Sample records for black diamond power

  1. Black Diamond Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 | OpenEIBixby, Oklahoma: EnergyBlack Diamond Power

  2. Black Diamond, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 | OpenEIBixby, Oklahoma: EnergyBlack Diamond

  3. Black Hills Power- Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Power provides rebates for its commercial customers who install energy efficient heat pumps, motors, variable frequency drives, lighting, and water heaters. Custom rebates for approved...

  4. Black Hills Power- Residential Customer Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Power offers cash rebates to residential customers who purchase and install energy efficient equipment in their homes. Incentives exist for water heaters, demand control units, air...

  5. BLACK HOLE AURORA POWERED BY A ROTATING BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Masaaki [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aichi University of Education, Kariya, Aichi 448-8542 (Japan); Takahashi, Rohta, E-mail: takahasi@phyas.aichi-edu.ac.j [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model for high-energy emission sources generated by a standing magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) shock in a black hole magnetosphere. The black hole magnetosphere would be constructed around a black hole with an accretion disk, where a global magnetic field could be originated by currents in the accretion disk and its corona. Such a black hole magnetosphere may be considered as a model for the central engine of active galactic nuclei, some compact X-ray sources, and gamma-ray bursts. The energy sources of the emission from the magnetosphere are the gravitational and electromagnetic energies of magnetized accreting matters and the rotational energy of a rotating black hole. When the MHD shock generates in MHD accretion flows onto the black hole, the plasma's kinetic energy and the black hole's rotational energy can convert to radiative energy. In this Letter, we demonstrate the huge energy output at the shock front by showing negative energy postshock accreting MHD flows for a rapidly rotating black hole. This means that the extracted energy from the black hole can convert to the radiative energy at the MHD shock front. When an axisymmetric shock front is formed, we expect a ring-shaped region with very hot plasma near the black hole; this would look like an 'aurora'. The high-energy radiation generated from there would carry to us the information for the curved spacetime due to the strong gravity.

  6. "Black Box" EMC model for Power Electronics Converter Mikael Foissac

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    "Black Box" EMC model for Power Electronics Converter Mikael Foissac Grenoble Electrical be forecasted accurately, in order to avoid disturbance of the complete system. To quantify the EMC behaviour will then illustrate the method on a complete chopper cell. II. BLACK BOX EMC MODEL Any EMC analysis must account

  7. Black Hills Energy- Solar Power Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All incentive payments are subject to the availability of funds and a pre-installation site inspection. Black Hills Energy has established participation caps for each tier. The status of funding ...

  8. Black Hills Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 | OpenEIBixby, Oklahoma: EnergyBlackHawkBlack Hills

  9. Force-free black hole jet power from impedance matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert F. Penna

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard model of spin-powered black hole jets is the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) model. Unfortunately, the BZ jet power depends on an arbitrary function, $\\Omega_F(\\theta)$, which controls the angular distribution of field line velocities at the horizon. In practice, this function is fixed by finding exact solutions of force-free electrodynamics (FFE) and reading off $\\Omega_F(\\theta)$. We prove that all stationary, axisymmetric solutions of FFE with roughly uniform distributions of field lines at the horizon and at infinity have $\\Omega_F/\\Omega_H\\approx 0.5$, where $\\Omega_H$ is the angular velocity of the horizon. We derive a formula for $\\Omega_F(\\theta)$ that depends only on the angular distribution of field lines at the horizon and at infinity (the full FFE solution is not needed). We give a physical interpretation of our results using the black hole membrane paradigm and a recent extension which treats future null infinity as a resistive membrane. We show that $\\Omega_F/\\Omega_H$ is controlled by impedance matching between the membrane at the horizon and the membrane at infinity. Both membranes have the same surface resistivity, $377 \\Omega$. This universality ultimately explains the universality of $\\Omega_F/\\Omega_H\\approx 0.5$ and fixes the ambiguity in the BZ jet power prediction.

  10. Force-free black hole jet power from impedance matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penna, Robert F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard model of spin-powered black hole jets is the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) model. Unfortunately, the BZ jet power depends on an arbitrary function, $\\Omega_F(\\theta)$, which controls the angular distribution of field line velocities at the horizon. In practice, this function is fixed by finding exact solutions of force-free electrodynamics (FFE) and reading off $\\Omega_F(\\theta)$. We prove that all stationary, axisymmetric solutions of FFE with roughly uniform distributions of field lines at the horizon and at infinity have $\\Omega_F/\\Omega_H\\approx 0.5$, where $\\Omega_H$ is the angular velocity of the horizon. We derive a formula for $\\Omega_F(\\theta)$ that depends only on the angular distribution of field lines at the horizon and at infinity (the full FFE solution is not needed). We give a physical interpretation of our results using the black hole membrane paradigm and a recent extension which treats future null infinity as a resistive membrane. We show that $\\Omega_F/\\Omega_H$ is controlled by impeda...

  11. Advanced Diamond Anvil Techniques (Customized Diamond Anvils)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weir, S

    2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A complete set of diamond-based fabrication tools now exists for making a wide range of different types of diamond anvils which are tailored for various high-P applications. Current tools include: CVD diamond deposition (making diamond); Diamond polishing, laser drilling, plasma etching (removal of diamond); and Lithography, 3D laser pantography (patterning features onto diamond); - Metal deposition (putting electrical circuits and metal masks onto diamond). Current applications include the following: Electrical Conductivity; Magnetic Susceptibility; and High-P/High-T. Future applications may include: NMR; Hall Effect; de Haas - Shubnikov (Fermi surface topology); Calorimetry; and thermal conductivity.

  12. Black Hills Power, Inc. Smart Grid Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 | OpenEIBixby, Oklahoma: EnergyBlackHawkBlack

  13. Black Hills Power Inc (Montana) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyonsBirch Creek VillageForestBlack Hills

  14. BlackLight Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 | OpenEIBixby, Oklahoma:Black

  15. David Jardini President, Black Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

    President, Guttman Energy, Inc. Gene Harris Principal, Harris Consulting Ex Officio Marc S. Malandro, Ph.entrepreneur.pitt.edu The Institute for Entrepreneurial Excellence Advisory Board With statistics like these, it is no surprise in new funding obtained for client company growth million in increased revenue reported by client

  16. children in Old Diamond experiencing asthma or bronchitis.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    the connection between human health and environmental well-being. Held on November 2, 2006, Environmental Justice plant in the neighborhood of Old Diamond in Norco, Louisiana. Diamond, a historically black community to their basic needs: clean water, healthy food, non-toxic communities, open space, safe energy, and equitable

  17. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvanya, John, E-mail: zvanya03@students.rowan.edu; Cullen, Christopher, E-mail: cullen38@students.rowan.edu; Morris, Thomas, E-mail: morris1j@students.rowan.edu; Krchnavek, Robert R., E-mail: krchnavek@rowan.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rowan University, Glassboro, New Jersey 08028 (United States); Holber, William, E-mail: b.holber@plasmability.com; Basnett, Andrew, E-mail: abasnett54@yahoo.com; Basnett, Robert, E-mail: b.basnett@plasmability.com [Plasmability LLC, Austin, Texas 78732 (United States); Hettinger, Jeffrey, E-mail: hettinger@rowan.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, New Jersey 08028 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (?90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050?°C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0?cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp{sup 3} peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12?±?0.5?cm{sup ?1}) and that negligible amounts of the sp{sup 2} band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films.

