 202-586-3544 rhonda.kennedy@hq.doe.gov Tamara Lockhart-Rowley Bonneville Power Administration 530-230-5329 tlockhartrowley@bpa.gov Donna Wachter EE/Golden Field Office 720-356-1807 donna.wachter@go.doe.gov Michelle Litmer EMCBC 513-246-0514 michelle.litmer@emcbc.doe.gov Lisa Bonser EM/ Richland Operations

  3. Close encounters of three black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O.; Zlochower, Yosef

    2008-05-15

    We present the first fully relativistic long-term numerical evolutions of three equal-mass black holes in a system consisting of a third black hole in a close orbit about a black-hole binary. These close-three-black-hole systems have very different merger dynamics from black-hole binaries; displaying complex trajectories, a redistribution of energy that can impart substantial kicks to one of the holes, distinctive waveforms, and suppression of the emitted gravitational radiation. In one configuration the binary is quickly disrupted and the individual holes follow complicated trajectories and merge with the third hole in rapid succession, while in another, the binary completes a half-orbit before the initial merger of one of the members with the third black hole, and the resulting two-black-hole system forms a highly elliptical, well separated binary that shows no significant inspiral for (at least) the first t{approx}1000M of evolution.

  4. Jefferson Lab Leadership Council - Dr. Allison Lung

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Associate Director, Dr. Allison Lung Allison Lung Associate Director, 12 GeV Upgrade Project Allison Lung was appointed the assistant director for the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in October 2002. As assistant director, Lung is responsible for formulating and leading the JLab Continual Improvement Program, and responding to requests from JLab stakeholders. She organizes support and documentation for funding campaigns and collaborates closely with the lab director in matters

  5. ANNUAL ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN UPDATE FOR DISABLED VETERANS

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Disabled Veterans Affirmative Action Program FY 2013 Accomplishment Report Table of Contents October 2013 U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration FY 2013 NNSA DVAAP Report 1 Table of Contents * Plan Certification .........................................................................................Page 3 * Agency DVAAP Executive Summary................................................................. Page 4 * Organizational

  6. Golden Field Office Disability Awareness Month Event

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Come join us for a Disability Awareness Month program on Monday, October 29, 2012 in Bldg. 17, 4th floor, from 10:00-11:00 am.   We will have a couple  of performers from a Theatre group named...

  7. Complexity, action, and black holes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-04-18

    In an earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" we conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the `Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  8. Multi-clad black display panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veligdan, James T.; Biscardi, Cyrus; Brewster, Calvin

    2002-01-01

    A multi-clad black display panel, and a method of making a multi-clad black display panel, are disclosed, wherein a plurality of waveguides, each of which includes a light-transmissive core placed between an opposing pair of transparent cladding layers and a black layer disposed between transparent cladding layers, are stacked together and sawed at an angle to produce a wedge-shaped optical panel having an inlet face and an outlet face.

  9. Boson shells harboring charged black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike

    2010-11-15

    We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.

  10. Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs The RAPTOR system is a network of small robotic observatories that scan the skies for optical anomalies such as flashes emanating from a star in its death throes as it collapses and becomes a black hole. November 21, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory astrophysicist Tom Vestrand poses with a telescope array that is part of the RAPTOR (RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response) system. RAPTOR is an intelligent

  11. National Conference of Black Mayors, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The cooperative agreement enhances the National Conference of Black Mayors, Inc., members' capacity for energy and environmental planning through computer-based technology, Internet access, and a...

  12. Black Coral Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coral Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Coral Capital Address: 55 Union Street, 3rd Floor Place: Boston, Massachusetts Zip: 02108 Region: Greater Boston Area Product:...

  13. Black Mountain Insulation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain Insulation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Mountain Insulation Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based manufacturer of sheeps wool insulation which...

  14. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  15. Black Hills Energy (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heater: 450 Refrigerator: 30unit Freezer: 30unit Dishwasher: 30unit Television: 25unit CFLLED Bulbs: In-store rebates Summary Black Hills Energy (BHE) offers...

  16. Strengthening Our Partnerships with Historically Black Colleges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis Strengthening Our Partnerships with Historically Black Colleges and Universities Secretary Chu Secretary Chu Former Secretary of Energy Last February, President Obama ...

  17. Efficient Nanostructured Silicon (Black Silicon) PV Devices ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Traditional AR coatings however, add significant cost to the solar cell manufacturing process. NREL scientists have devised a method and created a nanostructured Si wafer, or black ...

  18. ANNUAL ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN UPDATE FOR DISABLED VETERANS

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Disabled Veterans Affirmative Action Program FY 2014 Accomplishment Report October 2014 U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration FY 2014 NNSA DVAAP Report 1 Table of Contents Plan Certification Page 3 Agency DVAAP Executive Summary Page 4 Organizational Structure Page 5 o Agency Mission Overview o HQs DVAAP Program Office and Point of Contact FY 2014 Accomplishment Report Page 6 o Recruit and Employ Page 6 o Promote and Develop Page 7 o Agency Oversight Page 7 o

  19. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  20. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  1. Extraordinary vacuum black string solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2008-01-15

    In addition to the boosted static solution there are two other classes of stationary stringlike solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation in (4+1) dimensions. Each class is characterized by three parameters of mass, tension, and momentum flow along the fifth coordinate. We analyze the metric properties of one of the two classes, which was previously assumed to be naked singular, and show that the solution spectrum contains black string and wormhole in addition to the known naked singularity as the momentum flow to mass ratio increases. Interestingly, there does not exist new zero momentum solution in these cases.

  2. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  3. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  4. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and

  5. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  6. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  7. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  8. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  9. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and

  10. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  11. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  12. Big Island Demonstration Project - Black Liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-01

    Black liquor is a papermaking byproduct that also serves as a fuel for pulp and paper mills. This project involves the design, construction, and operation of a black liquor gasifier that will be integrated into Georgia-Pacific's Big Island facility in Virginia, a mill that has been in operation for more than 100 years.

  13. Microsoft Word - Los Alamos National Security, LLC_SUPP DISABILITY...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    injury. This highlight sheet is an overview of your Supplemental Disability Insurance. Once a group policy is issued to your employer, a certificate of Insurance will be available...

  14. Job Seekers with Disabilities | National Nuclear Security Administrati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Seekers with Disabilities | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

  15. Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the modes for different values of the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. ... PARTICLES AND FIELDS; ACCRETION DISKS; ANGULAR MOMENTUM; BLACK HOLES; EIGENFUNCTIONS; ...

  16. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report The ...

  17. Cuttings Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  18. Energy and information near black hole horizons (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy and information near black hole horizons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy and information near black hole horizons The central challenge in trying to ...

  19. Novel mechanism for vorticity generation in black-hole accretion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Novel mechanism for vorticity generation in black-hole accretion disks Prev Next Title: Novel mechanism for vorticity generation in black-hole accretion disks Authors: ...

  20. Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes The High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory has released ...

  1. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  2. Microsoft Word - Los Alamos National Security, LLC_SUPP DISABILITY BHS.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rev 06/08 Benefit Highlights Los Alamos National Security, LLC What is Supplemental Disability Insurance? Supplemental Disability Insurance pays you a portion of your Earnings if you cannot work because of a disabling illness or injury. This highlight sheet is an overview of your Supplemental Disability Insurance. Once a group policy is issued to your employer, a certificate of Insurance will be available to explain your coverage in detail. What is disability? For Short-Term Disability:

  3. Structures of Lung Cancer-Derived EGFR Mutants and Inhibitor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structures of Lung Cancer-Derived EGFR Mutants and Inhibitor Complexes: Mechanism of ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structures of Lung Cancer-Derived EGFR Mutants ...

  4. Response of Human Lung Epithelial Cells to Engineered Nanoparticles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Response of Human Lung Epithelial Cells to Engineered Nanoparticles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response of Human Lung Epithelial Cells to Engineered Nanoparticles. ...

  5. Elite Service Disabled Veteran Owned Business (SDVOB) National Convention |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Elite Service Disabled Veteran Owned Business (SDVOB) National Convention Elite Service Disabled Veteran Owned Business (SDVOB) National Convention August 24, 2016 9:00AM EDT to August 26, 2016 5:00PM EDT San Antonio, TX

  6. Early black hole signals at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Ben; Bleicher, Marcus; Stoecker, Horst

    2007-10-26

    The production of mini black holes due to large extra dimensions is a speculative but possible scenario. We survey estimates for di-jet suppression, and multi-mono-jet emission due to black hole production. We further look for a possible sub-scenario which is the formation of a stable or meta-stable black hole remnant (BHR). We show that the beauty of such objects is, that they are relatively easy to observe, even in the early phase of LHC running.

  7. Department of Energy Research Opportunities for Historically Black Colleges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Universities | Department of Energy Department of Energy Research Opportunities for Historically Black Colleges and Universities Department of Energy Research Opportunities for Historically Black Colleges and Universities Information about the Department's laboratories, funding opportunities, partnerships with Historically Black Colleges and Universities, WDTS Program Mission. Department of Energy Research Opportunities for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (472.61 KB) More

  8. black out | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dc(266) Contributor 31 October, 2014 - 10:58 What do you know about the grid? black out brown out bulk power system electricity grid future grid grid history security Smart Grid...

  9. Spectral line broadening in magnetized black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.; Tzounis, Christos E-mail: ashoom@ualberta.ca

    2014-07-01

    We consider weakly magnetized non-rotating black holes. In the presence of a regular magnetic field the motion of charged particles in the vicinity of a black hole is modified. As a result, the position of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) becomes closer to the horizon. When the Lorentz force is repulsive (directed from the black hole) the ISCO radius can reach the gravitational radius. In the process of accretion charged particles (ions) of the accreting matter can be accumulated near their ISCO, while neutral particles fall down to the black hole after they reach 6M radius. The sharp spectral line Fe α, emitted by iron ions at such orbits, is broadened when the emission is registered by a distant observer. In this paper we study this broadening effect and discuss how one can extract information concerning the strength of the magnetic field from the observed spectrum.

  10. Black Emerald Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Emerald Group Address: 4 Park Place Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SW1A 1LP Product: Investment banking firm specializing in...

  11. Black Pine Engineering Wins Clean Energy Trust Clean Energy Challenge |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Black Pine Engineering Wins Clean Energy Trust Clean Energy Challenge Black Pine Engineering Wins Clean Energy Trust Clean Energy Challenge April 11, 2014 - 11:20am Addthis Black Pine Engineering's pilot compressor in California. The team won the Clean Energy Trust Clean Energy Challenge, securing its spot as a regional finalist in the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition. | Photo courtesy of Black Pine Engineering Black Pine Engineering's pilot compressor in

  12. Black Silicon Etching - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Black Silicon Etching Award-winning, efficient, and inexpensive photovoltaic technology National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Three silicon wafers, showing absorbed light: (left) micron-scale texture, (center) NREL&rsquo;s Black Silicon Etch, and (right) micron-scale texture with an antireflective coating. Three silicon wafers, showing absorbed light: (left) micron-scale texture,

  13. Imaging of occupational and environmental lung diseases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akira, M.

    2008-03-15

    The chest radiograph is the basic tool for identifying occupational and environmental lung diseases; however, its sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of occupational and environmental lung diseases are low. High-resolution CT is the optimal method of recognizing parenchymal abnormalities in occupational and environmental disease. With the exception of pleural plaques, the CT findings of occupational and environmental lung diseases are nonspecific. Therefore, correlation of imaging features with history of exposure, other clinical features, and sometimes pathology is needed for the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis.

  14. T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PROBLEM: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. PLATFORM: * BlackBerry Enterprise Server Express version...

  15. Rotating black hole thermodynamics with a particle probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon

    2011-10-15

    The thermodynamics of Myers-Perry black holes in general dimensions are studied using a particle probe. When undergoing particle absorption, the changes of the entropy and irreducible mass are shown to be dependent on the particle radial momentum. The black hole thermodynamic behaviors are dependent on dimensionality for specific rotations. For a 4-dimensional Kerr black hole, its black hole properties are maintained for any particle absorption. 5-dimensional black holes can avoid a naked ring singularity by absorbing a particle in specific momenta ranges. Black holes over 6 dimensions become ultraspinning black holes through a specific form of particle absorption. The microscopical changes are interpreted in limited cases of Myers-Perry black holes using Kerr/CFT correspondence. We systematically describe the black hole properties changed by particle absorption in all dimensions.

  16. THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  17. Disabled Veterans Affirmative Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guide for the Disabled Veterans' Affirmative Action Program (DVAAP) FY16 DVAAP Plan.pdf (30.36 KB) Responsible Contacts Donna Friend HUMAN RESOURCES SPECIALIST E-mail ...

  18. Faith Enterprises Inc. A Service Disabled Veteran-Owned Small...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Faith Enterprises Inc. A Service Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business Security When the Air Force asked Sandia to deliver complex security upgrades to a facility on Kirtland Air...

  19. Operational Plan and Desktop Reference for the Disability Employment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Final-SOP-Disability-Employment-FY14.pdf Responsible Contacts Donna Friend HUMAN RESOURCES SPECIALIST E-mail donna.friend@hq.doe.dov Phone 202-586-5880 More Documents & ...

  20. Linear dimensions and volumes of human lungs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hickman, David P.

    2012-03-30

    TOTAL LUNG Capacity is defined as “the inspiratory capacity plus the functional residual capacity; the volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration; also equals vital capacity plus residual volume” (from MediLexicon.com). Within the Results and Discussion section of their April 2012 Health Physics paper, Kramer et al. briefly noted that the lungs of their experimental subjects were “not fully inflated.” By definition and failure to obtain maximal inspiration, Kramer et. al. did not measure Total Lung Capacity (TLC). The TLC equation generated from this work will tend to underestimate TLC and does notmore » improve or update total lung capacity data provided by ICRP and others. Likewise, the five linear measurements performed by Kramer et. al. are only representative of the conditions of the measurement (i.e., not at-rest volume, but not fully inflated either). While there was significant work performed and the data are interesting, the data does not represent a maximal situation, a minimal situation, or an at-rest situation. Moreover, while interesting, the linear data generated by this study is limited by the conditions of the experiment and may not be fully comparative with other lung or inspiratory parameters, measures, or physical dimensions.« less

  1. Celebrating the Anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We are actively working to make the Energy Department a model employer for individuals with disabilities, that we're responding to the needs of our employees with disabilities, and that we're addressing Equal Employment Opportunity discrimination complaints quickly and effectively under the law. We're also working to make Energy.gov 508 compliant to deliver resources and services to you in more accessible ways.

  2. Radiation-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. )

    1990-03-01

    The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

  3. Rotating black lens solution in five dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Yu; Teo, Edward

    2008-09-15

    It has recently been shown that a stationary, asymptotically flat vacuum black hole in five space-time dimensions with two commuting axial symmetries must have an event horizon with either a spherical, ring or lens-space topology. In this paper, we study the third possibility, a so-called black lens with L(n,1) horizon topology. Using the inverse scattering method, we construct a black-lens solution with the simplest possible rod structure, and possessing a single asymptotic angular momentum. Its properties are then analyzed; in particular, it is shown that there must either be a conical singularity or a naked curvature singularity present in the space-time.

  4. Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, Steven P.; Schmidt, Hennrik; Doganov, Rostislav A.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2014-03-10

    Black phosphorus exhibits a layered structure similar to graphene, allowing mechanical exfoliation of ultrathin single crystals. Here, we demonstrate few-layer black phosphorus field effect devices on Si/SiO{sub 2} and measure charge carrier mobility in a four-probe configuration as well as drain current modulation in a two-point configuration. We find room-temperature mobilities of up to 300 cm{sup 2}/Vs and drain current modulation of over 10{sup 3}. At low temperatures, the on-off ratio exceeds 10{sup 5}, and the device exhibits both electron and hole conduction. Using atomic force microscopy, we observe significant surface roughening of thin black phosphorus crystals over the course of 1 h after exfoliation.

  5. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #32A Schedule A Appointments of Persons with Disabilities and Appointments for Disabled Veterans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Establishes policy and procedures that ensure Schedule A appointments and appointments for disabled veterans are in support of mission accomplishments and are in accordance with merit system principles, applicable laws, and regulations.

  6. Black Friday Savings All Year 'Round | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Black Friday Savings All Year 'Round Black Friday Savings All Year 'Round November 21, 2011 - 3:58pm Addthis Chris Stewart Senior Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy ...

  7. Black River Farm Solar Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Project Facility Black River Farm Solar Project Sector Solar Facility Type Fixed Tilt Ground-Mount & Roof-Mount Owner EnXco Developer EnXco Energy Purchaser Black River Farm...

  8. Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes The High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory has released its first map of the sky, including the first measurements of how often black holes flicker on and off. It has also caught pulsars, supernova remnants, and other bizarre cosmic beasts. April 24, 2016 Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Three new sources of gamma rays spotted by HAWC. Credit:

  9. Gravitational waves found, black-hole models led the way

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gravitational waves found, black-hole models led the way Gravitational waves found, black-hole models led the way Gravitational waves were predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity in 1916, and now, almost exactly 100 years later, the faint ripples across space-time have been found. February 11, 2016 A simulation of two merging black holes, creating gravitational waves. Photo courtesy of LIGO. A simulation of two merging black holes, creating gravitational waves. Photo courtesy of

  10. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  11. Semiclassical S-matrix for black holes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bezrukov, Fedor; Levkov, Dmitry; Sibiryakov, Sergey

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we propose a semiclassical method to calculate S-matrix elements for two-stage gravitational transitions involving matter collapse into a black hole and evaporation of the latter. The method consistently incorporates back-reaction of the collapsing and emitted quanta on the metric. We illustrate the method in several toy models describing spherical self-gravitating shells in asymptotically flat and AdS space-times. We find that electrically neutral shells reflect via the above collapse-evaporation process with probability exp(–B), where B is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the intermediate black hole. This is consistent with interpretation of exp(B) as the number of black hole states.more » The same expression for the probability is obtained in the case of charged shells if one takes into account instability of the Cauchy horizon of the intermediate Reissner-Nordström black hole. As a result, our semiclassical method opens a new systematic approach to the gravitational S-matrix in the non-perturbative regime.« less

  12. SLIM DISKS AROUND KERR BLACK HOLES REVISITED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, Aleksander

    2009-08-01

    We investigate stationary slim accretion disks around Kerr black holes. We construct a new numerical method based on the relaxation technique. We systematically cover the whole parameter space relevant to stellar mass X-ray binaries. We also notice some non-monotonic features in the disk structure, overlooked in previous studies.

  13. Bubbling supertubes and foaming black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bena, Iosif; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2006-09-15

    We construct smooth BPS three-charge geometries that resolve the zero-entropy singularity of the U(1)xU(1) invariant black ring. This singularity is resolved by a geometric transition that results in geometries without any branes sources or singularities but with nontrivial topology. These geometries are both ground states of the black ring, and nontrivial microstates of the D1-D5-P system. We also find the form of the geometries that result from the geometric transition of N zero-entropy black rings, and argue that, in general, such geometries give a very large number of smooth bound-state three-charge solutions, parametrized by 6N functions. The generic microstate solution is specified by a four-dimensional hyper-Kaehler geometry of a certain signature, and contains a 'foam' of nontrivial two-spheres. We conjecture that these geometries will account for a significant part of the entropy of the D1-D5-P black hole, and that Mathur's conjecture might reduce to counting certain hyper-Kaehler manifolds.

  14. T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BlackBerry advisory describes a security issue that the BlackBerry Attachment Service component of the BlackBerry Enterprise Server is susceptible to. The issue relates to a known vulnerability in the PDF distiller component of the BlackBerry Attachment Service that affects how the BlackBerry Attachment Service processes PDF files.

  15. Trumpet-puncture initial data for black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Immerman, Jason D.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2009-09-15

    We propose a new approach, based on the puncture method, to construct black hole initial data in the so-called trumpet geometry, i.e. on slices that asymptote to a limiting surface of nonzero areal radius. Our approach is easy to implement numerically and, at least for nonspinning black holes, does not require any internal boundary conditions. We present numerical results, obtained with a uniform-grid finite-difference code, for boosted black holes and binary black holes. We also comment on generalizations of this method for spinning black holes.

  16. Quasi-black holes: Definition and general properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2007-10-15

    Objects that are on the verge of being extremal black holes but actually are distinct in many ways are called quasi-black holes. Quasi-black holes are defined here and treated in a unified way by displaying their properties. Their main properties are as follows: (i) there are infinite redshift whole regions (ii) the spacetimes exhibit degenerate, almost singular, features but their curvature invariants remain perfectly regular everywhere (iii) in the limit under discussion, outer and inner regions become mutually impenetrable and disjoint, although, in contrast to the usual black holes, this separation is of a dynamical nature, rather than purely causal, and (iv) for external faraway observers the spacetime is virtually indistinguishable from that of extremal black holes. In addition, we show that quasi-black holes must be extremal. Connections with black hole and wormhole physics are also drawn.

  17. OPM Model Strategies for Recuitment and Hiring of People With Disabilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy OPM Model Strategies for Recuitment and Hiring of People With Disabilities OPM Model Strategies for Recuitment and Hiring of People With Disabilities OPM Guidance on creating and implementing a strategic approach to hiring individuals with disabilities for each Federal Agency. OPM-Model Strategies for Recruiting and Hiring People with Disabilities (2).pdf (10.13 MB) Responsible Contacts Donna Friend HUMAN RESOURCES SPECIALIST E-mail donna.friend@hq.doe.dov Phone

  18. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu

    2014-08-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.

  19. Hanford Site Black-tailed Jackrabbit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Revision 0 Hanford Site Black-tailed Jackrabbit Monitoring Report for Fiscal Year 2013 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management Contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 P.O. Box 650 Richland, Washington 99352 Approved for Public Release Further Dissemination Unlimited HNF- 56710 Revision 0 TRADEMARK DISCLAIMER Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name,

  20. Phenomenological loop quantum geometry of the Schwarzschild black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiou, D.-W.

    2008-09-15

    The interior of a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated at the level of phenomenological dynamics with the discreteness corrections of loop quantum geometry implemented in two different improved quantization schemes. In one scheme, the classical black hole singularity is resolved by the quantum bounce, which bridges the black hole interior with a white hole interior. In the other scheme, the classical singularity is resolved and the event horizon is also diffused by the quantum bounce. Jumping over the quantum bounce, the black hole gives birth to a baby black hole with a much smaller mass. This lineage continues as each classical black hole brings forth its own descendant in the consecutive classical cycle, giving the whole extended spacetime fractal structure, until the solution eventually descends into the deep Planck regime, signaling a breakdown of the semiclassical description. The issues of scaling symmetry and no-hair theorem are also discussed.

  1. Multiscalar black holes with contingent primary hair: Mechanics and stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mignemi, Salvatore; Wiltshire, David L.

    2004-12-15

    We generalize a class of magnetically charged black holes nonminimally coupled to two scalar fields previously found by one of us to the case of multiple scalar fields. The black holes possess a novel type of primary scalar hair, which we call a contingent primary hair: although the solutions possess degrees of freedom which are not completely determined by the other charges of the theory, the charges necessarily vanish in the absence of the magnetic monopole. Only one constraint relates the black hole mass to the magnetic charge and scalar charges of the theory. We obtain a Smarr-type thermodynamic relation, and the first law of black hole thermodynamics for the system. We further explicitly show in the two-scalar-field case that, contrary to the case of many other hairy black holes, the black hole solutions are stable to radial perturbations.

  2. The Black Mesa coal/water slurry pipeline system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brolick, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Black Mesa Pipeline is a 273 mile (439 km) long, 18-inch (457 mm) coal/water slurry pipeline, originating on the Black Mesa in the Northeastern part of Arizona, USA. The system delivers coal from the Peabody Coal Company`s Black Mesa open pit mine to the Mohave Generating Station which is a 1580 mw steam powered electric generating plant located in Laughlin, Nevada.

  3. Fossil Energy Acting Assistant Secretary Recognized at Black Engineer of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Year Awards | Department of Energy Fossil Energy Acting Assistant Secretary Recognized at Black Engineer of the Year Awards Fossil Energy Acting Assistant Secretary Recognized at Black Engineer of the Year Awards February 19, 2013 - 8:54am Addthis Director Dot Harris presents Chris Smith, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary and Acting Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, with a professional achievement award at the Black Engineer of the Year Awards conference this February. Photo

  4. Searching for tiny black holes during cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-09-01

    A previous technical note suggests that cold fusion is a small-scale simulation of events that occur in cold stars far-away in the universe. Therefore, it is expected that tiny black holes might be produced during cold fusion. In this paper, a search for tiny black holes whose traces might have been recorded on nuclear emulsions is described. Several traces suggesting the production and evaporation of tiny black holes have been successfully observed.

  5. Funds Awarded to Historically Black Colleges and Universities...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Research by Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Other Minority Institutions (HBCUOMI), recently announced awards to institutions under the HBCUOMI designation. ...

  6. File:EIA-BlackWarrior-GAS.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    applicationpdf) Description Black Warrior Basin By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F....

  7. Savannah River National Laboratory Meets with Historically Black...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Last week, student and faculty leaders at seven Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) spent the day at the Center for Hydrogen Research at Savannah River National ...

  8. San Juan Montana Thrust Belt WY Thrust Belt Black Warrior

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    San Juan Montana Thrust Belt WY Thrust Belt Black Warrior Paradox - San Juan NW (2) Uinta- Piceance Paradox - San Juan SE (2) Florida Peninsula Appalachian- NY (1) Appalachian ...

  9. Black Hawk County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions Places in Black Hawk County, Iowa Cedar Falls, Iowa Dunkerton, Iowa Elk Run Heights, Iowa Evansdale, Iowa Gilbertville, Iowa Hudson, Iowa Janesville, Iowa Jesup,...

  10. Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A theoretical black carbon (BC) aging model is developed to account for three typical evolution stages, namely, freshly emitted aggregates, coated BC by soluble material, and BC ...

  11. Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    sq ft. Infiltration Control: 70% of installed cost Doors: 25 or 50 Pool Cover: 250 Spa Cover: 50 Summary Black Hills Energy offers commercial and industrial customers...

  12. BlackLight Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: BlackLight Power Inc Place: Cranbury, New Jersey Zip: 8512 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Researching a means of producing energy by catalysing the reaction of...

  13. Black Forest, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Forest, Colorado: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.0130484, -104.7008083 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappi...

  14. Black Hole Remnants in the Early Universe (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Black Hole Remnants in the Early Universe Authors: Scardigli, Fabio ; Gruber, Christine ; Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. ; Chen, Pisin ; Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. KIPAC, Menlo ...

  15. Black Hills Energy (Electric)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Energy also offers the custom rebate program to commercial and industrial customers for projects that reduce energy usage. Eligible projects include chillers, unitary HVAC equipment,...

  16. SEARCH FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SEARCH FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY ...

  17. Acoustic analogues of black hole singularities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Mignemi, Salvatore

    2005-10-15

    We search for acoustic analogues of a spherical symmetric black hole with a pointlike source. We show that the gravitational system has a dynamical counterpart in the constrained, steady motion of a fluid with a planar source. The equations governing the dynamics of the gravitational system can be exactly mapped in those governing the motion of the fluid. The different meaning that singularities and sources have in fluid dynamics and in general relativity is also discussed. Whereas in the latter a pointlike source is always associated with a (curvature) singularity in the former the presence of sources does not necessarily imply divergences of the fields.

  18. T-602: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Input Validation Flaw in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    02: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Input Validation Flaw in BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks T-602: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Input Validation...

  19. BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew, E-mail: wd11@leicester.ac.uk, E-mail: ark@astro.le.ac.uk [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)] [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations.

  20. Black holes can have curly hair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronnikov, K. A.; Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2008-07-15

    We study equilibrium conditions between a static, spherically symmetric black hole and classical matter in terms of the radial pressure to density ratio p{sub r}/{rho}=w(u), where u is the radial coordinate. It is shown that such an equilibrium is possible in two cases: (i) the well-known case w{yields}-1 as u{yields}u{sub h} (the horizon), i.e., 'vacuum' matter, for which {rho}(u{sub h}) can be nonzero; (ii) w{yields}-1/(1+2k) and {rho}{approx}(u-u{sub h}){sup k} as u{yields}u{sub h}, where k>0 is a positive integer (w=-1/3 in the generic case k=1). A noninteracting mixture of these two kinds of matter can also exist. The whole reasoning is local, hence the results do not depend on any global or asymptotic conditions. They mean, in particular, that a static black hole cannot live inside a star with nonnegative pressure and density. As an example, an exact solution for an isotropic fluid with w=-1/3 (that is, a fluid of disordered cosmic strings), with or without vacuum matter, is presented.

  1. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W.; Goulding, Frederick S.

    1991-01-01

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons Compton backscattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to monimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering.

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1988-03-11

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons compton back-scattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to minimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Gas Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Black...

  4. Slim Holes At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  5. Core Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Core Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  6. 2-M Probe At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Black...

  7. Flow Test At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Flow Test At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Black Warrior...

  8. U-228: BlackBerry Tablet OS Flash Player Multiple Vulnerabilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis PROBLEM: BlackBerry Tablet OS Flash Player Multiple Vulnerabilities PLATFORM: Adobe Flash Player versions included with BlackBerry PlayBook tablet software versions...

  9. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingappan, Krithika; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Barrios, Roberto; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  10. Lung deformations and radiation-induced regional lung collapse in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diot, Quentin Kavanagh, Brian; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Gaspar, Laurie; Miften, Moyed; Garg, Kavita

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To differentiate radiation-induced fibrosis from regional lung collapse outside of the high dose region in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods: Lung deformation maps were computed from pre-treatment and post-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans using a point-to-point translation method. Fifty anatomical landmarks inside the lung (vessel or airway branches) were matched on planning and follow-up scans for the computation process. Two methods using the deformation maps were developed to differentiate regional lung collapse from fibrosis: vector field and Jacobian methods. A total of 40 planning and follow-ups CT scans were analyzed for 20 lung SBRT patients. Results: Regional lung collapse was detected in 15 patients (75%) using the vector field method, in ten patients (50%) using the Jacobian method, and in 12 patients (60%) by radiologists. In terms of sensitivity and specificity the Jacobian method performed better. Only weak correlations were observed between the dose to the proximal airways and the occurrence of regional lung collapse. Conclusions: The authors presented and evaluated two novel methods using anatomical lung deformations to investigate lung collapse and fibrosis caused by SBRT treatment. Differentiation of these distinct physiological mechanisms beyond what is usually labeled “fibrosis” is necessary for accurate modeling of lung SBRT-induced injuries. With the help of better models, it becomes possible to expand the therapeutic benefits of SBRT to a larger population of lung patients with large or centrally located tumors that were previously considered ineligible.

  11. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar; Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Lantz, R. Clark; González-Cortes, Tania; Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar; Froines, John R.; Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A.

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms or diseases in the adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that the exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero in children was associated with impairment in the lung function and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammation response to the metalloid. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their arsenic urinary levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products' (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. Arsenic-induced alterations in inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of restrictive lung diseases. - Highlights: • First study in children evaluating lung inflammatory biomarkers and As levels

  12. Dose impact in radiographic lung injury following lung SBRT: Statistical analysis and geometric interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Victoria; Kishan, Amar U.; Cao, Minsong; Low, Daniel; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate a new method of evaluating dose response of treatment-induced lung radiographic injury post-SBRT (stereotactic body radiotherapy) treatment and the discovery of bimodal dose behavior within clinically identified injury volumes. Methods: Follow-up CT scans at 3, 6, and 12 months were acquired from 24 patients treated with SBRT for stage-1 primary lung cancers or oligometastic lesions. Injury regions in these scans were propagated to the planning CT coordinates by performing deformable registration of the follow-ups to the planning CTs. A bimodal behavior was repeatedly observed from the probability distribution for dose values within the deformed injury regions. Based on a mixture-Gaussian assumption, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm was used to obtain characteristic parameters for such distribution. Geometric analysis was performed to interpret such parameters and infer the critical dose level that is potentially inductive of post-SBRT lung injury. Results: The Gaussian mixture obtained from the EM algorithm closely approximates the empirical dose histogram within the injury volume with good consistency. The average Kullback-Leibler divergence values between the empirical differential dose volume histogram and the EM-obtained Gaussian mixture distribution were calculated to be 0.069, 0.063, and 0.092 for the 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up groups, respectively. The lower Gaussian component was located at approximately 70% prescription dose (35 Gy) for all three follow-up time points. The higher Gaussian component, contributed by the dose received by planning target volume, was located at around 107% of the prescription dose. Geometrical analysis suggests the mean of the lower Gaussian component, located at 35 Gy, as a possible indicator for a critical dose that induces lung injury after SBRT. Conclusions: An innovative and improved method for analyzing the correspondence between lung radiographic injury and SBRT treatment dose has

  13. Nonuniform black strings in various dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorkin, Evgeny

    2006-11-15

    The nonuniform black-strings branch, which emerges from the critical Gregory-Laflamme string, is numerically constructed in dimensions 6{<=}D{<=}11 and extended into the strongly nonlinear regime. All the solutions are more massive and less entropic than the marginal string. We find the asymptotic values of the mass, the entropy and other physical variables in the limit of large horizon deformations. By explicit metric comparison we verify that the local geometry around the waist of our most nonuniform solutions is conelike with less than 10% deviation. We find evidence that in this regime the characteristic length scale has a power-law dependence on a parameter along the branch of the solutions, and estimate the critical exponent.

  14. Modeling the black hole excision problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szilagyi, B.; Winicour, J.; Kreiss, H.-O.

    2005-05-15

    We analyze the excision strategy for simulating black holes. The problem is modeled by the propagation of quasilinear waves in a 1-dimensional spatial region with timelike outer boundary, spacelike inner boundary and a horizon in between. Proofs of well-posed evolution and boundary algorithms for a second differential order treatment of the system are given for the separate pieces underlying the finite-difference problem. These are implemented in a numerical code which gives accurate long term simulations of the quasilinear excision problem. Excitation of long wavelength exponential modes, which are latent in the problem, are suppressed using conservation laws for the discretized system. The techniques are designed to apply directly to recent codes for the Einstein equations based upon the harmonic formulation.

  15. Charged black holes in generalized teleparallel gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigues, M.E.; Houndjo, M.J.S.; Tossa, J.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R. E-mail: sthoundjo@yahoo.fr E-mail: d.momeni@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we investigate charged static black holes in 4D for generalized teleparallel models of gravity, based on torsion as the geometric object for describing gravity according to the equivalence principle. As a motivated idea, we introduce a set of non-diagonal tetrads and derive the full system of non linear differential equations. We prove that the common Schwarzschild gauge is applicable only when we study linear f(T) case. We reobtain the Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter (or RN-AdS) solution for the linear case of f(T) and perform a parametric cosmological reconstruction for two nonlinear models. We also study in detail a type of the no-go theorem in the framework of this modified teleparallel gravity.

  16. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

    1983-02-01

    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  17. Voluntary Self-Identification of Disability Form CC-305 OMB Control Number 1250-0005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Voluntary Self-Identification of Disability Form CC-305 OMB Control Number 1250-0005 Expires 1/31/2017 Page 1 of 2 Why are you being asked to complete this form? Because we do business with the government, we must reach out to, hire, and provide equal opportunity to qualified people with disabilities. i To help us measure how well we are doing, we are asking you to tell us if you have a disability or if you ever had a disability. Completing this form is voluntary, but we hope that you will

  18. Varying fine structure 'constant' and charged black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Schiffer, Marcelo

    2009-12-15

    Speculation that the fine-structure constant {alpha} varies in spacetime has a long history. We derive, in 4-D general relativity and in isotropic coordinates, the solution for a charged spherical black hole according to the framework for dynamical {alpha} J. D. Bekenstein, Phys. Rev. D 25, 1527 (1982).. This solution coincides with a previously known one-parameter extension of the dilatonic black hole family. Among the notable properties of varying-{alpha} charged black holes are adherence to a 'no hair' principle, the absence of the inner (Cauchy) horizon of the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, the nonexistence of precisely extremal black holes, and the appearance of naked singularities in an analytic extension of the relevant metric. The exteriors of almost extremal electrically (magnetically) charged black holes have simple structures which makes their influence on applied magnetic (electric) fields transparent. We rederive the thermodynamic functions of the modified black holes; the otherwise difficult calculation of the electric potential is done by a shortcut. We confirm that variability of {alpha} in the wake of expansion of the universe does not threaten the generalized second law.

  19. Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sotor, J. Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M.; Macherzynski, W.; Paletko, P.

    2015-08-03

    Low-dimensional materials, due to their unique and versatile properties, are very interesting for numerous applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Recently rediscovered black phosphorus, with a graphite-like layered structure, can be effectively exfoliated up to the single atomic layer called phosphorene. Contrary to graphene, it possesses a direct band gap controllable by the number of stacked atomic layers. For those reasons, black phosphorus is now intensively investigated and can complement or replace graphene in various photonics and electronics applications. Here, we demonstrate that black phosphorus can serve as a broadband saturable absorber and can be used for ultrashort optical pulse generation. The mechanically exfoliated ∼300 nm thick layers of black phosphorus were transferred onto the fiber core, and under pulsed excitation at 1560 nm wavelength, its transmission increases by 4.6%. We have demonstrated that the saturable absorption of black phosphorus is polarization sensitive. The fabricated device was used to mode-lock an Er-doped fiber laser. The generated optical solitons with the 10.2 nm bandwidth and 272 fs duration were centered at 1550 nm. The obtained results unambiguously show that black phosphorus can be effectively used for ultrashort pulse generation with performances similar or even better than currently used graphene or carbon nanotubes. This application of black phosphorus proves its great potential to future practical use in photonics.

  20. KCP's Carey honored as 2014 Black Achiever | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) KCP's Carey honored as 2014 Black Achiever Monday, February 10, 2014 - 11:00am KCP's Carey honored as 2014 Black Achiever Anthony Carey is not just focused on developing the next generation of Test Systems for our nation's military; he's also focused on developing the next generation of young leaders. A Technical Manager for the Kansas City Plant, Anthony was honored Jan. 16 at the annual Black Achievers Society of Kansas City event for his leadership both in the

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsBlack Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory 2016.06.15 - 2016.10.01 Lead Scientist : Daniel Jaffe Abstract Black carbon (BC) is a key component in the earth system and a significant climate forcing agent. Observations at remote sites and in free-tropospheric air are extremely sparse. We propose to utilize one of the ARM SP2 (Single

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsCharacterization of Black Carbon Mixing State Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State 2012.11.01 - 2013.06.14 Lead Scientist : Arthur Sedlacek For data sets, see below. Abstract The objective of the proposed experiments was to characterize the mixing state of black carbon produced in biomass burning

  3. Paramont's Black Bear No. 4 mine does it right, again

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanda, A.

    2007-07-15

    The Paramont Coal Company Virginia, LLC, a subsidiary of Alpha Natural Resources, recently won the '2007 overall award for excellence in mining and reclamation from the Virginia Division of Mined Land Reclamation and the Virginia Mining Association. Coal People Magazine recently visited Black Bear No. 4 mine where a settling pond was being removed and stream bed placed to drain the area, part of the 451-acre award winning reclamation project. The article recounts discussions with mining engineers about the company's operations with emphasis on the Black Bear No. 4 mine. Black Bear No. 1 mine won five state and national awards last year for conservation and land management practices. 8 photos.

  4. Back reaction on a Reissner-Nordstro''m black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bobo; Huang, Chao-guang

    2001-06-15

    The perturbed (''dressed'') metric of the conformally invariant scalar field in a Reissner-Nordstroem (RN) black hole is given by solving the semiclassical Einstein and Maxwell equations according to York's back-reaction approach. Some properties of the ''dressed'' black hole are obtained, such as its ''dressed'' mass, the location of the event horizon, and its surface gravity. It will also be found that the hypersurfaces of r{sub +} and r{sub {minus}} which are the event and Cauchy horizons in the ''naked'' RN black hole, become spacelike in the perturbed geometry.

  5. Modified clock inequalities and modified black hole lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Rongjia; Zhang Shuangnan

    2009-06-15

    Based on a generalized uncertainty principle, Salecker-Wigner inequalities are modified. When applied to black holes, they give a modified black hole lifetime: T{sub MB}{approx}(M{sup 3}/m{sub p}{sup 3})(1-m{sub p}{sup 2}/M{sup 2})t{sub p}, and the number of bits required to specify the information content of the black hole as the event horizon area in Planck units N{approx}(M{sup 2}/m{sub p}{sup 2})(1-m{sub p}{sup 2}/M{sup 2})

  6. Are black holes in alternative theories serious astrophysical candidates? The case for Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor

    2009-04-15

    It is generally accepted that Einstein's theory will get some as yet unknown corrections, possibly large in the strong-field regime. An ideal place to look for these modifications is in the vicinities of compact objects such as black holes. Here, we study dilatonic black holes, which arise in the framework of Gauss-Bonnet couplings and one-loop corrected four-dimensional effective theory of heterotic superstrings at low energies. These are interesting objects as a prototype for alternative, yet well-behaved gravity theories: they evade the 'no-hair' theorem of general relativity but were proven to be stable against radial perturbations. We investigate the viability of these black holes as astrophysical objects and try to provide some means to distinguish them from black holes in general relativity. We start by extending previous works and establishing the stability of these black holes against axial perturbations. We then look for solutions of the field equations describing slowly rotating black holes and study geodesic motion around this geometry. Depending on the values of mass, dilaton charge, and angular momentum of the solution, one can have differences in the innermost-stable-circular-orbit location and orbital frequency, relative to black holes in general relativity. In the most favorable cases, the difference amounts to a few percent. Given the current state-of-the-art, we discuss the difficulty of distinguishing the correct theory of gravity from electromagnetic observations or even with gravitational-wave detectors.