  18. The Extended Power Law as Intrinsic Signature For a Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lev Titarchuk; Thomas Zannias

    1997-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the exact general relativistic exact integro-differential equation of radiative transfer describing the interaction of low energy photons with a Maxwellian distribution of hot electrons in gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole. We prove that due to Comptonization an initial arbitrary spectrum of low energy photons unavoidably results in spectra characterized by an extended power-law feature. We examine the spectral index by using both analytical and numerical methods for a variety of physical parameters as such the plasma temperature and the mass accretion rate. The presence of the event horizon as well as the behaviour of the null geodesics in its vicinity largely determine the dependence of the spectral index on the flow parameters. We come to the conclusion that the bulk motion of a converging flow is more efficient in upscattering photons than thermal Comptonization provided that the electron temperature in the flow is of order of a few keV or less. In this case, the spectrum observed at infinity consists of a soft component produced by those input photons that escape after a few scatterings without any significant energy change and of hard component (described by a power law) produced by the photons that underwent significant upscattering. The luminosity of the power-law component is relatively small compared to that of the soft component. For accretion into black hole the spectral energy index of the power-law is always higher than one for plasma temperature of order of a few keV. This result suggests that the bulk motion Comptonization might be responsible for the power-law spectra seen in the black-hole X-ray sources.

  19. Eight powers of ten: similarities in black hole accretion on all mass scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rob Fender; Elmar Koerding; Tomaso Belloni; Phil Uttley; Ian McHardy; Tasso Tzioumis

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss the recent advances in the quantitative comparison of accretion, and the accretion:jet coupling, in accreting black holes in both X-ray binaries (where M ~ 10Msun) and Active Galactic Nuclei (10^5Msun < M < 10^9Msun). These similarities include the radiative efficiency and jet power as a function of accretion rate, which are themselves probably the origin of the `fundamental plane of black hole activity'. A second `fundamental plane' which connects mass, accretion rate and timing properties provides us with a further physical diagnostic. Patterns of radio loudness (i.e. jet production) as a function of luminosity and accretion state are shown to be similar for X-ray binaries and AGN. Finally we discuss how neutron stars are a useful control sample, and what the future may hold for this field.

  20. Studying accreting black holes and neutron stars with time series: beyond the power spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Vaughan; P. Uttley

    2008-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The fluctuating brightness of cosmic X-ray sources, particularly accreting black holes and neutron star systems, has enabled enormous progress in understanding the physics of turbulent accretion flows, the behaviour of matter on the surfaces of neutron stars and improving the evidence for black holes. Most of this progress has been made by analysing and modelling time series data in terms of their power and cross spectra, as will be discussed in other articles in this volume. Recently, attempts have been made to make use of other aspects of the data, by testing for non-linearity, non-Gaussianity, time asymmetry and by examination of higher order Fourier spectra. These projects, which have been made possible by the vast increase in data quality and quantity over the past decade, are the subject of this article.

  1. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg (East Lansing, MI); Fischer, Anne (Arlington, VA),; Bennett, Jason (Lansing, MI); Lowe, Michael (Holt, MI)

    2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  2. Accretion Disc Turbulence and the X-Ray Power Spectra of Black Hole High States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael A. Nowak; Robert V. Wagoner

    1994-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The high state of black hole candidates is characterized by a quasi- thermal emission component at $kT \\sim 1$ keV. In addition, this state tends to have very low variability which indicates that it is relatively stable, at least on {\\it short} time scales. Most models of the high state imply that the bulk of the emission comes from an optically thick accretion disc; therefore, this state may be an excellent laboratory for testing our ideas about the physics of accretion discs. In this work we consider the implications of assuming that accretion disc viscosity arises from some form of turbulence. Specifically, we consider the simple case of three dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence. It is found that the coupling of such turbulence to acoustic modes in the disc can alter the disc emission. We calculate the amplitude and frequencies of this modulation, and we express our results in terms of the X-ray power spectral density. We compare our calculations with observations of the black hole candidate GS 1124-683, and show that for certain parameters we can reproduce some of the high frequency power. We then briefly explore mechanisms for producing the low frequency power, and note the difficulty that a single variability mechanism has in reproducing the full range of observed variability. In addition, we outline ways in which future spacecraft missions -- such as USA and XTE -- can further constrain our model, especially at frequencies above $\\sim 10^2$ Hz.

  3. Diamond and Polycrystalline Diamond for MEMS Applications: Simulations and Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Çagin, Tahir

    Diamond and Polycrystalline Diamond for MEMS Applications: Simulations and Experiments Tahir C¸ a on Silicon and polycrystalline diamond show that this rapid wear is caused by a variety of factors, related processes on diamond surfaces. We studied the atomic friction of diamond (100)­surface employing an extended

  4. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P. (Kingwood, TX)

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  5. Diamond tool machining of materials which react with diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lundin, R.L.; Stewart, D.D.; Evans, C.J.

    1992-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for the diamond machining of materials which detrimentally react with diamond cutting tools in which the cutting tool and the workpiece are chilled to very low temperatures. This chilling halts or retards the chemical reaction between the workpiece and the diamond cutting tool so that wear rates of the diamond tool on previously detrimental materials are comparable with the diamond turning of materials which do not react with diamond. 1 figs.

  6. Diamonds: For Ever Or For Everyone?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Emily

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diamond companies such as Apollo Diamond are bringing forthCuellar 2005). In 2007, Apollo Diamond, a company based inCVD produced diamonds (Apollo Diamond). Using the website,

  7. Can black-hole neutrino-cooled disks power short gamma-ray bursts?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Tong; Hou, Shu-Jin; Gu, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stellar-mass black holes (BHs) surrounded by neutrino-dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) are the plausible candidates to power gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) via neutrinos emission and their annihilation. The progenitors of short-duration GRBs (SGRBs) are generally considered to be compact binaries mergers. According to the simulation results, the disk mass of the NDAF has been limited after merger events. We can estimate such disk mass by using the current SGRB observational data and fireball model. The results show that the disk mass of a certain SGRB mainly depends on its output energy, jet opening angle, and central BH characteristics. Even for the extreme BH parameters, some SGRBs require massive disks, which approach or exceed the limits in simulations. We suggest that there may exist alternative magnetohydrodynamic processes or some mechanisms increasing the neutrino emission to produce SGRBs with the reasonable BH parameters and disk mass.

  8. Diesel Futures Forget the black soot and smoke. Modern diesel-powered cars are quiet, clean and fast.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diesel Futures Forget the black soot and smoke. Modern diesel-powered cars are quiet, clean at their tachometers to be sure that they were running. You would not expect that of a diesel, however. Yet these are diesel engines. The world has been looking to gas/electric hybrids and fuel cells for future fuel

  9. Diamond nucleation using polyethene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morell, Gerardo; Makarov, Vladimir; Varshney, Deepak; Weiner, Brad

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.

  10. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  11. Dynamic air deposited coatings for power and black liquor recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verstak, A.A.; Baranovski, V.E. [Advanced Surface Technologies Inc., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic Air Deposition (DyAir) is a novel coating method designed to protect the tubing of power and black liquor recovery boilers against corrosion attack at elevated temperatures. The method utilizes the energy of combustion of gaseous fuel and air to heat the powder material to a temperature just below its melting point and accelerate it over 600 m/s to form a coating. The Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Mo DyAir coatings revealed no gas permeability and extremely low oxygen content. Compared to the electric arc and HVOF-sprayed coatings, the DyAir coatings exhibited higher hardness and better crack resistance. During aging at 400 and 700 C the bond strength and crack resistance of the DyAir coatings increased dramatically due to intensive diffusion processes in absence of internal corrosion attack. The DyAir coatings revealed outstanding resistance to corrosion, such as sulfidation attack in presence of hydrochloric acid gas at 400 C, oxidation attack at 700 C and oxidation attack in presence of chlorine at 400 C.

  12. 785 nm Raman Spectroscopy of CVD Diamond Films Paul William May, James A Smith, and Keith N Rosser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    . Here, we report that when using 785 nm excitation, the Raman spectra from thin polycrystalline diamond785 nm Raman Spectroscopy of CVD Diamond Films Paul William May, James A Smith, and Keith N Rosser Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique often used to study CVD diamond films, however, very little

  13. 785 nm Raman spectroscopy of CVD diamond films P.W. May , J.A. Smith, K.N. Rosser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    using 785 nm excitation with 1 µm spot size, the Raman spectra from thin polycrystalline diamond films785 nm Raman spectroscopy of CVD diamond films P.W. May , J.A. Smith, K.N. Rosser School is a powerful technique often used to study CVD diamond films, however, very little work has been reported

  14. Amorphous diamond films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, S.

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  15. Diamond-graphite field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode of diamond and a conductive carbon, e.g., graphite, is provided.

  16. Effectiveness of guidelines for retiming signalized diamond interchanges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irvine, Yvonne Denise

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    powerful for studying the effect the use of diamond interchange guidelines had on test scores (17). For this experiment, a 95% confidence level was used to control a Type I error. The covariable is also referred to as the concomitant variable (+I...: Dr. Daniel B. Fambro This thesis documents the results of testing the effectiveness of guidelines for retiming signalized diamond interchanges. Two problems were addressed: how to measure benefits gained by use of the guidelines and, how to locate...

  17. wvBLACK DIAMONDS table of contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    with mining! WE'RE ON THE WEB! www.mine.cemr.wvu.edu College of Engineering and Mineral Resources DEPARTMENT

  18. wvBLACK DIAMONDS table of contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    'RE ON THE WEB! www.mine.cemr.wvu.edu Statler College of Engineering and Mineral Resources DEPARTMENT OF MINING

  19. wvBLACK DIAMONDS Engineering and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    . Robert E. Murray is president of Murray Energy Corp., the largest privately owned coal mining company before establishing Murray Energy. Although a graduate of Ohio State University, Murray sent his three they earned degrees in mining engineering and geology. They all work for Murray Energy. Bob and Brenda Murray

  20. The balance of power: accretion and feedback in stellar mass black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fender, Rob

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this review we discuss the population of stellar-mass black holes in our galaxy and beyond, which are the extreme endpoints of massive star evolution. In particular we focus on how we can attempt to balance the available accretion energy with feedback to the environment via radiation, jets and winds, considering also possible contributions to the energy balance from black hole spin and advection. We review quantitatively the methods which are used to estimate these quantities, regardless of the details of the astrophysics close to the black hole. Once these methods have been outlined, we work through an outburst of a black hole X-ray binary system, estimating the flow of mass and energy through the different accretion rates and states. While we focus on feedback from stellar mass black holes in X-ray binary systems, we also consider the applicability of what we have learned to supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. As an important control sample we also review the coupling between accretion an...

  1. Workshop on diamond and diamond-like-carbon films for the transportation industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, F.A.; Moores, D.K. [eds.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applications exist in advanced transportation systems as well as in manufacturing processes that would benefit from superior tribological properties of diamond, diamond-like-carbon and cubic boron nitride coatings. Their superior hardness make them ideal candidates as protective coatings to reduce adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear in advanced diesel engines, gas turbines and spark-ignited engines and in machining and manufacturing tools as well. The high thermal conductivity of diamond also makes it desirable for thermal management not only in tribological applications but also in high-power electronic devices and possibly large braking systems. A workshop has been recently held at Argonne National Laboratory entitled ``Diamond and Diamond-Like-Carbon Films for Transportation Applications`` which was attended by 85 scientists and engineers including top people involved in the basic technology of these films and also representatives from many US industrial companies. A working group on applications endorsed 18 different applications for these films in the transportation area alone. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  2. The powerful jet of an off-nuclear intermediate-mass black hole in the spiral galaxy NGC 2276

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mezcua, M; Lobanov, A P; Sutton, A D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jet ejection by accreting black holes is a mass invariant mechanism unifying stellar and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) that should also apply for intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), which are thought to be the seeds from which SMBHs form. We present the detection of an off-nuclear IMBH of $\\sim$5 $\\times$ 10$^{4}$ M$_\\odot$ located in an unusual spiral arm of the galaxy NGC 2276 based on quasi-simultaneous \\textit{Chandra} X-ray observations and European VLBI Network (EVN) radio observations. The IMBH, NGC2276-3c, possesses a 1.8 pc radio jet that is oriented in the same direction as large-scale ($\\sim$650 pc) radio lobes and whose emission is consistent with flat to optically thin synchrotron emission between 1.6 GHz and 5 GHz. Its jet kinetic power ($4 \\times 10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$) is comparable to its radiative output and its jet efficiency ($\\geq$ 46\\%) is as large as that of SMBHs. A region of $\\sim$300 pc along the jet devoid of young stars could provide observational evidence of jet feedback from...

  3. Lower pressure synthesis of diamond material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lueking, Angela (State College, PA); Gutierrez, Humberto (State College, PA); Narayanan, Deepa (Redmond, WA); Burgess Clifford, Caroline E. (State College, PA); Jain, Puja (King Of Prussia, PA)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of synthesizing a diamond material, particularly nanocrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon and bucky diamond are provided. In particular embodiments, a composition including a carbon source, such as coal, is subjected to addition of energy, such as high energy reactive milling, producing a milling product enriched in hydrogenated tetrahedral amorphous diamond-like carbon compared to the coal. A milling product is treated with heat, acid and/or base to produce nanocrystalline diamond and/or crystalline diamond-like carbon. Energy is added to produced crystalline diamond-like carbon in particular embodiments to produce bucky diamonds.

  4. CVD diamond - fundamental phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, W.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This compilation of figures and diagrams addresses the basic physical processes involved in the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Different methods of deposition are illustrated. For each method, observations are made of the prominent advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Chemical mechanisms of nucleation are introduced.

  5. Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.

  6. Diamond films treated with alkali-halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.W.

    1997-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary electron emitter is provided and includes a substrate with a diamond film, the diamond film is treated or coated with an alkali-halide. 5 figs.

  7. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  8. Are Ultra Long Gamma Ray Bursts powered by a black hole spinning down?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathanail, Antonios

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are violent explosions, coming from cosmological distances. They are detected in gamma-rays (also X-rays, UV, optical, radio) almost every day, and have typical durations of a few seconds to a few minutes. Some GRBs have been reported with extraordinary duration of 10^4 sec. These are called Ultra Long GRBs. It has been debated whether these form a new distinct class of events or whether they are similar to long GRBs. According to Blandford & Znajek (1977), the spin energy of a rotating black hole can be extracted electromagnetically, should the hole be endowed with a magnetic field supported by electric currents in a surrounding disk. We argue that this can be the case for the central engines of GRBs and we show that the duration of the burst depends on the magnetic flux accumulated on the event horizon of the black hole. We thus estimate the surface magnetic field of a possible progenitor star, and we conclude that an Ultra Long GRB may originate from a progenitor star with a rel...