  7. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  8. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-induced gene expression in the mouse lung: Association with lung pathology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacurari, M.; Qian, Y.; Porter, D.W.; Wolfarth, M.; Wan, Y.; Luo, D.; Ding, M.; Castranova, V.; Guo, N.L.

    2011-08-15

    Due to the fibrous shape and durability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), concerns regarding their potential for producing environmental and human health risks, including carcinogenesis, have been raised. This study sought to investigate how previously identified lung cancer prognostic biomarkers and the related cancer signaling pathways are affected in the mouse lung following pharyngeal aspiration of well-dispersed MWCNT. A total of 63 identified lung cancer prognostic biomarker genes and major signaling biomarker genes were analyzed in mouse lungs (n = 80) exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 {mu}g of MWCNT by pharyngeal aspiration at 7 and 56 days post-exposure using quantitative PCR assays. At 7 and 56 days post-exposure, a set of 7 genes and a set of 11 genes, respectively, showed differential expression in the lungs of mice exposed to MWCNT vs. the control group. Additionally, these significant genes could separate the control group from the treated group over the time series in a hierarchical gene clustering analysis. Furthermore, 4 genes from these two sets of significant genes, coiled-coil domain containing-99 (Ccdc99), muscle segment homeobox gene-2 (Msx2), nitric oxide synthase-2 (Nos2), and wingless-type inhibitory factor-1 (Wif1), showed significant mRNA expression perturbations at both time points. It was also found that the expression changes of these 4 overlapping genes at 7 days post-exposure were attenuated at 56 days post-exposure. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) found that several carcinogenic-related signaling pathways and carcinogenesis itself were associated with both the 7 and 11 gene signatures. Taken together, this study identifies that MWCNT exposure affects a subset of lung cancer biomarkers in mouse lungs. - Research Highlights: > Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes affect lung cancer biomarkers in mouse lungs. > The results suggest potentially harmful effects of MWCNT exposure on human lungs. > The results could potentially be used for

  9. Generic features of Einstein-Aether black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2008-01-15

    We reconsider spherically symmetric black hole solutions in Einstein-Aether theory with the condition that this theory has identical parametrized post-Newtonian parameters as those for general relativity, which is the main difference from the previous research. In contrast with previous study, we allow superluminal propagation of a spin-0 Aether-gravity wave mode. As a result, we obtain black holes having a spin-0 'horizon' inside an event horizon. We allow a singularity at a spin-0 horizon since it is concealed by the event horizon. If we allow such a configuration, the kinetic term of the Aether field can be large enough for black holes to be significantly different from Schwarzschild black holes with respect to Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass, innermost stable circular orbit, Hawking temperature, and so on. We also discuss whether or not the above features can be seen in more generic vector-tensor theories.

  10. MLK Day/Black History Month DOE Celebration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join us as the Department honors both Dr. King and Black History Month with a dialogue on the history of civil rights for all. Secretary Ernest Moniz will open our program.

  11. The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon ...

  12. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharif, M. Javed, W.

    2012-06-15

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstroem-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  13. Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    70% of cost Duct Repair and Sealing: 70% of cost Doors: 25 Summary Black Hills Energy (BHE) offers a variety of rebates for residential Colorado customers who purchase and...

  14. Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The black shales contain abundant evidence of life from upper parts of the water column such as fish fossils, conodonts, algae and other phytoplankton; however, there is a lack of ...

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Black Forest...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to other sites as determined. In 2007 the AMF operated in the Black Forest ...

  16. Black Diamond, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Black Diamond is a city in King County, Washington. It falls under Washington's 8th congressional district.12...

  17. Black Branes in Flux Compactifications (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Black Branes in Flux Compactifications Citation Details ... Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15462 arXiv:1306.3982 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  18. Celebrating Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith Celebrating Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith February 16, 2011 - 12:08pm Addthis Christopher A. Smith Christopher A. Smith Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Throughout the month of February, we've been introducing remarkable African Americans who are working to advance the President's clean energy agenda. This week we're highlighting Christopher Smith, the Department's Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oil and

  19. Funds Awarded to Historically Black Colleges and Universities for Fossil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Research | Department of Energy Funds Awarded to Historically Black Colleges and Universities for Fossil Energy Research Funds Awarded to Historically Black Colleges and Universities for Fossil Energy Research October 7, 2014 - 10:26am Addthis Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected four research projects that will provide educational and research training opportunities for minority students while advancing key technical areas in fossil fuel utilization.

  20. Black holes in supergravity: the non-BPS branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimon, Eric; Gimon, Eric G.; Larsen, Finn; Simon, Joan

    2007-10-25

    We construct extremal, spherically symmetric black hole solutions to 4D supergravity with charge assignments that preclude BPS-saturation. In particular, we determine the ground state energy as a function of charges and moduli. We find that the mass of the non-BPS black hole remains that of a marginal bound state of four basic constituents throughout the entire moduli space and that there is always a non-zero gap above the BPS bound.

  1. Historically Black Colleges and Universities Receive Funds for Fossil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Research | Department of Energy Historically Black Colleges and Universities Receive Funds for Fossil Energy Research Historically Black Colleges and Universities Receive Funds for Fossil Energy Research August 15, 2013 - 1:18pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Five fossil energy-related projects that will help maintain the nation's energy portfolio while also providing educational and research training opportunities for tomorrow's scientists and engineers have been selected for funding by

  2. Students, Faculty from Historically Black Colleges and Universities Share

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research with EM Laboratory in Successful Exchange | Department of Energy Students, Faculty from Historically Black Colleges and Universities Share Research with EM Laboratory in Successful Exchange Students, Faculty from Historically Black Colleges and Universities Share Research with EM Laboratory in Successful Exchange February 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis South Carolina State University students William Dumpson, left, and Alejandra Chirino, center, talk with Savannah River National

  3. Choice of an equivalent black body solar temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parrott, J.E. )

    1993-09-01

    In the course of modeling the performance of photovoltaic solar cells for space use, it became desirable to set up a black body spectrum equivalent to the standard Air Mass Zero (AMO) solar spectrum. A method of calculating the equivalent black body solar surface temperature, based on irradiance and photon number flux derived from the AMO spectrum, is presented. It does not require knowledge of the angle subtended by the sun at the earth's surface. The value obtained is 5730 +/- 90 K.

  4. Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

  5. Carbon black and carbon black-conducting polymer composites for environmental applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajeshwar, K.; Wampler, W.A.; Goeringer, S.; Gerspacher, M.; Richardson, S.

    1996-10-01

    The preparation and use of the title materials for the treatment of Cr(VI) in aqueous media will be described. The carcinogenic Cr(VI) will be shown to be efficiently reduced to the less toxic specie Cr(III). The preparation and process variables will be described using a furnace black (N135) and polypyrrole as model candidates. Other aspects to be discussed include reaction kinetics, mechanism and thermodynamics. Finally, the practical implications of this new Cr(VI) pollution abatement approach are discussed.

  6. Controlled Sculpture of Black Phosphorus Nanoribbons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Masih Das, Paul; Danda, Gopinath; Cupo, Andrew; Parkin, William M.; Liang, Liangbo; Kharche, Neerav; Ling, Xi; Huang, Shengxi; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Meunier, Vincent; et al

    2016-05-18

    Black phosphorus (BP) is a highly anisotropic allotrope of phosphorus with high promise for fast functional electronics and optoelectronics. We demonstrate that high-resolution and controlled structural modification of few-layer BP along arbitrary crystal direction can be achieved with nanometer-scale precision on a few-minute timescales leading to the formation of sub-nm wide armchair and zigzag BP nanoribbons. The nanoribbons are assembled, along with nanopores and nanogaps, using a combination of mechanical-liquid exfoliation and in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning TEM nanosculpting. Here we report time-dependent structural properties of the one-dimensional systems under electron irradiation and probe their oxidation propertiesmore » with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Finally, we demonstrate the use of STEM to controllably narrow and thin the nanoribbons until they break into nanogaps. The observations are rationalized using density functional theory for transition state calculations and electronic band-structure evolution for the various stages of the narrowing procedure. In particular, we predict that the sub- and few-nm wide BP nanoribbons realized experimentally possess clear one-dimensional quantum confinement, even when the systems are made up of a few layers. We find the demonstration of this procedure is key for the development of BP-based electronic, optoelectronic, thermoelectric, and other applications in reduced dimensions.« less

  7. Mechanical properties of reconstituted Australian black coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasinge, D.; Ranjith, P.G.; Choi, S.K.; Kodikara, J.; Arthur, M.; Li, H.

    2009-07-15

    Coal is usually highly heterogeneous. Great variation in properties can exist among samples obtained even at close proximity within the same seam or within the same core sample. This makes it difficult to establish a correlation between uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and point load index for coal. To overcome this problem, a method for making reconstituted samples for laboratory tests was developed. Samples were made by compacting particles of crushed coal mixed with cement and water. These samples were allowed to cure for four days. UCS and point load tests were performed to measure the geomechanical properties of the reconstituted coal. After four days curing, the average UCS was found to be approximately 4 MPa. This technical note outlines some experimental results and correlations that were developed to predict the mechanical properties of the reconstituted black coal samples. By reconstituting the samples from crushed coal, it is hoped that the samples will retain the important mechanical and physicochemical properties of coal, including the swelling, fluid transport, and gas sorption properties of coal. The aim is to be able to produce samples that are homogeneous with properties that are highly reproducible, and the reconstituted coal samples can be used for a number of research areas related to coal, including the long-term safe storage of CO{sub 2} in coal seams.

  8. Thermodynamics of Sultana-Dyer black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2014-05-01

    The thermodynamical entities on the dynamical horizon are not naturally defined like the usual static cases. Here I find the temperature, Smarr formula and the first law of thermodynamics for the Sultana-Dyer metric which is related to the Schwarzschild spacetime by a time dependent conformal factor. To find the temperature (T), the chiral anomaly expressions for the two dimensional spacetime are used. This shows an application of the anomaly method to study Hawking effect for a dynamical situation. Moreover, the analysis singles out one expression for temperature among two existing expressions in the literature. Interestingly, the present form satisfies the first law of thermodynamics. Also, it relates the Misner-Sharp energy (Ē) and the horizon entropy ( S-bar ) by an algebraic expression Ē = 2 S-bar T which is the general form of the Smarr formula. This fact is similar to the usual static black hole cases in Einstein's gravity where the energy is identified as the Komar conserved quantity.

  9. HDHP Medical PPO Medical Dental Vision Legal Disability Life

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HDHP Medical PPO Medical Dental Vision Legal Disability Life Dep Life AD&D 401(k) Vacation Sick Holiday Regular - Full/Part time X X X X X X X X X X X X X Regular - Casual X X TERM - Full/Part time X X X X X X X X X X X X X TERM - Casual X X Post Doc - Full/Part time X X X X X X X X X X X X X Post Doc - Casual X X Graduate Student - Full/Part time X X X X X X X X X X X X X Graduate Student - Casual X X Post Bachelors Student - Full/Part time X X X X X X X X X X X X X Post Bachelors Student -

  10. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Morozova, Irina; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-10-02

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile.more » Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert

  11. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-10-02

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile. Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert, and

  12. Stellar black holes and the origin of cosmic acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Afshordi, Niayesh; Balogh, Michael L.

    2009-08-15

    The discovery of cosmic acceleration has presented a unique challenge for cosmologists. As observational cosmology forges ahead, theorists have struggled to make sense of a standard model that requires extreme fine-tuning. This challenge is known as the cosmological constant problem. The theory of gravitational aether is an alternative to general relativity that does not suffer from this fine-tuning problem, as it decouples the quantum field theory vacuum from geometry, while remaining consistent with other tests of gravity. In this paper, we study static black hole solutions in this theory and show that it manifests a UV-IR coupling: Aether couples the space-time metric close to the black hole horizon, to metric at infinity. We then show that using the trans-Planckian ansatz (as a quantum gravity effect) close to the black hole horizon, leads to an accelerating cosmological solution, far from the horizon. Interestingly, this acceleration matches current observations for stellar-mass black holes. Based on our current understanding of the black hole accretion history in the Universe, we then make a prediction for how the effective dark energy density should evolve with redshift, which can be tested with future dark energy probes.

  13. Transport properties of ultrathin black phosphorus on hexagonal boron nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doganov, Rostislav A.; zyilmaz, Barbaros; Koenig, Steven P.; Yeo, Yuting; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2015-02-23

    Ultrathin black phosphorus, or phosphorene, is a two-dimensional material that allows both high carrier mobility and large on/off ratios. Similar to other atomic crystals, like graphene or layered transition metal dichalcogenides, the transport behavior of few-layer black phosphorus is expected to be affected by the underlying substrate. The properties of black phosphorus have so far been studied on the widely utilized SiO{sub 2} substrate. Here, we characterize few-layer black phosphorus field effect transistors on hexagonal boron nitridean atomically smooth and charge trap-free substrate. We measure the temperature dependence of the field effect mobility for both holes and electrons and explain the observed behavior in terms of charged impurity limited transport. We find that in-situ vacuum annealing at 400?K removes the p-doping of few-layer black phosphorus on both boron nitride and SiO{sub 2} substrates and reduces the hysteresis at room temperature.

  14. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Topological black holes in Lovelock-Born-Infeld gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M. H.; Alinejadi, N.; Hendi, S. H.

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, we present topological black holes of third order Lovelock gravity in the presence of cosmological constant and nonlinear electromagnetic Born-Infeld field. Depending on the metric parameters, these solutions may be interpreted as black hole solutions with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black hole or naked singularity. We investigate the thermodynamics of asymptotically flat solutions and show that the thermodynamic and conserved quantities of these black holes satisfy the first law of thermodynamic. We also endow the Ricci flat solutions with a global rotation and calculate the finite action and conserved quantities of these class of solutions by using the counterterm method. We compute the entropy through the use of the Gibbs-Duhem relation and find that the entropy obeys the area law. We obtain a Smarr-type formula for the mass as a function of the entropy, the angular momenta, and the charge, and compute temperature, angular velocities, and electric potential and show that these thermodynamic quantities coincide with their values which are computed through the use of geometry. Finally, we perform a stability analysis for this class of solutions in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensemble and show that the presence of a nonlinear electromagnetic field and higher curvature terms has no effect on the stability of the black branes, and they are stable in the whole phase space.

  16. BNL Technical Services Awarded Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Business of the Year | Department of Energy BNL Technical Services Awarded Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business of the Year BNL Technical Services Awarded Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business of the Year October 1, 2014 - 10:39am Addthis DOE Chief of Staff Kevin Knobloch (l) and DOE OSDBU Director John Hale III (r) present Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business of the Year to BNL Tech President and Chief Financial Officer Wilson Stevenson and BNL Tech Chief Executive

  17. Hard, infrared black coating with very low outgassing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Behne, D M; Casserly, T; Boardman, W; Upadhyaya, D; Boinapally, K; Gupta, M; Cao, Y

    2008-06-02

    Infrared astronomical instruments require absorptive coatings on internal surfaces to trap scattered and stray photons. This is typically accomplished with any one of a number of black paints. Although inexpensive and simple to apply, paint has several disadvantages. Painted surfaces can be fragile, prone to shedding particles, and difficult to clean. Most importantly, the vacuum performance is poor. Recently a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was developed to apply thick (30 {micro}m) diamond-like carbon (DLC) based protective coatings to the interior of oil pipelines. These DLC coatings show much promise as an infrared black for an ultra high vacuum environment. The coatings are very robust with excellent cryogenic adhesion. Their total infrared reflectivity of < 10% at normal incidence approaches that of black paints. We measured outgas rates of <10{sup -12} Torr liter/sec cm{sup 2}, comparable to bare stainless steel.

  18. Planck-Size Black Hole Remnants as Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P

    2004-09-13

    While there exist various candidates, the nature of dark matter remains unresolved. Recently it was argued that the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) may prevent a black hole from evaporating completely, and as a result there should exist a Planck-size black hole remnant (BHR) at the end of its evaporation. If a sufficient amount of small black holes can be produced in the early universe, then the resultant BHRs can be an interesting candidate for DM. We demonstrate that this is indeed the case for the hybrid inflation model. By assuming BHR as DM, our notion imposes a constraint on the hybrid inflation potential. We show that such a constraint is not so fine-tuned. Possible observational signatures are briefly discussed.

  19. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann

    2013-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for “black box” processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.

  20. Black holes in a box: Toward the numerical evolution of black holes in AdS space-times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witek, Helvi; Nerozzi, Andrea; Cardoso, Vitor; Herdeiro, Carlos; Sperhake, Ulrich; Zilhao, Miguel

    2010-11-15

    The evolution of black holes in ''confining boxes'' is interesting for a number of reasons, particularly because it mimics the global structure of anti-de Sitter geometries. These are nonglobally hyperbolic space-times and the Cauchy problem may only be well defined if the initial data are supplemented by boundary conditions at the timelike conformal boundary. Here, we explore the active role that boundary conditions play in the evolution of a bulk black hole system, by imprisoning a black hole binary in a box with mirrorlike boundary conditions. We are able to follow the post-merger dynamics for up to two reflections off the boundary of the gravitational radiation produced in the merger. We estimate that about 15% of the radiation energy is absorbed by the black hole per interaction, whereas transfer of angular momentum from the radiation to the black hole is observed only in the first interaction. We discuss the possible role of superradiant scattering for this result. Unlike the studies with outgoing boundary conditions, both of the Newman-Penrose scalars {Psi}{sub 4} and {Psi}{sub 0} are nontrivial in our setup, and we show that the numerical data verifies the expected relations between them.

  1. Greybody factors for Myers–Perry black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Chatrabhuti, Auttakit Ngampitipan, Tritos; Visser, Matt

    2014-11-15

    The Myers–Perry black holes are higher-dimensional generalizations of the usual (3+1)-dimensional rotating Kerr black hole. They are of considerable interest in Kaluza–Klein models, specifically within the context of brane-world versions thereof. In the present article, we shall consider the greybody factors associated with scalar field excitations of the Myers–Perry spacetimes, and develop some rigorous bounds on these greybody factors. These bounds are of relevance for characterizing both the higher-dimensional Hawking radiation, and the super-radiance, that is expected for these spacetimes.

  2. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  3. We the Geeks: Celebrating Black History Month | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Geeks: Celebrating Black History Month We the Geeks: Celebrating Black History Month February 24, 2014 - 9:40am Addthis President Barack Obama talks with Evan Jackson, 10, Alec Jackson, 8, and Caleb Robinson, 8, from McDonough, Ga., while looking at exhibits at the White House Science Fair in the State Dining Room, April 22, 2013. The sports-loving grade-schoolers created a new product concept to keep athletes cool and helps players maintain safe body temperatures on the field. | Official

  4. Black and gray Helmholtz-Kerr soliton refraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez-Curto, Julio; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; McDonald, Graham S.

    2011-01-15

    Refraction of black and gray solitons at boundaries separating different defocusing Kerr media is analyzed within a Helmholtz framework. A universal nonlinear Snell's law is derived that describes gray soliton refraction, in addition to capturing the behavior of bright and black Kerr solitons at interfaces. Key regimes, defined by beam and interface characteristics, are identified, and predictions are verified by full numerical simulations. The existence of a unique total nonrefraction angle for gray solitons is reported; both internal and external refraction at a single interface is shown possible (dependent only on incidence angle). This, in turn, leads to the proposal of positive or negative lensing operations on soliton arrays at planar boundaries.

  5. SP2 Deployment at Boston College-Aerodyne-Led Coated Black Carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coated Black Carbon Study (BC4) Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SP2 Deployment at Boston College-Aerodyne-Led Coated Black Carbon Study (BC4) ...

  6. Stability of Hořava-Lifshitz black holes in the context of AdS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stability of Hoava-Lifshitz black holes in the context of AdSCFT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stability of Hoava-Lifshitz black holes in the context of AdSCFT ...

  7. V-069: BlackBerry Tablet OS Adobe Flash Player and Samba Multiple...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: BlackBerry Tablet OS Adobe Flash Player and Samba Multiple Vulnerabilities V-069: BlackBerry Tablet OS Adobe Flash Player and Samba Multiple Vulnerabilities January 15, 2013 -...

  8. BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES AND RAPID GROWTH OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN LUMINOUS z ∼ 3.5 QUASARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Wenwen; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Green, Richard; Wang, Ran; Bian, Fuyan

    2015-02-01

    We present new near-infrared (IR) observations of the Hβ λ4861 and Mg II λ2798 lines for 32 luminous quasars with 3.2 < z < 3.9 using the Palomar Hale 200 inch telescope and the Large Binocular Telescope. We find that the Mg II FWHM is well correlated with the Hβ FWHM, confirming itself as a good substitute for the Hβ FWHM in the black hole mass estimates. The continuum luminosity at 5100 Å well correlates with the continuum luminosity at 3000 Å and the broad emission line luminosities (Hβ and Mg II). With simultaneous near-IR spectroscopy of the Hβ and Mg II lines to exclude the influences of flux variability, we are able to evaluate the reliability of estimating black hole masses based on the Mg II line for high redshift quasars. With the reliable Hβ line based black hole mass and Eddington ratio estimates, we find that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in our sample have black hole masses 1.90 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} ≲ M {sub BH} ≲ 1.37 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, with a median of ∼5.14 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and are accreting at Eddington ratios between 0.30 and 3.05, with a median of ∼1.12. Assuming a duty cycle of 1 and a seed black hole mass of 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, we show that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in this sample can grow to their estimated black hole masses within the age of the universe at their redshifts.

  9. The pulmonary response of white and black adults to six concentrations of ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E.; Salaam, S.A.; Dewitt, P.J.; Butler, S.O.; Green, J.; Raggio, L. )

    1993-04-01

    Many early studies of respiratory responsiveness to ozone (O3) were done on healthy, young, white males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender or race differences in O3 response exist among white and black, males and females, and to develop concentration-response curves for each of the gender-race groups. Three hundred seventy-two subjects (n > 90 in each gender-race group), ages 18 to 35 yr, were exposed once for 2.33 h to 0.0 (purified air), 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm O3. Each exposure was preceded by baseline pulmonary function tests and a symptom questionnaire. The first 2 h of exposure included alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a motorized treadmill producing a minute ventilation (VE) of 25 L/min/m2 body surface area (BSA). After exposure, subjects completed a set of pulmonary function tests and a symptom questionnaire. Lung function and symptom responses were expressed as percent change from baseline and analyzed using a nonparametric two factor analysis of variance. Three primary variables were analyzed: FEV1, specific airway resistance (SRaw), and cough. Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant differences in response to O3 among the individual gender-race groups. For the group as a whole, changes in the variables FEV1, SRaw, and cough were first noted at 0.12, 0.18, and 0.18 ppm O3, respectively. Adjusted for exercise difference, concentration-response curves for FEV1 and cough among white males were consistent with previous reports (1).

  10. WBA-15-0009 - In the Matter of Sandra Black | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    9 - In the Matter of Sandra Black WBA-15-0009 - In the Matter of Sandra Black On December 31, 2015, OHA denied an Appeal involving a Complaint filed by Sandra Black against Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (SRNS) under the DOE's Contractor Employee Protection Program, 10 CFR Part 708. In her Complaint, Black alleged SRNS terminated her for engaging in protected activities, specifically citing her participation in a Government Accountability Office review as a protected disclosure. An OHA

  11. NREL's Black Silicon Increases Solar Cell Efficiency by Reducing Reflected Sunlight (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    A fact sheet detailing the R&D 100 Award-winning Black Silicon Nanocatalytic Wet-Chemical Etch technology.

  12. SU-E-J-185: Gated CBCT Imaging for Positioning Moving Lung Tumor in Lung SBRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Burton, S; Karlovits, B; Clump, D; Heron, D; Huq, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Lung stereo-tactic body radiotherapy(SBRT) treatment requires high accuracy of lung tumor positioning during treatment, which is usually accomplished by free breathing Cone-Beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scan. However, respiratory motion induced image artifacts in free breathing CBCT may degrade such positioning accuracy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of gated CBCT imaging for lung SBRT treatment. Methods: Six Lung SBRT patients were selected for this study. The respiratory motion of the tumors ranged from 1.2cm to 3.5cm, and the gating windows for all patients were set between 35% and 65% of the respiratory phases. Each Lung SBRT patient underwent free-breathing CBCT scan using half-fan scan technique. The acquired projection images were transferred out for off-line analyses. An In-house semi-automatic algorithm was developed to trace the diaphragm movement from those projection images to acquire a patient's specific respiratory motion curve, which was used to correlate respiratory phases with each projection image. Afterwards, a filtered back-projection algorithm was utilized to reconstruct the gated CBCT images based on the projection images only within the gating window. Results: Target volumes determined by free breathing CBCT images were 71.9%72% bigger than the volume shown in gated CBCT image. On the contrary, the target volume differences between gated CBCT and planning CT images at exhale stage were 5.8%2.4%. The center to center distance of the targets shown in free breathing CBCT and gated CBCT images were 9.28.1mm. For one particular case, the superior boundary of the target was shifted 15mm between free breathing CBCT and gated CBCT. Conclusion: Gated CBCT imaging provides better representation of the moving lung tumor with less motion artifacts, and has the potential to improve the positioning accuracy in lung SBRT treatment.

  13. Dynamic Studies of Lung Fluid Clearance with Phase Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Williams, Ivan; Irvine, Sarah C.; Morgan, Michael J.; Paganin, David M.; Lewis, Rob A.; Pavlov, Konstantin; Hooper, Stuart B.; Wallace, Megan J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2007-01-19

    Clearance of liquid from the airways at birth is a poorly understood process, partly due to the difficulties of observing and measuring the distribution of air within the lung. Imaging dynamic processes within the lung in vivo with high contrast and spatial resolution is therefore a major challenge. However, phase contrast X-ray imaging is able to exploit inhaled air as a contrast agent, rendering the lungs of small animals visible due to the large changes in the refractive index at air/tissue interfaces. In concert with the high spatial resolution afforded by X-ray imaging systems (<100 {mu}m), propagation-based phase contrast imaging is ideal for studying lung development. To this end we have utilized intense, monochromatic synchrotron radiation, together with a fast readout CCD camera, to study fluid clearance from the lungs of rabbit pups at birth. Local rates of fluid clearance have been measured from the dynamic sequences using a single image phase retrieval algorithm.

  14. National Nuclear Security Administration Contractors' Disability Compensation and Return-to-Work Programs, IG-0867

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audit Report The National Nuclear Security Administration Contractors' Disability Compensation and Return-to-Work Programs DOE/IG-0867 June 2012 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 June 18, 2012 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "NNSA Contractors' Disability Compensation and Return-to-Work Programs" INTRODUCTION AND

  15. Y-12 employee engineers success for disabled adults | Y-12 National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    disabilities in East Tennessee | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Y-12 employee engineering success for group that serves people with disabilities in East Tennessee Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - 12:00am NNSA Blog Jennifer Enderson, president of Emory Valley Center, and Bill Hevrdeys look over plans for the new facility. Bill Hevrdeys, a Consolidated Nuclear Security Construction engineer who has worked at Y-12 for more than 12 years, has worked on hundreds of construction

  16. Dissipative effects in the worldline approach to black hole dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2006-05-15

    We derive a long wavelength effective point-particle description of four-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes. In this effective theory, absorptive effects are incorporated by introducing degrees of freedom localized on the worldline that mimic the interaction between the horizon and bulk fields. The correlation functions of composite operators in this worldline theory can be obtained by standard matching calculations. For example, we obtain the low frequency two-point function of multipole worldline operators by relating them to the long wavelength graviton black hole absorptive cross section. The effective theory is then used to predict the leading effects of absorption in several astrophysically motivated examples, including the dynamics of nonrelativistic black hole binary inspirals and the motion of a small black hole in an arbitrary background geometry. Our results can be written compactly in terms of absorption cross sections, and can be easily applied to the dissipative dynamics of any compact object, e.g. neutron stars. The relation of our methodology to that developed in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence is discussed.

  17. Entanglement entropy of two black holes and entanglement entropic force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiba, Noburo

    2011-03-15

    We study the entanglement entropy S{sub C} of the massless free scalar field on the outside region C of two black holes A and B whose radii are R{sub 1} and R{sub 2} and how it depends on the distance r(>>R{sub 1},R{sub 2}) between two black holes. If we can consider the entanglement entropy as thermodynamic entropy, we can see the entropic force acting on the two black holes from the r dependence of S{sub C}. We develop the computational method based on that of Bombelli et al. to obtain the r dependence of S{sub C} of scalar fields whose Lagrangian is quadratic with respect to the scalar fields. First, we study S{sub C} in (d+1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. In this case the state of the massless free scalar field is the Minkowski vacuum state, and we replace two black holes by two imaginary spheres and take the trace over the degrees of freedom residing in the imaginary spheres. We obtain the leading term of S{sub C} with respect to 1/r. The result is S{sub C}=S{sub A}+S{sub B}+(1/r{sup 2d-2})G(R{sub 1},R{sub 2}), where S{sub A} and S{sub B} are the entanglement entropy on the inside region of A and B, respectively, and G(R{sub 1},R{sub 2}){<=}0. We do not calculate G(R{sub 1},R{sub 2}) in detail, but we show how to calculate it. In the black hole case we use the method used in the Minkowski spacetime case with some modifications. We show that S{sub C} can be expected to be the same form as that in the Minkowski spacetime case. But in the black hole case, S{sub A} and S{sub B} depend on r, so we do not fully obtain the r dependence of S{sub C}. Finally, we assume that the entanglement entropy can be regarded as thermodynamic entropy and consider the entropic force acting on two black holes. We argue how to separate the entanglement entropic force from other forces and how to cancel S{sub A} and S{sub B} whose r dependences are not obtained. Then we obtain the physical prediction, which can be tested experimentally in principle.

  18. CUL4A overexpression enhances lung tumor growth and sensitizes lung cancer cells to Erlotinib via transcriptional regulation of EGFR

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yunshan; Zhang, Pengju; Liu, Ziming; Wang, Qin; Wen, Mingxin; Wang, Yuli; Yuan, Hongtu; Mao, Jian-Hua; Wei, Guangwei

    2014-11-21

    CUL4A has been proposed as oncogene in several types of human cancer, but its clinical significance and functional role in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. Expression level of CUL4A was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Forced expression of CUL4A was mediated by retroviruses, and CUL4A silencing by shRNAs expressing lentiviruses. Growth capacity of lung cancer cells was measured by MTT in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo, respectively. We found that CUL4A was highly expressed in human lung cancer tissues and lung cancer cell lines, and this elevated expression positively correlated with disease progression and prognosis. Overexpressionmore » of CUL4A in human lung cancer cell lines increased cell proliferation, inhibited apoptosis, and subsequently conferred resistance to chemotherapy. On other hand, silencing CUL4A expression in NSCLC cells reduced proliferation, promoted apoptosis and resulted in tumor growth inhibition in cancer xenograft model. Mechanistically, we revealed CUL4A regulated EGFR transcriptional expression and activation, and subsequently activated AKT. Targeted inhibition of EGFR activity blocked these CUL4A induced oncogenic activities. In conclusion, our results highlight the significance of CUL4A in NSCLC and suggest that CUL4A could be a promising therapy target and a potential biomarker for prognosis and EGFR target therapy in NSCLC patients.« less

  19. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sorensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen ; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  20. Determination of In-Vitro Lung Solubility and Intake-To-Dose...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Determination of In-Vitro Lung Solubility and Intake-To-Dose Conversion Factors for Tritiated LaNi4.25Al0.75 Hydride Determination of In-Vitro Lung Solubility and Intake-To-Dose ...

  1. Perfusion lung scan: an aid in detection of lymphangitic carcinomatosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, S.E.; Tranum, B.L.

    1982-07-15

    Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is usually a late manifestation of metastatic disease. The patient usually presents with cough or dyspnea, and the chest radiograph is often nondiagnostic. Two patients are presented who developed symptoms while on adjuvant chemotherapy. Both had abnormal perfusion lung scans. One had matching ventilation defects; the other a normal ventilation study. Biopsy revealed metastatic carcinoma; in one case tumor was seen in both the pulmonary lymphatics and arterioles; in the other, tumor was identified but the site could not be specified. The radionuclide lung scan is a technique which can speed diagnosis and institution of therapy in lymphangitic carcinomatosis.

  2. SU-E-T-351: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculation for Lung...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States Language: English Subject: 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; LUNGS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; RADIATION DOSES; RADIATION MONITORS; RADIOTHERAPY; SPATIAL...

  3. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and

  4. All or nothing: On the small fluctuations of two-dimensional string theoretic black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, Gerald; Raiten, Eric

    1992-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of small fluctuations about two-dimensional string-theoretic and string-inspired black holes is presented. It is shown with specific examples that two-dimensional black holes behave in a radically different way from all known black holes in four dimensions. For both the SL(2,R)/U(1) black hole and the two-dimensional black hole coupled to a massive dilaton with constant field strength, it is shown that there are a {\\it continuous infinity} of solutions to the linearized equations of motion, which are such that it is impossible to ascertain the classical linear response. It is further shown that the two-dimensional black hole coupled to a massive, linear dilaton admits {\\it no small fluctuations at all}. We discuss possible implications of our results for the Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger black hole.

  5. T-668: Vulnerability in a BlackBerry Enterprise Server component could allow information disclosure and partial denial of service

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This advisory describes a security issue in the BlackBerry Administration API component. Successful exploitation of the vulnerability could result in information disclosure and partial denial of service (DoS). The BlackBerry Administration API is a BlackBerry Enterprise Server component that is installed on the server that hosts the BlackBerry Administration Service. The BlackBerry Administration API contains multiple web services that receive API requests from client applications. The BlackBerry Administration API then translates requests into a format that the BlackBerry Administration Service can process.

  6. PRECISE BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM MEGAMASER DISKS: BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-09-20

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M{sub BH{approx}}>10{sup 8} M{sub sun}) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L < L* galaxies. This study transcends prior limitations to probe BHs that are an order of magnitude lower in mass, using BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H{sub 2}O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B and C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M{sub BH} and {sigma}{sub *} seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation in this low-mass regime.

  7. Modifications of lung clearance mechanisms by acute influenza A infection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Garrard, C.S.

    1985-10-01

    Four volunteers with naturally acquired, culture-proved influenza A infection inhaled a radiolabeled aerosol to permit investigation of lung mucociliary clearance mechanisms during and after symptomatic illness. Mucus transport in the trachea was undetectable when monitored with an external multidetector probe within 48 hours of the onset of the illness, but was found at a normal velocity by 1 week in three of the four subjects. In two volunteers who coughed 23 to 48 times during the 4.5-hour observation period, whole lung clearance was as fast within the first 48 hours of illness as during health 3 months later in spite of the absence of measurable tracheal mucus transport. Conversely, in spite of the return 1 week later of mucus transport at velocities expected in the trachea, whole lung clearance for the 4.5-hour period was slowed in two volunteers who coughed less than once an hour. The data offer evidence that cough is important in maintaining lung clearance for at least several days after symptomatic influenza A infection when other mechanisms that depend on ciliary function are severely deficient.

  8. Disability rights in dialogue with clinical genetics conference, May 31 to June 2, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The issue of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion has been hotly debated in the medical, genetic counselling, feminist, parents, disability rights and bio-ethics literature, each of the various positions critiquing each other. People from the disability rights community in particular have began to articulate a critical view of the practice of widespread prenatal diagnosis with intent to abort because the pregnancy might result in a child with a disability. Unfortunately, people from the various disciplines and perspectives, such as bioethics, disability rights, feminism and so forth, by and large, have tended only to write for themselves and their colleagues. Few people have crossed disciplines to try to talk to people with other views. The rapid advances of genome research have continued to produce new prenatal tests, raising many complex ethical questions regarding the applications of prenatal testing. But the widely disparate positions of the various factions has made it difficult to move toward formulation of public policy change necessary to encompass these new genetic technologies. Genetic counselling is in the front lines of the controversial social and ethical issues arising from prenatal diagnosis, in its interface between medical science and the consumer of services. The primary intent of the conference was to invite and facilitate productive dialogue between individuals and groups of people who have traditionally not interacted as a result of their disparate views on these issues and to learn from this process, emphasizing the involvement of people with disabilities and people who work in clinical genetics.

  9. Instability of black hole formation in gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Pankaj S.; Malafarina, Daniele

    2011-01-15

    We consider here the classic scenario given by Oppenheimer, Snyder, and Datt, for the gravitational collapse of a massive matter cloud, and examine its stability under the introduction of small tangential stresses. We show, by offering an explicit class of physically valid tangential stress perturbations, that an introduction of tangential pressure, however small, can qualitatively change the final fate of collapse from a black hole final state to a naked singularity. This shows instability of black hole formation in collapse and sheds important light on the nature of cosmic censorship hypothesis and its possible formulations. The key effect of these perturbations is to alter the trapped surface formation pattern within the collapsing cloud and the apparent horizon structure. This allows the singularity to be visible, and implications are discussed.

  10. Void morphology in polyethylene/carbon black composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, D.W.M.; Wartenberg, M.; Schwartz, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    A combination of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and contrast matching techniques is used to determine the size and quantity of voids incorporated during fabrication of polyethylene/carbon black composites. The analysis used to extract void morphology from SANS data is based on the three-phase model of microcrack determination via small angle x-rayscattering (SAXS) developed by W.Wu{sup 12} and applied to particulate reinforced composites.

  11. Method of comparison equations for Schwarzschild black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casadio, Roberto; Luzzi, Mattia

    2006-10-15

    We employ the method of comparison equations to study the propagation of a massless minimally coupled scalar field on the Schwarzschild background. In particular, we show that this method allows us to obtain explicit approximate expressions for the radial modes with energy below the peak of the effective potential which are fairly accurate over the whole region outside the horizon. This case can be of particular interest, for example, for the problem of black hole evaporation.

  12. Elevated epidermal growth factor receptor binding in plutonium-induced lung tumors from dogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, F.C.; Bohn, L.R.; Dagle, G.E. )

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this study is to examine and characterize epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) binding in inhaled plutonium-induced canine lung-tumor tissue and to compare it with that in normal canine lung tissue. Crude membrane preparations from normal and lung-tumor tissue from beagle dogs were examined in a radioreceptor assay, using {sup 125}I-labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a ligand. Specific EGF receptor binding was determined in the presence of excess unlabeled EGF. We have examined EGF receptor binding in eight lung-tumor samples obtained from six dogs. Epidermal growth factor receptor binding was significantly greater in lung-tumor samples (31.38%) compared with that in normal lung tissue (3.76%). Scatchard plot analysis from the displacement assay revealed that there was no statistical difference in the binding affinity but significantly higher concentration of EGF-R sites in the lung-tumor tissue (619 fmol/mg) than in normal lung tissue (53 fmol/mg). The increase in EGF-R number in plutonium-induced dog lung tumors does not seem to correlate with increase in the initial lung burden exposure to plutonium. Our results demonstrate that there is a significant increase in EGF-R binding in inhaled plutonium-induced dog lung tumors.

  13. Global solutions for higher-dimensional stretched small black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.-M.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Orlov, Dmitry G.

    2010-01-15

    Small black holes in heterotic string theory have a vanishing horizon area at the supergravity level, but the horizon is stretched to the finite radius AdS{sub 2}xS{sup D-2} geometry once higher curvature corrections are turned on. This has been demonstrated to give good agreement with microscopic entropy counting. Previous considerations, however, were based on the classical local solutions valid only in the vicinity of the event horizon. Here we address the question of global existence of extremal black holes in the D-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory with the Gauss-Bonnet term introducing a variable dilaton coupling a as a parameter. We show that asymptotically flat black holes exist only in a bounded region of the dilaton couplings 0=}5 (but not for D=4) the allowed range of a includes the heterotic string values. For a>a{sub cr} numerical solutions meet weak naked singularities at finite radii r=r{sub cusp} (spherical cusps), where the scalar curvature diverges as |r-r{sub cusp}|{sup -1/2}. For D{>=}7 cusps are met in pairs, so that solutions can be formally extended to asymptotically flat infinity choosing a suitable integration variable. We show, however, that radial geodesics cannot be continued through the cusp singularities, so such a continuation is unphysical.

  14. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was characterized via measurement of the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the particulate matter, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the BBCSI used standard Tisch hi-vol motors which have a known lifetime of ~1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance and it is suggested that the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers for future deployment in the Arctic. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples from Barrow, AK from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the organic and black carbon concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer.