  9. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  10. Raman and conductivity studies of boron-doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond and cauliflower diamond films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    -like conductivity. A complication is that polycrystalline boron-doped CVD diamond films possess grain boundariesRaman and conductivity studies of boron-doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond and cauliflower diamond films P.W. May a,, W.J. Ludlow a , M. Hannaway a , P.J. Heard b , J

  11. A Diamond Nanowire Single Photon Antenna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Babinec; Birgit J. M. Hausmann; Mughees Khan; Yinan Zhang; Jero Maze; Philip R. Hemmer; Marko Loncar

    2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a robust light source that emits one photon at a time is an outstanding challenge in quantum science and technology. Here, at the transition from many to single photon optical communication systems, fully quantum mechanical effects may be utilized to achieve new capabilities, most notably perfectly secure communication via quantum cryptography. Practical implementations place stringent requirements on the device properties, including stable photon generation, room temperature operation, and efficient extraction of many photons. Single photon light emitting devices based on fluorescent dye molecules, quantum dots, and carbon nanotube material systems have all been explored, but none have simultaneously demonstrated all criteria. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a bright source of single photons consisting of an individual Nitrogen-vacancy color center (NV center) in a diamond nanowire operating in ambient conditions. The nanowire plays a positive role in increasing the number of single photons collected from the NV center by an order of magnitude over devices based on bulk diamond crystals, and allows operation at an order of magnitude lower power levels. This result enables a new class of nanostructured diamond devices for room temperature photonic and quantum information processing applications, and will also impact fields as diverse as biological and chemical sensing, opto-mechanics, and scanning-probe microscopy.

  12. High efficiency diamond solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic device and method of making same. A layer of p-doped microcrystalline diamond is deposited on a layer of n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond such as by providing a substrate in a chamber, providing a first atmosphere containing about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 99% by volume H.sub.2 with dopant quantities of a boron compound, subjecting the atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer on the substrate, providing a second atmosphere of about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 89% by volume Ar and about 10% by volume N.sub.2, subjecting the second atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond layer on the p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer. Electrodes and leads are added to conduct electrical energy when the layers are irradiated.

  13. Black Pine Engineering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Pine Engineering is commercializing a disruptive technology in the turbomachinery industry. Using a patented woven composite construction, Black Pine Engineering can make turbomachines (turbines, compressors) that are cheaper and lighter than competing technologies. Using this technology, Black Pine Engineering will sell turbo-compressors which solve the problem of wasted steam in geothermal power plants.

  14. UV photoemission efficiency of polycrystalline CVD diamond films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, OHW

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency of a polycrystalline diamond planar reflectivequantum efficiency of polycrystalline diamond films grown onallowed the growth of polycrystalline diamond thin films on

  15. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond film properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); McCauley, Thomas G. (Somerville, MA); Zhou, Dan (Orlando, FL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL)

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling the crystallite size and growth rate of plasma-deposited diamond films. A plasma is established at a pressure in excess of about 55 Torr with controlled concentrations of hydrogen up to about 98% by volume, of unsubstituted hydrocarbons up to about 3% by volume and an inert gas of one or more of the noble gases and nitrogen up to about 98% by volume. The volume ratio of inert gas to hydrogen is preferably maintained at greater than about 4, to deposit a diamond film on a suitable substrate. The diamond film is deposited with a predetermined crystallite size and at a predetermined growth rate.

  16. Ab initio investigation of lithium on the diamond C(100) surface K. M. O'Donnell,1,2,* T. L. Martin,2,3 N. A. Fox,3 and D. Cherns3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    for diamond thermionic converters currently of interest for solar power generation and heat recycling. INTRODUCTION Diamond is a promising photocathode, field emitter, and thermionic emitter due to its chemical of approximately 400 °C, too low for thermionic applications.3 As such, research into diamond thermionics has

  17. Amorphous-diamond electron emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron emitter comprising a textured silicon wafer overcoated with a thin (200 .ANG.) layer of nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (a:D-N), which lowers the field below 20 volts/micrometer have been demonstrated using this emitter compared to uncoated or diamond coated emitters wherein the emission is at fields of nearly 60 volts/micrometer. The silicon/nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (Si/a:D-N) emitter may be produced by overcoating a textured silicon wafer with amorphous-diamond (a:D) in a nitrogen atmosphere using a filtered cathodic-arc system. The enhanced performance of the Si/a:D-N emitter lowers the voltages required to the point where field-emission displays are practical. Thus, this emitter can be used, for example, in flat-panel emission displays (FEDs), and cold-cathode vacuum electronics.

  18. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive and Polyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive and Polyvinylidenematerials, conductive additives and a polymer binder tohighly conductive carbon additives to improve the particle

  19. DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    a reality. Epi- taxial diamond has been grown on diamond and cubic-BN. Polycrystalline diamond films haveDIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages by Huimin Liu David S. Dandy of high-quality diamond coatings on preshaped parts and synthesis of free-standing shapes of diamond

  20. Raman and conductivity studies of boron doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    superconductivity at temperatures polycrystalline boron-doped CVD diamond filmsRaman and conductivity studies of boron doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond and cauliflower diamond films P.W. May a,*, W.J. Ludlow a , M. Hannaway a , P.J. Heard b , J

  1. Double bevel construction of a diamond anvil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, W.C.

    1987-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of double or multiple bevel culet geometry on a diamond anvil to provide increased sample pressure and stability for a given force applied to the diamond tables. 7 figs.

  2. HIGH-CURRENT COLD CATHODE EMPLOYING DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The essence of this project was for diamond films to be deposited on cold cathodes to improve their emission properties. Films with varying morphology, composition, and size of the crystals were deposited and the emission properties of the cathodes that utilize such films were studied. The prototype cathodes fabricated by the methods developed during Phase I were tested and evaluated in an actual high-power RF device during Phase II. These high-power tests used the novel active RF pulse compression system and the X-band magnicon test facility at US Naval Research Laboratory. In earlier tests, plasma switches were employed, while tests under this project utilized electron-beam switching. The intense electron beams required in the switches were supplied from cold cathodes embodying diamond films with varying morphology, including uncoated molybdenum cathodes in the preliminary tests. Tests with uncoated molybdenum cathodes produced compressed X-band RF pulses with a peak power of 91 MW, and a maximum power gain of 16.5:1. Tests were also carried out with switches employing diamond coated cathodes. The pulse compressor was based on use of switches employing electron beam triggering to effect mode conversion. In experimental tests, the compressor produced 165 MW in a ~ 20 ns pulse at ~18× power gain and ~ 140 MW at ~ 16× power gain in a 16 ns pulse with a ~ 7 ns flat-top. In these tests, molybdenum blade cathodes with thin diamond coatings demonstrated good reproducible emission uniformity with a 100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The new compressor does not have the limitations of earlier types of active pulse compressors and can operate at significantly higher electric fields without breakdown.

  3. Diamond Thin Films Handbook David S. Dandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    ..................................................................................10 A. Calculation of diamond surface structures and energetics .................................................................................................36 2. Reactor pressure ...........................................................................................48 VI. Reactor scale modeling

  4. Method of Forming Diamonds from Carbonaceous Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daulton, Tyrone; Lewis, Roy; Rehn, Lynn; Kirk, Marquis

    1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing diamonds is provided comprising exposing carbonaceous material to ion irradiation at ambient temperature and pressure.

  5. Recent Results on Diamond Radiation Tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seidel, Sally

    -crystal (sc) and polycrystalline (poly) diamond exposed to 5 beam conditions. Figure of merit: Mean Free PathRecent Results on Diamond Radiation Tolerance Sally Seidel University of New Mexico Representing 1 #12;§ Overview of diamond and radiation damage issues § Investigation of the application

  6. Fracture of synthetic diamond M. D. Droty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    of synthetic polycrystalline diamond make it a promising material for many structural applications studies on the fracture toughness of polycrystalline diamond,29 primarily due to the difficultiesFracture of synthetic diamond M. D. Droty Ctystallume, 3506 Bassett Street, Santa Clara, California

  7. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, J.M.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  8. Diamond-silicon carbide composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5–8 GPa, T=1400K–2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  9. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casstevens, J.M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for machine optical quality finishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  10. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casstevens, John M. (Greenville, TX)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for machining optical quality inishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  11. Diamond Power Infrastructure Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential Microhydro SiteDaytonDestilaria dethe

  12. EA-1795: Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, LA | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5: Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, LA EA-1795: Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, LA April 1, 2011 EA-1795: Final Environmental Assessment Loan Guarantee to Diamond...