  15. Petroleum geology of Azov-Black Sea region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukin, A.; Trofimenko, G.

    1995-08-01

    The main features of tectonics, stratigraphy, paleogeography, lithology, hydrogeology, geothermics and hydrocarbon-bearingness of Azov-Black Sea Region are characterized on the basis of present-day data. Among the most prospective petroliferous complexes one ought to mention: Paleozoic (S - D - C{sub 1}) of Near-Dobrudga foredeep, Triassic - Jurassic of the Black Sea (shelf and continental slope); Lower Cretaceous of the various parts of the Region; Upper Cretaceous of the Black Sea shelf; Paleocene-Eocene of Azov Sea. In addition certain prospects are connected with Precambrian and Paleozoic basements within conjunction zone between Eastern-Europe platform and Scythian plate. Geodynamic evolution of the Region is considered with determination of tension and compression stages and characteristic of the main regularities of diapirs, mud volcanos, swells, horsts and grabens distribution. There determined the most interesting types of hydrocarbon traps connected with various tectonic forms, river and deltaic channels, bars, conturites, carbonate reefs, etc. Paleogeothermic and paleogeodynamic reconstructions allow to determine the main phases of oil and gas accumulation. The most prospective oil-gas-bearing zones and areas are mapped.

  16. Regular black holes: Electrically charged solutions, Reissner-Nordstroem outside a de Sitter core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-06-15

    To have the correct picture of a black hole as a whole, it is of crucial importance to understand its interior. The singularities that lurk inside the horizon of the usual Kerr-Newman family of black hole solutions signal an endpoint to the physical laws and, as such, should be substituted in one way or another. A proposal that has been around for sometime is to replace the singular region of the spacetime by a region containing some form of matter or false vacuum configuration that can also cohabit with the black hole interior. Black holes without singularities are called regular black holes. In the present work, regular black hole solutions are found within general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. We show that there are objects which correspond to regular charged black holes, whose interior region is de Sitter, whose exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem, and the boundary between both regions is made of an electrically charged spherically symmetric coat. There are several types of solutions: regular nonextremal black holes with a null matter boundary, regular nonextremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, regular extremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, and regular overcharged stars with a timelike matter boundary. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular solutions are analyzed.

  17. Lung Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of Unresectable Recurrent Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer After Surgical Intervention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodama, Hiroshi Yamakado, Koichiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Kashima, Masataka; Uraki, Junji; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takao, Motoshi; Taguchi, Osamu; Yamada, Tomomi; Takeda, Kan

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: A retrospective evaluation was done of clinical utility of lung radiofrequency (RF) ablation in recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical intervention. Methods: During May 2003 to October 2010, 44 consecutive patients (26 male and 18 female) received curative lung RF ablation for 51 recurrent NSCLC (mean diameter 1.7 {+-} 0.9 cm, range 0.6 to 4.0) after surgical intervention. Safety, tumor progression rate, overall survival, and recurrence-free survival were evaluated. Prognostic factors were evaluated in multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 55 lung RF sessions were performed. Pneumothorax requiring pluerosclerosis (n = 2) and surgical suture (n = 1) were the only grade 3 or 4 adverse events (5.5%, 3 of 55). During mean follow-up of 28.6 {+-} 20.3 months (range 1 to 98), local tumor progression was found in 5 patients (11.4%, 5 of 44). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 97.7, 72.9, and 55.7%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 76.7 and 41.1%, respectively. Tumor size and sex were independent significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. The 5-year survival rates were 73.3% in 18 women and 60.5% in 38 patients who had small tumors measuring {<=}3 cm. Conclusion: Our results suggest that lung RF ablation is a safe and useful therapeutic option for obtaining long-term survival in treated patients.

  18. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (3/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  19. Does the mass of a black hole decrease due to the accretion of phantom energy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Changjun; Chen Xuelei; Faraoni, Valerio; Shen Yougen

    2008-07-15

    According to Babichev et al., the accretion of a phantom test fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole will induce the mass of the black hole to decrease, however the backreaction was ignored in their calculation. Using new exact solutions describing black holes in a background Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, we find that the physical black hole mass may instead increase due to the accretion of phantom energy. If this is the case, and the future universe is dominated by phantom dark energy, the black hole apparent horizon and the cosmic apparent horizon will eventually coincide and, after that, the black hole singularity will become naked in finite comoving time before the big rip occurs, violating the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  20. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (2/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  1. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (1/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  2. FIA-16-0040 - In the Matter of Kathy L. Black | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 - In the Matter of Kathy L. Black FIA-16-0040 - In the Matter of Kathy L. Black On June 27, 2016, OHA denied a Freedom of Information Act Appeal (FOIA) filed by Kathy L. Black (Appellant) of a determination issued by the DOE Office of Information Resources (OIR). In the Appeal, the Appellant challenged OIR's withholding under FOIA Exemption 5. OHA reviewed the withheld information and concluded that OIR properly withheld the information under Exemption 5's deliberative process privilege. OHA

  3. Gas Flux Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  4. Searching for mini black holes signatures in cosmic rays air shower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamri, S.; Kalli, S.; Mimouni, J.

    2012-06-27

    Theories with extra dimensions at low Planck scale, offer the exciting possibility of mini black holes production in ultra high-energy particles interactions. In particular, cosmic neutrinos interaction can produce black holes deep in the Earth's atmosphere. These mini black holes then decay and produce 'characteristic' air showers. In this paper, we examine the properties of the mini black holes (mBH) air showers and compare them to the standard model (mSM) ones. We point out to some possible criteria that help distinguishing mBH air showers.

  5. Surface geometry of a rotating black hole in a magnetic field...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; BLACK HOLES; KERR FIELD; ROTATION; DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY; EINSTEIN-MAXWELL EQUATIONS; EQUATIONS; FIELD EQUATIONS; ...

  6. Five-dimensional black strings in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2005-04-15

    We consider black-string-type solutions in five-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Numerically constructed solutions under static, axially symmetric and translationally invariant metric ansatz are presented. The solutions are specified by two asymptotic charges: mass of a black string and a scalar charge associated with the radion part of the metric. Regular black string solutions are found if and only if the two charges satisfy a fine-tuned relation, and otherwise the spacetime develops a singular event horizon or a naked singularity. We can also generate bubble solutions from the black strings by using a double Wick rotation.

  7. Navy legend Carl Brashear speaks at JLab's Black History Month event |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Navy legend Carl Brashear speaks at JLab's Black History Month event Carl Brashear poster Carl Brashear will speak at JLab's Black History Month event on Wednesday, February 19 at 2p.m. Navy legend Carl Brashear speaks at JLab's Black History Month event February 6, 2003 U.S. Naval legend Carl Brashear will be at Jefferson Lab on Wednesday, February 19, as the Lab's guest speaker for Black History Month Directions to the Lab Enter through Onnes Dr. from Jefferson Ave. Anyone 16

  8. Generalized uncertainty principle in f(R) gravity for a charged black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Said, Jackson Levi; Adami, Kristian Zarb

    2011-02-15

    Using f(R) gravity in the Palatini formularism, the metric for a charged spherically symmetric black hole is derived, taking the Ricci scalar curvature to be constant. The generalized uncertainty principle is then used to calculate the temperature of the resulting black hole; through this the entropy is found correcting the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in this case. Using the entropy the tunneling probability and heat capacity are calculated up to the order of the Planck length, which produces an extra factor that becomes important as black holes become small, such as in the case of mini-black holes.

  9. Black Warrior: Sub-soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    up flow zone drilling targets in a blind geothermal prospect at Black Warrior, Churchill and Washoe Counties, Nevada. Awardees (Company Institution) Nevada Geothermal...

  10. V-158: BlackBerry Tablet OS Flash Player Multiple Vulnerabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multiple vulnerabilities have been reported in BlackBerry Tablet OS, which can be exploited by malicious people to bypass certain security restrictions and compromise a user's system.

  11. Perfusion lung scan: an aid in detection of lymphangitic carcinomatosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, S.E.; Tranum, B.L.

    1982-07-15

    Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is usually a late manifestation of metastatic disease. The patient usually presents with cough or dyspnea, and the chest radiograph is often nondiagnostic. Two patients are presented who developed symptoms while on adjuvant chemotherapy. Both had abnormal perfusion lung scans. One had matching ventilation defects; the other a normal ventilation study. Biopsy revealed metastatic carcinoma; in one case tumor was seen in both the pulmonary lymphatics and arterioles; in technique which can speed diagnosis and institution of therapy in lymphangitic carcinomatosis.

  12. Climate Impacts of Atmospheric Sulfate and Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Song, Qingyuan; Menon, Surabi; Yu, Shaocai; Liu, Shaw C.; Shi, Guangyu; Leung, Lai R.; Luo, Yunfeng

    2008-09-19

    Although the global average surface temperature has increased by about 0.6°C during the last century (IPCC, 2001), some regions such as East Asia, Eastern North America, and Western Europe have cooled rather than warmed during the past decades (Jones, 1988; Qian and Giorgi, 2000). Coherent changes at the regional scale may reflect responses to different climate forcings that need to be understood in order to predict the future net climate response at the global and regional scales under different emission scenarios. Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in global climate change (IPCC 2001). They perturb the earth’s radiative budget directly by scattering and absorbing solar and long wave radiation, and indirectly by changing cloud reflectivity, lifetime, and precipitation efficiency via their role as cloud condensation nuclei. Because aerosols have much shorter lifetime (days to weeks) compared to most greenhouse gases, they tend to concentrate near their emission sources and distribute very unevenly both in time and space. This non-uniform distribution of aerosols, in conjunction with the greenhouse effect, may lead to differential net heating in some areas and net cooling in others (Penner et al. 1994). Sulfate aerosols come mainly from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from fossil fuel burning. Black carbon aerosols are directly emitted during incomplete combustion of biomass, coal, and diesel derived sources. Due to the different optical properties, sulfate and black carbon affect climate in different ways. Because of the massive emissions of sulfur and black carbon that accompany the rapid economic expansions in East Asia, understanding the effects of aerosols on climate is particularly important scientifically and politically in order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  13. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact campaign was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in Barrow, Alaska. The carbonaceous component was characterized by measuring the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the PM, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine PM fractions (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) PM fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) study used standard Tisch “hi-vol” motors that have a known lifetime of approximately 1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance, and it is suggested that, for future deployment in the Arctic, the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric PM samples from Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the OC and BC concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer. However, the annual OC concentrations had a very different seasonal pattern with the highest concentrations during the summer, lowest concentrations during the fall, and increased concentrations during the winter and spring (Figure 1).

  14. San Juan Montana Thrust Belt WY Thrust Belt Black Warrior

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    San Juan Montana Thrust Belt WY Thrust Belt Black Warrior Paradox - San Juan NW (2) Uinta- Piceance Paradox - San Juan SE (2) Florida Peninsula Appalachian- NY (1) Appalachian OH-PA (2) Appalachian Eastern PA (3) Appalachian Southern OH (4) Appalachian Eastern WV (5) Appalachian WV-VA (6) Appalachian TN-KY (7) Piceance Greater Green River Eastern OR-WA Ventura Williston Williston NE (2) Williston NW (1) Williston South (3) Eastern Great Basin Ventura West, Central, East Eastern OR-WA Eastern

  15. Minimum length, extra dimensions, modified gravity and black hole remnants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maziashvili, Michael

    2013-03-01

    We construct a Hilbert space representation of minimum-length deformed uncertainty relation in presence of extra dimensions. Following this construction, we study corrections to the gravitational potential (back reaction on gravity) with the use of correspondingly modified propagator in presence of two (spatial) extra dimensions. Interestingly enough, for r?0 the gravitational force approaches zero and the horizon for modified Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time disappears when the mass approaches quantum-gravity energy scale. This result points out to the existence of zero-temperature black hole remnants in ADD brane-world model.

  16. Black hole temperature: Minimal coupling vs conformal coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fazel, Mohamadreza; Mirza, Behrouz; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2014-05-15

    In this article, we discuss the propagation of scalar fields in conformally transformed spacetimes with either minimal or conformal coupling. The conformally coupled equation of motion is transformed into a one-dimensional Schrödinger-like equation with an invariant potential under conformal transformation. In a second stage, we argue that calculations based on conformal coupling yield the same Hawking temperature as those based on minimal coupling. Finally, it is conjectured that the quasi normal modes of black holes are invariant under conformal transformation.

  17. Entropy localization and extensivity in the semiclassical black hole evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casini, H.

    2009-01-15

    I aim to quantify the distribution of information in the Hawking radiation and inside the black hole in the semiclassical evaporation process. The structure of relativistic quantum field theory does not allow one to define a localized entropy unambiguously, but rather forces one to consider the shared information (mutual information) between two different regions of space-time. Using this tool, I first show that the entropy of a thermal gas at the Unruh temperature underestimates the actual amount of (shared) information present in a region of the Rindler space. Then, I analyze the mutual information between the black hole and the late time radiation region. A well-known property of the entropy implies that this is monotonically increasing with time. This means that in the semiclassical picture it is not possible to recover the eventual purity of the initial state in the final Hawking radiation through subtle correlations established during the whole evaporation period, no matter the interactions present in the theory. I find extensivity of the entropy as a consequence of a reduction to a two dimensional conformal problem in a simple approximation. However, the extensivity of information in the radiation region in a full four dimensional calculation seems not to be guaranteed on general grounds. I also analyze the localization of shared information inside the black hole finding that a large amount of it is contained in a small, approximately flat region of space-time near the point where the horizon begins. This gives place to large violations of the entropy bounds. I show that this problem is not eased by backscattering effects and argue that a breaking of conformal invariance is necessary to delocalize the entropy. Finally, I indicate that the mutual information could lead to a way to understand the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy which does not require a drastic reduction in degrees of freedom in order to regulate the entanglement entropy. On the contrary

  18. Predicting Pneumonitis Risk: A Dosimetric Alternative to Mean Lung Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Susan L.; Mohan, Radhe; Liengsawangwong, Raweewan; Martel, Mary K.; Liao Zhongxing

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the association between mean lung dose (MLD) and risk of severe (grade {>=}3) radiation pneumonitis (RP) depends on the dose distribution pattern to normal lung among patients receiving 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Three cohorts treated with different beam arrangements were identified. One cohort (2-field boost [2FB]) received 2 parallel-opposed (anteroposterior-posteroanterior) fields per fraction initially, followed by a sequential boost delivered using 2 oblique beams. The other 2 cohorts received 3 or 4 straight fields (3FS and 4FS, respectively), ie, all fields were irradiated every day. The incidence of severe RP was plotted against MLD in each cohort, and data were analyzed using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. Results: The incidence of grade {>=}3 RP rose more steeply as a function of MLD in the 2FB cohort (N=120) than in the 4FS cohort (N=138), with an intermediate slope for the 3FS group (N=99). The estimated volume parameter from the LKB model was n=0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-1.0) and led to a significant improvement in fit (P=.05) compared to a fit with volume parameter fixed at n=1 (the MLD model). Unlike the MLD model, the LKB model with n=0.41 provided a consistent description of the risk of severe RP in all three cohorts (2FB, 3FS, 4FS) simultaneously. Conclusions: When predicting risk of grade {>=}3 RP, the mean lung dose does not adequately take into account the effects of high doses. Instead, the effective dose, computed from the LKB model using volume parameter n=0.41, may provide a better dosimetric parameter for predicting RP risk. If confirmed, these findings support the conclusion that for the same MLD, high doses to small lung volumes ('a lot to a little') are worse than low doses to large volumes ('a little to a lot').

  19. Molecular Markers of Lung Cancer in MAYAK Workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Belinsky, PhD

    2007-02-15

    The molecular mechanisms that result in the elevated risk for lung cancer associated with exposure to radiation have not been well characterized. Workers from the MAYAK nuclear enterprise are an ideal cohort in which to study the molecular epidemiology of cancer associated with radiation exposure and to identify the genes targeted for inactivation that in turn affect individual risk for radiation-induced lung cancer. Epidemiology studies of the MAYAK cohort indicate a significantly higher frequency for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in workers than in a control population and a strong correlation between these tumor types and plutonium exposure. Two hypotheses will be evaluated through the proposed studies. First, radiation exposure targets specific genes for inactivation by promoter methylation. This hypothesis is supported by our recent studies with the MAYAK population that demonstrated the targeting of the p16 gene for inactivation by promoter methylation in adenocarcinomas from workers (1). Second, genes inactivated in tumors can serve as biomarkers for lung cancer risk in a cancer-free population of workers exposed to plutonium. Support for this hypothesis is based on exciting preliminary results of our nested, case-control study of persons from the Colorado cohort. In that study, a panel of methylation markers for predicting lung cancer risk is being evaluated in sputum samples from incident lung cancer cases and controls. The first hypothesis will be tested by determining the prevalence for promoter hypermethylation of a panel of genes shown to play a critical role in the development of either adenocarcinoma and/or SCC associated with tobacco. Our initial studies on adenocarcinoma in MAYAK workers will be extended to evaluate methylation of the PAX5 {alpha}, PAX5 {beta}, H-cadherin, GATA5, and bone morphogenesis 3B (BMP3B) genes in the original sample set described under Preliminary studies. In addition, studies will be initiated in SCC

  20. Correlation of Clinical and Dosimetric Factors With Adverse Pulmonary Outcomes in Children After Lung Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatramani, Rajkumar; Kamath, Sunil; Wong, Kenneth; Malvar, Jemily; Sposto, Richard; Goodarzian, Fariba; Freyer, David R.; Keens, Thomas G.; and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To identify the incidence and the risk factors for pulmonary toxicity in children treated for cancer with contemporary lung irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed clinical features, radiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and dosimetric parameters of children receiving irradiation to the lung fields over a 10-year period. Results: We identified 109 patients (75 male patients). The median age at irradiation was 13.8 years (range, 0.04-20.9 years). The median follow-up period was 3.4 years. The median prescribed radiation dose was 21 Gy (range, 0.4-64.8 Gy). Pulmonary toxic chemotherapy included bleomycin in 58.7% of patients and cyclophosphamide in 83.5%. The following pulmonary outcomes were identified and the 5-year cumulative incidence after irradiation was determined: pneumonitis, 6%; chronic cough, 10%; pneumonia, 35%; dyspnea, 11%; supplemental oxygen requirement, 2%; radiographic interstitial lung disease, 40%; and chest wall deformity, 12%. One patient died of progressive respiratory failure. Post-irradiation pulmonary function tests available from 44 patients showed evidence of obstructive lung disease (25%), restrictive disease (11%), hyperinflation (32%), and abnormal diffusion capacity (12%). Thoracic surgery, bleomycin, age, mean lung irradiation dose (MLD), maximum lung dose, prescribed dose, and dosimetric parameters between V{sub 22} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ≥22 Gy) and V{sub 30} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ≥30 Gy) were significant for the development of adverse pulmonary outcomes on univariate analysis. MLD, maximum lung dose, and V{sub dose} (percentage of volume of lung receiving the threshold dose or greater) were highly correlated. On multivariate analysis, MLD was the sole significant predictor of adverse pulmonary outcome (P=.01). Conclusions: Significant pulmonary dysfunction occurs in children receiving lung irradiation by contemporary techniques. MLD rather than prescribed

  1. Primordial Black Holes: Observational characteristics of the final evaporation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Stump, D. R.; Linnemann, J. T.; MacGibbon, J. H.; Marinelli, S. S.; Yapici, T.; Tollefson, K.

    2016-07-01

    For many early universe theories predict the creation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs could have masses ranging from the Planck mass to 105 solar masses or higher depending on the size of the universe at formation. A Black Hole (BH) has a Hawking temperature which is inversely proportional to its mass. Hence a sufficiently small BH will quasi-thermally radiate particles at an ever-increasing rate as emission lowers its mass and raises its temperature. Moreover, the final moments of this evaporation phase should be explosive and its description is dependent on the particle physics model. In this work we investigatemore » the final few seconds of BH evaporation, using the Standard Model and incorporating the most recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) results, and provide a new parameterization for the instantaneous emission spectrum. We calculate for the first time energy-dependent PBH burst light curves in the GeV/TeV energy range. Moreover, we explore PBH burst search methods and potential observational PBH burst signatures. We have found a unique signature in the PBH burst light curves that may be detectable by GeV/TeV gamma-ray observatories such as the High Altitude Water Cerenkov (HAWC) observatory. Finally, the implications of beyond the Standard Model theories on the PBH burst observational characteristics are also discussed, including potential sensitivity of the instantaneous photon detection rate to a squark threshold in the 5–10 TeV range.« less

  2. CALIBRATING C-IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Shin, Jaejin [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Denney, Kelly D., E-mail: pds2001@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jjshin@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: kelly@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

    2013-06-20

    We present the single-epoch black hole mass estimators based on the C IV {lambda}1549 broad emission line, using the updated sample of the reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei and high-quality UV spectra. By performing multi-component spectral fitting analysis, we measure the C IV line widths (FWHM{sub C{sub IV}} and line dispersion, {sigma}{sub C{sub IV}}) and the continuum luminosity at 1350 A (L{sub 1350}) to calibrate the C-IV-based mass estimators. By comparing with the H{beta} reverberation-based masses, we provide new mass estimators with the best-fit relationships, i.e., M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.50{+-}0.07}{sigma}{sub C{sub IV}{sup 2}} and M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.52{+-}0.09} FWHM{sub C{sub IV}{sup 0.56{+-}0.48}}. The new C-IV-based mass estimators show significant mass-dependent systematic difference compared to the estimators commonly used in the literature. Using the published Sloan Digital Sky Survey QSO catalog, we show that the black hole mass of high-redshift QSOs decreases on average by {approx}0.25 dex if our recipe is adopted.

  3. GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNATURES IN BLACK HOLE FORMING CORE COLLAPSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerd-Durn, Pablo; DeBrye, Nicolas; Aloy, Miguel A.; Font, Jos A.; Obergaulinger, Martin

    2013-12-20

    We present general relativistic numerical simulations of collapsing stellar cores. Our initial model consists of a low metallicity rapidly-rotating progenitor which is evolved in axisymmetry with the latest version of our general relativistic code CoCoNuT, which allows for black hole formation and includes the effects of a microphysical equation of state (LS220) and a neutrino leakage scheme to account for radiative losses. The motivation of our study is to analyze in detail the emission of gravitational waves in the collapsar scenario of long gamma-ray bursts. Our simulations show that the phase during which the proto-neutron star (PNS) survives before ultimately collapsing to a black hole is particularly optimal for gravitational wave emission. The high-amplitude waves last for several seconds and show a remarkable quasi-periodicity associated with the violent PNS dynamics, namely during the episodes of convection and the subsequent nonlinear development of the standing-accretion shock instability (SASI). By analyzing the spectrogram of our simulations we are able to identify the frequencies associated with the presence of g-modes and with the SASI motions at the PNS surface. We note that the gravitational waves emitted reach large enough amplitudes to be detected with third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope within a Virgo Cluster volume at rates ? 0.1yr{sup 1}.

  4. Effects of intermediate mass black holes on nuclear star clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-11-20

    Nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are dense stellar clusters observed in galactic nuclei, typically hosting a central massive black hole. Here we study the possible formation and evolution of NSCs through the inspiral of multiple star clusters hosting intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). Using an N-body code, we examine the dynamics of the IMBHs and their effects on the NSC. We find that IMBHs inspiral to the core of the newly formed NSC and segregate there. Although the IMBHs scatter each other and the stars, none of them is ejected from the NSC. The IMBHs are excited to high eccentricities and their radial density profile develops a steep power-law cusp. The stars also develop a power-law cusp (instead of the central core that forms in their absence), but with a shallower slope. The relaxation rate of the NSC is accelerated due to the presence of IMBHs, which act as massive perturbers. This in turn fills the loss cone and boosts the tidal disruption rate of stars both by the MBH and the IMBHs to a value excluded by rate estimates based on current observations. Rate estimates of tidal disruptions can therefore provide a cumulative constraint on the existence of IMBHs in NSCs.

  5. Strengthening Our Partnerships with Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary Chu meets with Annie Whatley, Acting Chief of Staff in the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity, and Dr. William Harvey. Last February, President Obama renewed the White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities to encourage collaboration between government agencies, educational associations, philanthropic organizations, the private sector and others to increase the capacity of HBCUs to provide high-quality education to a greater number of students.  The Department of Energy is committed to supporting education at HBCUs and has partnered with HBCUs on a variety of projects. As part of that commitment, today I met with Dr. William Harvey, Chairman of the President’s Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities and President of Hampton University, as well as Langston University President JoAnn Haysbert and Morgan State University President David Wilson. The presidents and I discussed how the Department can better engage HBCUs in our science and laboratory projects, and what lessons we can learn from the many ongoing and successful partnerships we have in place.

  6. Hawking radiation of scalar particles from accelerating and rotating black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillani, Usman A.; Rehman, Mudassar; Saifullah, K. E-mail: mudassar051@yahoo.com

    2011-06-01

    Hawking radiation of uncharged and charged scalar particles from accelerating and rotating black holes is studied. We calculate the tunneling probabilities of these particles from the rotation and acceleration horizons of these black holes. Using this method we recover the correct Hawking temperature as well.

  7. AmeriFlux CA-Qfo Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Mature Black Spruce

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margolis, Hank A.

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Qfo Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Mature Black Spruce. Site Description - 49.69247° N / 74.34204° W, elevation of 387 mm, 90 - 100 yr old Black Spruce, Jack Pine, feather moss

  8. X-ray technology behind NASA's black-hole hunter (NuSTAR)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Craig, Bill

    2014-05-22

    Livermore Lab astrophysicist Bill Craig describes his team's role in developing X-ray imaging technology for the NASA Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission. The black-hole-hunting spacecraft bagged its first 10 supermassive black holes this week

  9. X-ray technology behind NASA's black-hole hunter (NuSTAR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Bill

    2013-09-10

    Livermore Lab astrophysicist Bill Craig describes his team's role in developing X-ray imaging technology for the NASA Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission. The black-hole-hunting spacecraft bagged its first 10 supermassive black holes this week

  10. Isotopes of uranium and thorium, lead-210, and polonium-210 in the lungs of coal miners of Appalachia and the lungs and livers of residents of central Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, G.E.; Casella, V.R.; Bishop, C.T.; Aguirre, A.G.

    1985-10-21

    The lungs of twelve and the livers of three residents of central Ohio and the lungs of four coal miners of Appalachia were analyzed for uranium-238, uranium-234, thorium-230, lead-210, polonium-210, and thorium-232. Mean and median lung concentrations of uranium-238 and of uranium-234 in the lungs of central Ohioans were essentially the same and were equal to 4 fCi/g dry. Mean concentrations of these isotopes in the lungs of Appalachian coal miners were also essentially the same and were equal to 9 fCi/g. Little uranium was found in the liver. The median concentration of thorium-230 in the lungs of central Ohioans was also 4 fCi/g dry; however, the mean concentration was 8 fCi/g due to the relatively high concentration values in a few persons. The mean concentrations of this isotope in the lungs of central Ohioans and Appalachian coal miners were essentially the same; i.e. 8 fCi/g. The mean and median concentrations of thorium-232 in the lungs of central Ohioans were assentially the same and equal to 4 fCi/g. The mean concentration of this isotope in the lungs of Appalachian coal miners was 9 fCi/g. Little thorium was found in the liver. The mean concentrations of lead-210 in the lungs of the two populations were nearly equal and about 23 fCi/g dry. The mean liver/lung ratio of this isotope was essentially two, and the concentrations appeared to be positively correlated with smoking. Polonium-210 concentrations in the lungs were distributed into three sets of values which are described here as low (2-4 fCi/g), medium (20-30 fCi/g), and high (>100 fCi/g), and also appeared to be correlated with smoking. Mean liver concentrations of this irotope were nearly equal to the mean liver concentrations of lead-210 (50 as opposed to 47 fCi/g). 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. An externally and internally deformable, programmable lung motion phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Most clinically deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating and tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are based on a rigid exterior and a rigid or a deformable-interior. Such designs do not adequately represent respiration because the thoracic anatomy deforms internally as well as externally. In order to create a closer approximation of respiratory motion, the authors describe the construction and experimental testing of an externally as well as internally deformable, programmable lung phantom. Methods: The outer shell of a commercially available lung phantom (RS-1500, RSD, Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A custom-made insert was designed using a piece of natural latex foam block. A motion platform was programmed with sinusoidal and ten patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam “diaphragm” that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of determining the reproducibility and the external–internal correlation of external and internal marker trajectories extracted from kV x-ray fluoroscopy. Experiments were conducted to illustrate three example applications of the phantom—(i) validating the geometric accuracy of the VisionRT surface photogrammetry system; (ii) validating an image registration tool, NiftyReg; and (iii) quantifying the geometric error due to irregular motion in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Results: The phantom correctly reproduced sinusoidal and patient-derived motion, as well as realistic respiratory motion-related effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0

  12. A multiscale MDCT image-based breathing lung model with time-varying regional ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Youbing, E-mail: youbing-yin@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States) [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Choi, Jiwoong, E-mail: jiwoong-choi@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States) [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Hoffman, Eric A., E-mail: eric-hoffman@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Tawhai, Merryn H., E-mail: m.tawhai@auckland.ac.nz [Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Lin, Ching-Long, E-mail: ching-long-lin@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States) [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based computational framework for subject-specific simulation of the breathing lung. For the first time, the algorithm is applied to three multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) volumetric lung images of the same individual. A key technique in linking global and local variables over multiple images is an in-house mass-preserving image registration method. Throughout breathing cycles, cubic interpolation is employed to ensure C{sub 1} continuity in constructing time-varying regional ventilation at the whole lung level, flow rate fractions exiting the terminal airways, and airway deformation. The imaged exit airway flow rate fractions are derived from regional ventilation with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) coupled airway tree that connects the airways to the alveolar tissue. An in-house parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is adopted to capture turbulent-transitional-laminar flows in both normal and deep breathing conditions. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm when using three lung volume images are compared with those using only one or two volume images. The three-volume-based lung model produces physiologically-consistent time-varying pressure and ventilation distribution. The one-volume-based lung model under-predicts pressure drop and yields un-physiological lobar ventilation. The two-volume-based model can account for airway deformation and non-uniform regional ventilation to some extent, but does not capture the non-linear features of the lung.

  13. Chest wall invasion by lung cancer: limitations of CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennes, D.R.; Glazer, G.M.; Wimbish, K.J.; Gross, B.H.; Long, R.W.; Orringer, M.B.

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-three patients with peripheral pulmonary malignancies contiguous with a pleural surface were evaluated for chest wall invasion by computed tomography (CT). CT criteria included pleural thickening adjacent to the tumor, encroachment on or increased density of the extrapleural fat, asymmetry of the extrapleural soft tissues adjacent to the tumor, apparent mass invading the chest wall, and rib destruction. The CT scans were classified as positive, negative, or equivocal for invasion, and a decision matrix was constructed comparing CT results with pathologic data. CT scanning has low accuracy in assessing chest wall invasion in patients with peripheral lung cancers.

  14. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

  15. The genome of black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr.&Gray)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuskan, G.A.; DiFazio, S.; Jansson, S.; Bohlmann, J.; Grigoriev,I.; Hellsten, U.; Putnam, N.; Ralph, S.; Rombauts, S.; Salamov, A.; Schein, J.; Sterck, L.; Aerts, A.; Bhalerao, R.R.; Bhalerao, R.P.; Blaudez, D.; Boerjan, W.; Brun, A.; Brunner, A.; Busov, V.; Campbell, M.; Carlson, J.; Chalot, M.; Chapman, J.; Chen, G.-L.; Cooper, D.; Coutinho,P.M.; Couturier, J.; Covert, S.; Cronk, Q.; Cunningham, R.; Davis, J.; Degroeve, S.; Dejardin, A.; dePamphillis, C.; Detter, J.; Dirks, B.; Dubchak, I.; Duplessis, S.; Ehiting, J.; Ellis, B.; Gendler, K.; Goodstein, D.; Gribskov, M.; Grimwood, J.; Groover, A.; Gunter, L.; Hamberger, B.; Heinze, B.; Helariutta, Y.; Henrissat, B.; Holligan, D.; Holt, R.; Huang, W.; Islam-Faridi, N.; Jones, S.; Jones-Rhoades, M.; Jorgensen, R.; Joshi, C.; Kangasjarvi, J.; Karlsson, J.; Kelleher, C.; Kirkpatrick, R.; Kirst, M.; Kohler, A.; Kalluri, U.; Larimer, F.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Leple, J.-C.; Locascio, P.; Lou, Y.; Lucas, S.; Martin,F.; Montanini, B.; Napoli, C.; Nelson, D.R.; Nelson, D.; Nieminen, K.; Nilsson, O.; Peter, G.; Philippe, R.; Pilate, G.; Poliakov, A.; Razumovskaya, J.; Richardson, P.; Rinaldi, C.; Ritland, K.; Rouze, P.; Ryaboy, D.; Schmutz, J.; Schrader, J.; Segerman, B.; Shin, H.; Siddiqui,A.; Sterky, F.; Terry, A.; Tsai, C.; Uberbacher, E.; Unneberg, P.; Vahala, J.; Wall, K.; Wessler, S.; Yang, G.; Yin, T.; Douglas, C.; Marra,M.; Sandberg, G.; Van der Peer, Y.; Rokhsar, D.

    2006-09-01

    We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. Over 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event, with approximately 8,000 pairs of duplicated genes from that event surviving in the Populus genome. A second, older duplication event is indistinguishably coincident with the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. Nucleotide substitution, tandem gene duplication and gross chromosomal rearrangement appear to proceed substantially slower in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Populus has more protein-coding genes than Arabidopsis, ranging on average between 1.4-1.6 putative Populus homologs for each Arabidopsis gene. However, the relative frequency of protein domains in the two genomes is similar. Overrepresented exceptions in Populus include genes associated with disease resistance, meristem development, metabolite transport and lignocellulosic wall biosynthesis.

  16. Effects of coal combustion and gasification upon lung structure and function. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinton, Dr., David E.

    1980-12-12

    The effects on lungs of emissions from fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification on man are being studied by inhalation experiments and intratracheal administration of fly ash to hamsters. The hamsters are sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 30 days and the lungs examined by methods which are described. (LTN)

  17. Recoiling supermassive black holes: a search in the nearby universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lena, D.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Merritt, D.; Marconi, A.; Capetti, A.; Batcheldor, D.

    2014-11-10

    The coalescence of a binary black hole can be accompanied by a large gravitational recoil due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. A recoiling supermassive black hole (SBH) can subsequently undergo long-lived oscillations in the potential well of its host galaxy, suggesting that offset SBHs may be common in the cores of massive ellipticals. We have analyzed Hubble Space Telescope archival images of 14 nearby core ellipticals, finding evidence for small (? 10 pc) displacements between the active galactic nucleus (AGN; the location of the SBH) and the center of the galaxy (the mean photocenter) in 10 of them. Excluding objects that may be affected by large-scale isophotal asymmetries, we consider six galaxies to have detected displacements, including M87, where a displacement was previously reported by Batcheldor et al. In individual objects, these displacements can be attributed to residual gravitational recoil oscillations following a major or minor merger within the last few gigayears. For plausible merger rates, however, there is a high probability of larger displacements than those observed, if SBH coalescence took place in these galaxies. Remarkably, the AGN-photocenter displacements are approximately aligned with the radio source axis in four of the six galaxies with displacements, including three of the four having relatively powerful kiloparsec-scale jets. This suggests intrinsic asymmetries in radio jet power as a possible displacement mechanism, although approximate alignments are also expected for gravitational recoil. Orbital motion in SBH binaries and interactions with massive perturbers can produce the observed displacement amplitudes but do not offer a ready explanation for the alignments.

  18. RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN SPIN-FLIP RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, F. K.; Wang Dong; Chen Xian

    2012-02-20

    Numerical relativity simulations predict that coalescence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries leads not only to a spin flip but also to a recoiling of the merger remnant SMBHs. In the literature, X-shaped radio sources are popularly suggested to be candidates for SMBH mergers with spin flip of jet-ejecting SMBHs. Here we investigate the spectral and spatial observational signatures of the recoiling SMBHs in radio sources undergoing black hole spin flip. Our results show that SMBHs in most spin-flip radio sources have mass ratio q {approx}> 0.3 with a minimum possible value q{sub min} {approx_equal} 0.05. For major mergers, the remnant SMBHs can get a kick velocity as high as 2100 km s{sup -1} in the direction within an angle {approx}< 40 Degree-Sign relative to the spin axes of remnant SMBHs, implying that recoiling quasars are biased to be with high Doppler-shifted broad emission lines while recoiling radio galaxies are biased to large apparent spatial off-center displacements. We also calculate the distribution functions of line-of-sight velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacements for spin-flip radio sources with different apparent jet reorientation angles. Our results show that the larger the apparent jet reorientation angle is, the larger the Doppler-shifting recoiling velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacement will be. We investigate the effects of recoiling velocity on the dust torus in spin-flip radio sources and suggest that recoiling of SMBHs would lead to 'dust-poor' active galactic nuclei. Finally, we collect a sample of 19 X-shaped radio objects and for each object give the probability of detecting the predicted signatures of recoiling SMBH.

  19. 2D/3D registration algorithm for lung brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvonarev, P. S.; Farrell, T. J.; Hunter, R.; Wierzbicki, M.; Hayward, J. E.; Sur, R. K.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: A 2D/3D registration algorithm is proposed for registering orthogonal x-ray images with a diagnostic CT volume for high dose rate (HDR) lung brachytherapy. Methods: The algorithm utilizes a rigid registration model based on a pixel/voxel intensity matching approach. To achieve accurate registration, a robust similarity measure combining normalized mutual information, image gradient, and intensity difference was developed. The algorithm was validated using a simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms. Transfer catheters were placed inside the phantoms to simulate the unique image features observed during treatment. The algorithm sensitivity to various degrees of initial misregistration and to the presence of foreign objects, such as ECG leads, was evaluated. Results: The mean registration error was 2.2 and 1.9 mm for the simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms, respectively. The error was comparable to the interoperator catheter digitization error of 1.6 mm. Preliminary analysis of data acquired from four patients indicated a mean registration error of 4.2 mm. Conclusions: Results obtained using the proposed algorithm are clinically acceptable especially considering the complications normally encountered when imaging during lung HDR brachytherapy.

  20. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is a functional molecular target in human lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; Liu, Diane D.; Lee, J. Jack; Hong, Waun Ki; Ferrara, Fortunato; Bradbury, Andrew R. M.; Lobb, Roy R.; Edelman, Martin J.; Sidman, Richard L.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-03-20

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lung cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications.

  1. Constraining the spin and the deformation parameters from the black hole shadow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsukamoto, Naoki; Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo E-mail: zilongli@fudan.edu.cn

    2014-06-01

    Within 5–10 years, very-long baseline interferometry (VLBI) facilities will be able to directly image the accretion flow around SgrA*, the super-massive black hole candidate at the center of the Galaxy, and observe the black hole ''shadow''. In 4-dimensional general relativity, the no-hair theorem asserts that uncharged black holes are described by the Kerr solution and are completely specified by their mass M and by their spin parameter a. In this paper, we explore the possibility of distinguishing Kerr and Bardeen black holes from their shadow. In Hioki and Maeda (2009), under the assumption that the background geometry is described by the Kerr solution, the authors proposed an algorithm to estimate the value of a/M by measuring the distortion parameter δ, an observable quantity that characterizes the shape of the shadow. Here, we try to extend their approach. Since the Hioki-Maeda distortion parameter is degenerate with respect to the spin and possible deviations from the Kerr solution, one has to measure another quantity to test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. We study a few possibilities. We find that it is extremely difficult to distinguish Kerr and Bardeen black holes from the sole observation of the shadow, and out of reach for the near future. The combination of the measurement of the shadow with possible accurate radio observations of a pulsar in a compact orbit around SgrA* could be a more promising strategy to verify the Kerr black hole paradigm.

  2. Sulfide-Driven Arsenic Mobilization from Arsenopyrite and Black Shale Pyrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, W.; Young, L; Yee, N; Serfes, M; Rhine, E; Reinfelder, J

    2008-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that sulfide drives arsenic mobilization from pyritic black shale by a sulfide-arsenide exchange and oxidation reaction in which sulfide replaces arsenic in arsenopyrite forming pyrite, and arsenide (As-1) is concurrently oxidized to soluble arsenite (As+3). This hypothesis was tested in a series of sulfide-arsenide exchange experiments with arsenopyrite (FeAsS), homogenized black shale from the Newark Basin (Lockatong formation), and pyrite isolated from Newark Basin black shale incubated under oxic (21% O2), hypoxic (2% O2, 98% N2), and anoxic (5% H2, 95% N2) conditions. The oxidation state of arsenic in Newark Basin black shale pyrite was determined using X-ray absorption-near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Incubation results show that sulfide (1 mM initial concentration) increases arsenic mobilization to the dissolved phase from all three solids under oxic and hypoxic, but not anoxic conditions. Indeed under oxic and hypoxic conditions, the presence of sulfide resulted in the mobilization in 48 h of 13-16 times more arsenic from arsenopyrite and 6-11 times more arsenic from isolated black shale pyrite than in sulfide-free controls. XANES results show that arsenic in Newark Basin black shale pyrite has the same oxidation state as that in FeAsS (-1) and thus extend the sulfide-arsenide exchange mechanism of arsenic mobilization to sedimentary rock, black shale pyrite. Biologically active incubations of whole black shale and its resident microorganisms under sulfate reducing conditions resulted in sevenfold higher mobilization of soluble arsenic than sterile controls. Taken together, our results indicate that sulfide-driven arsenic mobilization would be most important under conditions of redox disequilibrium, such as when sulfate-reducing bacteria release sulfide into oxic groundwater, and that microbial sulfide production is expected to enhance arsenic mobilization in sedimentary rock aquifers with major pyrite-bearing, black

  3. Formation of carbon black as a byproduct of pyrolysis of light hydrocarbons in plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.G.; Zhang, X.B.; Li, F.; Xie, K.C.; Dai, B.; Fan, Y.S.

    1997-12-31

    The light hydrocarbons undergo a complex reaction of flash hydropyrolysis in a DC arc H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet at atmospheric pressure and average temperatures between 1,500 K and 4,000 K. The raw material was LPG. Acetylene is the major product. Carbon black is a byproduct. Carbon black is characterized with XRD, TEM, and adsorption-and-desorption of liquid nitrogen, respectively. The present work proposes to use the plasma process to replace the classical thermal process in order to produce acetylene directly from LPG with carbon black being a byproduct.

  4. FIA-16-0034 - In the Matter of Leo Conor Black | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 - In the Matter of Leo Conor Black FIA-16-0034 - In the Matter of Leo Conor Black On June 13, 2016, OHA denied a FOIA Appeal filed by Leo Conor Black from a determination issued by the Office of Information Resources (OIR) of the Department of Energy. In the Appeal, the Appellant challenged the adequacy of OIR's search for responsive documents. OHA found, however, that OIR conducted a search reasonably calculated to uncover the materials sought by the Appellant. FIA-16-0034.pdf (139.28 KB)

  5. Legendary Tuskegee Airmen to Speak at Jefferson Lab's Black History Month

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Event | Jefferson Lab Legendary Tuskegee Airmen to Speak at Jefferson Lab's Black History Month Event Legendary Tuskegee Airmen to Speak at Jefferson Lab's Black History Month Event February 3, 2004 Three members of the legendary, World War II era Tuskegee Airmen will speak at Jefferson Lab's Black History Month celebration at 2:30 p.m. on Thursday, Feb. 19. The public is invited to the event. The program will start with footage from the 1996 movie based on the true story of the Tuskegee

  6. General Nonextremal Rotating Black Holes in Minimal Five-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chong, Z.-W.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.; Cvetic, M.

    2005-10-14

    We construct the general solution for nonextremal charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. They are characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass, the charge, and the two independent rotation parameters. The metrics in general describe regular rotating black holes, providing the parameters lie in appropriate ranges so that naked singularities and closed timelike curves (CTCs) are avoided. We calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions, and show how supersymmetric solutions arise in a Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield limit. These have naked CTCs in general, but for special choices of the parameters we obtain new regular supersymmetric black holes or smooth topological solitons.

  7. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  8. Stringy stability of charged dilaton black holes with flat event horizon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Yen Chin; Chen, Pisin

    2015-01-15

    Electrically charged black holes with flat event horizon in anti-de Sitter space have received much attention due to various applications in Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, from modeling the behavior of quark-gluon plasma to superconductor. Critical to the physics on the dual field theory is the fact that when embedded in string theory, black holes in the bulk may become vulnerable to instability caused by brane pair-production. Since dilation arises naturally in the context of string theory, we study the effect of coupling dilation to Maxwell field on the stability of flat charged AdS black holes.

  9. SU-E-J-190: Characterization of Radiation Induced CT Number Changes in Tumor and Normal Lung During Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, C; Liu, F; Tai, A; Gore, E; Johnstone, C; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To measure CT number (CTN) changes in tumor and normal lung as a function of radiation therapy (RT) dose during the course of RT delivery for lung cancer using daily IGRT CT images and single respiration phase CT images. Methods: 4D CT acquired during planning simulation and daily 3D CT acquired during daily IGRT for 10 lung cancer cases randomly selected in terms of age, caner type and stage, were analyzed using an in-house developed software tool. All patients were treated in 2 Gy fractions to primary tumors and involved nodal regions. Regions enclosed by a series of isodose surfaces in normal lung were delineated. The obtained contours along with target contours (GTVs) were populated to each singlephase planning CT and daily CT. CTN in term of Hounsfield Unit (HU) of each voxel in these delineated regions were collectively analyzed using histogram, mean, mode and linear correlation. Results: Respiration induced normal lung CTN change, as analyzed from single-phase planning CTs, ranged from 9 to 23 (2) HU for the patients studied. Normal lung CTN change was as large as 50 (12) HU over the entire treatment course, was dose and patient dependent and was measurable with dose changes as low as 1.5 Gy. For patients with obvious tumor volume regression, CTN within the GTV drops monotonically as much as 10 (1) HU during the early fractions with a total dose of 20 Gy delivered. The GTV and CTN reductions are significantly correlated with correlation coefficient >0.95. Conclusion: Significant RT dose induced CTN changes in lung tissue and tumor region can be observed during even the early phase of RT delivery, and may potentially be used for early prediction of radiation response. Single respiration phase CT images have dramatically reduced statistical noise in ROIs, making daily dose response evaluation possible.

  10. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Shen, Jianliang; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-05-15

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by sulfur mustard and related vesicants is associated with oxidative stress. In the present studies we analyzed the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung injury and inflammation induced by vesicants using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as a model. C57Bl/6 (WT) and iNOS ?/? mice were sacrificed 3 days or 14 days following intratracheal administration of CEES (6 mg/kg) or control. CEES intoxication resulted in transient (3 days) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell and protein content in WT, but not iNOS ?/? mice. This correlated with expression of Ym1, a marker of oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, in iNOS ?/? mice, Ym1 was only observed 14 days post-exposure in enlarged alveolar macrophages, suggesting that they are alternatively activated. This is supported by findings that lung tumor necrosis factor and lipocalin Lcn2 expression, mediators involved in tissue repair were also upregulated at this time in iNOS ?/? mice. Conversely, CEES-induced increases in the proinflammatory genes, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, were abrogated in iNOS ?/? mice. In WT mice, CEES treatment also resulted in increases in total lung resistance and decreases in compliance in response to methacholine, effects blunted by loss of iNOS. These data demonstrate that RNS, generated via iNOS play a role in the pathogenic responses to CEES, augmenting oxidative stress and inflammation and suppressing tissue repair. Elucidating inflammatory mechanisms mediating vesicant-induced lung injury is key to the development of therapeutics to treat mustard poisoning. -- Highlights: ? Lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress are induced by the model vesicant CEES ? RNS generated via iNOS are important in the CEES-induced pulmonary toxicity ? iNOS ?/? mice are protected from CEES-induced lung toxicity and altered lung functioning.

  11. Arctic Black Carbon Loading and Profile Using the Single-Particle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Arctic Black Carbon Loading and Profile Using the Single-Particle Soot ...

  12. DOE/SC-ARM-14-017 Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report July 2014 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither...

  13. Final/Technical Report on The National Conference of Black Physics Students

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Elvira

    2001-06-01

    The 14th Annual Conference of the Society of Black Physics Students (NCBPS) was held March 16-19, 2000 at North Carolina A&T State University. The conference was held jointly with the National Society of Black Physicists. The students had the opportunity to interact and network with each other and the members of the profesional organization (NSBP). There are two attachments: Findings from the survey of participants of the 14th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students, and XXVII Day of Scientific Lectures and 23rd Annual Meeting of The National Society of Black Physicists, March 15-18, 2000. The theme of the meeting was 'Physics: The science that shapes the future.'

  14. BINARY DISRUPTION BY MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: HYPERVELOCITY STARS, S STARS, AND TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Brown, Warren R. E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-04-20

    We examine whether disrupted binary stars can fuel black hole growth. In this mechanism, tidal disruption produces a single hypervelocity star (HVS) ejected at high velocity and a former companion star bound to the black hole. After a cluster of bound stars forms, orbital diffusion allows the black hole to accrete stars by tidal disruption at a rate comparable to the capture rate. In the Milky Way, HVSs and the S star cluster imply similar rates of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} for binary disruption. These rates are consistent with estimates for the tidal disruption rate in nearby galaxies and imply significant black hole growth from disrupted binaries on 10 Gyr timescales.

  15. Thermodynamics of black holes in (n+1)-dimensional Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheykhi, A.; Riazi, N.

    2007-01-15

    We construct a new class of (n+1)-dimensional (n{>=}3) black hole solutions in Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential for the dilaton field and investigate their properties. These solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti)-de Sitter. We find that these solutions can represent black holes, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black hole, or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. We compute the thermodynamic quantities of the black hole solutions and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also perform a stability analysis and investigate the effect of dilaton on the stability of the solutions.

  16. Hidden symmetries, null geodesics, and photon capture in the Sen black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hioki, Kenta; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2008-08-15

    Important classes of null geodesics and hidden symmetries in the Sen black hole are investigated. First, we obtain the principal null geodesics and circular photon orbits. Then, an irreducible rank-two Killing tensor and a conformal Killing tensor are derived, which represent the hidden symmetries. Analyzing the properties of Killing tensors, we clarify why the Hamilton-Jacobi and wave equations are separable in this spacetime. We also investigate the gravitational capture of photons by the Sen black hole and compare the result with those by the various charged/rotating black holes and naked singularities in the Kerr-Newman family. For these black holes and naked singularities, we show the capture regions in a two dimensional impact parameter space (or equivalently the 'shadows' observed at infinity) to form a variety of shapes such as the disk, circle, dot, arc, and their combinations.

  17. Thermodynamics of asymptotically flat charged black holes in third order Lovelock gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Shamirzaie, M.

    2005-12-15

    We present a new class of asymptotically flat charge static solutions in third order Lovelock gravity. These solutions present black hole solutions with two inner and outer event horizons, extreme black holes, or naked singularities provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. We find that the uncharged asymptotically flat solutions can present black holes with two inner and outer horizons. This kind of solution does not exist in Einstein or Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and it is a special effect in third order Lovelock gravity. We compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, and mass of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also perform a stability analysis by computing the determinant of the Hessian matrix of the mass with respect to its thermodynamic variables in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles, and show that there exists only an intermediate stable phase.

  18. Causal extraction of black hole rotational energy by various kinds of electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koide, Shinji; Baba, Tamon

    2014-09-10

    Recent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations have suggested that relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been powered by the rotational energy of central black holes. Some mechanisms for extraction of black hole rotational energy have been proposed, like the Penrose process, Blandford-Znajek mechanism, MHD Penrose process, and superradiance. The Blandford-Znajek mechanism is the most promising mechanism for the engines of the relativistic jets from AGNs. However, an intuitive interpretation of this mechanism with causality is not yet clarified, while the Penrose process has a clear interpretation for causal energy extraction from a black hole with negative energy. In this paper, we present a formula to build physical intuition so that in the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, as well as in other electromagnetic processes, negative electromagnetic energy plays an important role in causal extraction of the rotational energy of black holes.

  19. Thin-layer black phosphorous/GaAs heterojunction p-n diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, Pascal; Urcuyo, Roberto; Duong, Dinh Loc; Burghard, Marko; Kern, Klaus

    2015-06-08

    Owing to its high carrier mobility and thickness-tunable direct band gap, black phosphorous emerges as a promising component of optoelectronic devices. Here, we evaluate the device characteristics of p-n heterojunction diodes wherein thin black phosphorous layers are interfaced with an underlying, highly n-doped GaAs substrate. The p-n heterojunctions exhibit close-to-ideal diode behavior at low bias, while under illumination they display a photoresponse that is evenly distributed over the entire junction area, with an external quantum efficiency of up to 10% at zero bias. Moreover, the observed maximum open circuit voltage of 0.6 V is consistent with the band gap estimated for a black phosphorous sheet with a thickness on the order of 10?nm. Further analysis reveals that the device performance is limited by the structural quality of the black phosphorous surface.

  20. Higgs production and decay from TeV scale black holes at the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We compare our results with the standard model backgrounds. We find that Higgs production from black holes is dominant over standard model production for psub Tsup H>100 GeV, ...

  1. File:Black.Warrior.Basin usgs.map.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    usgs.map.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Black Warrior Basin Province of Alabama and Mississippi Size...

  2. Savannah River National Laboratory Meets with Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Student and faculty leaders at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) spent the day at the Center for Hydrogen Research at Savannah River National Laboratory, reporting on their work to professional scientists and engineers at the Laboratory.

  3. Superradiance and black hole bomb in five-dimensional minimal ungauged supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliev, Alikram N.

    2014-11-01

    We examine the black hole bomb model which consists of a rotating black hole of five-dimenensional minimal ungauged supergravity and a reflecting mirror around it. For low-frequency scalar perturbations, we find solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in the near-horizon and far regions of the black hole spacetime. To avoid solutions with logarithmic terms, we assume that the orbital quantum number l takes on nearly, but not exactly, integer values and perform the matching of these solutions in an intermediate region. This allows us to calculate analytically the frequency spectrum of quasinormal modes, taking the limits as l approaches even or odd integers separately. We find that all l modes of scalar perturbations undergo negative damping in the regime of superradiance, resulting in exponential growth of their amplitudes. Thus, the model under consideration would exhibit the superradiant instability, eventually behaving as a black hole bomb in five dimensions.

  4. Black History Month: Former Energy Secretary Broke Barriers and Advanced Clean Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black History Month celebrates the many vital contributions African Americans have made in America’s history.  Today, we’re highlighting African Americans who have helped advance energy efficiency...

  5. Quasinormal modes, scattering, and Hawking radiation of Kerr-Newman black holes in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokkotas, K. D.; Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A.

    2011-01-15

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the spectrum of proper oscillations (quasinormal modes), transmission/reflection coefficients, and Hawking radiation for a massive charged scalar field in the background of the Kerr-Newman black hole immersed in an asymptotically homogeneous magnetic field. There are two main effects: the Zeeman shift of the particle energy in the magnetic field and the difference of values of an electromagnetic potential between the horizon and infinity, i.e. the Faraday induction. We have shown that 'turning on' the magnetic field induces a stronger energy-emission rate and leads to 'recharging' of the black hole. Thus, a black hole immersed in a magnetic field evaporates much quicker, achieving thereby an extremal state in a shorter period of time. Quasinormal modes are moderately affected by the presence of a magnetic field which is assumed to be relatively small compared to the gravitational field of the black hole.

  6. SUPER-CRITICAL GROWTH OF MASSIVE BLACK HOLES FROM STELLAR-MASS SEEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madau, Piero; Haardt, Francesco; Dotti, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    We consider super-critical accretion with angular momentum onto stellar-mass black holes as a possible mechanism for growing billion-solar-mass black holes from light seeds at early times. We use the radiatively inefficient ''slim disk'' solutionadvective, optically thick flows that generalize the standard geometrically thin disk modelto show how mildly super-Eddington intermittent accretion may significantly ease the problem of assembling the first massive black holes when the universe was less than 0.8Gyr old. Because of the low radiative efficiencies of slim disks around non-rotating as well as rapidly rotating black holes, the mass e-folding timescale in this regime is nearly independent of the spin parameter. The conditions that may lead to super-critical growth in the early universe are briefly discussed.

  7. H-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomics Analysis Identifies Novel Urinary Biomarkers for Lung Function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCClay, Joseph L.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Isern, Nancy G.; O'Connell, Thomas M.; Wooten, Jan B.; Zedler, Barbara K.; Dasika, Madhukar S.; Webb, B. T.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Murrelle, Edward L.; Leppert, Mark F.; van den Oord, Edwin J.

    2010-06-04

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by chronic airflow limitation, is a serious and growing public health concern. The major environmental risk factor for COPD is tobacco smoking, but the biological mechanisms underlying COPD are not well understood. In this study, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify metabolites associated with lung function in COPD. Plasma and urine were collected from 197 adults with COPD and from 195 adults without COPD. Samples were assayed using a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer, and the resulting spectra were analyzed against quantitative spirometric measures of lung function. After correcting for false discoveries and adjusting for covariates (sex, age, smoking) several spectral regions in urine were found to be significantly associated with baseline lung function. These regions correspond to the metabolites trigonelline, hippurate and formate. Concentrations of each metabolite, standardized to urinary creatinine, were associated with baseline lung function (minimum p-value = 0.0002 for trigonelline). No significant associations were found with plasma metabolites. Two of the three urinary metabolites positively associated with baseline lung function, i.e. hippurate and formate, are often related to gut microflora. This suggests that the microbiome composition is variable between individuals with different lung function. Alternatively, the nature and origins of all three associated metabolites may reflect lifestyle differences affecting overall health. Our results will require replication and validation, but demonstrate the utility of NMR metabolomics as a screening tool for identifying novel biomarkers of lung disease or disease risk.

  8. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

  9. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The locations and other parameters of the nuclei which may be damaged by [alpha] particles must be determined and compared in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human epithelium of defined airway generations and in parallel on electron micrographs of the dog bronchial lining. The second part of this proposal describes studies to quantitate the cycling bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on frozen and paraffin sections and similar labeling of isolated bronchial epithelial cells sorted flow cytometry.

  10. Expression of hPNAS-4 Radiosensitizes Lewis Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng Hui; Yuan Zhu; Zhu Hong; Li Lei; Shi Huashan; Wang Zi; Fan Yu; Deng Qian; Zeng Jianshuang; He Yinbo; Xiao Jianghong; Li Zhiping

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to transfer the hPNAS-4 gene, a novel apoptosis-related human gene, into Lewis lung cancer (LL2) and observe its radiosensitive effect on radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: The hPNAS-4 gene was transfected into LL2 cells, and its expression was detected via western blot. Colony formation assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the growth and apoptosis of cells treated with irradiation/PNAS-4 in vitro. The hPNAS-4 gene was transferred into LL2-bearing mice through tail vein injection of the liposome/gene complex. The tumor volumes were recorded after radiation therapy. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed to detect the tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vivo. Results: The hPNAS-4 gene was successfully transferred into LL2 cells and tumor tissue, and its overexpressions were confirmed via western blot analysis. Compared with the control, empty plasmid, hPNAS-4, radiation, and empty plasmid plus radiation groups, the hPNAS-4 plus radiation group more significantly inhibited growth and enhanced apoptosis of LL2 cells in vitro and in vivo (P<.05). Conclusions: The hPNAS-4 gene was successfully transferred into LL2 cells and tumor tissue and was expressed in both LL2 cell and tumor tissue. The hPNAS-4 gene therapy significantly enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis of LL2 tumor cells by radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a potential radiosensitive treatment of radiation therapy for lung cancer.

  11. Real-Time Tumor Tracking in the Lung Using an Electromagnetic Tracking System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Amish P.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Waghorn, Benjamin J.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Rineer, Justin M.; Maon, Rafael R.; Vollenweider, Mark A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the first use of the commercially available Calypso 4D Localization System in the lung. Methods and Materials: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol and an investigational device exemption from the US Food and Drug Administration, the Calypso system was used with nonclinical methods to acquire real-time 4-dimensional lung tumor tracks for 7 lung cancer patients. The aims of the study were to investigate (1) the potential for bronchoscopic implantation; (2) the stability of smooth-surface beacon transponders (transponders) after implantation; and (3) the ability to acquire tracking information within the lung. Electromagnetic tracking was not used for any clinical decision making and could only be performed before any radiation delivery in a research setting. All motion tracks for each patient were reviewed, and values of the average displacement, amplitude of motion, period, and associated correlation to a sinusoidal model (R{sup 2}) were tabulated for all 42 tracks. Results: For all 7 patients at least 1 transponder was successfully implanted. To assist in securing the transponder at the tumor site, it was necessary to implant a secondary fiducial for most transponders owing to the transponder's smooth surface. For 3 patients, insertion into the lung proved difficult, with only 1 transponder remaining fixed during implantation. One patient developed a pneumothorax after implantation of the secondary fiducial. Once implanted, 13 of 14 transponders remained stable within the lung and were successfully tracked with the tracking system. Conclusions: Our initial experience with electromagnetic guidance within the lung demonstrates that transponder implantation and tracking is achievable though not clinically available. This research investigation proved that lung tumor motion exhibits large variations from fraction to fraction within a single patient and that improvements to both transponder and tracking system are still necessary

  12. Preventing cleavage of Mer promotes efferocytosis and suppresses acute lung injury in bleomycin treated mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Lee, Seung-Hae; Youn, Young-So; Choi, Ji-Yeon; Song, Keung-Sub; Cho, Min-Sun; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2012-08-15

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) regulates macrophage activation and promotes apoptotic cell clearance. Mer activation is regulated through proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. To determine if membrane-bound Mer is cleaved during bleomycin-induced lung injury, and, if so, how preventing the cleavage of Mer enhances apoptotic cell uptake and down-regulates pulmonary immune responses. During bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice, membrane-bound Mer expression decreased, but production of soluble Mer and activity as well as expression of disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) were enhanced . Treatment with the ADAM inhibitor TAPI-0 restored Mer expression and diminished soluble Mer production. Furthermore, TAPI-0 increased Mer activation in alveolar macrophages and lung tissue resulting in enhanced apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and ex vivo by alveolar macrophages. Suppression of bleomycin-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, but enhancement of hepatocyte growth factor induction were seen after TAPI-0 treatment. Additional bleomycin-induced inflammatory responses reduced by TAPI-0 treatment included inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs, levels of total protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in lung tissue. Importantly, the effects of TAPI-0 on bleomycin-induced inflammation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration of specific Mer-neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that restored membrane-bound Mer expression by TAPI-0 treatment may help resolve lung inflammation and apoptosis after bleomycin treatment. -- Highlights: ►Mer expression is restored by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►Mer signaling is enhanced by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►TAPI-0 enhances efferocytosis and promotes resolution of lung injury.

  13. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. Iron increased

  14. AmeriFlux CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Amiro, Brian [University of Manitoba

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area). Site Description - 55.880° N, 98.481° W, elevation of 259 m, Boreal coniferous: Black spruce; occasional larch present in poorly-drained areas. Groundcover is moss (feathermosses and Sphagnum), Labrador Tea, Vaccinium, and willows are a main component of the understory. It was established in 1993 as a BOREAS site.

  15. Wet-chemical systems and methods for producing black silicon substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yost, Vernon; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Page, Matthew

    2015-05-19

    A wet-chemical method of producing a black silicon substrate. The method comprising soaking single crystalline silicon wafers in a predetermined volume of a diluted inorganic compound solution. The substrate is combined with an etchant solution that forms a uniform noble metal nanoparticle induced Black Etch of the silicon wafer, resulting in a nanoparticle that is kinetically stabilized. The method comprising combining with an etchant solution having equal volumes acetonitrile/acetic acid:hydrofluoric acid:hydrogen peroxide.

  16. Analysis of the Sultana-Dyer cosmological black hole solution of the Einstein equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2009-08-15

    The Sultana-Dyer solution of general relativity representing a black hole embedded in a special cosmological background is analyzed. We find an expanding (weak) spacetime singularity instead of the reported conformal Killing horizon, which is covered by an expanding black hole apparent horizon (internal to a cosmological apparent horizon) for most of the history of the Universe. This singularity was naked early on. The global structure of the solution is studied as well.

  17. Energy Department Announces New Technical Review to Assess Black Cells at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant | Department of Energy Technical Review to Assess Black Cells at Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant Energy Department Announces New Technical Review to Assess Black Cells at Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant August 2, 2012 - 12:15pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that Secretary of Energy Steven Chu has assembled a group of independent technical experts to assess the Hanford Site's Waste

  18. HOW IMPORTANT IS THE DARK MATTER HALO FOR BLACK HOLE GROWTH?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volonteri, Marta; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2011-08-20

    In this paper, we examine whether the properties of central black holes in galactic nuclei correlate with their host dark matter halos. We analyze the entire sample of galaxies where black hole mass, velocity dispersion {sigma}, and asymptotic circular velocity V{sub c} have all been measured. We fit M{sub BH}-{sigma} and M{sub BH}-V{sub c} to a power law, and find that in both relationships the scatter and slope are similar. This model-independent analysis suggests that although the black hole masses are not uniquely determined by dark matter halo mass, when considered for the current sample as a whole, the M{sub BH}-V{sub c} correlation may be as strong (or as weak) as M{sub BH}-{sigma}. Although the data are sparse, there appears to be more scatter in the correlation for both {sigma} and V{sub c} at the low-mass end. This is not unexpected given our current understanding of galaxy and black hole assembly. In fact, there are several compelling reasons that account for this: (1) supermassive black hole (SMBH) formation is likely less efficient in low-mass galaxies with large angular momentum content, (2) SMBH growth is less efficient in low-mass disk galaxies that have not experienced major mergers, and (3) dynamical effects, such as gravitational recoil, increase scatter preferentially at the low-mass end. Therefore, the recent observational claim of the absence of central SMBHs in bulgeless, low-mass galaxies, or deviations from the correlations defined by high-mass black holes in large galaxies today is, in fact, predicated by current models of black hole growth. We show how this arises as a direct consequence of the coupling between dark matter halos and central black holes at the earliest epochs.

  19. Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binary Black Holes: Theoretical and Experimental Challenges

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    A network of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors (LIGO/VIRGO/GEO/...) is currently taking data near its planned sensitivity. Coalescing black hole binaries are among the most promising, and most exciting, gravitational wave sources for these detectors. The talk will review the theoretical and experimental challenges that must be met in order to successfully detect gravitational waves from coalescing black hole binaries, and to be able to reliably measure the physical parameters of the source (masses, spins, ...).

  20. Red & Black Ball raises nearly $82,000 for youth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Red & Black Ball raises $81,000 for youth Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Red & Black Ball raises nearly $82,000 for youth The Family YMCA receives windfall for Española and Los Alamos teen centers. April 4, 2016 From left: LANL Government Affairs Office Director Patrick Woehrle, LANL Community Programs Office Director Kathy Keith, Laboratory Director Charles

  1. COLLOQUIUM: The Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Merger | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 29, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium, PPPL (284 cap.) COLLOQUIUM: The Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger Dr. Duncan Brown Syracuse University On September 14, 2015 the the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) simultaneously observed gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger. The gravitational waves observed match the waveform predicted by general

  2. NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells in part through regulating AQP5 expression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Kai; Jin, Faguang

    2015-09-25

    The osmoregulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5(NFAT5), has been found to play important roles in the development of many kinds of human cancers, including breast cancer, colon carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NFAT5 is involved in the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that NFAT5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of NFAT5 decreased proliferation and migration of the cells, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of AQP5. AQP5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of AQP5 also inhibited proliferation and migration of the cells as knockdown of NFAT5 did. Moreover, overexpression of NFAT5 promoted proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of AQP5. These results indicate that NFAT5 plays important roles in proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through regulating AQP5 expression, providing a new therapeutic option for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. - Highlights: • NFAT5 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cells. • NFAT5 knockdown decreases proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Knockdown of NFAT5 reduces AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 increases AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  3. T-602: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Input Validation Flaw in BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager not properly filter HTML code from user-supplied input before displaying the input. A remote user can cause arbitrary scripting code to be executed by the target user's browser. The code will originate from the site running the BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager software and will run in the security context of that site. As a result, the code will be able to access the target user's cookies (including authentication cookies), if any, associated with the site, access data recently submitted by the target user via web form to the site, or take actions on the site acting as the target user.

  4. Very large radiative transfer over small distances from a black body for thermophotovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, J.L.; Choy, H.K.H.; Fonstad, C.G. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The maximum amount of radiated heat intensity which can be transferred from a black body of refractive index n{sub BB} to an object of refractive index n{sub OBJ} located a short distance away is shown to be n{sup 2}{sub smaller} times the free space Planck distribution, where n{sub smaller} is the smaller of n{sub BB} and n{sub OBJ}, and where n{sub BB} and n{sub OBJ} are assumed greater than unity. The implication is that the radiative power spectral density within a thermophotovoltaic cell could be designed to be much greater than the free space Planck distribution. The maximum radiative intensity transferred occurs when the index of the black body matches that of the object at wavelengths where the Planck distribution is sizeable. A simple expression is found for the transferred radiative intensity as a function of the refractive indices of, and the distance separating, the black body and the object. The expression is interpreted in terms of the specific black body modes which are evanescent in the space between the black body and the object and which make the largest contribution to the transmission of radiation. The black body, the object, and the gap region are all modeled as lossless dielectrics.

  5. Observing the shadow of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao E-mail: liuyx@lzu.edu.cn

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the shadows cast by Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion black hole and naked singularity are studied. The shadow of a rotating black hole is found to be a dark zone covered by a deformed circle. For a fixed value of the spin a, the size of the shadow decreases with the dilaton parameter b. The distortion of the shadow monotonically increases with b and takes its maximal when the black hole approaches to the extremal case. Due to the optical properties, the area of the black hole shadow is supposed to equal to the high-energy absorption cross section. Based on this assumption, the energy emission rate is investigated. For a naked singularity, the shadow has a dark arc and a dark spot or straight, and the corresponding observables are obtained. These results show that there is a significant effect of the spin a and dilaton parameter b on these shadows. Moreover, we examine the observables of the shadow cast by the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, which is very useful for us to probe the nature of the black hole through the astronomical observations in the near future.

  6. BPS-like bound and thermodynamics of the charged BTZ black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Monni, Cristina

    2009-07-15

    The charged Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole is plagued by several pathologies: (a) Divergent boundary terms are present in the action; hence, we have a divergent black-hole mass. (b) Once a finite, renormalized, mass M is defined, black-hole states exist for arbitrarily negative values of M. (c) There is no upper bound on the charge Q. We show that these pathological features are an artifact of the renormalization procedure. They can be completely removed by using an alternative renormalization scheme leading to a different definition M{sub 0} of the black-hole mass, which is the total energy inside the horizon. The new mass satisfies a BPS-like bound M{sub 0}{>=}({pi}/2)Q{sup 2}, and the heat capacity of the hole is positive. We also discuss the black-hole thermodynamics that arises when M{sub 0} is interpreted as the internal energy of the system. We show, using three independent approaches (black-hole thermodynamics, Einstein equations, and Euclidean action formulation), that M{sub 0} satisfies the first law if a term describing the mechanical work done by the electrostatic pressure is introduced.

  7. Linking the spin evolution of massive black holes to galaxy kinematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sesana, A.; Barausse, E.; Dotti, M.; Rossi, E. M. E-mail: barausse@iap.fr E-mail: emr@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2014-10-20

    We present the results of a semianalytical model that evolves the masses and spins of massive black holes together with the properties of their host galaxies across the cosmic history. As a consistency check, our model broadly reproduces a number of observations, e.g., the cosmic star formation history; the black hole mass, luminosity, and galaxy mass functions at low redshift; the black hole-bulge mass relation; and the morphological distribution at low redshift. For the first time in a semianalytical investigation, we relax the simplifying assumptions of perfect coherency or perfect isotropy of the gas fueling the black holes. The dynamics of gas is instead linked to the morphological properties of the host galaxies, resulting in different spin distributions for black holes hosted in different galaxy types. We compare our results with the observed sample of spin measurements obtained through broad K? iron line fitting. The observational data disfavor both accretion along a fixed direction and isotropic fueling. Conversely, when the properties of the accretion flow are anchored to the kinematics of the host galaxy, we obtain a good match between theoretical expectations and observations. A mixture of coherent accretion and phases of activity in which the gas dynamics is similar to that of the stars in bulges (i.e., with a significant velocity dispersion superimposed to a net rotation) best describes the data, adding further evidence in support of the coevolution of massive black holes and their hosts.

  8. WHAT'S INSIDE THE BLACK BOX - EXPLAINING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT TO STAKEHOLDERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, R; Elmer Wilhite, E

    2009-01-06

    The performance assessment (PA) process is being applied to support an increasing variety of waste management decisions that involve the whole spectrum of stakeholders. As with many technical tools, the PA process can be seen as a black box, which can be difficult to understand when implemented. Recognizing the increasing use of PA and the concerns about difficulties with understanding, the Savannah River Site Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) made a recommendation that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provide a Public Educational Forum on PAs. The DOE-Headquarters Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Office of Compliance and the DOE-Savannah River (DOE-SR) responded to this recommendation by supporting the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in developing several presentation modules that can be used to describe different aspects of the PA process. For the Public Educational Forum, the PA modules were combined with presentations on DOE perspectives, historical modeling efforts at the Savannah River Site, and review perspectives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The overall goals are to help the public understand how PAs are implemented and the rigor that is applied, and to provide insight into the use of PAs for waste management decision-making.

  9. First principles study of metal contacts to monolayer black phosphorous

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanana, Anuja; Mahapatra, Santanu

    2014-11-28

    Atomically thin layered black phosphorous (BP) has recently appeared as an alternative to the transitional metal dichalcogenides for future channel material in a metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor due to its lower carrier effective mass. Investigation of the electronic property of source/drain contact involving metal and two-dimensional material is essential as it impacts the transistor performance. In this paper, we perform a systematic and rigorous study to evaluate the Ohmic nature of the side-contact formed by the monolayer BP (mBP) and metals (gold, titanium, and palladium), which are commonly used in experiments. Employing the Density Functional Theory, we analyse the potential barrier, charge transfer and atomic orbital overlap at the metal-mBP interface in an optimized structure to understand how efficiently carriers could be injected from metal contact to the mBP channel. Our analysis shows that gold forms a Schottky contact with a higher tunnel barrier at the interface in comparison to the titanium and palladium. mBP contact with palladium is found to be purely Ohmic, where as titanium contact demonstrates an intermediate behaviour.

  10. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  11. The mass of the black hole in LMC X-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Buxton, Michelle M.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Steeghs, Danny; Guberman, Alec; Torres, Manuel A. P. E-mail: jsteiner@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: michelle.buxton@yale.edu E-mail: D.T.H.Steeghs@warwick.ac.uk E-mail: M.Torres@sron.nl

    2014-10-20

    We analyze a large set of new and archival photometric and spectroscopic observations of LMC X-3 to arrive at a self-consistent dynamical model for the system. Using echelle spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle instrument on the 6.5 m Magellan Clay telescope and the UVES instrument on the second 8.2 m Very Large Telescope, we find a velocity semiamplitude for the secondary star of K {sub 2} = 241.1 6.2 km s{sup 1}, where the uncertainty includes an estimate of the systematic error caused by X-ray heating. Using the spectra, we also find a projected rotational velocity of V {sub rot}sin i = 118.5 6.6 km s{sup 1}. From an analysis of archival B and V light curves as well as new B and V light curves from the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope, we find an inclination of i = 69.84 0.37 for models that do not include X-ray heating and an inclination of i = 69.24 0.72 for models that incorporate X-ray heating. Adopting the latter inclination measurement, we find masses of 3.63 0.57 M {sub ?} and 6.98 0.56 M {sub ?} for the companion star and the black hole, respectively. We briefly compare our results with earlier work and discuss some of their implications.

  12. BLINDLY DETECTING MERGING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES WITH RADIO SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D. L.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Sesana, A.; Volonteri, M. E-mail: oshaughn@gravity.phys.uwm.edu E-mail: martav@umich.edu

    2011-06-20

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) presumably grow through numerous mergers throughout cosmic time. During each merger, SMBH binaries are surrounded by a circumbinary accretion disk that imposes a significant ({approx}10{sup 4} G for a binary of 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}) magnetic field. The motion of the binary through that field will convert the field energy to Poynting flux, with a luminosity {approx}10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} (B/10{sup 4} G){sup 2}(M/10{sup 8} M{sub sun}){sup 2}, some of which may emerge as synchrotron emission at frequencies near 1 GHz where current and planned wide-field radio surveys will operate. We find that the short timescales of many mergers will limit their detectability with most planned blind surveys to <1 per year over the whole sky, independent of the details of the emission process and flux distribution. Including an optimistic estimate for the radio flux makes detection even less likely, with <0.1 mergers per year over the whole sky. However, wide-field radio instruments may be able to localize systems identified in advance of merger by gravitational waves. Further, radio surveys may be able to detect the weaker emission produced by the binary's motion as it is modulated by spin-orbit precession and inspiral well in advance of merger.

  13. Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-11-28

    We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan Plateau using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the Plateau is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.55.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.74.3 W m-230 ) in the Plateau after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.

  14. Prince William Sound disabled tanker towing study. Part 1. Evaluation of existing equipment, personnel and procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The study has been undertaken by the Glosten Associates, Inc., to evaluate the existing capability for emergency towing at Prince William Sound and to examine alternatives that could enhance the escort and assist capabilities for disabled tankers within the waterway from the Alyeska Oil Terminal at the Port of Valdez to the Gulf of Alaska outside Hinchinbrook Entrance. Part 1, reported herein, is an objective evaluation by an experienced salvage towing master of the existing tugs, emergency towing equipment, towing practices, and discussion of alternative tug types.

  15. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in oil mist-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvholm, B.; Bake, B.; Lavenius, B.; Thiringer, G.; Vokmann, R.

    1982-06-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was registered and ventilatory function was determined in 164 men exposed to oil mist. The average exposure time was 16.2 years. One hundred fifty-nine office workers served as controls. The exposed men reported more respiratory symptoms: 14% of the exposed nonsmokers v. 2% of the nonsmoking controls having cough at least three months a year. There were non significant differences between spirometric measurements and chest roentgenograms of the men exposed to oil mist and those of the office workers. The lung function of 25 nonsmoking exposed men was further examined with other lung function tests. The mean values for closing volume, slope of the alveolar plateau, total lung capacity, residual volume, elastic recoil at various lung volumes, and diffusion capacity did not differ significantly.

  16. Toward in vivo lung's tissue incompressibility characterization for tumor motion modeling in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirzadi, Zahra; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Samani, Abbas

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to characterize lung tissue incompressibility variation during respiration. Estimating lung tissue incompressibility parameter variations resulting from air content variation throughout respiration is critical for computer assisted tumor motion tracking. Continuous tumor motion is a major challenge in lung cancer radiotherapy, especially with external beam radiotherapy. If not accounted for, this motion may lead to areas of radiation overdosage for normal tissue. Given the unavailability of imaging modality that can be used effectively for real-time lung tumor tracking, computer assisted approach based on tissue deformation estimation can be a good alternative. This approach involves lung biomechanical model where its fidelity depends on input tissue properties. This investigation shows that considering variable tissue incompressibility parameter is very important for predicting tumor motion accurately, hence improving the lung radiotherapy outcome. Methods: First, an in silico lung phantom study was conducted to demonstrate the importance of employing variable Poisson's ratio for tumor motion predication. After it was established that modeling this variability is critical for accurate tumor motion prediction, an optimization based technique was developed to estimate lung tissue Poisson's ratio as a function of respiration cycle time. In this technique, the Poisson's ratio and lung pressure value were varied systematically until optimal values were obtained, leading to maximum similarity between acquired and simulated 4D CT lung images. This technique was applied in an ex vivo porcine lung study where simulated images were constructed using the end exhale CT image and deformation fields obtained from the lung's FE modeling of each respiration time increment. To model the tissue, linear elastic and Marlow hyperelastic material models in conjunction with variable Poisson's ratio were used. Results: The phantom study showed that

  17. Low-Dose Spiral CT Scans for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) scanning is a noninvasive medical imaging test that has been used for the early detection of lung cancer for over 16 years (Sone et al. 1998; Henschke et.al. 1999).

  18. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is a functional molecular target in human lung cancer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; et al

    2015-03-20

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lungmore » cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications.« less

  19. Spectrum of relativistic radiation from electric charges and dipoles as they fall freely into a black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shatskiy, A. A. Novikov, I. D.; Lipatova, L. N.

    2013-06-15

    The motion of electric charges and dipoles falling radially and freely into a Schwarzschild black hole is considered. The inverse effect of the electromagnetic fields on the black hole is neglected. Since the dipole is assumed to be a point particle, the deformation due to the action of tidal forces on it is neglected. According to the theorem stating that 'black holes have no hair', the multipole electromagnetic fields should be completely radiated as a multipole falls into a black hole. The electromagnetic radiation power spectrum for these multipoles (a monopole and a dipole) has been found. Differences have been found in the spectra for different orientations of the falling dipole. A general method has been developed to find the radiated multipole electromagnetic fields for multipoles (including higher-order multipoles-quadrupoles, etc.) falling freely into a black hole. The calculated electromagnetic spectra can be compared with observational data from stellar-mass and smaller black holes.