  13. Magnetic properties of aggregate polycrystalline diamond: implications for carbonado history

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kletetschka, Gunther

    Magnetic properties of aggregate polycrystalline diamond: implications for carbonado history Gu form 20 June 2000; accepted 25 June 2000 Abstract Carbonados are aggregate polycrystalline diamonds features; magnetic hysteresis 1. Introduction Carbonados are sintered polycrystalline micro- diamond

  14. Chemical vapor deposited diamond-on-diamond powder composites (LDRD final report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panitz, J.K.; Hsu, W.L.; Tallant, D.R.; McMaster, M.; Fox, C.; Staley, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors developed techniques for forming diamond powder precursors and densified these precursors in a hot filament-assisted reactor and a microwave plasma-assisted reactor. Densification conditions were varied following a fractional factorial statistical design. A number of conclusions can be drawn as a result of this study. High density diamond powder green bodies that contain a mixture of particle sizes solidify more readily than more porous diamond powder green bodies with narrow distributions of particle sizes. No composite was completely densified although all of the deposits were densified to some degree. The hot filament-assisted reactor deposited more material below the exterior surface, in the interior of the powder deposits; in contrast, the microwave-assisted reactor tended to deposit a CVD diamond skin over the top of the powder precursors which inhibited vapor phase diamond growth in the interior of the powder deposits. There were subtle variations in diamond quality as a function of the CVI process parameters. Diamond and glassy carbon tended to form at the exterior surface of the composites directly exposed to either the hot filament or the microwave plasma. However, in the interior, e.g. the powder/substrate interface, diamond plus diamond-like-carbon formed. All of the diamond composites produced were grey and relatively opaque because they contained flawed diamond, diamond-like-carbon and glassy carbon. A large amount of flawed and non-diamond material could be removed by post-CVI oxygen heat treatments. Heat treatments in oxygen changed the color of the composites to white.

  15. Epitaxial growth of europium monoxide on diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melville, A.; Heeg, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Mairoser, T.; Schmehl, A. [Zentrum für elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universität Augsburg, Universitätsstraße 1, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)] [Zentrum für elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universität Augsburg, Universitätsstraße 1, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Fischer, M.; Gsell, S.; Schreck, M. [Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany)] [Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Awschalom, D. D. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Holländer, B.; Schubert, J. [Peter Grünberg Institute, PGI9-IT, JARA-FIT, Research Centre Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)] [Peter Grünberg Institute, PGI9-IT, JARA-FIT, Research Centre Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Schlom, D. G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the epitaxial integration of phase-pure EuO on both single-crystal diamond and on epitaxial diamond films grown on silicon utilizing reactive molecular-beam epitaxy. The epitaxial orientation relationship is (001) EuO ? (001) diamond and [110] EuO ?[100] diamond. The EuO layer is nominally unstrained and ferromagnetic with a transition temperature of 68 ± 2 K and a saturation magnetization of 5.5 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons per europium ion on the single-crystal diamond, and a transition temperature of 67 ± 2 K and a saturation magnetization of 2.1 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons per europium ion on the epitaxial diamond film.

  16. Diamond-silicon carbide composite and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniformly dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites having high hardness, high fracture toughness, and high thermal stability are prepared by consolidating a powder mixture of diamond and amorphous silicon. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPam.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness.

  17. All diamond self-aligned thin film transistor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerbi, Jennifer (Champaign, IL)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A substantially all diamond transistor with an electrically insulating substrate, an electrically conductive diamond layer on the substrate, and a source and a drain contact on the electrically conductive diamond layer. An electrically insulating diamond layer is in contact with the electrically conductive diamond layer, and a gate contact is on the electrically insulating diamond layer. The diamond layers may be homoepitaxial, polycrystalline, nanocrystalline or ultrananocrystalline in various combinations.A method of making a substantially all diamond self-aligned gate transistor is disclosed in which seeding and patterning can be avoided or minimized, if desired.

  18. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  19. Electromagnetic Radiation Hardness of Diamond Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Behnke; M. Doucet; N. Ghodbane; A. Imhof; C. Martinez; W. Zeuner

    2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of artificially grown CVD diamond films under intense electromagnetic radiation has been studied. The properties of irradiated diamond samples have been investigated using the method of thermally stimulated current and by studying their charge collection properties. Diamonds have been found to remain unaffected after doses of 6.8 MGy of 10 keV photons and 10 MGy of MeV-range photons. This observation makes diamond an attractive detector material for a calorimeter in the very forward region of the proposed TESLA detector.

  20. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  1. Properties of chemical vapor infiltration diamond deposited in a diamond powder matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Tallant, D.R.; Hills, C.R.; Staley, D.J.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors have developed two techniques: electrophoretic deposition and screen printing, to form nonmined diamond powder precursors on substrates. They then densify these precursors in a hot filament assisted reactor. Analysis indicated that a hot filament assisted chemical vapor infiltration process forms intergranular diamond deposits with properties that are to some degree different from predominantly hot-filament-assisted CVD material.

  2. Comparisons of Scintillating Fiber, Diamond Particle Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    /W detector response map x-ray injection diamond detector response drooping ? To be examined on other (more intense) x-ray beamlines the drooping effect of diamond detector, if any x-ray injected on the back response is fairly uniform No drooping ? #12;

  3. Double bevel construction of a diamond anvil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, W.C.

    1988-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A double or multiple bevel culet geometry is used on a diamond anvil in a high pressure cell apparatus to provide increased sample pressure and stability for a given force applied to the diamond tables. Double or multiple bevel culet geometries can also be used for sapphire or other hard crystal anvils. Pressures up to and above 5 Megabars can be reached. 8 figs.

  4. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  5. Energy Harvesting Diamond Channel with Energy Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Energy Harvesting Diamond Channel with Energy Cooperation Berk Gurakan Sennur Ulukus Department@umd.edu Abstract--We consider the energy harvesting diamond channel, where the source and two relays harvest energy the option of wirelessly transferring some of its energy to the relays via energy cooperation. We find

  6. Optoelectronic applications of CVD diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beetz, C.P. Jr. (Semiconductor Products Dept., Advanced Technology Materials (US))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition from hydrocarbon/hydrogen gas mixtures are being investigated for a wide number of industrial applications. This paper reports that the great interest in this new technology has created a number of small high tech entrepreneurial companies whose research programs are focused on developing electronic and optoelectronic applications of diamond.

  7. Integrated diamond networks for quantum nanophotonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birgit J. M. Hausmann; Brendan Shields; Qimin Quan; Patrick Maletinsky; Murray McCutcheon; Jennifer T. Choy; Tom M. Babinec; Alexander Kubanek; Amir Yacoby; Mikhail D. Lukin; Marko Loncar

    2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond is a unique material with exceptional physical and chemical properties that offers potential for the realization of high-performance devices with novel functionalities. For example diamond's high refractive index, transparency over wide wavelength range, and large Raman gain are of interest for the implementation of novel photonic devices. Recently, atom-like impurities in diamond emerged as an exceptional system for quantum information processing, quantum sensing and quantum networks. For these and other applications, it is essential to develop an integrated nanophotonic platform based on diamond. Here, we report on the realization of such an integrated diamond photonic platform, diamond on insulator (DOI), consisting of a thin single crystal diamond film on top of an insulating silicon dioxide/silicon substrate. Using this approach, we demonstrate diamond ring resonators that operate in a wide wavelength range, including the visible (630nm) and near-infrared (1,550nm). Finally, we demonstrate an integrated, on-chip quantum nanophotonic network, consisting of ring resonators coupled to low loss waveguides with grating couplers, that enables the generation and efficient routing of single photons at room temperature.