  20. Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I

    2006-01-01

    This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2}) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal gelation. The broth results from mixing a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea solution with an acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solution. Carbon black, which is previously added to one or other of the components, must stay dispersed during gelation. The report provides a detailed description of characterization efforts and results, aimed at identification and testing carbon black and surfactant combinations that would produce stable dispersions, with carbon particle sizes below 1 {micro}m, in aqueous HMTA/urea and ADUN solutions. A battery of characterization methods was used to identify the properties affecting the water dispersability of carbon blacks, such as surface area, aggregate morphology, volatile content, and, most importantly, surface chemistry. The report introduces the basic principles for each physical or chemical method of carbon black characterization, lists the results obtained, and underlines cross-correlations between methods. Particular attention is given to a newly developed method for characterization of surface chemical groups on carbons in terms of their acid-base properties (pK{sub a} spectra) based on potentiometric titration. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic. In addition, background information on carbon black properties and the mechanism by which surfactants disperse carbon black in water is also provided. A list of main physical and chemical properties characterized, samples analyzed, and results obtained, as well as information on the desired trend or

  1. Comparison of direct exposure of human lung cells to modern engine exhaust

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    partricles | Department of Energy direct exposure of human lung cells to modern engine exhaust partricles Comparison of direct exposure of human lung cells to modern engine exhaust partricles 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2003_deer_storey.pdf (983.94 KB) More Documents & Publications Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses to Exposure to Diesel Soot Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle

  2. Differential metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal in liver, lung and brain of mice and rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Mishin, Vladimir; Richardson, Jason R.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2014-08-15

    The lipid peroxidation end-product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is generated in tissues during oxidative stress. As a reactive aldehyde, it forms Michael adducts with nucleophiles, a process that disrupts cellular functioning. Liver, lung and brain are highly sensitive to xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress and readily generate 4-HNE. In the present studies, we compared 4-HNE metabolism in these tissues, a process that protects against tissue injury. 4-HNE was degraded slowly in total homogenates and S9 fractions of mouse liver, lung and brain. In liver, but not lung or brain, NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H markedly stimulated 4-HNE metabolism. Similar results were observed in rat S9 fractions from these tissues. In liver, lung and brain S9 fractions, 4-HNE formed protein adducts. When NADH was used to stimulate 4-HNE metabolism, the formation of protein adducts was suppressed in liver, but not lung or brain. In both mouse and rat tissues, 4-HNE was also metabolized by glutathione S-transferases. The greatest activity was noted in livers of mice and in lungs of rats; relatively low glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in brain. In mouse hepatocytes, 4-HNE was rapidly taken up and metabolized. Simultaneously, 4-HNE-protein adducts were formed, suggesting that 4-HNE metabolism in intact cells does not prevent protein modifications. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to liver, lung and brain have a limited capacity to metabolize 4-HNE. The persistence of 4-HNE in these tissues may increase the likelihood of tissue injury during oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Lipid peroxidation generates 4-hydroxynonenal, a highly reactive aldehyde. • Rodent liver, but not lung or brain, is efficient in degrading 4-hydroxynonenal. • 4-hydroxynonenal persists in tissues with low metabolism, causing tissue damage.

  3. Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles | Department of Energy Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_mauderly.pdf (324.89 KB) More Documents & Publications Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission Samples

  4. Radiotherapy in Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2011-03-15

    Although chemotherapy is an essential component in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer, improvements in survival in the past two decades have been mainly achieved by the appropriate application of radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to review the key developments in thoracic radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy and to discuss the rationale behind key ongoing studies in small-cell lung cancer.

  5. Large scale validation of the M5L lung CAD on heterogeneous CT datasets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez Torres, E. E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it; Fiorina, E.; Pennazio, F.; Peroni, C.; Saletta, M.; Cerello, P. E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it; Camarlinghi, N.; Fantacci, M. E.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: M5L, a fully automated computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection and segmentation of lung nodules in thoracic computed tomography (CT), is presented and validated on several image datasets. Methods: M5L is the combination of two independent subsystems, based on the Channeler Ant Model as a segmentation tool [lung channeler ant model (lungCAM)] and on the voxel-based neural approach. The lungCAM was upgraded with a scan equalization module and a new procedure to recover the nodules connected to other lung structures; its classification module, which makes use of a feed-forward neural network, is based of a small number of features (13), so as to minimize the risk of lacking generalization, which could be possible given the large difference between the size of the training and testing datasets, which contain 94 and 1019 CTs, respectively. The lungCAM (standalone) and M5L (combined) performance was extensively tested on 1043 CT scans from three independent datasets, including a detailed analysis of the full Lung Image Database Consortium/Image Database Resource Initiative database, which is not yet found in literature. Results: The lungCAM and M5L performance is consistent across the databases, with a sensitivity of about 70% and 80%, respectively, at eight false positive findings per scan, despite the variable annotation criteria and acquisition and reconstruction conditions. A reduced sensitivity is found for subtle nodules and ground glass opacities (GGO) structures. A comparison with other CAD systems is also presented. Conclusions: The M5L performance on a large and heterogeneous dataset is stable and satisfactory, although the development of a dedicated module for GGOs detection could further improve it, as well as an iterative optimization of the training procedure. The main aim of the present study was accomplished: M5L results do not deteriorate when increasing the dataset size, making it a candidate for supporting radiologists on large

  6. Comments of the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American Lung

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Association in response to the Department of Energy's Emergency Order to Resume Operations at the Potomac River Generating Station in Alexandria, VA | Department of Energy the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American Lung Association in response to the Department of Energy's Emergency Order to Resume Operations at the Potomac River Generating Station in Alexandria, VA Comments of the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American Lung Association in response to the Department

  7. Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Salil; Evans, Katherine J.; Hack, James J.; Truesdale, John

    2013-04-19

    The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $W^{-1}m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $ PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

  8. Lung Cancer Survival Prediction using Ensemble Data Mining on Seer Data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Misra, Sanchit; Narayanan, Ramanathan; Polepeddi, Lalith; Choudhary, Alok

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the lung cancer data available from the SEER program with the aim of developing accurate survival prediction models for lung cancer. Carefully designed preprocessing steps resulted in removal/modification/splitting of several attributes, and 2 of the 11 derived attributes were found to have significant predictive power. Several supervised classification methods were used on the preprocessed data along with various data mining optimizations and validations. In our experiments, ensemble voting of five decision tree based classifiers and meta-classifiers was found to result in the best prediction performance in terms of accuracy and area under the ROC curve. We have developedmore » an on-line lung cancer outcome calculator for estimating the risk of mortality after 6 months, 9 months, 1 year, 2 year and 5 years of diagnosis, for which a smaller non-redundant subset of 13 attributes was carefully selected using attribute selection techniques, while trying to retain the predictive power of the original set of attributes. Further, ensemble voting models were also created for predicting conditional survival outcome for lung cancer (estimating risk of mortality after 5 years of diagnosis, given that the patient has already survived for a period of time), and included in the calculator. The on-line lung cancer outcome calculator developed as a result of this study is available at http://info.eecs.northwestern.edu:8080/LungCancerOutcomeCalculator/.« less

  9. Lung Irradiation Increases Mortality After Influenza A Virus Challenge Occurring Late After Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manning, Casey M.; Johnston, Carl J.; Reed, Christina K.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Finkelstein, Jacob N.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To address whether irradiation-induced changes in the lung environment alter responses to a viral challenge delivered late after exposure but before the appearance of late lung radiation injury. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice received either lung alone or combined lung and whole-body irradiation (0-15 Gy). At 10 weeks after irradiation, animals were infected with 120 HAU influenza virus strain A/HKx31. Innate and adaptive immune cell recruitment was determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine and chemokine production and protein leakage into the lung after infection were assessed. Results: Prior irradiation led to a dose-dependent failure to regain body weight after infection and exacerbated mortality, but it did not affect virus-specific immune responses or virus clearance. Surviving irradiated animals displayed a persistent increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and edema. Conclusions: Lung irradiation increased susceptibility to death after infection with influenza virus and impaired the ability to complete recovery. This altered response does not seem to be due to a radiation effect on the immune response, but it may possibly be an effect on epithelial repair.

  10. U-012: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Collaboration Service Bug Lets Remote Users Impersonate Intra-organization Messages

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A vulnerability was reported in BlackBerry Enterprise Server. A remote user can impersonate another messaging user within the same organization.

  11. Markerless tracking of small lung tumors for stereotactic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sörnsen de Koste, John R. van Dahele, Max; Senan, Suresh; Slotman, Ben J.; Verbakel, Wilko F. A. R.; Mostafavi, Hassan; Sloutsky, Alex

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: (1) To validate retrospective markerless tracking software for small lung tumors by comparing tracked motion in 4-dimensional planning computed tomography (4DCT) derived kV projection images and known tumor motion in the same 4DCT. (2) To evaluate variability of tumor motion using kV projection images from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans acquired on different days. Methods: Nonclinical tumor tracking software (TTS) used a normalized cross correlation algorithm to track the tumor on enhanced kV projection images (e.g., from a CBCT scan). The reference dataset consisted of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from one phase of a planning 4DCT. TTS matches two in-plane coordinates and obtains the out-of-plane coordinate by triangulating with match results from other projections. (1) To validate TTS, tracking results were compared with known 4DCT tumor motion for two patients (A and B). Projection images (1 image/1°) were digitally reconstructed for each 4DCT phase. From these, kV projection series were composed simulating full breathing cycles every 20° of gantry rotation [breathing period = 20°/(6°/s) = 3.33 s]. Reference templates were 360 “tumor enhanced” DRRs from the 4DCT expiration phase. TTS-derived tumor motion was compared to known tumor motion on 4DCT. (2) For five patients, TTS-assessed motion during clinical CBCT acquisition was compared with motion on the planning 4DCT, and the motion component in the Y (cranio–caudal)-direction was compared with the motion of an external marker box (RPM, real-time position management). Results: (1) Validation results: TTS for case A (tumor 6.2 cm{sup 3}, 32 mm axial diameter) over 360° showed mean motion X (medial–lateral) = 3.4, Y = 11.5, and Z (ventral–dorsal) = 4.9 mm (1 SD < 1.0 mm). Corresponding 4DCT motion was X = 3.1, Y = 11.3, and Z = 5.1 mm. Correlation coefficients between TTS tumor motion and displacement of the tumor’s center of mass (CoM) on 4DCT were 0.64, 0

  12. Disability Plans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through The Hartford. These income protection plans will pay a percentage of your salary when you are unable to work due to illness or injury. Resources STD highlight sheet ...

  13. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-04-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  14. THE ANGULAR MOMENTA OF NEUTRON STARS AND BLACK HOLES AS A WINDOW ON SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J. M.; Miller, M. C.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2011-04-10

    It is now clear that a subset of supernovae displays evidence for jets and is observed as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The angular momentum distribution of massive stellar endpoints provides a rare means of constraining the nature of the central engine in core-collapse explosions. Unlike supermassive black holes, the spin of stellar-mass black holes in X-ray binary systems is little affected by accretion and accurately reflects the spin set at birth. A modest number of stellar-mass black hole angular momenta have now been measured using two independent X-ray spectroscopic techniques. In contrast, rotation-powered pulsars spin down over time, via magnetic braking, but a modest number of natal spin periods have now been estimated. For both canonical and extreme neutron star parameters, statistical tests strongly suggest that the angular momentum distributions of black holes and neutron stars are markedly different. Within the context of prevalent models for core-collapse supernovae, the angular momentum distributions are consistent with black holes typically being produced in GRB-like supernovae with jets and with neutron stars typically being produced in supernovae with too little angular momentum to produce jets via magnetohydrodynamic processes. It is possible that neutron stars are with high spin initially and rapidly spun down shortly after the supernova event, but the available mechanisms may be inconsistent with some observed pulsar properties.

  15. Reservoir heterogeneity in carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-06-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  16. Transition from adiabatic inspiral to plunge into a spinning black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesden, Michael

    2011-05-15

    A test particle of mass {mu} on a bound geodesic of a Kerr black hole of mass M>>{mu} will slowly inspiral as gravitational radiation extracts energy and angular momentum from its orbit. This inspiral can be considered adiabatic when the orbital period is much shorter than the time scale on which energy is radiated, and quasicircular when the radial velocity is much less than the azimuthal velocity. Although the inspiral always remains adiabatic provided {mu}<black hole's spin changes following a test-particle merger, and can be extrapolated to help predict the mass and spin of the final black hole produced in finite-mass-ratio black-hole mergers. Our new contribution is particularly important for nearly maximally spinning black holes, as it can affect whether a merger produces a naked singularity.

  17. Evaluation of Black Carbon Estimations in Global Aerosol Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D.; Schulz, M.; Kinne, Stefan; McNaughton, C. S.; Spackman, J. R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Bond, Tami C.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Clarke, A. D.; De Luca, N.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Dubovik, O.; Easter, Richard C.; Fahey, D. W.; Feichter, J.; Fillmore, D.; Freitag, S.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Horowitz, L.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Klimont, Z.; Kondo, Yutaka; Krol, M.; Liu, Xiaohong; Miller, R.; Montanaro, V.; Moteki, N.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Perlwitz, Ja; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Sahu, L.; Sakamoto, H.; Schuster, G.; Schwarz, J. P.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Takemura, T.; Textor, C.; van Aardenne, John; Zhao, Y.

    2009-11-27

    We evaluate black carbon (BC) model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) from AERONET and OMI retrievals and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column) AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.6 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50N, the average model is a factor of 10 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC is 0.6 and underestimate the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model generated a smaller change in model predictions than the

  18. Transcription factor FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Sang-Min; An, Joo-Hee; Kim, Chul-Hong; Kim, Jung-Woong Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2015-08-07

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-mediated death. Although various therapeutic approaches are used for lung cancer treatment, these mainly target the tumor suppressor p53 transcription factor, which is involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, p53-targeted therapies have limited application in lung cancer, since p53 is found to be mutated in more than half of lung cancers. In this study, we propose tumor suppressor FOXA2 as an alternative target protein for therapies against lung cancer and reveal a possible FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network by identifying new target genes and binding partners of FOXA2 by using various screening techniques. The genes encoding Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2), nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2 (NR0B2), cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) were identified as putative target genes of FOXA2. Additionally, the proteins including highly similar to heat shock protein HSP 90-beta (HSP90A), heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A variant (HSPA1A), histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC3 were identified as novel interacting partners of FOXA2. Moreover, we showed that FOXA2-dependent promoter activation of BAX and p21 genes is significantly reduced via physical interactions between the identified binding partners and FOXA2. These results provide opportunities to understand the FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network and novel therapeutic targets to modulate this network in p53-deficient lung cancer. - Highlights: • Identification of new target genes of FOXA2. • Identifications of novel interaction proteins of FOXA2. • Construction of FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulatory network in non-small cell lung cancer.

  19. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of

  20. Noether charges and black hole mechanics in Einstein-aether theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Brendan Z.

    2006-01-15

    The Noether charge method for defining the Hamiltonian of a diffeomorphism-invariant field theory is applied to 'Einstein-aether' theory, in which gravity couples to a dynamical, timelike, unit-norm vector field. Using the method, expressions are obtained for the total energy, momentum, and angular momentum of an Einstein-aether space-time. The method is also used to discuss the mechanics of Einstein-aether black holes. The derivation of Wald, and Iyer and Wald, of the first law of black hole thermodynamics fails for this theory because the unit-vector is necessarily singular at the bifurcation surface of the Killing horizon. A general identity relating variations of energy and angular momentum to a surface integral at the horizon is obtained, but a thermodynamic interpretation, including a definitive expression for the black hole entropy, is not found.

  1. Uniqueness theorem for Kaluza-Klein black holes in five-dimensional minimal supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomizawa, Shinya

    2010-11-15

    We show a uniqueness theorem for Kaluza-Klein black holes in the bosonic sector of five-dimensional minimal supergravity. More precisely, under the assumptions of the existence of two commuting axial isometries and a nondegenerate connected event horizon of the cross-section topology S{sup 3}, or lens space, we prove that a stationary charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole in five-dimensional minimal supergravity is uniquely characterized by its mass, two independent angular momenta, electric charge, magnetic flux, and nut charge, provided that there exists neither a nut nor a bolt (a bubble) in the domain of outer communication. We also show that under the assumptions of the same symmetry, same asymptotics, and the horizon cross section of S{sup 1}xS{sup 2}, a black ring within the same theory--if it exists--is uniquely determined by its dipole charge and rod intervals besides the charges and magnetic flux.

  2. Inflation Induced Planck-Size Black Hole Remnants as Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P

    2004-07-06

    While there exist various candidates, the identification of dark matter remains unresolved. Recently it was argued that the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) may prevent a black hole from evaporating completely, and as a result there should exist a Planck-size BHR at the end of its evaporation. We speculate that the stability of BHR may be further protected by supersymmetry in the form of extremal black hole. If this is indeed the case and if a sufficient amount of small black holes can be produced in the early universe, then the resultant BHRs can be an interesting candidate for DM. We demonstrate that this is the case in the hybrid inflation model. By assuming BHR as DM, our notion imposes a constraint on the hybrid inflation potential. We show that such a constraint is not fine-tuned. Possible observational signatures are briefly discussed.

  3. Gravitational waves from the collision of tidally disrupted stars with massive black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    East, William E.

    2014-11-10

    We use simulations of hydrodynamics coupled with full general relativity to investigate the gravitational waves produced by a star colliding with a massive black hole when the star's tidal disruption radius lies far outside of the black hole horizon. We consider both main-sequence and white-dwarf compaction stars, and nonspinning black holes, as well as those with near-extremal spin. We study the regime in between where the star can be accurately modeled by a point particle, and where tidal effects completely suppress the gravitational wave signal. We find that nonnegligible gravitational waves can be produced even when the star is strongly affected by tidal forces, as well as when it collides with large angular momentum. We discuss the implications that these results have for the potential observation of gravitational waves from these sources with future detectors.

  4. Violation of the first law of black hole thermodynamics in f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, Rong-Xin; Li, Miao; Miao, Yan-Gang E-mail: mli@itp.ac.cn

    2011-11-01

    We prove that, in general, the first law of black hole thermodynamics, ?Q = T?S, is violated in f(T) gravity. As a result, it is possible that there exists entropy production, which implies that the black hole thermodynamics can be in non-equilibrium even in the static spacetime. This feature is very different from that of f(R) or that of other higher derivative gravity theories. We find that the violation of first law results from the lack of local Lorentz invariance in f(T) gravity. By investigating two examples, we note that f''(0) should be negative in order to avoid the naked singularities and superluminal motion of light. When f''(T) is small, the entropy of black holes in f(T) gravity is approximatively equal to f'(T)/4 A.

  5. The Equations of Motion of Compact Binaries in the Neighborhood of Supermassive Black Hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbatsievich, Alexander; Bobrik, Alexey

    2010-03-24

    By the use of Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann method, the equations of motion of a binary star system in the field of a supermassive black hole are derived. In spite of the fact that the motion of a binary system as a whole can be relativistic or even ultra-relativistic with respect to the supermassive black hole, it is shown, that under the assumption of non-relativistic relative motion of the stars in binary system, the motion of the binary system as a whole satisfies the Mathisson-Papapetrou equations with additional terms depending on quadrupole moments. Exemplary case of ultrarelativistic motion of a binary neutron star in the vicinity of non-rotating black hole is considered. It it shown that the motion of binary's center of mass may considerably differ from geodesic motion.

  6. Stable and 'bounded excursion' gravastars, and black holes in Einstein's theory of gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocha, P; Da Silva, M F A; Wang, Anzhong; Chan, R E-mail: chan@on.br E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu

    2008-11-15

    Dynamical models of prototype gravastars are constructed and studied. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of a perfect fluid with the equation of state p = (1-{gamma}){sigma} divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. When {gamma}<1 and {Lambda}{ne}0, it is found that in some cases the models represent stable gravastars, and in some cases they represent 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in some other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. However, when {gamma}{>=}1, even with {Lambda}{ne}0, only black holes are found. In the phase space, the region for both stable gravastars and 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that for black holes, although it is not completely empty.

  7. SPIN-PRECESSION: BREAKING THE BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR DEGENERACY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Cornish, Neil; Klein, Antoine; Yunes, Nicols

    2015-01-01

    Mergers of compact stellar remnants are prime targets for the LIGO/Virgo gravitational wave detectors. The gravitational wave signals from these merger events can be used to study the mass and spin distribution of stellar remnants, and provide information about black hole horizons and the material properties of neutron stars. However, it has been suggested that degeneracies in the way that the star's mass and spin are imprinted in the waveforms may make it impossible to distinguish between black holes and neutron stars. Here we show that the precession of the orbital plane due to spin-orbit coupling breaks the mass-spin degeneracy, and allows us to distinguish between standard neutron stars and alternative possibilities, such as black holes or exotic neutron stars with large masses and spins.

  8. A population of relic intermediate-mass black holes in the halo of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero

    2014-01-10

    If 'seed' central black holes were common in the subgalactic building blocks that merged to form present-day massive galaxies, then relic intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) should be present in the Galactic bulge and halo. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with black holes, and assess the size, properties, and detectability of the leftover population. The method assigns a black hole to the most tightly bound central particle of each subhalo at infall according to an extrapolation of the M {sub BH}-?{sub *} relation, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of Milky Way progenitor dwarfs and their holes in a cosmological 'live' host from high redshift to today. We show that, depending on the minimum stellar velocity dispersion, ? {sub m}, below which central black holes are assumed to be increasingly rare, as many as ?2000 (? {sub m} = 3 km s{sup 1}) or as few as ?70 (? {sub m} = 12 km s{sup 1}) IMBHs may be left wandering in the halo of the Milky Way today. The fraction of IMBHs forced from their hosts by gravitational recoil is ? 20%. We identify two main Galactic subpopulations, 'naked' IMBHs, whose host subhalos were totally destroyed after infall, and 'clothed' IMBHs residing in dark matter satellites that survived tidal stripping. Naked IMBHs typically constitute 40%-50% of the total and are more centrally concentrated. We show that, in the ? {sub m} = 12 km s{sup 1} scenario, the clusters of tightly bound stars that should accompany naked IMBHs would be fainter than m{sub V} = 16 mag, spatially resolvable, and have proper motions of 0.1-10 mas yr{sup 1}. Their detection may provide an observational tool to constrain the formation history of massive black holes in the early universe.

  9. ORSSAB Member Greg Paulus Served His Country, Helped People With Disabilities and Continues to Serve His Community

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rockwood resident Greg Paulus is a Top Gun. He earned that distinction flying F4 fighters for the Air Force. In fact, he did it twice. After serving his country, he found a way to serve people with disabilities. He continues to serve his community as a member of the Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board.

  10. Hidden conformal symmetry of rotating black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setare, M. R.; Kamali, V.

    2010-10-15

    In the present paper we show that for a low frequency limit the wave equation of a massless scalar field in the background of nonextremal charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional minimal gauged and ungauged supergravity can be written as the Casimir of an SL(2,R) symmetry. Our result shows that the entropy of the black hole is reproduced by the Cardy formula. Also the absorption cross section is consistent with the finite temperature absorption cross section for a two-dimensional conformal field theory.

  11. Comparative results of the combustion of lignin briquettes and black coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.G. Lurii

    2008-12-15

    A new type of biofuel - hydrolytic lignin briquettes - was tested as compared with ordinary SS coal from the Kuznetsk Basin in fuel-bed firing in a Universal-6 boiler. It was found that the (total) efficiency of the boiler with the firing of lignin briquettes was 38% higher than that with the use of black coal. Carbon loss in the combustion of briquettes was 1%, whereas it was 48.2% in the combustion of black coal. The emission of harmful gas pollutants into the environment in the combustion of briquettes was lower than that in the combustion of coal by a factor of 4.5.

  12. In Celebration of Black History Month, Energy Secretary Moniz and Director

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the National Museum of African Art Dr. Cole Discuss the Art of Science | Department of Energy In Celebration of Black History Month, Energy Secretary Moniz and Director of the National Museum of African Art Dr. Cole Discuss the Art of Science In Celebration of Black History Month, Energy Secretary Moniz and Director of the National Museum of African Art Dr. Cole Discuss the Art of Science February 23, 2015 - 1:50am Addthis News Media Contact 202 586 4940 RSVP@hq.doe.gov In Celebration of

  13. Are You Planning to Buy Energy-Efficient Products on Black Friday? |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Are You Planning to Buy Energy-Efficient Products on Black Friday? Are You Planning to Buy Energy-Efficient Products on Black Friday? November 23, 2011 - 5:09am Addthis This week, Chris gave us some great information on shopping for energy-efficient products. He reminded us that the cost to run appliances and home office and electronics is just as important as the purchase price, and posted a new Energy Savers graphic that shows you how to read the EnergyGuide and Energy

  14. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  15. Dissolution of metal tritides in a simulated lung fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Dahl, A.R.; Jow, Hong Nian

    1997-10-01

    Metal tritides including titanium tritide (Ti {sup 3}H{sub x}) and erbium tritide (Er {sup 3}H{sub x}) have been used as components of neutron generators. The current understanding of metal tritides and their radiation dosimetry for internal exposure is very limited, and the ICRP Publication 30 does not provide for tritium dosimetry in metal tritide form. However, a few papers in the literature suggest that the solubility of metal tritides could be low. The current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritide particles are based on the assumption that their biological behavior is similar to tritiated water, which could be easily absorbed into body fluid. Therefore, these particles could have relatively short biological half-lives (10 d). If the solubility is low, the biological half-life of metal tritide particles and the dosimetry of an inhalation exposure to these particles could be quite different from tritiated water. This paper describes experiments on the dissolution rate of titanium tritide particles in a simulated lung fluid. Titanium tritide particles with mean sizes of 103 {mu}m (coarse) and 0.95 {mu}m (fine) were used. The results showed that the coarse particles dissolved much more slowly than the fine particles. The long-term dissolution half times were 361 and 33 d for the coarse and fine particles, respectively. Dissolution data of the fine particles were consistent with the diffusion theory. The dissolution half times were longer than the 10-d biological half time for tritiated water in the body. This finding has significant implications for the current health protection guidelines, including annual limits of intakes and derived air concentrations.

  16. Metabolic kinetics and dosimetry of titanium tritide particles in the lung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.S.; Cheng, Y.S.; Snipes, M.B.; Jow, H.N.

    1996-06-01

    Internal radiation doses resulting from inhaled metal tritide aerosols are potentially a major radiation protection problem encountered by individuals handling tritium. Based on results of experiments with rats intratracheally instilled with titanium tritide particles and on a self-absorption factor of beta energy determined by a numerical method, a biokinetic model was developed for inhaled particles of titanium tritide. Results showed that lung burdens of the tritide are well represented by a 2-component exponential equation; biological half-lives observed for the retention of {sup 3}H in lung were 0.55 d and 64 d, respectively. The tritium clearance rate via urine or feces was described by a sum of three exponential components. At 121 d after instillation, 79.4% of the initial lung burden of {sup 3}H was eliminated of which 34% was excreted by urine, 35.8% via feces, and 9.6 % through exhaled air. After correction for 82% beta energy self-absorption by tritide particles, the cumulative 3H activity in the lungs of rats was 159 kBq d{sup -1} (4.3 {mu}Ci d{sup -1}) per 37 kBq (1 {mu}Ci) of instilled tritide. The cumulative radiation dose to the average lung mass of the rats was 0.28 mGy kBq{sup -1} of instilled tritide. This information will be useful in developing complete metabolic and dosimetric models for inhaled metal tritides for radiation protection purposes.

  17. Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Tami C.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Fahey, D. W.; Forster, Piers; Berntsen, T.; DeAngelo, B. J.; Flanner, M. G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Karcher, B.; Koch, Dorothy; Kinne, Stefan; Kondo, Yutaka; Quinn, P. K.; Sarofim, Marcus; Schultz, Martin; Schulz, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Bellouin, N.; Guttikunda, S. K.; Hopke, P. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Kaiser, J. W.; Klimont, Z.; Lohmann, U.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Shindell, Drew; Storelvmo, Trude; Warren, Stephen G.; Zender, C. S.

    2013-06-06

    Black carbon aerosol plays a unique and important role in Earth’s climate system. Black carbon is a type of carbonaceous material with a unique combination of physical properties. Predominant sources are combustion related; namely, fossil fuels for transportation, solid fuels for industrial and residential uses, and open burning of biomass. Total global emissions of black carbon using bottom-up inventory methods are 7500 Gg yr-1 in the year 2000 with an uncertainty range of 2000 to 29000. This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption, influence on liquid, mixed-phase, and ice clouds, and deposition on snow and ice. These effects are calculated with models, but when possible, they are evaluated with both microphysical measurements and field observations. Global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon is too low in many models, and should be increased by about about 60%. After this scaling, the best estimate for the industrial-era (1750 to 2005) direct radiative forcing of black carbon is +0.43 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of (+0.17, +0.68) W m-2. Total direct forcing by all black carbon sources in the present day is estimated as +0.49 (+0.20, +0.76) W m-2. Direct radiative forcing alone does not capture important rapid adjustment mechanisms. A framework is described and used for quantifying climate forcings and their rapid responses and feedbacks. The best estimate of industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon through all forcing mechanisms is +0.77 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of +-0.06 to +1.53 W m-2. Thus, there is a 96% probability that black carbon emissions, independent of co-emitted species, have a positive forcing and warm the climate. With a value of +0.77 W m-2, black carbon is likely the second

  18. Overspinning a nearly extreme black hole and the weak cosmic censorship conjecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richartz, Mauricio; Saa, Alberto

    2008-10-15

    We revisit here the recent proposal for overspinning a nearly extreme black hole by means of a quantum tunneling process. We show that electrically neutral massless fermions evade possible backreaction effects related to superradiance, confirming the view that it would be indeed possible to form a naked singularity due to quantum effects.

  19. Time delay and magnification centroid due to gravitational lensing by black holes and naked singularities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virbhadra, K. S.; Keeton, C. R.

    2008-06-15

    We model the massive dark object at the center of the Galaxy as a Schwarzschild black hole as well as Janis-Newman-Winicour naked singularities, characterized by the mass and scalar charge parameters, and study gravitational lensing (particularly time delay, magnification centroid, and total magnification) by them. We find that the lensing features are qualitatively similar (though quantitatively different) for Schwarzschild black holes, weakly naked, and marginally strongly naked singularities. However, the lensing characteristics of strongly naked singularities are qualitatively very different from those due to Schwarzschild black holes. The images produced by Schwarzschild black hole lenses and weakly naked and marginally strongly naked singularity lenses always have positive time delays. On the other hand, strongly naked singularity lenses can give rise to images with positive, zero, or negative time delays. In particular, for a large angular source position the direct image (the outermost image on the same side as the source) due to strongly naked singularity lensing always has a negative time delay. We also found that the scalar field decreases the time delay and increases the total magnification of images; this result could have important implications for cosmology. As the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric also describes the exterior gravitational field of a scalar star, naked singularities as well as scalar star lenses, if these exist in nature, will serve as more efficient cosmic telescopes than regular gravitational lenses.

  20. Thermodynamics of rotating charged black branes in third order lovelock gravity and the counterterm method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Mann, R.B.

    2006-05-15

    We generalize the quasilocal definition of the stress-energy tensor of Einstein gravity to the case of third order Lovelock gravity, by introducing the surface terms that make the action well-defined. We also introduce the boundary counterterm that removes the divergences of the action and the conserved quantities of the solutions of third order Lovelock gravity with zero curvature boundary at constant t and r. Then, we compute the charged rotating solutions of this theory in n+1 dimensions with a complete set of allowed rotation parameters. These charged rotating solutions present black hole solutions with two inner and outer event horizons, extreme black holes or naked singularities provided the parameters of the solutions are suitably chosen. We compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, mass and angular momenta of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We find a Smarr-type formula and perform a stability analysis by computing the heat capacity and the determinant of Hessian matrix of mass with respect to its thermodynamic variables in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles, and show that the system is thermally stable. This is commensurate with the fact that there is no Hawking-Page phase transition for black objects with zero curvature horizon.

  1. Black holes in an asymptotically safe gravity theory with higher derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Easson, Damien A. E-mail: easson@asu.edu

    2010-09-01

    We present a class of spherically symmetric vacuum solutions to an asymptotically safe theory of gravity containing high-derivative terms. We find quantum corrected Schwarzschild-(anti)-de Sitter solutions with running gravitational coupling parameters. The evolution of the couplings is determined by their corresponding renormalization group flow equations. These black holes exhibit properties of a classical Schwarzschild solution at large length scales. At the center, the metric factor remains smooth but the curvature singularity, while softened by the quantum corrections, persists. The solutions have an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon which equate when the physical mass decreases to a critical value. Super-extremal solutions with masses below the critical value correspond to naked singularities. The Hawking temperature of the black hole vanishes when the physical mass reaches the critical value. Hence, the black holes in the asymptotically safe gravitational theory never completely evaporate. For appropriate values of the parameters such stable black hole remnants make excellent dark matter candidates.

  2. Entropy of near-extremal black holes in AdS5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; de Boer, Jan; Jejjala, Vishnu; Simon, Joan

    2007-07-24

    We construct the microstates of near-extremal black holes in AdS_5 x S5 as gases of defects distributed in heavy BPS operators in the dual SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. These defects describe open strings on spherical D3-branes in the S5, and we show that they dominate the entropy by directly enumerating them and comparing the results with a partition sum calculation. We display new decoupling limits in which the field theory of the lightest open strings on the D-branes becomes dual to a near-horizon region of the black hole geometry. In the single-charge black hole we find evidence for an infrared duality between SU(N) Yang-Mills theories that exchanges the rank of the gauge group with an R-charge. In the two-charge case (where pairs of branes intersect on a line), the decoupled geometry includes an AdS_3 factor with a two-dimensional CFT dual. The degeneracy in this CFT accounts for the black hole entropy. In the three-charge case (where triples of branes intersect at a point), the decoupled geometry contains an AdS_2 factor. Below a certain critical mass, the two-charge system displays solutions with naked timelike singularities even though they do not violate a BPS bound. We suggest a string theoretic resolution of these singularities.

  3. Summation over histories for a particle in spherical orbit around a black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernido, C.C.; Aguarte, G.

    1997-08-01

    An exact path integral treatment of a relativistic scalar particle in a spherical orbit around a Reissner-Nordstr{umlt o}m and Schwarzschild black hole is presented. A closed form for the Green function and the energy spectrum are obtained. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Cold black holes in the Harlow–Hayden approach to firewalls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Yen Chin; McInnes, Brett; Chen, Pisin

    2014-12-31

    Firewalls are controversial principally because they seem to imply departures from general relativistic expectations in regions of spacetime where the curvature need not be particularly large. One of the virtues of the Harlow–Hayden approach to the firewall paradox, concerning the time available for decoding of Hawking radiation emanating from charged AdS black holes, is precisely that it operates in the context of cold black holes, which are not strongly curved outside the event horizon. Here we clarify this point. The approach is based on ideas borrowed from applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to the quark–gluon plasma. Firewalls aside, our work presents a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics and evolution of evaporating charged AdS black holes with flat event horizons. We show that, in one way or another, these black holes are always eventually destroyed in a time which, while long by normal standards, is short relative to the decoding time of Hawking radiation.

  5. Cold black holes in the Harlow–Hayden approach to firewalls

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ong, Yen Chin; McInnes, Brett; Chen, Pisin

    2014-12-31

    Firewalls are controversial principally because they seem to imply departures from general relativistic expectations in regions of spacetime where the curvature need not be particularly large. One of the virtues of the Harlow–Hayden approach to the firewall paradox, concerning the time available for decoding of Hawking radiation emanating from charged AdS black holes, is precisely that it operates in the context of cold black holes, which are not strongly curved outside the event horizon. Here we clarify this point. The approach is based on ideas borrowed from applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to the quark–gluon plasma. Firewalls aside, our workmore » presents a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics and evolution of evaporating charged AdS black holes with flat event horizons. We show that, in one way or another, these black holes are always eventually destroyed in a time which, while long by normal standards, is short relative to the decoding time of Hawking radiation.« less

  6. Inhibitory effect of Disulfiram/copper complex on non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Lincan; Shen, Hongmei; Zhao, Guangqiang; Yang, Runxiang; Cai, Xinyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Jin, Congguo; Huang, Yunchao

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Disulfiram and copper synergistically inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation. • Lung cancer cell colony formation ability is inhibited by Disulfiram/copper. • Disulfiram/copper increases the sensitivity of cisplatin to lung cancer cells. • Lung cancer stem cells are specifically targeted by Disulfiram/copper complex. - Abstract: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women worldwide. Recently, Disulfiram has been reported to be able to inhibit glioblastoma, prostate, or breast cancer cell proliferation. In this study, the synergistic effect of Disulfiram and copper on NSCLC cell growth was investigated. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was detected by 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT) assay and cell cycle analysis. Liquid colony formation and tumor spheroid formation assays were used to evaluate their effect on cancer cell clonogenicity. Real-time PCR was performed to test the mRNA level of cancer stem cell related genes. We found that Disulfiram or copper alone did not potently inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro. However, the presence of copper significantly enhanced inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell growth, indicating a synergistic effect between Disulfiram and copper. Cell cycle analysis showed that Disulfiram/copper complex caused NSCLC cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Furthermore, Disulfiram/copper significantly increased the sensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells tested by MTT assay. Liquid colony formation assay revealed that copper dramatically increased the inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell colony forming ability. Disulfiram combined with copper significantly attenuated NSCLC cell spheroid formation and recuded the mRNA expression of lung cancer stem cell related genes. Our data suggest that Disulfiram/copper complex alone or combined with other chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC patients.

  7. Lung cancer-derived Dickkopf1 is associated with bone metastasis and the mechanism involves the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Tianqing; Teng, Jiajun; Jiang, Liyan; Zhong, Hua; Han, Baohui

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: DKK1 level was associated with NSCLC bone metastases. Lung tumor cells derived DKK1 inhibited osteoblast differentiation. Lung tumor cells derived DKK1 modulates ?-catenin and RUNX2. -- Abstract: Wnt/?-catenin signaling and Dickkopf1 (DKK1) play important roles in the progression of lung cancer, which preferably metastasizes to skeleton. But the role of them in bone dissemination is poorly understood. This study aims to define the role of DKK1 in lung cancer bone metastases and investigate the underlying mechanism. Our results demonstrated that DKK1 over-expression was a frequent event in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) blood samples, and serous DKK1 level was much higher in bone metastatic NSCLC compared to non-bone metastatic NSCLC. We also found that conditioned medium from DKK1 over-expressing lung cancer cells inhibited the differentiation of osteoblast, determined by alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin secretion, whereas the conditioned medium from DKK1 silencing lung cancer cells exhibited the opposite effects. Mechanistically, DKK1 reduced the level of ?-catenin and RUNX2, as well as inhibiting the nuclear translocation of ?-catenin. Taken together, these results suggested that lung cancer-produced DKK1 may be an important mechanistic link between NSCLC and bone metastases, and targeting DKK1 may be an effective method to treat bone metastase of NSCLC.

  8. XCR1 promotes cell growth and migration and is correlated with bone metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ting; Han, Shuai; Wu, Zhipeng; Han, Zhitao; Yan, Wangjun; Liu, Tielong; Wei, Haifeng; Song, Dianwen; Zhou, Wang Yang, Xinghai Xiao, Jianru

    2015-08-21

    Bone metastasis occurs in approximately 30–40% patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the mechanism underlying this bone metastasis remains poorly understood. The chemokine super family is believed to play an important role in tumor metastasis in lung cancer. The chemokine receptor XCR1 has been identified to promote cell proliferation and migration in oral cancer and ovarian carcinoma, but the role of XCR1 in lung cancer has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that XCR1 was overexpressed in lung cancer bone metastasis as compared with that in patients with primary lung cancer. In addition, the XCR1 ligand XCL1 promoted the proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells markedly, and knockdown of XCR1 by siRNA abolished the effect of XCL1 in cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, we identified JAK2/STAT3 as a novel downstream pathway of XCR1, while XCL1/XCR1 increased the mRNA level of the downstream of JAK2/STAT3 including PIM1, JunB, TTP, MMP2 and MMP9. These results indicate that XCR1 is a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer bone metastasis. - Highlights: • XCR1 is overexpressed in bone metastasis compared with primary NSCLC. • XCR1 activation by XCL1 promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. • JAK2/STAT3 is a novel potential downstream pathway of XCR1.

  9. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornetti, Micheal; Freeman, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  10. Blockade of lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPAR1/3 ameliorates lung fibrosis induced by irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Lu; Xue, Jian-Xin; Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu ; Li, Xin; Liu, De-Song; Ge, Yan; Ni, Pei-Yan; Deng, Lin; Lu, You; Department of Thoracic Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu ; Jiang, Wei; Molecular Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels and its receptors LPAR1/3 transcripts were elevated during the development of radiation-induced lung fibrosis. {yields} Lung fibrosis was obviously alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. {yields} VPC12249 administration effectively inhibited radiation-induced fibroblast accumulation in vivo, and suppressed LPA-induced fibroblast proliferation in vitro. {yields} LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling regulated TGF{beta}1 and CTGF expressions in radiation-challenged lungs, but only influenced CTGF expression in cultured fibroblasts. {yields} LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling induced fibroblast proliferation through a CTGF-dependent pathway, rather than through TGF{beta}1 activation. -- Abstract: Lung fibrosis is a common and serious complication of radiation therapy for lung cancer, for which there are no efficient treatments. Emerging evidence indicates that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors (LPARs) are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Here, we reported that thoracic radiation with 16 Gy in mice induced development of radiation lung fibrosis (RLF) accompanied by obvious increases in LPA release and LPAR1 and LPAR3 (LPAR1/3) transcripts. RLF was significantly alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. VPC12249 administration effectively prolonged animal survival, restored lung structure, inhibited fibroblast accumulation and reduced collagen deposition. Moreover, profibrotic cytokines in radiation-challenged lungs obviously decreased following administration of VPC12249, including transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). In vitro, LPA induced both fibroblast proliferation and CTGF expression in a dose-dependent manner, and both were suppressed by blockade of LPAR1/3. The pro-proliferative activity of LPA on fibroblasts was inhibited by siRNA directed against CTGF. Together, our data suggest that the LPA-LPAR1

  11. Determination of lung segments in computed tomography images using the Euclidean distance to the pulmonary artery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoecker, Christina; Moltz, Jan H.; Lassen, Bianca; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Welter, Stefan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) imaging is the modality of choice for lung cancer diagnostics. With the increasing number of lung interventions on sublobar level in recent years, determining and visualizing pulmonary segments in CT images and, in oncological cases, reliable segment-related information about the location of tumors has become increasingly desirable. Computer-assisted identification of lung segments in CT images is subject of this work.Methods: The authors present a new interactive approach for the segmentation of lung segments that uses the Euclidean distance of each point in the lung to the segmental branches of the pulmonary artery. The aim is to analyze the potential of the method. Detailed manual pulmonary artery segmentations are used to achieve the best possible segment approximation results. A detailed description of the method and its evaluation on 11 CT scans from clinical routine are given.Results: An accuracy of 2–3 mm is measured for the segment boundaries computed by the pulmonary artery-based method. On average, maximum deviations of 8 mm are observed. 135 intersegmental pulmonary veins detected in the 11 test CT scans serve as reference data. Furthermore, a comparison of the presented pulmonary artery-based approach to a similar approach that uses the Euclidean distance to the segmental branches of the bronchial tree is presented. It shows a significantly higher accuracy for the pulmonary artery-based approach in lung regions at least 30 mm distal to the lung hilum.Conclusions: A pulmonary artery-based determination of lung segments in CT images is promising. In the tests, the pulmonary artery-based determination has been shown to be superior to the bronchial tree-based determination. The suitability of the segment approximation method for application in the planning of segment resections in clinical practice has already been verified in experimental cases. However, automation of the method accompanied by an evaluation on a larger

  12. Coal stratigraphy of deeper part of Black Warrior basin in Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, W.A.; Womack, S.H.

    1983-09-01

    The Warrior coal field of Alabama is stratigraphically in the upper part of the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation and structurally in the eastern part of the Black Warrior foreland basin. The productive coal beds extend southwestward from the mining area downdip into the deeper part of the Black Warrior structural basin. Because the deep part of the basin is beyond the limits of conventional coal exploration, study of the stratigraphy of coal beds must rely on data from petroleum wells. Relative abundance of coal can be stated in terms of numbers of beds, but because of the limitations of the available data, thicknesses of coals presently are not accurately determined. The lower sandstone-rich coal-poor part of the Pottsville has been interpreted as barrier sediments in the mining area. To the southwest in the deeper Black Warrior basin, coal beds are more numerous within the sandstone-dominated sequence. The coal-productive upper Pottsville is informally divided into coal groups each of which includes several coal beds. The Black Creek, Mary Lee, and Utley coal groups are associated with northeast-trending delta-distributary sandstones. The areas of most numerous coals also trend northeastward and are laterally adjacent to relatively thick distributary sandstones, suggesting coal accumulation in backswamp environments. The most numerous coals in the Pratt coal group are in an area that trends northwestward parallel with and southwest of a northwest-trending linear sandstone, suggesting coal accumulation in a back-barrier environment. Equivalents of the Cobb, Gwin, and Brookwood coal groups contain little coal in the deep part of the Black Warrior basin.

  13. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  14. The histone demethylase PHF8 is an oncogenic protein in human non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yuzhou; Pan, Xufeng; Zhao, Heng

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • PHF8 overexpresses in human NSCLC and predicts poor survival. • PHF8 regulates lung cancer cell growth and transformation. • PHF8 regulates apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. • PHF8 promotes miR-21 expression in human lung cancer. • MiR-21 is critically essential for PHF8 function in human lung cancer cells. - Abstract: PHF8 is a JmjC domain-containing protein and erases repressive histone marks including H4K20me1 and H3K9me1/2. It binds to H3K4me3, an active histone mark usually located at transcription start sites (TSSs), through its plant homeo-domain, and is thus recruited and enriched in gene promoters. PHF8 is involved in the development of several types of cancer, including leukemia, prostate cancer, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Herein we report that PHF8 is an oncogenic protein in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PHF8 is up-regulated in human NSCLC tissues, and high PHF8 expression predicts poor survival. Our in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrate that PHF8 regulates lung cancer cell proliferation and cellular transformation. We found that PHF8 knockdown induces DNA damage and apoptosis in lung cancer cells. PHF8 promotes miR-21 expression in human lung cancer, and miR-21 knockdown blocks the effects of PHF8 on proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells. In summary, PHF8 promotes lung cancer cell growth and survival by regulating miR-21.

  15. Model predictions of the results of interferometric observations for stars under conditions of strong gravitational scattering by black holes and wormholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shatskiy, A. A. Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Novikov, I. D.

    2015-05-15

    The characteristic and distinctive features of the visibility amplitude of interferometric observations for compact objects like stars in the immediate vicinity of the central black hole in our Galaxy are considered. These features are associated with the specifics of strong gravitational scattering of point sources by black holes, wormholes, or black-white holes. The revealed features will help to determine the most important topological characteristics of the central object in our Galaxy: whether this object possesses the properties of only a black hole or also has characteristics unique to wormholes or black-white holes. These studies can be used to interpret the results of optical, infrared, and radio interferometric observations.

  16. Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky with an atlas of some common fossils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

    1981-04-01

    The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence of eastern North America is a distinctive stratigraphic interval generally characterized by low clastic influx, high organic production in the water column, anaerobic bottom conditions, and the relative absence of fossil evidence for biologic activity. The laminated black shales which constitute most of the black-shale sequence are broken by two major sequences of interbedded greenish-gray, clayey shales which contain bioturbation and pyritized micromorph invertebrates. The black shales contain abundant evidence of life from upper parts of the water column such as fish fossils, conodonts, algae and other phytoplankton; however, there is a lack of evidence of benthic life. The rare brachiopods, crinoids, and molluscs that occur in the black shales were probably epiplanktic. A significant physical distinction between the environment in which the black sediments were deposited and that in which the greenish-gray sediments were deposited was the level of dissolved oxygen. The laminated black shales point to anaerobic conditions and the bioturbated greenish-gray shales suggest dysaerobic to marginally aerobic-dysaerobic conditions. A paleoenvironmental model in which quasi-estuarine circulation compliments and enhances the effect of a stratified water column can account for both depletion of dissolved oxygen in the bottom environments and the absence of oxygen replenishment during black-shale deposition. Periods of abundant clastic influx from fluvial environments to the east probably account for the abundance of clays in the greenish-gray shale as well as the small amounts of oxygen necessary to support the depauparate, opportunistic, benthic faunas found there. These pulses of greenish-gray clastics were short-lived and eventually were replaced by anaerobic conditions and low rates of clastic sedimentation which characterized most of black-shale deposition.

  17. Predictive Parameters of CyberKnife Fiducial-less (XSight Lung) Applicability for Treatment of Early Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahig, Houda; Campeau, Marie-Pierre; Vu, Toni; Doucet, Robert; Bliveau Nadeau, Dominic; Fortin, Bernard; Roberge, David; Lambert, Louise; Carrier, Jean-Franois; Filion, Edith

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To determine which parameters allow for CyberKnife fiducial-less tumor tracking in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 133 lung SBRT patients were preselected for direct soft-tissue tracking based on manufacturer recommendations (peripherally located tumors ?1.5 cm with a dense appearance) and staff experience. Patients underwent a tumor visualization test to verify adequate detection by the tracking system (orthogonal radiographs). An analysis of potential predictors of successful tumor tracking was conducted looking at: tumor stage, size, histology, tumor projection on the vertebral column or mediastinum, distance to the diaphragm, lung-to-soft tissue ratio, and patient body mass index. Results: Tumor visualization was satisfactory for 88 patients (66%) and unsatisfactory for 45 patients (34%). Median time to treatment start was 6 days in the success group (range, 2-18 days) and 15 days (range, 3-63 days) in the failure group. A stage T2 (P=.04), larger tumor size (volume of 15.3 cm{sup 3} vs 6.5 cm{sup 3} in success and failure group, respectively) (P<.0001), and higher tumor density (0.86 g/cm{sup 3} vs 0.79 g/cm{sup 3}) were predictive of adequate detection. There was a 63% decrease in failure risk with every 1-cm increase in maximum tumor dimension (relative risk for failure = 0.37, CI=0.23-0.60, P=.001). A diameter of 3.6 cm predicted a success probability of 80%. Histology, lung-to-soft tissue ratio, distance to diaphragm, patient's body mass index, and tumor projection on vertebral column and mediastinum were not found to be predictive of success. Conclusions: Tumor size, volume, and density were the most predictive factors of a successful XSight Lung tumor tracking. Tumors >3.5 cm have ?80% chance of being adequately visualized and therefore should all be considered for direct tumor tracking.

  18. Historical review of lung counting efficiencies for low energy photon emitters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeffers, Karen L.; Hickman, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This publication reviews the measured efficiency and variability over time of a high purity planar germanium in vivo lung count system for multiple photon energies using increasingly thick overlays with the Lawrence Livermore Torso Phantom. Furthermore, the measured variations in efficiency are compared with the current requirement for in vivo bioassay performance as defined by the American National Standards Institute Standard.

  19. Effect of lung and target density on small-field dose coverage and PTV definition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, Patrick D. Ehler, Eric D.; Cho, Lawrence C.; Dusenbery, Kathryn E.

    2015-04-01

    We have studied the effect of target and lung density on block margin for small stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) targets. A phantom (50 × 50 × 50 cm{sup 3}) was created in the Pinnacle (V9.2) planning system with a 23-cm diameter lung region of interest insert. Diameter targets of 1.6, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 cm were placed in the lung region of interest and centered at a physical depth of 15 cm. Target densities evaluated were 0.1 to 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}, whereas the surrounding lung density was varied between 0.05 and 0.6 g/cm{sup 3}. A dose of 100 cGy was delivered to the isocenter via a single 6-MV field, and the ratio of the average dose to points defining the lateral edges of the target to the isocenter dose was recorded for each combination. Field margins were varied from none to 1.5 cm in 0.25-cm steps. Data obtained in the phantom study were used to predict planning treatment volume (PTV) margins that would match the clinical PTV and isodose prescription for a clinical set of 39 SBRT cases. The average internal target volume (ITV) density was 0.73 ± 0.17, average local lung density was 0.33 ± 0.16, and average ITV diameter was 2.16 ± 0.8 cm. The phantom results initially underpredicted PTV margins by 0.35 cm. With this offset included in the model, the ratio of predicted-to-clinical PTVs was 1.05 ± 0.32. For a given target and lung density, it was found that treatment margin was insensitive to target diameter, except for the smallest (1.6-cm diameter) target, for which the treatment margin was more sensitive to density changes than the larger targets. We have developed a graphical relationship for block margin as a function of target and lung density, which should save time in the planning phase by shortening the design of PTV margins that can satisfy Radiation Therapy Oncology Group mandated treatment volume ratios.

  20. Cell-specific oxidative stress and cytotoxicity after wildfire coarse particulate matter instillation into mouse lung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Keisha M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Last, Jerold A.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10-2.5}) from wildfire smoke is more toxic to lung macrophages on an equal dose (by mass) basis than coarse PM isolated from normal ambient air, as evidenced by decreased numbers of macrophages in lung lavage fluid 6 and 24 hours after PM instillation into mouse lungs in vivo and by cytotoxicity to a macrophage cell line observed directly in vitro. We hypothesized that pulmonary macrophages from mice instilled with wildfire coarse PM would undergo more cytotoxicity than macrophages from controls, and that there would be an increase in oxidative stress in their lungs. Cytotoxicity was quantified as decreased viable macrophages and increased percentages of dead macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice instilled with wildfire coarse PM. At 1 hour after PM instillation, we observed both decreased numbers of viable macrophages and increased dead macrophage percentages as compared to controls. An increase in free isoprostanes, an indicator of oxidative stress, from control values of 28.1 3.2 pg/mL to 83.9 12.2 pg/mL was observed a half-hour after PM instillation. By 1 hour after PM instillation, isoprostane values had returned to 30.4 7.6 pg/mL, not significantly different from control concentrations. Lung sections from mice instilled with wildfire coarse PM showed rapid Clara cell responses, with decreased intracellular staining for the Clara cell secretory protein CCSP 1 hour after wildfire PM instillation. In conclusion, very rapid cytotoxicity occurs in pulmonary macrophages and oxidative stress responses are seen 0.51 hour after wildfire coarse PM instillation. These results define early cellular and biochemical events occurring in vivo and support the hypothesis that oxidative stress-mediated macrophage toxicity plays a key role in the initial response of the mouse lung to wildfire PM exposure. -- Highlights: ? We studied very early events (0.51 hour) after giving

  1. Six Degrees-of-Freedom Prostate and Lung Tumor Motion Measurements Using Kilovoltage Intrafraction Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Ng, Jin Aun; Booth, Jeremy; Keall, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Tumor positional uncertainty has been identified as a major issue that deteriorates the efficacy of radiation therapy. Tumor rotational movement, which is not well understood, can result in significant geometric and dosimetric inaccuracies. The objective of this study was to measure 6 degrees-of-freedom (6 DoF) prostate and lung tumor motion, focusing on the more novel rotation, using kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM). Methods and Materials: Continuous kilovoltage (kV) projections of tumors with gold fiducial markers were acquired during radiation therapy for 267 fractions from 10 prostate cancer patients and immediately before or after radiation therapy for 50 fractions from 3 lung cancer patients. The 6 DoF motion measurements were determined from the individual 3-dimensional (3D) marker positions, after using methods to reject spurious and smooth noisy data, using an iterative closest point algorithm. Results: There were large variations in the magnitude of the tumor rotation among different fractions and patients. Various rotational patterns were observed. The average prostate rotation angles around the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.0 ± 5.0°, 0.6 ± 3.3°, and 0.3 ± 2.0°, respectively. For 35% of the time, the prostate rotated more than 5° about the LR axis, indicating the need for intrafractional adaptation during radiation delivery. For lung patients, the average LR, SI, and AP rotation angles were 0.8 ± 4.2°, −0.8 ± 4.5°, and 1.7 ± 3.1°, respectively. For about 30% of the time, the lung tumors rotated more than 5° around the SI axis. Respiration-induced rotation was detected in 2 of the 3 lung patients. Conclusions: The prostate and lung tumors were found to undergo rotations of more than 5° for about a third of the time. The lung tumor data represent the first 6 DoF tumor motion measured by kV images. The 6 DoF KIM method can enable rotational and translational

  2. Inhibition of chlorine-induced lung injury by the type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Weiyuan; Chen, Jing; Schlueter, Connie F.; Rando, Roy J.; Pathak, Yashwant V.; Hoyle, Gary W.

    2012-09-01

    Chlorine is a highly toxic respiratory irritant that when inhaled causes epithelial cell injury, alveolar-capillary barrier disruption, airway hyperreactivity, inflammation, and pulmonary edema. Chlorine is considered a chemical threat agent, and its release through accidental or intentional means has the potential to result in mass casualties from acute lung injury. The type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram was investigated as a rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury. Rolipram inhibits degradation of the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic AMP. Potential beneficial effects of increased cyclic AMP levels include inhibition of pulmonary edema, inflammation, and airway hyperreactivity. Mice were exposed to chlorine (whole body exposure, 228–270 ppm for 1 h) and were treated with rolipram by intraperitoneal, intranasal, or intramuscular (either aqueous or nanoemulsion formulation) delivery starting 1 h after exposure. Rolipram administered intraperitoneally or intranasally inhibited chlorine-induced pulmonary edema. Minor or no effects were observed on lavage fluid IgM (indicative of plasma protein leakage), KC (Cxcl1, neutrophil chemoattractant), and neutrophils. All routes of administration inhibited chlorine-induced airway hyperreactivity assessed 1 day after exposure. The results of the study suggest that rolipram may be an effective rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury and that both systemic and targeted administration to the respiratory tract were effective routes of delivery. -- Highlights: ► Chlorine causes lung injury when inhaled and is considered a chemical threat agent. ► Rolipram inhibited chlorine-induced pulmonary edema and airway hyperreactivity. ► Post-exposure rolipram treatments by both systemic and local delivery were effective. ► Rolipram shows promise as a rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury.

  3. Real-time soft tissue motion estimation for lung tumors during radiotherapy delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rottmann, Joerg; Berbeco, Ross; Keall, Paul

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To provide real-time lung tumor motion estimation during radiotherapy treatment delivery without the need for implanted fiducial markers or additional imaging dose to the patient.Methods: 2D radiographs from the therapy beam's-eye-view (BEV) perspective are captured at a frame rate of 12.8 Hz with a frame grabber allowing direct RAM access to the image buffer. An in-house developed real-time soft tissue localization algorithm is utilized to calculate soft tissue displacement from these images in real-time. The system is tested with a Varian TX linear accelerator and an AS-1000 amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device operating at a resolution of 512 × 384 pixels. The accuracy of the motion estimation is verified with a dynamic motion phantom. Clinical accuracy was tested on lung SBRT images acquired at 2 fps.Results: Real-time lung tumor motion estimation from BEV images without fiducial markers is successfully demonstrated. For the phantom study, a mean tracking error <1.0 mm [root mean square (rms) error of 0.3 mm] was observed. The tracking rms accuracy on BEV images from a lung SBRT patient (≈20 mm tumor motion range) is 1.0 mm.Conclusions: The authors demonstrate for the first time real-time markerless lung tumor motion estimation from BEV images alone. The described system can operate at a frame rate of 12.8 Hz and does not require prior knowledge to establish traceable landmarks for tracking on the fly. The authors show that the geometric accuracy is similar to (or better than) previously published markerless algorithms not operating in real-time.

  4. Diet-induced obesity reprograms the inflammatory response of the murine lung to inhaled endotoxin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Karin, Norman J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Zangar, Richard C.; Lee, K. Monica; Bigelow, Diana J.; Pounds, Joel G.; Corley, Richard A.

    2013-03-01

    The co-occurrence of environmental factors is common in complex human diseases and, as such, understanding the molecular responses involved is essential to determine risk and susceptibility to disease. We have investigated the key biological pathways that define susceptibility for pulmonary infection during obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) and regular weight (RW) C57BL/6 mice exposed to inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induced a strong inflammatory response in all mice as indicated by elevated cell counts of macrophages and neutrophils and levels of proinflammatory cytokines (MDC, MIP-1?, IL-12, RANTES) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Additionally, DIO mice exhibited 50% greater macrophage cell counts, but decreased levels of the cytokines, IL-6, TARC, TNF-?, and VEGF relative to RW mice. Microarray analysis of lung tissue showed over half of the LPS-induced expression in DIO mice consisted of genes unique for obese mice, suggesting that obesity reprograms how the lung responds to subsequent insult. In particular, we found that obese animals exposed to LPS have gene signatures showing increased inflammatory and oxidative stress response and decreased antioxidant capacity compared with RW. Because signaling pathways for these responses can be common to various sources of environmentally induced lung damage, we further identified biomarkers that are indicative of specific toxicant exposure by comparing gene signatures after LPS exposure to those from a parallel study with cigarette smoke. These data show obesity may increase sensitivity to further insult and that co-occurrence of environmental stressors result in complex biosignatures that are not predicted from analysis of individual exposures. - Highlights: ? Obesity modulates inflammatory markers in BAL fluid after LPS exposure. ? Obese animals have a unique transcriptional signature in lung after LPS exposure. ? Obesity elevates inflammatory stress and reduces antioxidant capacity in the lung

  5. Metabolite signatures in hydrophilic extracts of mouse lungs exposed to cigarette smoke revealed by 1H NMR metabolomics investigation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Xuan; Feng, Ju; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Pounds, Joel G.; Corley, Richard A.; Liu, Maili; Hu, Mary Y.

    2015-05-12

    Herein, 1H-NMR metabolomics are carried out to evaluate the changes of metabolites in lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. It is found that the concentrations of adenosine derivatives (i.e. ATP, ADP and AMP), inosine and uridine are significantly fluctuated in the lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke compared with those of controls regardless the mouse is obese or regular weight. The decreased ATP, ADP, AMP and elevated inosine predict that the deaminases in charge of adenosine derivatives to inosine derivatives conversion are altered in lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Transcriptional analysis reveals that the concentrations ofmore » adenosine monophosphate deaminase and adenosine deaminase are different in the lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke, confirming the prediction from metabolomics studies. We also found, for the first time, that the ratio of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) to phosphocholine (PC) is significantly increased in the lungs of obese mice compared with regular weight mice. The ratio of GPC/PC is further elevated in the lungs of obese group by cigarette smoke exposure. Since GPC/PC ratio is a known biomarker for cancer, these results may suggest that obese group is more susceptible to lung cancer when exposed to cigarette smoke.« less

  6. SU-E-T-500: Dose Escalation Strategy for Lung Cancer Patients Using a Biologically- Guided Target Definition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shusharina, N; Khan, F; Choi, N; Sharp, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation strategy for lung cancer patients can lead to late symptoms such as pneumonitis and cardiac injury. We propose a strategy to increase radiation dose for improving local tumor control while simultaneously striving to minimize the injury of organs at risk (OAR). Our strategy is based on defining a small, biologically-guided target volume for receiving additional radiation dose. Methods: 106 patients with lung cancer treated with radiotherapy were selected for patients diagnosed with stage II and III disease. Previous research has shown that 50% of the maximum SUV threshold in FDG-PET imaging is appropriate for delineation of the most aggressive part of a tumor. After PET- and CT-derived targets were contoured, an IMRT treatment plan was designed to deliver 60 Gy to the GTV as delineated on a 4D CT (Plan 1). A second plan was designed with additional dose of 18 Gy to the PET-derived volume (Plan 2). A composite plan was generated by the addition of Plan 1 and Plan 2. Results: Plan 1 was compared to the composite plan and increases in OAR dose were assessed. For seven patients on average, lung V5 was increased by 1.4% and V20 by 4.2% for ipsilateral lung and by 13.5% and 7% for contralateral lung. For total lung, V5 and V20 were increased by 4.5% and 4.8% respectively. Mean lung dose was increased by 9.7% for the total lung. The maximum dose to the spinal cord increased by 16% on average. For the heart, V20 increased by 4.2% and V40 by 5.2%. Conclusion: It seems feasible that an additional 18 Gy of radiation dose can be delivered to FDG PET-derived subvolume of the CT-based GTV of the primary tumor without significant increase in total dose to the critical organs such as lungs, spinal cord and heart.

  7. Impact of Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Pulmonary Ventilation Imaging-Based Functional Avoidance for Lung Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kabus, Sven; Berg, Jens von; Lorenz, Cristian; Keall, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) pulmonary ventilation imaging-based functional treatment planning that avoids high-functional lung regions. Methods and Materials: 4D-CT ventilation images were created from 15 non-small-cell lung cancer patients using deformable image registration and quantitative analysis of the resultant displacement vector field. For each patient, anatomic and functional plans were created for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Consistent beam angles and dose-volume constraints were used for all cases. The plans with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617-defined major deviations were modified until clinically acceptable. Functional planning spared the high-functional lung, and anatomic planning treated the lungs as uniformly functional. We quantified the impact of functional planning compared with anatomic planning using the two- or one-tailed t test. Results: Functional planning led to significant reductions in the high-functional lung dose, without significantly increasing other critical organ doses, but at the expense of significantly degraded the planning target volume (PTV) conformity and homogeneity. The average reduction in the high-functional lung mean dose was 1.8 Gy for IMRT (p < .001) and 2.0 Gy for VMAT (p < .001). Significantly larger changes occurred in the metrics for patients with a larger amount of high-functional lung adjacent to the PTV. Conclusion: The results of the present study have demonstrated the impact of 4D-CT ventilation imaging-based functional planning for IMRT and VMAT for the first time. Our findings indicate the potential of functional planning in lung functional avoidance for both IMRT and VMAT, particularly for patients who have high-functional lung adjacent to the PTV.

  8. Charged annular disks and Reissner-Nordstroem type black holes from extremal dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; Ospina-Henao, P. A.; Pedraza, J. F.

    2010-10-15

    We present the first analytical superposition of a charged black hole with an annular disk of extremal dust. In order to obtain the solutions, we first solve the Einstein-Maxwell field equations for sources that represent disklike configurations of matter in confomastatic spacetimes by assuming a functional dependence among the metric function, the electric potential, and an auxiliary function, which is taken as a solution of the Laplace equation. We then employ the Lord Kelvin inversion method applied to models of finite extension in order to obtain annular disks. The structures obtained extend to infinity, but their total masses are finite and all the energy conditions are satisfied. Finally, we observe that the extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black hole can be embedded into the center of the disks by adding a boundary term in the inversion.

  9. Black holes and neutron stars in the generalized tensor-vector-scalar theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasky, Paul D.

    2009-10-15

    Bekenstein's tensor-vector-scalar (TeVeS) theory has had considerable success as a relativistic theory of modified Newtonian dynamics. However, recent work suggests that the dynamics of the theory are fundamentally flawed and numerous authors have subsequently begun to consider a generalization of TeVeS where the vector field is given by an Einstein-Aether action. Herein, I develop strong-field solutions of the generalized TeVeS theory, in particular exploring neutron stars as well as neutral and charged black holes. I find that the solutions are identical to the neutron star and black hole solutions of the original TeVeS theory, given a mapping between the parameters of the two theories, and hence provide constraints on these values of the coupling constants. I discuss the consequences of these results in detail including the stability of such spacetimes as well as generalizations to more complicated geometries.

  10. AdS Black Disk Model for Small-x Deep Inelastic Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, Joao

    2010-08-13

    Using the approximate conformal invariance of QCD at high energies we consider a simple anti-de Sitter black disk model to describe saturation in deep inelastic scattering. Deep inside saturation the structure functions have the same power law scaling, F{sub T}{approx}F{sub L}{approx}x{sup -{omega}}, where {omega} is related to the expansion rate of the black disk with energy. Furthermore, the ratio F{sub L}/F{sub T} is given by the universal value (1+{omega}/3+{omega}), independently of the target. For {gamma}*-{gamma}* scattering at high energies we obtain explicit expressions and ratios for the total cross sections of transverse and longitudinal photons in terms of the single parameter {omega}.

  11. Thermodynamics of charged rotating black branes in Brans-Dicke theory with quadratic scalar field potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pakravan, J.; Hendi, S. H.

    2006-11-15

    We construct a class of charged rotating solutions in (n+1)-dimensional Maxwell-Brans-Dicke theory with flat horizon in the presence of a quadratic potential and investigate their properties. These solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti)-de Sitter. We find that these solutions can present black brane, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black brane or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. We compute the finite Euclidean action through the use of counterterm method, and obtain the conserved and thermodynamic quantities by using the relation between the action and free energy in grand-canonical ensemble. We find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics, and the entropy does not follow the area law.

  12. Black GE based on crystalline/amorphous core/shell nanoneedle arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Fan, Zhiyong

    2014-03-04

    Direct growth of black Ge on low-temperature substrates, including plastics and rubber is reported. The material is based on highly dense, crystalline/amorphous core/shell Ge nanoneedle arrays with ultrasharp tips (.about.4 nm) enabled by the Ni catalyzed vapor-solid-solid growth process. Ge nanoneedle arrays exhibit remarkable optical properties. Specifically, minimal optical reflectance (<1%) is observed, even for high angles of incidence (.about.75.degree.) and for relatively short nanoneedle lengths (.about.1 .mu.m). Furthermore, the material exhibits high optical absorption efficiency with an effective band gap of .about.1 eV. The reported black Ge can have important practical implications for efficient photovoltaic and photodetector applications on nonconventional substrates.

  13. Gravitational signature of Schwarzschild black holes in dynamical Chern-Simons gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina, C.; Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo

    2010-06-15

    Dynamical Chern-Simons gravity is an extension of general relativity in which the gravitational field is coupled to a scalar field through a parity-violating Chern-Simons term. In this framework, we study perturbations of spherically symmetric black hole spacetimes, assuming that the background scalar field vanishes. Our results suggest that these spacetimes are stable, and small perturbations die away as a ringdown. However, in contrast to standard general relativity, the gravitational waveforms are also driven by the scalar field. Thus, the gravitational oscillation modes of black holes carry imprints of the coupling to the scalar field. This is a smoking gun for Chern-Simons theory and could be tested with gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO or LISA. For negative values of the coupling constant, ghosts are known to arise, and we explicitly verify their appearance numerically. Our results are validated using both time evolution and frequency domain methods.

  14. Null geodesics and shadow of a rotating black hole in extended Chern-Simons modified gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amarilla, Leonardo; Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Giribet, Gaston

    2010-06-15

    The Chern-Simons modification to general relativity in four dimensions consists of adding to the Einstein-Hilbert term a scalar field that couples to the first-class Pontryagin density. In this theory, which has attracted considerable attention recently, the Schwarzschild metric persists as an exact solution, and this is why this model resists several observational constraints. In contrast, the spinning black hole solution of the theory is not given by the Kerr metric but by a modification of it, so far only known for slow rotation and small coupling constant. In the present paper, we show that, in this approximation, the null geodesic equation can be integrated, and this allows us to investigate the shadow cast by a black hole. We discuss how, in addition to the angular momentum of the solution, the coupling to the Chern-Simons term deforms the shape of the shadow.

  15. Results from Undergraduate PV Projects at Seven Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R. D.

    1999-03-03

    In 1995, the NREL/Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program funded seven Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in its HBCU Photovoltaic Research Associates Program for a period of three years. The program's purpose is to advance HBCU undergraduate knowledge of photovoltaics, primarily as a result of research investigations performed, and to encourage students to pursue careers in photovoltaics. This paper presents results from PV projects ranging from fundamental materials research on PV materials to field projects of PV systems.

  16. AmeriFlux US-Prr Poker Flat Research Range Black Spruce Forest

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Suzuki, Rikie [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Prr Poker Flat Research Range Black Spruce Forest. Site Description - This site is located in a blackspruce forest within the property of the Poker Flat Research Range, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Time-lapse image of the canopy is measured at the same time to relate flux data to satellite images.

  17. THE TIDAL DISRUPTION OF GIANT STARS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE FLARING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE POPULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico E-mail: jfg@ucolick.org

    2012-10-01

    Sun-like stars are thought to be regularly disrupted by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) within galactic nuclei. Yet, as stars evolve off the main sequence their vulnerability to tidal disruption increases drastically as they develop a bifurcated structure consisting of a dense core and a tenuous envelope. Here we present the first hydrodynamic simulations of the tidal disruption of giant stars and show that the core has a substantial influence on the star's ability to survive the encounter. Stars with more massive cores retain large fractions of their envelope mass, even in deep encounters. Accretion flares resulting from the disruption of giant stars should last for tens to hundreds of years. Their characteristic signature in transient searches would not be the t {sup -5/3} decay typically associated with tidal disruption events, but a correlated rise over many orders of magnitude in brightness on timescales of months to years. We calculate the relative disruption rates of stars of varying evolutionary stages in typical galactic centers, then use our results to produce Monte Carlo realizations of the expected flaring event populations. We find that the demographics of tidal disruption flares are strongly dependent on both stellar and black hole mass, especially near the limiting SMBH mass scale of {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. At this black hole mass, we predict a sharp transition in the SMBH flaring diet beyond which all observable disruptions arise from evolved stars, accompanied by a dramatic cutoff in the overall tidal disruption flaring rate. Black holes less massive than this limiting mass scale will show observable flares from both main-sequence and evolved stars, with giants contributing up to 10% of the event rate. The relative fractions of stars disrupted at different evolutionary states can constrain the properties and distributions of stars in galactic nuclei other than our own.

  18. Hydrogen atom donor compounds as contrast enhancers for black-and-white photothermographic and thermographic elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harring, Lori S.; Simpson, Sharon M.; Sansbury, Francis H.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen atom donor compounds are useful as contrast enhancers when used in combination with (i) hindered phenol developers, and (ii) trityl hydrazide and/or formyl-phenyl hydrazine co-developers, to produce ultra-high contrast black-and-white photothermographic and thermographic elements. The photothermographic and thermographic elements may be used as a photomask in a process where there is a subsequent exposure of an ultraviolet or short wavelength visible radiation-sensitive imageable medium.

  19. Megaparsec relativistic jets launched from an accreting supermassive black hole in an extreme spiral galaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagchi, Joydeep; Vivek, M.; Srianand, Raghunathan; Gopal-Krishna; Vikram, Vinu; Hota, Ananda; Biju, K. G.; Sirothia, S. K.; Jacob, Joe

    2014-06-20

    The radio galaxy phenomenon is directly connected to mass-accreting, spinning supermassive black holes found in the active galactic nuclei. It is still unclear how the collimated jets of relativistic plasma on hundreds to thousands of kiloparsec scales form and why they are nearly always launched from the nuclei of bulge-dominated elliptical galaxies and not flat spirals. Here we present the discovery of the giant radio source J23450449 (z = 0.0755), a clear and extremely rare counterexample where relativistic jets are ejected from a luminous and massive spiral galaxy on a scale of ?1.6 Mpc, the largest known so far. Extreme physical properties observed for this bulgeless spiral host, such as its high optical and infrared luminosity, large dynamical mass, rapid disk rotation, and episodic jet activity, are possibly the results of its unusual formation history, which has also assembled, via gas accretion from a disk, its central black hole of mass >2 10{sup 8} M {sub ?}. The very high mid-IR luminosity of the galaxy suggests that it is actively forming stars and still building a massive disk. We argue that the launch of these powerful jets is facilitated by an advection-dominated, magnetized accretion flow at a low Eddington rate onto this unusually massive (for a bulgeless disk galaxy) and possibly fast spinning central black hole. Therefore, J23450449 is an extremely rare, unusual galactic system whose properties challenge the standard paradigms for black hole growth and the formation of relativistic jets in disk galaxies. Thus, it provides fundamental insight into accretion disk-relativistic jet coupling processes.

  20. String loops in the field of braneworld spherically symmetric black holes and naked singularities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuchlk, Z.; Kolo, M. E-mail: martin.kolos@fpf.slu.cz

    2012-10-01

    We study motion of current-carrying string loops in the field of braneworld spherically symmetric black holes and naked singularities. The spacetime is described by the Reissner-Nordstrm geometry with tidal charge b reflecting the non-local tidal effects coming from the external dimension; both positive and negative values of the spacetime parameter b are considered. We restrict attention to the axisymmetric motion of string loops when the motion can be fully governed by an appropriately defined effective potential related to the energy and angular momentum of the string loops. In dependence on these two constants of the motion, the string loops can be captured, trapped, or can escape to infinity. In close vicinity of stable equilibrium points at the centre of trapped states the motion is regular. We describe how it is transformed to chaotic motion with growing energy of the string loop. In the field of naked singularities the trapped states located off the equatorial plane of the system exist and trajectories unable to cross the equatorial plane occur, contrary to the trajectories in the field of black holes where crossing the equatorial plane is always admitted. We concentrate our attention to the so called transmutation effect when the string loops are accelerated in the deep gravitational field near the black hole or naked singularity by transforming the oscillatory energy to the energy of the transitional motion. We demonstrate that the influence of the tidal charge can be substantial especially in the naked singularity spacetimes with b > 1 where the acceleration to ultrarelativistic velocities with Lorentz factor ? ? 100 can be reached, being more than one order higher in comparison with those obtained in the black hole spacetimes.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mufti, Nandang Atma, T. Fuad, A.; Sutadji, E.

    2014-09-25

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), red pigment of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (α-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the yellow pigment α-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesized by sintering Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles at temperature between 400 °C and 700 7°C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, red pigment Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and yellow pigment α-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 °C to 39 nm at 700 °C. For yellow pigment of α-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated.

  2. The Neutrino Signal from Protoneutron Star Accretion and Black Hole Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, T.; Whitehouse, S.; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Thielemann, F.-K.; Liebendoerfer, M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the formation of stellar mass black holes via protoneutron star (PNS) collapse. In the absence of an earlier explosion, the PNS collapses to a black hole due to the continued mass accretion onto the PNS. We present an analysis of the emitted neutrino spectra of all three flavors during the PNS contraction. Special attention is given to the physical conditions which depend on the input physics, e.g. the equation of state (EoS) and the progenitor model. The PNSs are modeled as the central object in core collapse simulations using general relativistic three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport in spherical symmetry. The simulations are launched from several massive progenitors of 40 M{omicron} and 50 M{omicron}. We analyze the electron-neutrino luminosity dependencies and construct a simple approximation for the electron-neutrino luminosity, which depends only on the physical conditions at the electron-neutrinosphere. In addition, we analyze different ({mu}, {tau})-neutrino pair-reactions separately and compare the differences during the post-bounce phases of failed core collapse supernova explosions of massive progenitors. We also investigate the connection between the increasing {mu},{tau}-neutrino luminosity and the PNS contraction during the accretion phase before black hole formation. Comparing the different post bounce phases of the progenitor models under investigation, we find large differences in the emitted neutrino spectra. These differences and the analysis of the electron-neutrino luminosity indicate a strong progenitor model dependency of the emitted neutrino signal.

  3. The mass of the central black hole in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5273

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Horenstein, Daniel; Bazhaw, Craig; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Ou-Yang, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Matthew; Jones, Jeremy; Norris, Ryan P.; Parks, J. Robert; Saylor, Dicy; Teems, Katherine G.; Turner, Clay

    2014-11-20

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC 5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN). Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC 5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of M {sub BH} = (4.7 ± 1.6) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC 5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC 5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  4. 17.1%-Efficient Multi-Scale-Textured Black Silicon Solar Cells without Dielectric Antireflection Coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toor, F.; Page, M. R.; Branz, H. M.; Yuan, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present 17.1%-efficient p-type single crystal Si solar cells with a multi-scale-textured surface and no dielectric antireflection coating. Multi-scale texturing is achieved by a gold-nanoparticle-assisted nanoporous etch after conventional micron scale KOH-based pyramid texturing (pyramid black etching). By incorporating geometric enhancement of antireflection, this multi-scale texturing reduces the nanoporosity depth required to make silicon `black' compared to nanoporous planar surfaces. As a result, it improves short-wavelength spectral response (blue response), previously one of the major limiting factors in `black-Si' solar cells. With multi-scale texturing, the spectrum-weighted average reflectance from 350- to 1000-nm wavelength is below 2% with a 100-nm deep nanoporous layer. In comparison, roughly 250-nm deep nanopores are needed to achieve similar reflectance on planar surface. Here, we characterize surface morphology, reflectivity and solar cell performance of the multi-scale textured solar cells.

  5. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF X-RAY FLARES FROM BLACK HOLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Yi, S. X.; Xi, S. Q. E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    X-ray flares have been discovered in black hole systems such as gamma-ray bursts, the tidal disruption event Swift J1644+57, the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* at the center of our Galaxy, and some active galactic nuclei. Occurrences of X-ray flares are always accompanied by relativistic jets. However, it is still unknown whether or not there is a physical analogy among such X-ray flares produced in black hole systems spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass. Here, we report observed data of X-ray flares and show that they have three statistical properties similar to solar flares, including power-law distributions of their energies, durations, and waiting times, which can be explained by a fractal-diffusive, self-organized criticality model. These statistical similarities, together with the fact that solar flares are triggered by a magnetic reconnection process, suggest that all of the X-ray flares are consistent with magnetic reconnection events, implying that their concomitant relativistic jets may be magnetically dominated.