  8. Use of diamond-turned mirrors for synchrotron radiation (SR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howells, M.R.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The diamond turning technique has great interest for users of synchrotron radiation because of its ability to produce surfaces of arbitrary shape. It also has the advantage of being well adapted to producing metal optics. These are of interest because they lend themselves to water cooling and hence represent one approach to the problem of high synchrotron radiation power loadings on optical surfaces. The optical figure produced by diamond turning is generally adequate for synchrotron radiation applications. The main difficulty centers around the question of smoothness. Diamond turned surfaces must receive a final polish after machining before they are sufficiently smooth for use with ultra-violet or x-ray radiation. The manufacturing stages can be carried out by various groups in the optics industry and the National Synchrotron Light Source has procured a considerable number of mirrors and is having them polished for use on the vuv storage ring. At the time of writing one mirror has been completed and evaluated and we give the results for this and discuss the indications for the future. The important measurement of the r.m.s. height of the surface roughness has given a value of 3 +- 0.9A using total integrated scatter of visible light at normal incidence.

  9. Multi-length Scale Modeling of CVD of Diamond Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    ) of single-- crystalline and polycrystalline diamond films in acrystalline and polycrystalline diamond filmsMulti-length Scale Modeling of CVD of Diamond Films M. Grujicic and S. G. LaiM. Grujicic and S. G-scale Modeling of CVD Deposition of Diamond Films RotatingRotating--disk Hotdisk Hot--filament CVD

  10. Appendix A SIMS profiles of hydrogen and deuterium in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    .5 due to the polycrystalline diamond coating on the quartz sample holder. The resulting layered127 Appendix A SIMS profiles of hydrogen and deuterium in diamond A.1 Introduction A diamond sample ion­beam doping. Impurity levels were profiled as a function of depth from the diamond surface using

  11. Nanofocusing optics for synchrotron radiation made from polycrystalline diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    Nanofocusing optics for synchrotron radiation made from polycrystalline diamond O. J. L. Fox,1,2,* L. Alianelli,1 A. M. Malik,3,4 I. Pape,1,5 P. W. May,2 and K. J. S. Sawhney1 1 Diamond Light Source of Engineering, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK * oliver.fox@diamond.ac.uk Abstract: Diamond possesses many

  12. Chemical Analysis of Impurity Boron Atoms in Diamond Using Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muramatsu, Yasuji

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the spectral profiles of HTP-B-diamond, h-BN, and c-BN.diamond differ from those of HTP-B-diamond and the reference

  13. Carbon sp2-on-sp3 Technology: Graphene-on-Diamond Devices and Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Table 2.2 lists the properties of polycrystalline diamond.Table 2.2 Polycrystalline diamond properties* Film Type MCD24 2.2 Polycrystalline diamond

  14. Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Peter; Pashin, Jack; Carlson, Eric; Goodliffe, Andrew; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Thompson, Mason

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants produce large quantities of carbon dioxide. In order to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions from these power plants, it is necessary to separate and store the carbon dioxide. Saline formations provide a potential sink for carbon dioxide and delineating the capacity of the various known saline formations is a key part of building a storage inventory. As part of this effort, a project was undertaken to access the storage capacity of saline reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. This basin has been a productive oil and gas reservoir that is well characterized to the west of the two major coal-fired power plants that are north of Birmingham. The saline zones were thought to extend as far east as the Sequatchie Anticline which is just east of the power plants. There is no oil or gas production in the area surrounding the power plants so little is known about the formations in that area. A geologic characterization well was drilled on the Gorgas Power Plant site, which is the farthest west of two power plants in the area. The well was planned to be drilled to approximately 8,000 feet, but drilling was halted at approximately 5,000 feet when a prolific freshwater zone was penetrated. During drilling, a complete set of cores through all of the potential injection zones and the seals above these zones were acquired. A complete set of openhole logs were run along with a vertical seismic profile (VSP). Before drilling started two approximately perpendicular seismic lines were run and later correlated with the VSP. While the zones that were expected were found at approximately the predicted depths, the zones that are typically saline through the reservoir were found to be saturated with a light crude oil. Unfortunately, both the porosity and permeability of these zones were small enough that no meaningful hydrocarbon production would be expected even with carbon dioxide flooding. iv While this part of the basin was found to be unsuitable for carbon dioxide injection, there is still a large storage capacity in the basin to the west of the power plants. It will, however, require pipeline construction to transport the carbon dioxide to the injection sites.

  15. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 31 (1996) 2801 2805 Laser ablation of diamond fibres and a diamond fibre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    .been embedded in Ti-6A1-4V alloy to produce a diamond fibre-reinforced composite. Both the fibres and a diamond fibre-reinforced titanium alloy composite. 2. Experimental procedure Fibres have been made of a diamond-coated fibre after localized ablations is shown tn Fig. 1. The areas of the diamond surface

  16. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive and Polyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7), A365 G. M. Ehrlich, Lithium-ion Batteries, 3rd ed ed. (High Power Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Cells G. Liu a,z , H.local environment. (A) lithium-ion mass transfer in the

  17. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  18. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  19. Analysis of the spectroscopy of a hybrid system composed of a superconducting flux qubit and diamond NV centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Cai; Y. Matsuzaki; K. Kakuyanagi; H. Toida; X. Zhu; N. Mizuochi; K. Nemoto; K. Semba; W. J. Munro; S. Saito; H. Yamaguchi

    2015-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid system that combines the advantages of a superconducting flux qubit and an electron spin ensemble in diamond is one of the promising devices to realize quantum information processing. Exploring the properties of the superconductor diamond system is essential for the efficient use of this device. When we perform spectroscopy of this system, significant power broadening is observed. However, previous models to describe this system are known to be applicable only when the power broadening is negligible. Here, we construct a new approach to analyze this system with strong driving, and succeed to reproduce the spectrum with the power broadening. Our results provide an efficient way to analyze this hybrid system.

  20. Photo-stimulated low electron temperature high current diamond film field emission cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shurter; Roger Philips (Los Alamos, NM), Devlin; David James (Santa Fe, NM), Moody; Nathan Andrew (Los Alamos, NM), Taccetti; Jose Martin (Santa Fe, NM), Russell; Steven John (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron source includes a back contact surface having a means for attaching a power source to the back contact surface. The electron source also includes a layer comprising platinum in direct contact with the back contact surface, a composite layer of single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in platinum in direct contact with the layer comprising platinum. The electron source also includes a nanocrystalline diamond layer in direct contact with the composite layer. The nanocrystalline diamond layer is doped with boron. A portion of the back contact surface is removed to reveal the underlying platinum. The electron source is contained in an evacuable container.

  1. First principles study of Fe in diamond: A diamond-based half metallic dilute magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benecha, E. M. [Department of Physics, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, UNISA 0003 Pretoria (South Africa); Lombardi, E. B., E-mail: lombaeb@unisa.ac.za [College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, UNISA 0003 Pretoria (South Africa)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Half-metallic ferromagnetic ordering in semiconductors, essential in the emerging field of spintronics for injection and transport of highly spin polarised currents, has up to now been considered mainly in III–V and II–VI materials. However, low Curie temperatures have limited implementation in room temperature device applications. We report ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations on the properties of Fe in diamond, considering the effects of lattice site, charge state, and Fermi level position. We show that the lattice sites and induced magnetic moments of Fe in diamond depend strongly on the Fermi level position and type of diamond co-doping, with Fe being energetically most favorable at the substitutional site in p-type and intrinsic diamond, while it is most stable at a divacancy site in n-type diamond. Fe induces spin polarized bands in the band gap, with strong hybridization between Fe-3d and C-2s,2p bands. We further consider Fe-Fe spin interactions in diamond and show that substitutional Fe{sup +1} in p-type diamond exhibits a half-metallic character, with a magnetic moment of 1.0??{sub B} per Fe atom and a large ferromagnetic stabilization energy of 33?meV, an order of magnitude larger than in other semiconductors, with correspondingly high Curie temperatures. These results, combined with diamond's unique properties, demonstrate that Fe doped p-type diamond is likely to be a highly suitable candidate material for spintronics applications.

  2. Amorphous Diamond MEMS and Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, JOHN P.; FRIEDMANN, THOMAS A.; ASHBY, CAROL I.; DE BOER, MAARTEN P.; SCHUBERT, W. KENT; SHUL, RANDY J.; HOHLFELDER, ROBERT J.; LAVAN, D.A.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a new microsystems technology for the creation of microsensors and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using stress-free amorphous diamond (aD) films. Stress-free aD is a new material that has mechanical properties close to that of crystalline diamond, and the material is particularly promising for the development of high sensitivity microsensors and rugged and reliable MEMS. Some of the unique properties of aD include the ability to easily tailor film stress from compressive to slightly tensile, hardness and stiffness 80-90% that of crystalline diamond, very high wear resistance, a hydrophobic surface, extreme chemical inertness, chemical compatibility with silicon, controllable electrical conductivity from insulating to conducting, and biocompatibility. A variety of MEMS structures were fabricated from this material and evaluated. These structures included electrostatically-actuated comb drives, micro-tensile test structures, singly- and doubly-clamped beams, and friction and wear test structures. It was found that surface micromachined MEMS could be fabricated in this material easily and that the hydrophobic surface of the film enabled the release of structures without the need for special drying procedures or the use of applied hydrophobic coatings. Measurements using these structures revealed that aD has a Young's modulus of {approx}650 GPa, a tensile fracture strength of 8 GPa, and a fracture toughness of 8 MPa{center_dot}m {sup 1/2}. These results suggest that this material may be suitable in applications where stiction or wear is an issue. Flexural plate wave (FPW) microsensors were also fabricated from aD. These devices use membranes of aD as thin as {approx}100 nm. The performance of the aD FPW sensors was evaluated for the detection of volatile organic compounds using ethyl cellulose as the sensor coating. For comparable membrane thicknesses, the aD sensors showed better performance than silicon nitride based sensors. Greater than one order of magnitude increase in chemical sensitivity is expected through the use of ultra-thin aD membranes in the FPW sensor. The discoveries and development of the aD microsystems technology that were made in this project have led to new research projects in the areas of aD bioMEMS and aD radio frequency MEMS.

  3. Geometry and temperature dependent thermal conductivity of diamond nanowires: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melnik, Roderick

    plasma etching of polycrystalline diamond films [7], microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. For theoretical calculations of proper- ties of nanosized diamond materials, polycrystalline diamond thin filmsGeometry and temperature dependent thermal conductivity of diamond nanowires: A non

  4. Effective placement of detectors at diamond interchanges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prabhakar, Dayakar

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most signalized interchanges in Texas are tight urban diamond interchanges of freeways having one-way frontage roads. At these interchanges, traffic actuated control with improper location of detectors may result in inefficient traffic operations...

  5. Ultrasensitive Magnetometry and Imaging with NV Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Changdong

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ULTRASENSITIVE MAGNETOMETRY AND IMAGING WITH NV DIAMOND A Dissertation by CHANGDONG KIM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ULTRASENSITIVE MAGNETOMETRY AND IMAGING WITH NV DIAMOND A Dissertation by CHANGDONG KIM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  6. Diamond film growth from fullerene precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Liu, S.; Krauss, A.R.; Pan, X.

    1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a fullerene vapor, providing a noble gas stream and combining the gas with the fullerene vapor, passing the combined fullerene vapor and noble gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the fullerene and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate. 10 figs.

  7. Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. K. Townsend

    1997-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lecture notes for a 'Part III' course 'Black Holes' given in DAMTP, Cambridge. The course covers some of the developments in Black Hole physics of the 1960s and 1970s.

  8. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Price, R. Eugene (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  9. Industrial Interruptible Power: An Economical Alternative 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Chemicals, Inc. Diamond Shamrock Corp. Kemanord, Inc. Kerr-McGee Chemical Corp. Monsanto Company Occidental Chemical Corp. Pennwalt Corporation Stauffer Chemical Co. Total Interruptible Under Contract: 640 MW EXHIBIT II Sample Monthly Power...

  10. Observational Evidence for Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramesh Narayan; Jeffrey E. McClintock

    2014-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Astronomers have discovered two populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range 10^6 to 10^{10} solar masses, one each in the nucleus of every galaxy. There is strong circumstantial evidence that all these objects are true black holes with event horizons. The measured masses of supermassive black hole are strongly correlated with properties of their host galaxies, suggesting that these black holes, although extremely small in size, have a strong influence on the formation and evolution of entire galaxies. Spin parameters have recently been measured for a handful of black holes. Based on the data, there is an indication that the kinetic power of at least one class of relativistic jet ejected from accreting black holes may be correlated with black hole spin. If verified, it would suggest that these jets are powered by a generalized Penrose process mediated by magnetic fields.

  11. Sparkling Diamonds – Reducing High Energy in the Frozen North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    De Beers, the undisputed world leader in diamond mining, in a typically proactive approach, completed an energy review at the Snap Lake Diamond Mine in the Northwest Territories. What makes the approach unique is that the mine is still under...

  12. Diamond Substrate Development at the Michigan State University...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diamond Substrate Development at the Michigan State University and Fraunhofer USA's Center for Coatings and Diamond Technologies May 4, 2015 11:00AM to 12:00PM Presenter Thomas...

  13. Diamond film optical, x-ray and particle detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beetz, C.P.; Lincoln, B. (ATM, Inc., New Milford, CT (US)); Winn, D.R.; Segall, K.; Vasas, M.; Wall, D. (Fairfield Univ., CT (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic diamond film diodes have been fabricated and tested with electromagnetic and particle radiation (above and below bandgap). In this paper, a brief discussion of potential diamond film applications in high energy and nuclear physics is presented.

  14. Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, Erik M.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As a successful completion of this award, my group has demonstrated world-leading electron gain from diamond for use in a diamond-amplified photocathode. Also, using high-resolution photoemission measurements we were able to uncover exciting new physics of the electron emission mechanisms from hydrogen terminated diamond. Our work, through the continued support of HEP, has resulted in a greater understanding of the diamond material science, including current limits, charge transport modeling, and spatial uniformity.