  6. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  7. Application of the sup 187 Re- sup 187 Os system to black shale geochronometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravizza, G.; Turekain, K.K. )

    1989-12-01

    The decay of {sup 187}Re to {sup 187}Os provides a tool for determining depositional ages of black shales. Re and Os concentrations and Os isotopic compositions of whole rock samples of the Bakken Shale, a Mississippian/Devonian boundary black shale, yield a whole rock isochron with an age of 354 {plus minus} 49 Ma. This age is in agreement with the accepted age of the Bakken Shale ({approx}360 Ma). The initial {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os ratio of the isochron is 6.2 {plus minus} 3.3. This value is indistinguishable from the {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os ratios observed in modern Black Sea sediments. The concentration of common Os in Bakken Shale samples is strongly correlated with total nitrogen, indicating that a large fraction of the Os in these samples is associated with a hydrogenous component, which overwhelms any Os supplied to the sediment in association with detrital material or cosmic dust. The dominance of the hydrogenous component imparts a relatively homogeneous initial {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os ratio to the sediment at the time of deposition. The degree of scatter about the isochron exceeds the degree of scatter expected from either analytical error or from the estimated degree of initial isotopic heterogeneity. The pattern of scatter is consistent with postdepositional mobilization of Re and/or Os on a small spatial scale. The author suggest that this mobilization may be a consequence of petroleum formation and migration in the Bakken Shale.

  8. Inducing chaos by breaking axial symmetry in a black hole magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopáček, O.; Karas, V.

    2014-06-01

    While the motion of particles near a rotating, electrically neutral (Kerr), and charged (Kerr-Newman) black hole is always strictly regular, a perturbation in the gravitational or the electromagnetic field generally leads to chaos. The transition from regular to chaotic dynamics is relatively gradual if the system preserves axial symmetry, whereas non-axisymmetry induces chaos more efficiently. Here we study the development of chaos in an oblique (electro-vacuum) magnetosphere of a magnetized black hole. Besides the strong gravity of the massive source represented by the Kerr metric, we consider the presence of a weak, ordered, large-scale magnetic field. An axially symmetric model consisting of a rotating black hole embedded in an aligned magnetic field is generalized by allowing an oblique direction of the field having a general inclination with respect to the rotation axis of the system. The inclination of the field acts as an additional perturbation to the motion of charged particles as it breaks the axial symmetry of the system and cancels the related integral of motion. The axial component of angular momentum is no longer conserved and the resulting system thus has three degrees of freedom. Our primary concern within this contribution is to find out how sensitive the system of bound particles is to the inclination of the field. We employ the method of the maximal Lyapunov exponent to distinguish between regular and chaotic orbits and to quantify their chaoticity. We find that even a small misalignment induces chaotic motion.

  9. Thermodynamics of rotating black branes in (n+1)-dimensional Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M. H.; Sedehi, H. R. Rastegar

    2006-12-15

    We construct a new class of charged rotating solutions of (n+1)-dimensional Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity with cylindrical or toroidal horizons in the presence of cosmological constant and investigate their properties. These solutions are asymptotically (anti)-de Sitter and reduce to the solutions of Einstein-Maxwell gravity as the Born-Infeld parameters goes to infinity. We find that these solutions can represent black branes, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black brane or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. We compute temperature, mass, angular momentum, entropy, charge and electric potential of the black brane solutions. We obtain a Smarr-type formula and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also perform a stability analysis by computing the heat capacity and the determinant of Hessian matrix of mass of the system with infinite boundary with respect to its thermodynamic variables in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles, and show that the system is thermally stable in the whole phase space. Also, we find that there exists an unstable phase when the finite size effect is taken into account.

  10. Super massive black hole in galactic nuclei with tidal disruption of stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Shiyan; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2014-09-10

    Tidal disruption of stars by super massive central black holes from dense star clusters is modeled by high-accuracy direct N-body simulation. The time evolution of the stellar tidal disruption rate, the effect of tidal disruption on the stellar density profile, and, for the first time, the detailed origin of tidally disrupted stars are carefully examined and compared with classic papers in the field. Up to 128k particles are used in simulation to model the star cluster around a super massive black hole, and we use the particle number and the tidal radius of the black hole as free parameters for a scaling analysis. The transition from full to empty loss-cone is analyzed in our data, and the tidal disruption rate scales with the particle number, N, in the expected way for both cases. For the first time in numerical simulations (under certain conditions) we can support the concept of a critical radius of Frank and Rees, which claims that most stars are tidally accreted on highly eccentric orbits originating from regions far outside the tidal radius. Due to the consumption of stars moving on radial orbits, a velocity anisotropy is found inside the cluster. Finally we estimate the real galactic center based on our simulation results and the scaling analysis.

  11. Three-dimensional stationary cyclic symmetric Einstein-Maxwell solutions; black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Alberto A.

    2009-09-15

    From a general metric for stationary cyclic symmetric gravitational fields coupled to Maxwell electromagnetic fields within the (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity the uniqueness of wide families of exact solutions is established. Among them, all uniform electromagnetic solutions possessing electromagnetic fields with vanishing covariant derivatives, all fields having constant electromagnetic invariants F{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}F{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}} and T{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}T{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}}, the whole classes of hybrid electromagnetic solutions, and also wide classes of stationary solutions are derived for a third-order nonlinear key equation. Certain of these families can be thought of as black hole solutions. For the most general set of Einstein-Maxwell equations, reducible to three nonlinear equations for the three unknown functions, two new classes of solutions - having anti-de Sitter spinning metric limit - are derived. The relationship of various families with those reported by different authors' solutions has been established. Among the classes of solutions with cosmological constant a relevant place is occupied by the electrostatic and magnetostatic Peldan solutions, the stationary uniform and spinning Clement classes, the constant electromagnetic invariant branches with the particular Kamata-Koikawa solution, the hybrid cyclic symmetric stationary black hole fields, and the non-less important solutions generated via SL(2,R)-transformations where the Clement spinning charged solution, the Martinez-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole solution, and Dias-Lemos metric merit mention.

  12. Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity of black phosphorus nanoribbons at temperatures higher than 100 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sangwook; Yang, Fan; Suh, Joonki; Yang, Sijie; Lee, Yeonbae; Li, Guo; Sung Choe, Hwan; Suslu, Aslihan; Chen, Yabin; Ko, Changhyun; Park, Joonsuk; Liu, Kai; Li, Jingbo; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Tongay, Sefaattin; Wu, Junqiao

    2015-10-16

    Black phosphorus attracts enormous attention as a promising layered material for electronic, optoelectronic and thermoelectric applications. Here we report large anisotropy in in-plane thermal conductivity of single-crystal black phosphorus nanoribbons along the zigzag and armchair lattice directions at variable temperatures. Thermal conductivity measurements were carried out under the condition of steady-state longitudinal heat flow using suspended-pad micro-devices. We discovered increasing thermal conductivity anisotropy, up to a factor of two, with temperatures above 100 K. A size effect in thermal conductivity was also observed in which thinner nanoribbons show lower thermal conductivity. Analysed with the relaxation time approximation model using phonon dispersions obtained based on density function perturbation theory, the high anisotropy is attributed mainly to direction-dependent phonon dispersion and partially to phonon–phonon scattering. Lastly, our results revealing the intrinsic, orientation-dependent thermal conductivity of black phosphorus are useful for designing devices, as well as understanding fundamental physical properties of layered materials.

  13. Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity of black phosphorus nanoribbons at temperatures higher than 100 K

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Sangwook; Yang, Fan; Suh, Joonki; Yang, Sijie; Lee, Yeonbae; Li, Guo; Sung Choe, Hwan; Suslu, Aslihan; Chen, Yabin; Ko, Changhyun; et al

    2015-10-16

    Black phosphorus attracts enormous attention as a promising layered material for electronic, optoelectronic and thermoelectric applications. Here we report large anisotropy in in-plane thermal conductivity of single-crystal black phosphorus nanoribbons along the zigzag and armchair lattice directions at variable temperatures. Thermal conductivity measurements were carried out under the condition of steady-state longitudinal heat flow using suspended-pad micro-devices. We discovered increasing thermal conductivity anisotropy, up to a factor of two, with temperatures above 100 K. A size effect in thermal conductivity was also observed in which thinner nanoribbons show lower thermal conductivity. Analysed with the relaxation time approximation model using phononmore » dispersions obtained based on density function perturbation theory, the high anisotropy is attributed mainly to direction-dependent phonon dispersion and partially to phonon–phonon scattering. Lastly, our results revealing the intrinsic, orientation-dependent thermal conductivity of black phosphorus are useful for designing devices, as well as understanding fundamental physical properties of layered materials.« less

  14. Breit-Wigner resonances and the quasinormal modes of anti-de Sitter black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo

    2009-05-15

    We show that the theory of Breit-Wigner resonances can be used as an efficient numerical tool to compute black hole quasinormal modes. For illustration, we focus on the Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter (SAdS) spacetime. The resonance method is better suited to small SAdS black holes than the traditional series expansion method, allowing us to confirm that the damping time scale of small SAdS black holes for scalar and gravitational fields is proportional to r{sub +}{sup -2l-2}, where r{sub +} is the horizon radius. The proportionality coefficients are in good agreement with analytic calculations. We also examine the eikonal limit of SAdS quasinormal modes, confirming quantitatively Festuccia and Liu's [arXiv:0811.1033] prediction of the existence of very long-lived modes. Our results are particularly relevant for the AdS/CFT correspondence, since long-lived modes presumably dominate the decay time scale of the perturbations.

  15. THE BLACK HOLE MASS-GALAXY LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salviander, S.; Shields, G. A.; Bonning, E. W. E-mail: shields@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the relationship between the mass of the central supermassive black hole, M {sub BH}, and the host galaxy luminosity, L {sub gal}, in a sample of quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We use composite quasar spectra binned by black hole mass and redshift to assess galaxy features that would otherwise be overwhelmed by noise in individual spectra. The black hole mass is calculated using the photoionization method, and the host galaxy luminosity is inferred from the depth of the Ca II H+K features in the composite spectra. We evaluate the evolution in the M {sub BH}-L {sub gal} relationship by examining the redshift dependence of ? log M {sub BH}, the offset in M {sub BH} from the local M {sub BH}-L {sub gal} relationship. There is little systematic trend in ? log M {sub BH} out to z = 0.8. Using the width of the [O III] emission line as a proxy for the stellar velocity dispersion, ?{sub *}, we find agreement of our derived host luminosities with the locally observed Faber-Jackson relation. This supports the utility of the width of the [O III] line as a proxy for ?{sub *} in statistical studies.

  16. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor protects lung adenocarcinoma cells against cigarette sidestream smoke particulates-induced oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin; Huang, Su-Chin; Lin, Chun-Ju; Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann

    2012-03-15

    Environmental cigarette smoke has been suggested to promote lung adenocarcinoma progression through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-signaled metabolism. However, whether AhR facilitates metabolic activation or detoxification in exposed adenocarcinoma cells remains ambiguous. To address this question, we have modified the expression level of AhR in two human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and examined their response to an extract of cigarette sidestream smoke particulates (CSSP). We found that overexpression of AhR in the CL1-5 cell line reduced CSSP-induced ROS production and oxidative DNA damage, whereas knockdown of AhR expression increased ROS level in CSSP-exposed H1355 cells. Oxidative stress sensor Nrf2 and its target gene NQO1 were insensitive to AhR expression level and CSSP treatment in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In contrast, induction of AhR expression concurrently increased mRNA expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing genes CYP1B1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 in a ligand-independent manner. It appeared that AhR accelerated xenobiotic clearing and diminished associated oxidative stress by coordinate regulation of a set of phase I and II metabolizing genes. However, the AhR-signaled protection could not shield cells from constant oxidative stress. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of CSSP induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via the p53–p21–Rb1 signaling pathway. Despite no effect on DNA repair rate, AhR facilitated the recovery of cells from growth arrest when CSSP exposure ended. AhR-overexpressing lung adenocarcinoma cells exhibited an increased anchorage-dependent and independent proliferation when recovery from exposure. In summary, our data demonstrated that AhR protected lung adenocarcinoma cells against CSSP-induced oxidative stress and promoted post-exposure clonogenicity. -- Highlights: ► AhR expression level influences cigarette sidestream smoke-induced ROS production. ► AhR reduces oxidative stress by coordinate regulation of

  17. Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melak, Dawit; Ferreccio, Catterina; Kalman, David; Parra, Roxana; Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra; Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Steinmaus, Craig

    2014-01-15

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although this process is not complete in most people. The trivalent form of MMA is highly toxic in vitro and previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary arsenic as MMA (%MMA) and several arsenic-related diseases. To date, however, relatively little is known about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts on people drinking water with lower arsenic concentrations (e.g., < 200 μg/L). In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were measured in 94 lung and 117 bladder cancer cases and 347 population-based controls from areas in northern Chile with a wide range of drinking water arsenic concentrations. Lung cancer odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, and smoking by increasing tertiles of %MMA were 1.00, 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99–3.67), and 3.26 (1.76–6.04) (p-trend < 0.001). Corresponding odds ratios for bladder cancer were 1.00, 1.81 (1.06–3.11), and 2.02 (1.15–3.54) (p-trend < 0.001). In analyses confined to subjects only with arsenic water concentrations < 200 μg/L (median = 60 μg/L), lung and bladder cancer odds ratios for subjects in the upper tertile of %MMA compared to subjects in the lower two tertiles were 2.48 (1.08–5.68) and 2.37 (1.01–5.57), respectively. Overall, these findings provide evidence that inter-individual differences in arsenic metabolism may be an important risk factor for arsenic-related lung cancer, and may play a role in cancer risks among people exposed to relatively low arsenic water concentrations. - Highlights: • Urine arsenic metabolites were measured in cancer cases and controls from Chile. • Higher urine %MMA values were associated with increased lung and bladder cancer. • %MMA-cancer associations were seen at drinking water arsenic levels < 200 μg/L.

  18. SWIFT OBSERVATIONS OF MAXI J1659-152: A COMPACT BINARY WITH A BLACK HOLE ACCRETOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennea, J. A.; Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; Beardmore, A. P.; Evans, P. A.; Curran, P. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Yamaoka, K.

    2011-07-20

    We report on the detection and follow-up high-cadence monitoring observations of MAXI J1659-152, a bright Galactic X-ray binary transient with a likely black hole accretor, by Swift over a 27 day period after its initial outburst detection. MAXI J1659-152 was discovered almost simultaneously by Swift and the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image on 2010 September 25, and was monitored intensively from the early stages of the outburst through the rise to a brightness of {approx}0.5 Crab by the Swift X-ray, UV/Optical, and the hard X-ray Burst Alert Telescopes. We present temporal and spectral analysis of the Swift observations. The broadband light curves show variability characteristic of black hole candidate transients. We present the evolution of thermal and non-thermal components of the 0.5-150 keV combined X-ray spectra during the outburst. MAXI J1659-152 displays accretion state changes typically associated with black hole binaries, transitioning from its initial detection in the hard state, to the steep power-law state, followed by a slow evolution toward the thermal state, signified by an increasingly dominant thermal component associated with the accretion disk, although this state change did not complete before Swift observations ended. We observe an anti-correlation between the increasing temperature and decreasing radius of the inner edge of the accretion disk, suggesting that the inner edge of the accretion disk infalls toward the black hole as the disk temperature increases. We observed significant evolution in the absorption column during the initial rise of the outburst, with the absorption almost doubling, suggestive of the presence of an evolving wind from the accretion disk. We detect quasi-periodic oscillations that evolve with the outburst, as well as irregular shaped dips that recur with a period of 2.42 {+-} 0.09 hr, strongly suggesting an orbital period that would make MAXI J1659-152 the shortest period black hole binary yet known.

  19. Evolution of porosity and geochemistry in Marcellus Formation black shale during weathering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Lixin; Ryan, Mathur; Rother, Gernot; Cole, David; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina; Williams, Jennifer; Alex, Carone; Brantley, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Soils developed on the Oatka Creek member of the Marcellus Formation in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania were analyzed to understand the evolution of black shale matrix porosity and the associated changes in elemental and mineralogical composition during infiltration of water into organic-rich shale. Making the reasonable assumption that soil erosion rates are the same as those measured in a nearby location on a less organic-rich shale, we suggest that soil production rates have on average been faster for this black shale compared to the gray shale in similar climate settings. This difference is attributed to differences in composition: both shales are dominantly quartz, illite, and chlorite, but the Oatka Creek member at this location has more organic matter (1.25 wt.% organic carbon in rock fragments recovered from the bottom of the auger cores and nearby outcrops) and accessory pyrite. During weathering, the extremely low-porosity bedrock slowly disaggregates into shale chips with intergranular pores and fractures. Some of these pores are eitherfilled with organic matter or air-filled but remain unconnected, and thus inaccessible to water. Based on weathering bedrock/soil profiles, disintegration is initiated with oxidation of pyrite and organic matter, which increases the overall porosity and most importantly allows water penetration. Water infiltration exposes fresh surface area and thus promotes dissolution of plagioclase and clays. As these dissolution reactions proceed, the porosity in the deepest shale chips recovered from the soil decrease from 9 to 7% while kaolinite and Fe oxyhydroxides precipitate. Eventually, near the land surface, mineral precipitation is outcompeted by dissolution or particle loss of illite and chlorite and porosity in shale chips increases to 20%. As imaged by computed tomographic analysis, weathering causes i) greater porosity, ii) greater average length of connected pores, and iii) a more branched pore network compared to the unweathered

  20. Evolution of porosity and geochemistry in Marcellus Formation black shale during weathering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Lixin; Mathur, Ryan; Rother, Gernot; Cole, David; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina; Williams, Jennifer; Carone, Alex; Brantley, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    Soils developed on the Oatka Creek member of the Marcellus Formation in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania were analyzed to understand the evolution of black shale matrix porosity and the associated changes in elemental and mineralogical composition during infiltration of water into organic-rich shale. Making the reasonable assumption that soil erosion rates are the same as those measured in a nearby location on a less organic-rich shale, we suggest that soil production rates have on average been faster for this black shale compared to the gray shale in similar climate settings. This difference is attributed to differences in composition: both shales are dominantly quartz, illite, and chlorite, but the Oatka Creek member at this location has more organic matter (1.25 wt% organic carbon in rock fragments recovered from the bottom of the auger cores and nearby outcrops) and accessory pyrite. During weathering, the extremely low-porosity bedrock slowly disaggregates into shale chips with intergranular pores and fractures. Some of these pores are either filled with organic matter or air-filled but remain unconnected, and thus inaccessible to water. Based on weathering bedrock/soil profiles, disintegration is initiated with oxidation of pyrite and organic matter, which increases the overall porosity and most importantly allows water penetration. Water infiltration exposes fresh surface area and thus promotes dissolution of plagioclase and clays. As these dissolution reactions proceed, the porosity in the deepest shale chips recovered from the soil decrease from 9 to 7 % while kaolinite and Fe oxyhydroxides precipitate. Eventually, near the land surface, mineral precipitation is outcompeted by dissolution or particle loss of illite and chlorite and porosity in shale chips increases to 20%. As imaged by computed tomographic analysis, weathering causes i) greater porosity, ii) greater average length of connected pores, and iii) a more branched pore network compared to the

  1. Construction of an in vitro primary lung co-culture platform derived from New Zealand white rabbits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Hess, Becky M.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Straub, Tim M.

    2015-05-01

    We report the construction of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) co-culture platform consisting of differentiated lung epithelial cells and monocytes from New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbit lung epithelial cells were successfully grown at air-liquid interface, produced mucus, and expressed both sialic acid alpha-2,3 and alpha-2,6. Blood-derived CD14+ monocytes were deposited above the epithelial layer resulting in the differentiation of a subset of monocytes into CD11c+ cells within the co-culture. These proof-of-concept findings provide a convenient means to comparatively study in vitro versus in vivo rabbit lung responses as they relate to inhalation or lung-challenge studies.

  2. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Katharine Lee Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Hohn; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; James A. Drahovzal; Christopher D. Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; Taury Smith; Ron Riley; Mark Baranoski

    2005-04-01

    The Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Research Consortium has made significant progress toward their goal of producing a geologic play book for the Trenton-Black River gas play. The final product will include a resource assessment model of Trenton-Black River reservoirs; possible fairways within which to concentrate further studies and seismic programs; and a model for the origin of Trenton-Black River hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 15 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia and Kentucky. In addition, three surfaces for the area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. A 16-layer velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Considerable progress was made in fault trend delineation and seismic-stratigraphic correlation within the project area. Isopach maps and a network of gamma-ray cross sections supplemented with core descriptions allowed researchers to more clearly define the architecture of the basin during Middle and Late Ordovician time, the control of basin architecture on carbonate and shale deposition and eventually, the location of reservoirs in Trenton Limestone and Black River Group carbonates. The basin architecture itself may be structurally controlled, and this fault-related structural control along platform margins influenced the formation of hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs in original limestone facies deposited in high energy environments. This resulted in productive trends along the northwest margin of the Trenton platform in Ohio. The continuation of this platform margin into New York should provide further areas with good exploration potential. The focus of the petrographic study shifted from cataloging a broad spectrum of carbonate rocks that occur in the

  3. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Person, Rachel J.; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Makia, Ngome L.; Bell, Matthew W.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tokar, Erik J.

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure transforms a human peripheral lung epithelia cell line. • Cells acquire characteristics in common with human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • These transformed cells provide a

  4. SU-E-J-149: Establishing the Relationship Between Pre-Treatment Lung Ventilation, Dose, and Toxicity Outcome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mistry, N; D'Souza, W; Sornsen de Koste, J; Senan, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Recently, there has been an interest in incorporating functional information in treatment planning especially in thoracic tumors. The rationale is that healthy lung regions need to be spared from radiation if possible to help achieve better control on toxicity. However, it is still unclear whether high functioning regions need to be spared or have more capacity to deal with the excessive radiation as compared to the compromised regions of the lung. Our goal with this work is to establish the tools by which we can establish a relationship between pre-treatment lung function, dose, and radiographic outcomes of lung toxicity. Methods: Treatment planning was performed using a single phase of a 4DCT scan, and follow-up anatomical CT scans were performed every 3 months for most patients. In this study, we developed the pipeline of tools needed to analyze such a large dataset, while trying to establish a relationship between function, dose, and outcome. Pre-treatment lung function was evaluated using a recently published technique that evaluates Fractional Regional Ventilation (FRV). All images including the FRV map and the individual follow-up anatomical CT images were all spatially matched to the planning CT using a diffusion based Demons image registration algorithm. Change in HU value was used as a metric to capture the effects of lung toxicity. To validate the findings, a radiologist evaluated the follow-up anatomical CT images and scored lung toxicity. Results: Initial experience in 1 patient shows a relationship between the pre-treatment lung function, dose and toxicity outcome. The results are also correlated to the findings by the radiologist who was blinded to the analysis or dose. Conclusion: The pipeline we have established to study this enables future studies in large retrospective studies. However, the tools are dependent on the fidelity of 4DCT reconstruction for accurate evaluation of regional ventilation. Patent Pending for the technique

  5. Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression in transgenic mice for Cre-inducible overexpression of Cul4A gene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Zhidong; Mao, Jian -Hua; Hung, Ming -Szu; Hsieh, David; Au, Alfred; Jablons, David M.; You, Liang

    2015-06-08

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Although the available lung cancer animal models have been informative and further propel our understanding of human lung cancer, they still do not fully recapitulate the complexities of human lung cancer. The pathogenesis of lung cancer remains highly elusive because of its aggressive biologic nature and considerable heterogeneity, compared to other cancers. The association of Cul4A amplification with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis has been suggested. Our previous study suggested that Cul4A is oncogenic in vitro, but its oncogenic role in vivo has not been studied. Methods: Viral delivery approaches have been used extensively to model cancer in mouse models. In our experiments, we used Cre-recombinase induced overexpression of the Cul4A gene in transgenic mice to study the role of Cul4A on lung tumor initiation and progression and have developed a new model of lung tumor development in mice harboring a conditionally expressed allele of Cul4A. Results: Here we show that the use of a recombinant adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase (“AdenoCre”) to induce Cul4A overexpression in the lungs of mice allows controls of the timing and multiplicity of tumor initiation. Following our mouse models, we are able to study the potential role of Cul4A in the development and progression in pulmonary adenocarcinoma as well. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that Cul4A is oncogenic in vivo, and this mouse model is a tool in understanding the mechanisms of Cul4A in human cancers and for testing experimental therapies targeting Cul4A.

  6. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro; Hall, LeRoy; Gow, Andrew J.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 /day, 1 d3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ? Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ? Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ? Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute lung injury

  7. Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression in transgenic mice for Cre-inducible overexpression of Cul4A gene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Zhidong; Mao, Jian -Hua; Hung, Ming -Szu; Hsieh, David; Au, Alfred; Jablons, David M.; You, Liang

    2015-06-08

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Although the available lung cancer animal models have been informative and further propel our understanding of human lung cancer, they still do not fully recapitulate the complexities of human lung cancer. The pathogenesis of lung cancer remains highly elusive because of its aggressive biologic nature and considerable heterogeneity, compared to other cancers. The association of Cul4A amplification with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis has been suggested. Our previous study suggested that Cul4A is oncogenic in vitro, but its oncogenic role in vivo has not been studied. Methods:more » Viral delivery approaches have been used extensively to model cancer in mouse models. In our experiments, we used Cre-recombinase induced overexpression of the Cul4A gene in transgenic mice to study the role of Cul4A on lung tumor initiation and progression and have developed a new model of lung tumor development in mice harboring a conditionally expressed allele of Cul4A. Results: Here we show that the use of a recombinant adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase (“AdenoCre”) to induce Cul4A overexpression in the lungs of mice allows controls of the timing and multiplicity of tumor initiation. Following our mouse models, we are able to study the potential role of Cul4A in the development and progression in pulmonary adenocarcinoma as well. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that Cul4A is oncogenic in vivo, and this mouse model is a tool in understanding the mechanisms of Cul4A in human cancers and for testing experimental therapies targeting Cul4A.« less

  8. Residential Mobility and Lung Cancer Risk: Data-Driven Exploration Using Internet Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia; Xu, Songhua

    2015-01-01

    Frequent relocation has been linked to health decline, particularly with respect to emotional and psychological wellbeing. In this paper we investigate whether there is an association between frequent relocation and lung cancer risk. For the initial investigation we leverage two online data sources to collect cancer and control subjects using web crawling and tailored text mining. The two data sources share different strengths and weaknesses in terms of the amount of detail, population representation, and sample size. One data source includes online obituaries. The second data source includes augmented LinkedIn profiles. For each data source, the subjects spatiotemporal history is reconstructed from the available information provided in the obituaries and from the education and work experience provided in the LinkedIn profiles. The study shows that lung cancer subjects have higher mobility frequency than the control group. This trend is consistent for both data sources.

  9. Optimization of leaf margins for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using a flattening filter-free beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakai, Nobuhide; Sumida, Iori; Otani, Yuki; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Masatoshi

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine the optimal collimator leaf margins which minimize normal tissue dose while achieving high conformity and to evaluate differences between the use of a flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and a flattening-filtered (FF) beam. Methods: Sixteen lung cancer patients scheduled for stereotactic body radiotherapy underwent treatment planning for a 7 MV FFF and a 6 MV FF beams to the planning target volume (PTV) with a range of leaf margins (?3 to 3 mm). Forty grays per four fractions were prescribed as a PTV D95. For PTV, the heterogeneity index (HI), conformity index, modified gradient index (GI), defined as the 50% isodose volume divided by target volume, maximum dose (Dmax), and mean dose (Dmean) were calculated. Mean lung dose (MLD), V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for the lung (defined as the volumes of lung receiving at least 20 and 5 Gy), mean heart dose, and Dmax to the spinal cord were measured as doses to organs at risk (OARs). Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: HI was inversely related to changes in leaf margin. Conformity index and modified GI initially decreased as leaf margin width increased. After reaching a minimum, the two values then increased as leaf margin increased (V shape). The optimal leaf margins for conformity index and modified GI were ?1.1 0.3 mm (mean 1 SD) and ?0.2 0.9 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to ?1.0 0.4 and ?0.3 0.9 mm, respectively, for 6 MV FF. Dmax and Dmean for 7 MV FFF were higher than those for 6 MV FF by 3.6% and 1.7%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the ratios of HI, Dmax, and Dmean for 7 MV FFF to those for 6 MV FF and PTV size (R = 0.767, 0.809, and 0.643, respectively). The differences in MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung between FFF and FF beams were negligible. The optimal leaf margins for MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung were ?0.9 0.6, ?1.1 0.8, and ?2.1 1.2 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to ?0.9 0.6, ?1.1 0

  10. Effects of effluents of coal combustion and gasification upon lung structure and function. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinton, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to correlate both structural and functional alterations in cells and tissues of the lung brought about by exposure to fluidized bed combustion and fixed bed gasification effluents and reagent grade oxides of metals known to be associated with coal combustion gasification. Projected milestones are described. Progress during the first year in setting up aerosol exposure facilities, intratracheal instillations, pulmonary mechanics, and morphometric examinations is reported. (DMC)

  11. Appraisal of selected epidemiologic issues from studies of lung cancer among uranium and hard rock miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, G R; Sever, L E

    1982-04-01

    An extensive body of published information about lung cancer among uranium miners was reviewed and diverse information, useful in identifying important issues but not in resolving them was found. Measuring exposure and response; thresholds of exposure; latency or the period from first mining experience to death; effort to predict excess risk of death, using a model; effects of smoking and radon daughter exposure on the histology of lung tumors; and the interplay of factors on the overall risk of death were all examined. The general concept of thresholds; that is, an exposure level below which risk does not increase was considered. The conclusion is that it should be possible to detect and estimate an epidemiologic threshold when the cohorts have been followed to the death of all members. Issues concerning latency in the studies of uranium miners published to date were examined. It is believed that the induction-latent period for lung cancer among uranium miners may be: as little as 10 to more than 40 years; dependent on age at which exposure begins; exposure rate; and ethnicity or smoking habits. Although suggested as factual, their existence is uncertain. An effect due to the exposure rate may exist although it has not been factual, their existence is uncertain. An effect due to the exposure rate may exist although it has not been confirmed. The median induction-latent period appears to be in excess of the 15 years frequently cited for US uranium miner. A distinct pattern of shorter induction-latent periods with increasing age at first mining exposure is reported. The evidence for and against an unusual histologic pattern of lung cancers among uranium miners was examined. The ratio of epidermoid to small cell types was close to 1:2; the ratio in the general population is nearer 2:1. The histologic pattern warrants closer attention of pathologists and epidemiologists. (ERB) (ERB)

  12. Predicting the Risk of Secondary Lung Malignancies Associated With Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, John; Shuryak, Igor; Xu Yanguang; Clifford Chao, K.S.; Brenner, David J.; Burri, Ryan J.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The risk of secondary lung malignancy (SLM) is a significant concern for women treated with whole-breast radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast cancer. In this study, a biologically based secondary malignancy model was used to quantify the risk of secondary lung malignancies (SLMs) associated with several common methods of delivering whole-breast radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Both supine and prone computed tomography simulations of 15 women with early breast cancer were used to generate standard fractionated and hypofractionated whole-breast RT treatment plans for each patient. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the ipsilateral breast and lung were calculated for each patient on each plan. A model of spontaneous and radiation-induced carcinogenesis was used to determine the relative risks of SLMs for the different treatment techniques. Results: A higher risk of SLMs was predicted for supine breast irradiation when compared with prone breast irradiation for both the standard fractionation and hypofractionation schedules (relative risk [RR] = 2.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.30-2.88, and RR = 2.68, 95% CI = 2.39-2.98, respectively). No difference in risk of SLMs was noted between standard fractionation and hypofractionation schedules in either the supine position (RR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.97-1.14) or the prone position (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.88-1.15). Conclusions: Compared with supine whole-breast irradiation, prone breast irradiation is associated with a significantly lower predicted risk of secondary lung malignancy. In this modeling study, fractionation schedule did not have an impact on the risk of SLMs in women treated with whole-breast RT for early breast cancer.

  13. In Vivo Evaluation of Lung Microwave Ablation in a Porcine Tumor Mimic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Planche, Olivier; Teriitehau, Christophe; Boudabous, Sana; Robinson, Joey Marie; Rao, Pramod; Deschamps, Frederic; Farouil, Geoffroy; Baere, Thierry de

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the microwave ablation of created tumor mimics in the lung of a large animal model (pigs), with examination of the ablative synergy of multiple antennas. Fifty-six tumor-mimic models of various sizes were created in 15 pigs by using barium-enriched minced collected thigh muscle injected into the lung of the same animal. Tumors were ablated under fluoroscopic guidance by single-antenna and multiple-antenna microwaves. Thirty-five tumor models were treated in 11 pigs with a single antenna at 75 W for 15 min, with 15 measuring 20 mm in diameter, 10 measuring 30 mm, and 10 measuring 40 mm. Mean circularity of the single-antenna ablation zones measured 0.64 {+-} 0.12, with a diameter of 35.7 {+-} 8.7 mm along the axis of the antenna and 32.7 {+-} 12.8 mm perpendicular to the feeding point. Multiple-antenna delivery of 75 W for 15 min caused intraprocedural death of 2 animals; modified protocol to 60 W for 10 min resulted in an ablation zone with a diameter of 43.0 {+-} 7.7 along the axis of the antenna and 54.8 {+-} 8.5 mm perpendicular to the feeding point; circularity was 0.70 {+-} 0.10. A single microwave antenna can create ablation zones large enough to cover lung tumor mimic models of {<=}4 cm with no heat sink effect from vessels of {<=}6 mm. Synergic use of 3 antennas allows ablation of larger volumes than single-antenna or radiofrequency ablation, but great caution must be taken when 3 antennas are used simultaneously in the lung in clinical practice.

  14. Do Tumors in the Lung Deform During Normal Respiration? An Image Registration Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Jianzhou; Lei Peng; Shekhar, Raj; Li Huiling; Suntharalingam, Mohan; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lung tumors may be described adequately using a rigid body assumption or whether they deform during normal respiration. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early stage non-small-cell lung cancer underwent four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) simulation. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on the 4D CT images. Image registration was performed in the vicinity of the GTV. The volume of interest for registration was the GTV and minimal volume of surrounding non-GTV tissue. Three types of registration were performed: translation only, translation + rotation, and deformable. The GTV contour from end-inhale was mapped to end-exhale using the registration-derived transformation field. The results were evaluated using three metrics: overlap index (OI), root-mean-squared distance (RMS), and Hausdorff distance (HD). Results: After translation only image registration, on average OI increased by 21.3%, RMS and HD reduced by 1.2 mm and 2.0 mm, respectively. The succeeding increases in OI after translation + rotation and deformable registration were 1.1% and 1.4% respectively. The succeeding reductions in RMS were 0.1 mm and 0.2 mm respectively. No reduction in HD was observed after translation + rotation and deformable image registration compared with translation only registration. The difference in the results from the three registration scenarios was independent of GTV size and motion amplitude. Conclusions: The primary effect of normal respiration on lung tumors was the translation of tumors. Rotation and deformation of lung tumors was determined to be minimal.

  15. Classical and alternative macrophage activation in the lung following ozone-induced oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Shen, Jianliang; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-09-01

    Ozone is a pulmonary irritant known to cause oxidative stress, inflammation and tissue injury. Evidence suggests that macrophages play a role in the pathogenic response; however, their contribution depends on the mediators they encounter in the lung which dictate their function. In these studies we analyzed the effects of ozone-induced oxidative stress on the phenotype of alveolar macrophages (AM). Exposure of rats to ozone (2 ppm, 3 h) resulted in increased expression of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in AM. Whereas 8-OHdG was maximum at 24 h, expression of HO-1 was biphasic increasing after 3 h and 4872 h. Cleaved caspase-9 and beclin-1, markers of apoptosis and autophagy, were also induced in AM 24 h post-ozone. This was associated with increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, demonstrating alveolar epithelial injury. Ozone intoxication resulted in biphasic activation of the transcription factor, NF?B. This correlated with expression of monocyte chemotactic protein?1, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase?2, markers of proinflammatory macrophages. Increases in arginase-1, Ym1 and galectin-3 positive anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages were also observed in the lung after ozone inhalation, beginning at 24 h (arginase-1, Ym1), and persisting for 72 h (galectin-3). This was associated with increased expression of pro-surfactant protein-C, a marker of Type II cell proliferation and activation, important steps in wound repair. These data suggest that both proinflammatory/cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages are activated early in the response to ozone-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury. -- Highlights: ? Lung macrophages are highly sensitive to ozone induced oxidative stress. ? Ozone induces autophagy and apoptosis in lung macrophages. ? Proinflammatory and wound repair macrophages are activated early after ozone

  16. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Versus CT in Lung Ablation Procedure: Which is Faster?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi Battistuzzi, Jean-Benoit Catena, Vittorio; Grasso, Rosario Francesco Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Schena, Emiliano; Buy, Xavier Palussiere, Jean

    2015-10-15

    AimTo compare cone-beam CT (CBCT) versus computed tomography (CT) guidance in terms of time needed to target and place the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) electrode on lung tumours.Materials and MethodsPatients at our institution who received CBCT- or CT-guided RFA for primary or metastatic lung tumours were retrospectively included. Time required to target and place the RFA electrode within the lesion was registered and compared across the two groups. Lesions were stratified into three groups according to their size (<10, 10–20, >20 mm). Occurrences of electrode repositioning, repositioning time, RFA complications, and local recurrence after RFA were also reported.ResultsForty tumours (22 under CT, 18 under CBCT guidance) were treated in 27 patients (19 male, 8 female, median age 67.25 ± 9.13 years). Thirty RFA sessions (16 under CBCT and 14 under CT guidance) were performed. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that CBCT was faster than CT to target and place the electrode within the tumour independently from its size (β = −9.45, t = −3.09, p = 0.004). Electrode repositioning was required in 10/22 (45.4 %) tumours under CT guidance and 5/18 (27.8 %) tumours under CBCT guidance. Pneumothoraces occurred in 6/14 (42.8 %) sessions under CT guidance and in 6/16 (37.5 %) sessions under CBCT guidance. Two recurrences were noted for tumours receiving CBCT-guided RFA (2/17, 11.7 %) and three after CT-guided RFA (3/19, 15.8 %).ConclusionCBCT with live 3D needle guidance is a useful technique for percutaneous lung ablation. Despite lesion size, CBCT allows faster lung RFA than CT.

  17. The respiratory health and lung function of Anglo-American children in a smelter town

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, R.

    1983-02-01

    Cooper smelters are large, usually isolated, sources of air pollution. Arizona has several such plants on the periphery of small communities. The smelters emit predominantly sulfur oxides and particulates, and the residents of these communities intermittently are exposed to high concentrations (24-h sulfur dioxide (SO2) . 250 to 500 micrograms/m3) of smelter smoke but little other pollution. This study compared the respiratory health of Anglo-American school children who lived in one smelter community with children living in another small community in Arizona that was free of smelter air pollution. The prevalence of cough, as determined by questionnaire, was 25.6% in the smelter town children and 14.3% in the nonsmelter town children (p less than 0.05). Pulmonary function at the study onset was equal in the two groups. Over the course of the 4 yr of study, lung function growth (measured as actual forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after 4 yr of study minus predicted FEV1) was also equal in the smelter town and nonsmelter town children. These results suggest that children in smelter communities have slightly more cough when compared with children living in other communities, but no differences in initial lung function or lung function at yearly testing over the period of the study.

  18. High-Resolution Phase-Contrast Imaging of Submicron Particles in Unstained Lung Tissue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schittny, J. C.; Barre, S. F.; Haberthuer, D.; Mokso, R.; Tsuda, A.; Stampanoni, M.

    2011-09-09

    To access the risks and chances of deposition of submicron particles in the gas-exchange area of the lung, a precise three-dimensional (3D)-localization of the sites of deposition is essential--especially because local peaks of deposition are expected in the acinar tree and in individual alveoli. In this study we developed the workflow for such an investigation. We administered 200-nm gold particles to young adult rats by intratracheal instillation. After fixation and paraffin embedding, their lungs were imaged unstained using synchrotron radiation x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) at the beamline TOMCAT (Swiss Light Source, Villigen, Switzerland) at sample detector distances of 2.5 mm (absorption contrast) and of 52.5 mm (phase contrast). A segmentation based on a global threshold of grey levels was successfully done on absorption-contrast images for the gold and on the phase-contrast images for the tissue. The smallest spots containing gold possessed a size of 1-2 voxels of 370-nm side length. We conclude that a combination of phase and absorption contrast SRXTM imaging is necessary to obtain the correct segmentation of both tissue and gold particles. This method will be used for the 3D localization of deposited particles in the gas-exchange area of the lung.

  19. Strain-dependent Damage in Mouse Lung After Carbon Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritake, Takashi; Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba ; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Yanagisawa, Mitsuru; Nakawatari, Miyako; Imadome, Kaori; Nakamura, Etsuko; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To examine whether inherent factors produce differences in lung morbidity in response to carbon ion (C-ion) irradiation, and to identify the molecules that have a key role in strain-dependent adverse effects in the lung. Methods and Materials: Three strains of female mice (C3H/He Slc, C57BL/6J Jms Slc, and A/J Jms Slc) were locally irradiated in the thorax with either C-ion beams (290 MeV/n, in 6 cm spread-out Bragg peak) or with {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays as a reference beam. We performed survival assays and histologic examination of the lung with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. In addition, we performed immunohistochemical staining for hyaluronic acid (HA), CD44, and Mac3 and assayed for gene expression. Results: The survival data in mice showed a between-strain variance after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. The median survival time of C3H/He was significantly shortened after C-ion irradiation at the higher dose of 12.5 Gy. Histologic examination revealed early-phase hemorrhagic pneumonitis in C3H/He and late-phase focal fibrotic lesions in C57BL/6J after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. Pleural effusion was apparent in C57BL/6J and A/J mice, 168 days after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. Microarray analysis of irradiated lung tissue in the three mouse strains identified differential expression changes in growth differentiation factor 15 (Gdf15), which regulates macrophage function, and hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1), which plays a role in HA metabolism. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of CD44-positive cells, a surrogate marker for HA accumulation, and Mac3-positive cells, a marker for macrophage infiltration in irradiated lung, varied significantly among the three mouse strains during the early phase. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a strain-dependent differential response in mice to C-ion thoracic irradiation. Our findings identified candidate molecules that could be implicated in the between-strain variance to early

  20. Ventilation/Perfusion Positron Emission Tomography—Based Assessment of Radiation Injury to Lung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siva, Shankar; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Kron, Tomas; Bressel, Mathias; Callahan, Jason; MacManus, Michael P.; Shaw, Mark; Plumridge, Nikki; Hicks, Rodney J.; Steinfort, Daniel; Ball, David L.; Hofman, Michael S.

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate {sup 68}Ga-ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) as a novel imaging modality for assessment of perfusion, ventilation, and lung density changes in the context of radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: In a prospective clinical trial, 20 patients underwent 4-dimensional (4D)-V/Q PET/CT before, midway through, and 3 months after definitive lung RT. Eligible patients were prescribed 60 Gy in 30 fractions with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Functional images were registered to the RT planning 4D-CT, and isodose volumes were averaged into 10-Gy bins. Within each dose bin, relative loss in standardized uptake value (SUV) was recorded for ventilation and perfusion, and loss in air-filled fraction was recorded to assess RT-induced lung fibrosis. A dose-effect relationship was described using both linear and 2-parameter logistic fit models, and goodness of fit was assessed with Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Results: A total of 179 imaging datasets were available for analysis (1 scan was unrecoverable). An almost perfectly linear negative dose-response relationship was observed for perfusion and air-filled fraction (r{sup 2}=0.99, P<.01), with ventilation strongly negatively linear (r{sup 2}=0.95, P<.01). Logistic models did not provide a better fit as evaluated by AIC. Perfusion, ventilation, and the air-filled fraction decreased 0.75 ± 0.03%, 0.71 ± 0.06%, and 0.49 ± 0.02%/Gy, respectively. Within high-dose regions, higher baseline perfusion SUV was associated with greater rate of loss. At 50 Gy and 60 Gy, the rate of loss was 1.35% (P=.07) and 1.73% (P=.05) per SUV, respectively. Of 8/20 patients with peritumoral reperfusion/reventilation during treatment, 7/8 did not sustain this effect after treatment. Conclusions: Radiation-induced regional lung functional deficits occur in a dose-dependent manner and can be estimated by simple linear models with 4D-V/Q PET

  1. TH-E-BRF-07: Raman Spectroscopy for Radiation Treatment Response Assessment in a Lung Metastases Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devpura, S; Barton, K; Brown, S; Siddiqui, F; Chetty, I; Sethi, S; Klein, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Raman spectroscopy is an optical spectroscopic method used to probe chemical information about a target tissue. Our goal was to investigate whether Raman spectroscopy is able to distinguish lung tumors from normal lung tissue and whether this technique can identify the molecular changes induced by radiation. Methods: 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into the flanks of 6 Balb/C female mice. Four additional mice were used as “normal lung” controls. After 14 days, 3 mice bearing tumors received 6Gy to the left lung with 6MV photons and the other three were treated as “unirradiated tumor” controls. At a 24-hour time point, lungs were excised and the specimens were sectioned using a cryostat; alternating sections were either stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) for evaluation by a pathologist or unstained for Raman measurements. 240 total Raman spectra were collected; 84 from normal lung controls; 63 from unirradiated tumors and 64 from tumors irradiated with 6Gy in a single fraction. Raman spectra were also collected from normal lung tissues of mice with unirradiated tumors. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) were performed to analyze the data. Results: Raman bands assignable to DNA/RNA showed prominent contributions in tumor tissues while Raman bands associated with hemoglobin showed strong contributions in normal lung tissue. PCA/DFA analysis identified normal lung tissue and tumor with 100% and 98.4% accuracy, respectively, relative to pathologic scoring. Additionally, normal lung tissues from unirradiated mice bearing tumors were classified as normal with 100% accuracy. In a model consisting of unirradiated and irradiated tumors identification accuracy was 79.4% and 93.8% respectively, relative to pathologic assessment. Conclusion: Initial results demonstrate the promise for Raman spectroscopy in the diagnosis normal vs. lung metastases as well as the assessment of

  2. Sowing the seeds of massive black holes in small galaxies: Young clusters as the building blocks of ultracompact dwarf galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Konstantinidis, Symeon; Freitag, Marc Dewi; Coleman Miller, M.; Rasio, Frederic A. E-mail: simos@ari.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: miller@astro.umd.edu

    2014-02-20

    Interacting galaxies often have complexes of hundreds of young stellar clusters of individual masses ∼10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} in regions that are a few hundred parsecs across. These cluster complexes interact dynamically, and their coalescence is a candidate for the origin of some ultracompact dwarf galaxies. Individual clusters with short relaxation times are candidates for the production of intermediate-mass black holes of a few hundred solar masses, via runaway stellar collisions prior to the first supernovae in a cluster. It is therefore possible that a cluster complex hosts multiple intermediate-mass black holes that may be ejected from their individual clusters due to mergers or binary processes, but bound to the complex as a whole. Here we explore the dynamical interaction between initially free-flying massive black holes and clusters in an evolving cluster complex. We find that, after hitting some clusters, it is plausible that the massive black hole will be captured in an ultracompact dwarf forming near the center of the complex. In the process, the hole typically triggers electromagnetic flares via stellar disruptions, and is also likely to be a prominent source of gravitational radiation for the advanced ground-based detectors LIGO and VIRGO. We also discuss other implications of this scenario, notably that the central black hole could be considerably larger than expected in other formation scenarios for ultracompact dwarfs.

  3. THE FAINT 'HEARTBEATS' OF IGR J17091-3624: AN EXCEPTIONAL BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altamirano, D.; Van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R.; Kalamkar, M.; Belloni, T.; Stiele, H.; Motta, S.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Linares, M.; Curran, P. A.; Krimm, H.

    2011-12-15

    We report on the first 180 days of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the outburst of the black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624. This source exhibits a broad variety of complex light curve patterns including periods of strong flares alternating with quiet intervals. Similar patterns in the X-ray light curves have been seen in the (up to now) unique black hole system GRS 1915+105. In the context of the variability classes defined by Belloni et al. for GRS 1915+105, we find that IGR J17091-3624 shows the {nu}, {rho}, {alpha}, {lambda}, {beta}, and {mu} classes as well as quiet periods which resemble the {chi} class, all occurring at 2-60 keV count rate levels which can be 10-50 times lower than observed in GRS 1915+105. The so-called {rho} class 'heartbeats' occur as fast as every few seconds and as slow as {approx}100 s, tracing a loop in the hardness-intensity diagram which resembles that previously seen in GRS 1915+105. However, while GRS 1915+105 traverses this loop clockwise, IGR J17091-3624 does so in the opposite sense. We briefly discuss our findings in the context of the models proposed for GRS 1915+105 and find that either all models requiring near Eddington luminosities for GRS 1915+105-like variability fail, or IGR J17091-3624 lies at a distance well in excess of 20 kpc, or it harbors one of the least massive black holes known (<3 M{sub Sun }).

  4. INTERACTION OF RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES WITH STARS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Shuo; Liu, F. K.; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer; Chen Xian E-mail: fkliu@bac.pku.edu.cn

    2012-03-20

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are the products of frequent galaxy mergers. The coalescence of the SMBHBs is a distinct source of gravitational wave (GW) radiation. The detections of the strong GW radiation and their possible electromagnetic counterparts are essential. Numerical relativity suggests that the post-merger supermassive black hole (SMBH) gets a kick velocity up to 4000 km s{sup -1} due to the anisotropic GW radiations. Here, we investigate the dynamical coevolution and interaction of the recoiling SMBHs and their galactic stellar environments with one million direct N-body simulations including the stellar tidal disruption by the recoiling SMBHs. Our results show that the accretion of disrupted stars does not significantly affect the SMBH dynamical evolution. We investigate the stellar tidal disruption rates as a function of the dynamical evolution of oscillating SMBHs in the galactic nuclei. Our simulations show that most stellar tidal disruptions are contributed by the unbound stars and occur when the oscillating SMBHs pass through the galactic center. The averaged disruption rate is {approx}10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, which is about an order of magnitude lower than that by a stationary SMBH at similar galactic nuclei. Our results also show that a bound star cluster is around the oscillating SMBH of about {approx}0.7% the black hole mass. In addition, we discover a massive cloud of unbound stars following the oscillating SMBH. We also investigate the dependence of the results on the SMBH masses and density slopes of the galactic nuclei.

  5. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins cover most of the depositional basins in the Midwest and Eastern United States. These basins produce sweet, paraffinic light oil and are considered minor heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity or 100 to 100,000 cP viscosity) producers. Heavy oil occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Paleozoic Age along the perimeters of the basins in the same sediments where light oil occurs. The oil is heavy because escape of light ends, water washing of the oil, and biodegradation of the oil have occurred over million of years. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins` heavy oil fields have produced some 450,000 bbl of heavy oil of an estimated 14,000,000 bbl originally in place. The basins have been long-term, major light-oil-producing areas and are served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and with few exceptions limited volumes of sour or heavy crude oils. Since the light oil is principally paraffinic, it commands a higher price than the asphaltic heavy crude oils of California. The heavy oil that is refined in the Midwest and Eastern US is imported and refined at select refineries. Imports of crude of all grades accounts for 37 to >95% of the oil refined in these areas. Because of the nature of the resource, the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois and Michigan basins are not expected to become major heavy oil producing areas. The crude oil collection system will continue to degrade as light oil production declines. The demand for crude oil will increase pipeline and tanker transport of imported crude to select large refineries to meet the areas` liquid fuels needs.

  6. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins cover most of the depositional basins in the Midwest and Eastern United States. These basins produce sweet, paraffinic light oil and are considered minor heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity or 100 to 100,000 cP viscosity) producers. Heavy oil occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Paleozoic Age along the perimeters of the basins in the same sediments where light oil occurs. The oil is heavy because escape of light ends, water washing of the oil, and biodegradation of the oil have occurred over million of years. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins' heavy oil fields have produced some 450,000 bbl of heavy oil of an estimated 14,000,000 bbl originally in place. The basins have been long-term, major light-oil-producing areas and are served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and with few exceptions limited volumes of sour or heavy crude oils. Since the light oil is principally paraffinic, it commands a higher price than the asphaltic heavy crude oils of California. The heavy oil that is refined in the Midwest and Eastern US is imported and refined at select refineries. Imports of crude of all grades accounts for 37 to >95% of the oil refined in these areas. Because of the nature of the resource, the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois and Michigan basins are not expected to become major heavy oil producing areas. The crude oil collection system will continue to degrade as light oil production declines. The demand for crude oil will increase pipeline and tanker transport of imported crude to select large refineries to meet the areas' liquid fuels needs.

  7. Formation resistivity as an indicator of oil generation in black shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hester, T.C.; Schmoker, J.W.

    1987-08-01

    Black, organic-rich shales of Late Devonian-Early Mississippi age are present in many basins of the North American craton and, where mature, have significant economic importance as hydrocarbon source rocks. Examples drawn from the upper and lower shale members of the Bakken Formation, Williston basin, North Dakota, and the Woodford Shale, Anadarko basin, Oklahoma, demonstrate the utility of formation resistivity as a direct in-situ indicator of oil generation in black shales. With the onset of oil generation, nonconductive hydrocarbons begin to replace conductive pore water, and the resistivity of a given black-shale interval increases from low levels associated with thermal immaturity to values approaching infinity. Crossplots of a thermal-maturity index (R/sub 0/ or TTI) versus formation resistivity define two populations representing immature shales and shales that have generated oil. A resistivity of 35 ohm-m marks the boundary between immature and mature source rocks for each of the three shales studied. Thermal maturity-resistivity crossplots make possible a straightforward determination of thermal maturity at the onset of oil generation, and are sufficiently precise to detect subtle differences in source-rock properties. For example, the threshold of oil generation in the upper Bakken shale occurs at R/sub 0/ = 0.43-0.45% (TTI = 10-12). The threshold increases to R/sub 0/ = 0.48-0.51% (TTI = 20-26) in the lower Bakken shale, and to R/sub 0/ = 0.56-0.57% (TTI = 33-48) in the most resistive Woodford interval.

  8. Environmental planning as a tool for economic development: The black brook watershed experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryner, P.C.; Heller, G.B.

    1995-12-01

    The Keene, New Hampshire Planning Department has attempted to use environmental planning as a tool to facilitate industrial development of the Black Brook Watershed. The City has established detailed modeling of drainage, floodplains and groundwater, and has placed that information on accurate computer-based maps. When provided to developers at the beginning of the development process, this environmental information expidites design and permitting while also improving the likelihood of protecting sensitive environmental areas. Starting in 1987 as part of a Master Plan revision process, the Planning Department decided to concentrate on the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern Keene as a target area for a new approach to economic development and environmental protection. The entire watershed was chosen as the boundary for this study area and detailed studies were conducted. During this effort the City formulated a new Economic Development Master Plan which called for the creation of approximately 300 acres of new industrial development within the next ten years. The Black Brook basin was identified as the preferred site. Because of pro-active environmental planning, the City is now able to work in active, cooperative partnership with the private sector in the development of this area. It is clear from this first specific development project that the project development and permitting process will be shortened by at least 60 days, and a minimum of $5,000 to $10,000 in preliminary site information costs will be saved. The availability of good information on wetlands and floodplains has already had a dramatic impact upon proposed site design and has achieved the desired objective of avoiding these sensitive areas whenever possible. The City is now working on the design of an Industrial Design and Permitting System which will be applied to the entire City, based upon what has been learned from this effort.

  9. PIT 9: From "Black Eye" to Part of DOE Cleanup Success

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PIT 9: From "Black Eye" to Part of DOE Cleanup Success There was a time back in the late 1990s and early 2000s when the words "Pit 9" were synonymous with failure. Failure on the part of a large company to execute its contract to clean up Pit 9. Failure on the part of the Federal government to meet the deadlines to clean up nuclear waste. And failure of a new approach to government contracting - "privatization" - that was supposed to make contractors more

  10. An ethanolic extract of black cohosh causes hematological changes but not estrogenic effects in female rodents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C.; Witt, Kristine L.; Granville, Courtney A.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A.; Ryan, Michael J.; Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M.; Vallant, Molly K.; Stout, Matthew D.

    2012-09-01

    Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. -- Highlights: ? Mice and rats were dosed with black cohosh extract for 90 days starting at weaning. ? Hematological changes were consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia. ? Peripheral micronucleated red blood cell frequencies increased. ? Puberty was delayed 2.9 days in rats. ? No estrogenic/anti-estrogenic activity was seen in the uterotrophic assay.

  11. TU-F-17A-09: Four-Dimensional Cone Beam CT Ventilation Imaging Can Detect Interfraction Lung Function Variations for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kipritidis, J; Keall, P; Hugo, G; Weiss, E; Williamson, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI) is a novel functional lung imaging modality requiring validation. We hypothesize that 4D-CBCT VI satisfies a necessary condition for validity: that intrafraction variations (e.g. due to poor 4D-CBCT image quality) are substantially different to interfraction variations (e.g. due to changes in underlying function). We perform the first comparison of intrafraction (pre/post fraction) and interfraction (week-to-week) 4D-CBCT VIs for locally advanced non small cell lung cancer (LA NSCLC) patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: A total of 215 4D-CBCT scans were acquired for 19 LA NSCLC patients over 4-6 weeks of radiation therapy, including 75 pairs of pre-/post-fraction scans on the same day. 4D-CBCT VIs were obtained by applying state-of-the-art, B-spline deformable image registration to obtain the Jacobian determinant of deformation between the end-exhale and end-inhale phases. All VIs were deformably registered to the corresponding first day scan, normalized between the 10th and 90th percentile values and cropped to the ipsilateral lung only. Intrafraction variations were assessed by computing the mean and standard deviation of voxel-wise differences between all same-day pairs of pre-/post-fraction VIs. Interfraction differences were computed between first-day VIs and treatment weeks 2, 4 and 6 for all 19 patients. We tested the hypothesis by comparing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of intrafraction and interfraction ventilation differences using two-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests. Results: The (mean ± std. dev.) of intrafraction differences was (−0.007 ± 0.079). Interfraction differences for weeks 2, 4 and 6 were (−0.035 ± 0.103), (−0.006 ± 0.094) and (−0.019 ± 0.127) respectively. For week 2, the changes in CDFs for intrafraction and interfraction differences approached statistical significance (p=0.099). Conclusion: We have shown that 4D-CBCT VI

  12. CDK-associated Cullin 1 promotes cell proliferation with activation of ERK1/2 in human lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Tian Jun; Gao, Fei; Yang, Tian; Thakur, Asmitanand; Ren, Hui; Li, Yang; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Ting; Chen, Ming Wei

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: CDK-associated Cullin 1 (CAC1) expression increases in human lung carcinoma. CAC1 promotes the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells. CAC1 promotes human lung cancer A549 cell proliferation with activation of ERK1/2. -- Abstract: Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in the world, but the mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of CDK-associated Cullin 1 (CAC1) in lung cancer, the effect of CAC1 on the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells, and the activation of signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Results showed that CAC1 expression was higher levels in human lung carcinoma than normal lung tissue, and CAC1 siRNA reduced the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells by decreasing cell activity and cell division in vitro. The proportion of cells treated with CAC1 siRNA increased in the G1 phase and decreased in the S and G2/M phase, indicative of G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, the proportions of early/late apoptosis in lung cancer A549 cells were enhanced with CAC1 siRNA treatment. It was also found that activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 signaling pathways were involved in the proliferation of A549 cells. After CAC1 siRNA treatment, p-ERK1/2 levels decreased, and meanwhile p-p38 level increased, A549 cell proliferation increased when ERK1/2 signaling is activated by PMA. Our findings demonstrated that CAC1 promoted the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells with activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathways, suggesting a potential cure target for treatment of human lung cancer.

  13. UNLEASHING POSITIVE FEEDBACK: LINKING THE RATES OF STAR FORMATION, SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE ACCRETION, AND OUTFLOWS IN DISTANT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silk, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Pressure-regulated star formation is a simple variant on the usual supernova-regulated star formation efficiency that controls the global star formation rate as a function of cold gas content in star-forming galaxies, and accounts for the Schmidt-Kennicutt law in both nearby and distant galaxies. Inclusion of active galactic nucleus (AGN) induced pressure, by jets and/or winds that flow back onto a gas-rich disk, can lead, under some circumstances, to significantly enhanced star formation rates, especially at high redshift and most likely followed by the more widely accepted phase of star formation quenching. Simple expressions are derived that relate supermassive black hole growth, star formation, and outflow rates. The ratios of black hole to spheroid mass and of both black hole accretion and outflow rates to star formation rate are predicted as a function of time. I suggest various tests of the AGN-triggered star formation hypothesis.

  14. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  15. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  16. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  17. A parallax distance to the microquasar GRS 1915+105 and a revised estimate of its black hole mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, M. J.; McClintock, J. E.; Steiner, J. F.; Narayan, R.; Steeghs, D.; Remillard, R. A.; Dhawan, V.

    2014-11-20

    Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we have measured a trigonometric parallax for the microquasar GRS 1915+105, which contains a black hole and a K-giant companion. This yields a direct distance estimate of 8.6{sub ?1.6}{sup +2.0} kpc and a revised estimate for the mass of the black hole of 12.4{sub ?1.8}{sup +2.0} M {sub ?}. GRS 1915+105 is at about the same distance as some H II regions and water masers associated with high-mass star formation in the Sagittarius spiral arm of the Galaxy. The absolute proper motion of GRS 1915+105 is 3.19 0.03 mas yr{sup 1} and 6.24 0.05 mas yr{sup 1} toward the east and north, respectively, which corresponds to a modest peculiar speed of 22 24 km s{sup 1} at the parallax distance, suggesting that the binary did not receive a large velocity kick when the black hole formed. On one observational epoch, GRS 1915+105 displayed superluminal motion along the direction of its approaching jet. Considering previous observations of jet motions, the jet in GRS 1915+105 can be modeled with a jet inclination to the line of sight of 60 5 and a variable flow speed between 0.65c and 0.81c, which possibly indicates deceleration of the jet at distances from the black hole ? 2000 AU. Finally, using our measurements of distance and estimates of black hole mass and inclination, we provisionally confirm our earlier result that the black hole is spinning very rapidly.

  18. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-02-15

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M {sub NC}, correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M {sub NC} = (2.11 {+-} 0.31)log ({sigma}/54) + (6.63 {+-} 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M {sub NC}{proportional_to}M {sup 0.55{+-}0.15} {sub Gal,dyn}; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  19. X-RAY CONSTRAINTS ON THE LOCAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE OCCUPATION FRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Baldassare, Vivienne; Greene, Jenny E.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2015-01-20

    Distinct seed formation mechanisms are imprinted upon the fraction of dwarf galaxies currently containing a central supermassive black hole. Seeding by Population III remnants is expected to produce a higher occupation fraction than is generated with direct gas collapse precursors. Chandra observations of nearby early-type galaxies can directly detect even low-level supermassive black hole activity, and the active fraction immediately provides a firm lower limit to the occupation fraction. Here, we use the volume-limited AMUSE surveys of ?200 optically selected early-type galaxies to characterize simultaneously, for the first time, the occupation fraction and the scaling of L {sub X} with M {sub star}, accounting for intrinsic scatter, measurement uncertainties, and X-ray limits. For early-type galaxies with M {sub star} < 10{sup 10} M {sub ?}, we obtain a lower limit to the occupation fraction of >20% (at 95% confidence), but full occupation cannot be excluded. The preferred dependence of log L {sub X} upon log M {sub star} has a slope of ?0.7-0.8, consistent with the ''downsizing'' trend previously identified from the AMUSE data set, and a uniform Eddington efficiency is disfavored at ?2?. We provide guidelines for the future precision with which these parameters may be refined with larger or more sensitive samples.

  20. Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar E-mail: cesar.gomez@uam.es

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.

  1. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at

  2. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. II. Black holes, naked singularities, and wormholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeda, Hideki; Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-15

    We use a combination of numerical and analytical methods, exploiting the equations derived in a preceding paper, to classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=({gamma}-1){mu} with 0<{gamma}<2/3. The expansion of the Friedmann universe is accelerated in this case. We find a one-parameter family of self-similar solutions representing a black hole embedded in a Friedmann background. This suggests that, in contrast to the positive pressure case, black holes in a universe with dark energy can grow as fast as the Hubble horizon if they are not too large. There are also self-similar solutions which contain a central naked singularity with negative mass and solutions which represent a Friedmann universe connected to either another Friedmann universe or some other cosmological model. The latter are interpreted as self-similar cosmological white hole or wormhole solutions. The throats of these wormholes are defined as two-dimensional spheres with minimal area on a spacelike hypersurface and they are all nontraversable because of the absence of a past null infinity.

  3. Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    2014-01-14

    Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.

  4. THE MISSING GOLIATH'S SLINGSHOT: MASSIVE BLACK HOLE RECOIL AT M83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dottori, Horacio; Diaz, Ruben J.; Facundo Albacete-Colombo, Juan

    2010-07-01

    The Fanaroff-Riley II radio source J133658.3-295105, which is also an X-ray source, appears to be projected onto the disk of the barred-spiral galaxy M83 at about 60'' from the galaxy's optical nucleus. J133658.3-295105 and its radio lobes are aligned with the optical nucleus of M 83 and two other radio sources, neither of which are supernova remnants or H II regions. Due to this peculiar on-the-sky projection, J133658.3-295105 was previously studied by Gemini+GMOS optical spectroscopy, which marginally revealed the presence of H{alpha} in emission receding at 130 km s{sup -1} with respect to the optical nucleus. In this Letter, we reanalyze the Chandra spectroscopy carried out in 2000. We show that J133658.3-295105 presents an Fe K{alpha} emission line at a redshift of z = 0.018. This redshift is compatible with a black hole at the distance of M 83. We discuss similarities to the recently reported micro-quasar in NGC 5408. This finding reinforces the kicked-off black hole scenario for J133658.3-295105.

  5. Bulk scalar emission from a rotating black hole pierced by a tense brane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Nozawa, Masato; Takamizu, Yu-ichi

    2008-02-15

    We study the emission of scalar fields into the bulk from a six-dimensional rotating black hole pierced by a 3-brane. We determine the angular eigenvalues in the presence of finite brane tension by using the continued fraction method. The radial equation is integrated numerically, giving the absorption probability (graybody factor) in a wider frequency range than in the preexisting literature. We then compute the power and angular momentum emission spectra for different values of the rotation parameter and brane tension, and compare their relative behavior in detail. As is expected from the earlier result for a nonrotating black hole, the finite brane tension suppresses the emission rates. As the rotation parameter increases, the power spectra are reduced at low frequencies due to the smaller Hawking temperature and are enhanced at high frequencies due to superradiance. The angular momentum spectra are enhanced over the whole frequency range as the rotation parameter increases. The spectra and the amounts of energy and angular momentum radiated away into the bulk are thus determined by the interplay of these effects.

  6. A PRECISION TEST FOR AN EXTRA SPATIAL DIMENSION USING BLACK-HOLE-PULSAR BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonetti, John H.; Minic, Djordje; Surani, Umair; Vijayan, Vipin; Kavic, Michael

    2011-08-20

    We discuss the observable effects of enhanced black hole mass loss in a black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binary, due to the presence of a warped extra spatial dimension of curvature radius L in the braneworld scenario. For some masses and orbital parameters in the expected ranges the binary components would outspiral-the opposite of the behavior due to energy loss from gravitational radiation alone. If the NS is a pulsar, observations of the rate of change of the orbital period with a precision obtained for the binary pulsar B1913+16 could easily detect the effect of mass loss. For M{sub BH} = 7 M{sub sun}, M{sub NS} = 1.4 M{sub sun}, eccentricity e = 0.1, and L = 10 {mu}m, the critical orbital period dividing systems that inspiral from systems that outspiral is P {approx} 6.5 hr, which is within the range of expected orbital periods; this value drops to P {approx} 4.2 hr for M{sub BH} = 5 M{sub sun}. Observations of a BH-pulsar system could set considerably better limits on L in these braneworld models than could be determined by torsion-balance gravity experiments in the foreseeable future.

  7. TEM Observations of Corrosion Behaviors of Platinized Carbon Blacks under Thermal and Electrochemical Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.Y.; Zhang, J.L.; Yu, P.T.; Zhang, J.X.; Makharia, R.; More, Karren Leslie; Stach, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Carbon blacks such as Vulcan XC-72 are widely used to support platinum (Pt) or Pt alloy catalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Despite their widespread use, carbon blacks are susceptible to corrosion during fuel cell operations. In this work, the corrosion behaviors of platinized Vulcan XC-72 nanoparticles under thermal and electrochemical conditions were monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal corrosion experiment was carried out in a gas-cell TEM, which allows for a direct observation of the thermal oxidation behavior of the nanoparticles. The electrochemical corrosion experiment was performed outside of the TEM by loading the nanoparticles on a TEM grid and then electrochemically corroding them step by step followed by taking TEM images from exactly the same nanoparticles after each step. This work revealed four types of structural changes: (i) total removal of structurally weak aggregates, (ii) breakdown of aggregates via neck-breaking, (iii) center-hollowed primary particles caused by an inside-out corrosion starting from the center to outer region, and (iv) gradual decrease in the size of primary particles caused by a uniform removal of material from the surface. These structural changes took place in sequence or simultaneously depending on the competition of carbon corrosion dynamical processes. The results obtained from this work provide insight on carbon corrosion and its effects on fuel cells' long-term performance and durability.

  8. Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating primordial black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Allen, B. T.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.; Aune, T.; H. A. Ayala Solares; Barber, A. S.; Baughman, B. M.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Belmont, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Bonilla Rosales, M.; Braun, J.; Caballero-Lopez, R. A.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carraminana, A.; Castillo, M.; Christopher, G. E.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; de la Fuente, E.; De León, C.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Diaz-Cruz, L.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; Galindo, A.; Garfias, F.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Grabski, V.; Gussert, M.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hays, E.; Hoffman, C. M.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Imran, A.; Iriarte, A.; Karn, P.; Kieda, D.; Kolterman, B. E.; Kunde, G. J.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; Vargas, H. Leon; Linares, E. C.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longo, M.; Luna-GarcIa, R.; MacGibbon, J. H.; Marinelli, A.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, O.; Martínez-Castro, J.; J. A.J. Matthews; McEnery, J.; Mendoza Torres, E.; Mincer, A. I.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Morgan, T.; Mostafa, M.; Nellen, L.; Nemethy, P.; Newbold, M.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Oceguera-Becerra, T.; Patricelli, B.; Pelayo, R.; Perez-Perez, E. G.; Pretz, J.; Riviere, C.; Rosa-Gonzalez, D.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Ryan, J.; Salazar, H.; Salesa, F.; Sandoval, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Schneider, M.; Silich, S.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Stump, D.; Sparks Woodle, K.; Springer, R. W.; Taboada, I.; Toale, P. A.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Vasileiou, V.; Villasenor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Williams, D. A.; Wisher, I. G.; Wood, J.; Yodh, G. B.; Younk, P. W.; Zaborov, D.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.

    2015-04-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ~ 5.0 × 10¹⁴ g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV – TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.

  9. The MassiveBlack-II simulation: The evolution of haloes and galaxies to z ~ 0

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khandai, Nishikanta; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Wilkins, Stephen; Feng, Yu; Tucker, Evan; DeGraf, Colin; Liu, Mao -Sheng

    2015-04-24

    We investigate the properties and clustering of halos, galaxies and blackholes to z = 0 in the high resolution hydrodynamical simulation MassiveBlack-II (MBII). MBII evolves a ΛCDM cosmology in a cubical comoving volume Vbox = (100Mpc/h)³. It is the highest resolution simulation of this size which includes a self-consistent model for star formation, black hole accretion and associated feedback. We provide a simulation browser web application which enables interactive search and tagging of the halos, subhalos and their properties and publicly release our galaxy catalogs to the scientific community. Our analysis of the halo mass function in MBII reveals thatmore » baryons have strong effects with changes in the halo abundance of 20–35% below the knee of the mass function (Mhalo 1013.2 M⊙ h at z = 0) when compared to dark-matter-only simulations. We provide a fitting function for the halo MF out to redshift z = 11 and discuss its limitations.« less

  10. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  11. Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating primordial black holes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Allen, B. T.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.; Aune, T.; H. A. Ayala Solares; et al

    2015-04-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ~ 5.0 × 10¹⁴ g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV – TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 tomore » 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.« less

  12. SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE FORMATION AT HIGH REDSHIFTS THROUGH A PRIMORDIAL MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sethi, Shiv; Pandey, Kanhaiya; Haiman, Zoltan E-mail: kanhaiya@rri.res.i

    2010-09-20

    It has been proposed that primordial gas in early dark matter halos, with virial temperatures T{sub vir} {approx}> 10{sup 4} K, can avoid fragmentation and undergo rapid collapse, possibly resulting in a supermassive black hole. This requires the gas to avoid cooling and to remain at temperatures near T {approx} 10{sup 4} K. We show that this condition can be satisfied in the presence of a sufficiently strong primordial magnetic field, which heats the collapsing gas via ambipolar diffusion. If the field has a strength above |B | {approx}>3.6 (comoving) nG, the collapsing gas is kept warm (T {approx} 10{sup 4} K) until it reaches the critical density n{sub crit} {approx} 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} at which the rotovibrational states of H{sub 2} approach local thermodynamic equilibrium. H{sub 2} cooling then remains inefficient and the gas temperature stays near {approx}10{sup 4} K, even as it continues to collapse at higher densities. The critical magnetic field strength required to permanently suppress H{sub 2} cooling is somewhat higher than the upper limit of {approx}2 nG from the cosmic microwave background. However, it can be realized in the rare {approx}>(2-3){sigma} regions of the spatially fluctuating B field; these regions contain a sufficient number of halos to account for z {approx} 6 quasar black holes.

  13. The MassiveBlack-II simulation: The evolution of haloes and galaxies to z ~ 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandai, Nishikanta; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Wilkins, Stephen; Feng, Yu; Tucker, Evan; DeGraf, Colin; Liu, Mao -Sheng

    2015-04-24

    We investigate the properties and clustering of halos, galaxies and blackholes to z = 0 in the high resolution hydrodynamical simulation MassiveBlack-II (MBII). MBII evolves a ?CDM cosmology in a cubical comoving volume Vbox = (100Mpc/h). It is the highest resolution simulation of this size which includes a self-consistent model for star formation, black hole accretion and associated feedback. We provide a simulation browser web application which enables interactive search and tagging of the halos, subhalos and their properties and publicly release our galaxy catalogs to the scientific community. Our analysis of the halo mass function in MBII reveals that baryons have strong effects with changes in the halo abundance of 2035% below the knee of the mass function (Mhalo 1013.2 M? h at z = 0) when compared to dark-matter-only simulations. We provide a fitting function for the halo MF out to redshift z = 11 and discuss its limitations.

  14. Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the past four decades: An empirical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novakov, T.; Hansen, J.E.

    2004-04-22

    We use data from a unique 40-year record of 150 urban and rural stations in the ''Black Smoke and SO2 Network'' in Great Britain to infer information about sources of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The data show a rapid decline of ambient atmospheric BC between 1962 and the early 1990s that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly fixed emission factors. This provides empirical confirmation of the existence and large impact of a time-dependent ''technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amounts in Great Britain comparable to those in western and central Europe, with diesel engines being the principal present source. From comparison of BC and SO2 data we infer that current BC emission inventories understate true emissions in the U.K. by about a factor of two. The results imply that there is the potential for improved technology to achieve large reduction of global ambient BC. There is a need for comparable monitoring of BC in other countries.

  15. Quantification of black carbon mixing state from traffic: Implications for aerosol optical properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Willis, Megan D.; Healy, Robert M.; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew; Wang, Jon M.; Jeong, Cheol -Heon; Wenger, John C.; Evans, Greg J.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Lee, Alex K. Y.

    2016-04-14

    The climatic impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosol, an important absorber of solar radiation in the atmosphere, remain poorly constrained and are intimately related to its particle-scale physical and chemical properties. Using particle-resolved modelling informed by quantitative measurements from a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer, we confirm that the mixing state (the distribution of co-emitted aerosol amongst fresh BC-containing particles) at the time of emission significantly affects BC-aerosol optical properties even after a day of atmospheric processing. Both single particle and ensemble aerosol mass spectrometry observations indicate that BC near the point of emission co-exists with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) inmore » two distinct particle types: HOA-rich and BC-rich particles. The average mass fraction of black carbon in HOA-rich and BC-rich particle classes was  < 0.1 and 0.8, respectively. Notably, approximately 90 % of BC mass resides in BC-rich particles. This new measurement capability provides quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles and is used to drive a particle-resolved aerosol box model. Lastly, significant differences in calculated single scattering albedo (an increase of 0.1) arise from accurate treatment of initial particle mixing state as compared to the assumption of uniform aerosol composition at the point of BC injection into the atmosphere.« less

  16. Soliton and black hole solutions of su(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in anti-de Sitter space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, J. E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth; Helbling, Marc

    2007-11-15

    We present new soliton and hairy black hole solutions of su(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. These solutions are described by N+1 independent parameters, and have N-1 gauge field degrees of freedom. We examine the space of solutions in detail for su(3) and su(4) solitons and black holes. If the magnitude of the cosmological constant is sufficiently large, we find solutions where all the gauge field functions have no zeros. These solutions are of particular interest because we anticipate that at least some of them will be linearly stable.

  17. The Use of Tritiated Wastewater from NPP Cernavoda to Estimate Maximum Soluble Pollutants on Danube-Black Sea Channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, Ioan; Patrascub, Vasile; Varlam, Mihai; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Bucur, Cristina

    2005-07-15

    In this paper we propose to use tritiated liquid effluents from a CANDU type reactor as a tracer, to study hydrodynamics on Danube-Black Sea Channel. Tritiated water can be used to simulate the transport and dispersion of solutes in mentioned Channel, because it has the same physical characteristic as water. Measured tracer response curves produced from controlled evacuations provide an efficient method of obtaining necessary data. This paper presents the establishing of proper mixing length, and the base line of tritium concentration in studied area. These first steps were used to construct the unit-peak attenuation (UPA) curve for a sector of the Danube-Black Sea Channel.

  18. Role of p53–fibrinolytic system cross-talk in the regulation of quartz-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhandary, Yashodhar P.; Shetty, Shwetha K.; Marudamuthu, Amarnath S.; Fu, Jian; Pinson, Barbara M.; Levin, Jeffrey; Shetty, Sreerama

    2015-03-01

    Silica is the major component of airborne dust generated by wind, manufacturing and/or demolition. Chronic occupational inhalation of silica dust containing crystalline quartz is by far the predominant form of silicosis in humans. Silicosis is a progressive lung disease that typically arises after a very long latency and is a major occupational concern with no known effective treatment. The mechanism of silicosis is not clearly understood. However, silicosis is associated with increased cell death, expression of redox enzymes and pro-fibrotic cytokines and chemokines. Since alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) death and disruption of alveolar fibrinolysis is often associated with both acute and chronic lung injuries, we explored whether p53-mediated changes in the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system contributes to silica-induced lung injury. We further sought to determine whether caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (CSP), which inhibits p53 expression, mitigates lung injury associated with exposure to silica. Lung tissues and AECs isolated from wild-type (WT) mice exposed to silica exhibit increased apoptosis, p53 and PAI-1, and suppression of uPA expression. Treatment of WT mice with CSP inhibits PAI-1, restores uPA expression and prevents AEC apoptosis by suppressing p53, which is otherwise induced in mice exposed to silica. The process involves CSP-mediated inhibition of serine-15 phosphorylation of p53 by inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A-C (PP2A-C) interaction with silica-induced caveolin-1 in AECs. These observations suggest that changes in the p53–uPA fibrinolytic system cross-talk contribute to lung injury caused by inhalation of silica dust containing crystalline quartz and is protected by CSP by targeting this pathway. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to quartz dusts is a major cause of lung injury and silicosis. • The survival of patients with silicosis is bleak due to lack of effective treatments. • This study defines a new role of

  19. Quantum of area {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} and a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ropotenko, Kostiantyn

    2010-08-15

    In contrast to alternative values, the quantum of area {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} does not follow from the usual statistical interpretation of black hole entropy; on the contrary, a statistical interpretation follows from it. This interpretation is based on the two concepts: nonadditivity of black hole entropy and Landau quantization. Using nonadditivity a microcanonical distribution for a black hole is found and it is shown that the statistical weight of a black hole should be proportional to its area. By analogy with conventional Landau quantization, it is shown that quantization of a black hole is nothing but the Landau quantization. The Landau levels of a black hole and their degeneracy are found. The degree of degeneracy is equal to the number of ways to distribute a patch of area 8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} over the horizon. Taking into account these results, it is argued that the black hole entropy should be of the form S{sub bh}=2{pi}{center_dot}{Delta}{Gamma}, where the number of microstates is {Delta}{Gamma}=A/8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2}. The nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for black hole entropy is elucidated. The applications of the new interpretation are presented. The effect of noncommuting coordinates is discussed.

  20. Dynamic MRI of Grid-Tagged Hyperpolarized Helium-3 for the Assessment of Lung Motion During Breathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai Jing; Sheng Ke; Benedict, Stanley H.; Read, Paul W.; Larner, James M.; Mugler, John P.; Lange, Eduard E. de; Cates, Gordon D.; Miller, G. Wilson

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To develop a dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tagging technique using hyperpolarized helium-3 (HP He-3) to track lung motion. Methods and Materials: An accelerated non-Cartesian k-space trajectory was used to gain acquisition speed, at the cost of introducing image artifacts, providing a viable strategy for obtaining whole-lung coverage with adequate temporal resolution. Multiple-slice two-dimensional dynamic images of the lung were obtained in three healthy subjects after inhaling He-3 gas polarized to 35%-40%. Displacement, strain, and ventilation maps were computed from the observed motion of the grid peaks. Results: Both temporal and spatial variations of pulmonary mechanics were observed in normal subjects, including shear motion between different lobes of the same lung. Conclusion: These initial results suggest that dynamic imaging of grid-tagged hyperpolarized magnetization may potentially be a powerful tool for observing and quantifying pulmonary biomechanics on a regional basis and for assessing, validating, and improving lung deformable image registration algorithms.