  15. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Etching of polycrystalline diamond films by electron beam assisted plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    Etching of polycrystalline diamond films by electron beam assisted plasma Koji Kobashi, Shigeaki) Polycrystalline diamond films were processed in a direct current plasma produced by a self-focused electron beam that the etching apparatus used was capable of forming at least a 5-mm wide pattern of polycrystalline diamond film

  17. Refractory two-dimensional hole gas on hydrogenated diamond surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Daicho, Akira; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Yokoyama, Yuki; Kawarada, Hiroshi [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG), induced on a hydrogenated diamond surface, is a solution to overcoming one of demerits of diamond, i.e., deep energy levels of impurities. This 2DHG is affected by its environment and accordingly needs a passivation film to get a stable device operation especially at high temperature. In response to this requirement, we achieved the high-reliability passivation forming an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film on the diamond surface using an atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) method with an H{sub 2}O oxidant at 450 Degree-Sign C. The 2DHG thus protected survived air annealing at 550 Degree-Sign C for an hour, establishing a stable high-temperature operation of 2DHG devices in air. In part, this achievement is based on high stability of C-H bonds up to 870 Degree-Sign C in vacuum and above 450 Degree-Sign C in an H{sub 2}O-containing environment as in the ALD. Chemically, this stability is supported by the fact that both the thermal decomposition of C-H bonds and reaction between C-H bonds and H{sub 2}O are endothermic processes. It makes a stark contrast to the instability of Si-H bonds, which decompose even at room temperature being exposed to atomic hydrogen. In this respect, the diamond 2DHG devices are also promising as power devices expectedly being free from many instability phenomena, such as hot carrier effect and negative-bias temperature instability, associated with Si devices. As to adsorbate, which is the other prerequisite for 2DHG, it desorbed in vacuum below 250 Degree-Sign C, and accordingly some new adsorbates should have adsorbed during the ALD at 450 Degree-Sign C. As a clue to this question, we certainly confirmed that some adsorbates, other than those at room temperature, adsorbed in air above 100 Degree-Sign C and remained at least up to 290 Degree-Sign C. The identification of these adsorbates is open for further investigation.

  18. Hydrogen-doped cubic diamond and the crystal structure of n-diamond Bin Wen a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melnik, Roderick

    Hydrogen-doped cubic diamond and the crystal structure of n-diamond Bin Wen a,b, , Roderick Melnik. In particular, hydrogen concen- tration dependent elastic constants and lattice parameters for the H-doped diamond have been analyzed. Our results indicate that when the hydrogen concentration is less than 19 at

  19. Wear of diamond and diamondlike carbon films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, A.; Energy Technology

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed tribological studies on diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have confirmed that these films are inherently self-lubricating and resistant to abrasive, adhesive and corrosive wear. Because of their high chemical inertness, they are also resistant to corrosion and oxidation (even at elevated temperatures). The combination of such exceptional qualities in these films makes them ideal for a wide range of demanding tribological applications (such as microelectromechanical systems, cutting tools, mechanical seals, magnetic hard disks, etc.). These films, available for more than three decades, have been used extensively for tooling and magnetic hard disk applications. Their potential in other application areas is currently being explored around the world. With the development of new and more robust deposition methods in recent years, it is envisioned that the production of high quality diamond and DLC films will become very cost effective and highly reliable for large-scale applications in the transportation and manufacturing sectors. In this paper, sliding wear mechanisms of diamond and DLC films will be presented. Specifically, it will be shown that, in general the wear of these films is extremely low (mainly because of their exceptional hardness and low friction characteristics). Specific test conditions established during each sliding test, however, may dramatically affect the wear performance of certain diamond and DLC films. One of the dominant wear mechanismsrelates to a phase transformation that is primarily the result of very high mechanical and thermal loadings of sliding contact interfaces. The transformation products (such as disordered graphite) trapped at the sliding interface may transfer to themating surface and significantly affect friction and wear. This paper describes, in terms of structural and fundamental tribological knowledge, the ideal film microstructures and chemistry, as well as operational conditions under which diamond and DLC films perform the best and provide superlow friction and wear properties in sliding tribological applications.

  20. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

  1. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downer Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

  2. Spectroscopic analysis of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} microwave plasma and fast growth rate of diamond single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derkaoui, N.; Rond, C., E-mail: rond@lspm.cnrs.fr; Hassouni, K.; Gicquel, A. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux (LSPM), UPR3407 CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99 Avenue Jean Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the best ways to increase the diamond growth rate is to couple high microwave power to the plasma. Indeed, increasing the power density leads to increase gas temperature the atomic hydrogen density in the plasma bulk, and to produce more hydrogen and methyl at the diamond surface. Experimental and numerical approaches were used to study the microwave plasma under high power densities conditions. Gas temperature was measured by optical emission spectroscopy and H-atom density using actinometry. CH{sub 3}-radical density was obtained using a 1D model that describes temperatures and plasma composition from the substrate to the top of the reactor. The results show that gas temperature in the plasma bulk, atomic hydrogen, and methyl densities at the diamond surface highly increase with the power density. As a consequence, measurements have shown that diamond growth rate also increases. At very high power density, we measured a growth rate of 40??m/h with an H-atom density of 5 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup ?3} which corresponds to a H{sub 2} dissociation rate higher than 50%. Finally, we have shown that the growth rate can be framed between a lower and an upper limit as a function depending only on the maximum of H-atom density measured or calculated in the plasma bulk. The results also demonstrated that increasing fresh CH{sub 4} by an appropriate injection into the boundary layer is a potential way to increase the diamond growth rates.

  3. Photophysics of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Berthel; O. Mollet; G. Dantelle; T. Gacoin; S. Huant; A. Drezet

    2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the photophysical properties of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond nanocrystals of size of 50~nm or below is carried out by means of second-order time-intensity photon correlation and cross-correlation measurements as a function of the excitation power for both pure charge states, neutral and negatively charged, as well as for the photochromic state, where the center switches between both states at any power. A dedicated three-level model implying a shelving level is developed to extract the relevant photophysical parameters coupling all three levels. Our analysis confirms the very existence of the shelving level for the neutral NV center. It is found that it plays a negligible role on the photophysics of this center, whereas it is responsible for an increasing photon bunching behavior of the negative NV center with increasing power. From the photophysical parameters, we infer a quantum efficiency for both centers, showing that it remains close to unity for the neutral center over the entire power range, whereas it drops with increasing power from near unity to approximately 0.5 for the negative center. The photophysics of the photochromic center reveals a rich phenomenology that is to a large extent dominated by that of the negative state, in agreement with the excess charge release of the negative center being much slower than the photon emission process.

  4. Circularly polarized microwaves for magnetic resonance study in the GHz range: application to nitrogen-vacancy in diamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrozek, Mariusz; Rudnicki, Daniel S; Gawlik, Wojciech

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to create time-dependent magnetic fields of controlled polarization is essential for many experiments with magnetic resonance. We describe a microstrip circuit that allows us to generate strong magnetic field at microwave frequencies with arbitrary adjusted polarization. The circuit performance is demonstrated by applying it to an optically detected magnetic resonance and Rabi nutation experiments in nitrogen-vacancy color centers in diamond. Thanks to high efficiency of the proposed microstrip circuit and degree of circular polarization of 85% it is possible to address the specific spin states of a diamond sample using a low power microwave generator.

  5. Ultrasensitive Magnetometry and Imaging with NV Diamond 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Changdong

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    NV centers in a diamond are proving themselves to be good building blocks for quantum information, electron spin resonance (ESR) imaging, and sensor applications. The key feature of the NV is that it has an electron spin that can be polarized...

  6. Black Hole Radiation and Volume Statistical Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz

    2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The simplest possible equation for Hawking radiation, and other black hole radiated power is derived in terms of black hole density. Black hole density also leads to the simplest possible model of a gas of elementary constituents confined inside a gravitational bottle of Schwarzchild radius at tremendous pressure, which yields identically the same functional dependence as the traditional black hole entropy. Variations of Sbh can be obtained which depend on the occupancy of phase space cells. A relation is derived between the constituent momenta and the black hole radius which is similar to the Compton wavelength relation.

  7. In Situ Tribo-Electrochemical Characterization of Diamond-Containing Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Huaping

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    , electrochemical evaluation and characterization of diamond-reinforced ceramic composites (DRCC), thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film, thin microcrystalline diamond (MCD) film and their functionalized derivatives. After the tribotest, phase transformation from...

  8. Very low friction for diamond sliding on diamond in water Plasma Processing Laboratory, Auburn University, 200 Broun Hall, Auburn, Alabama 36849

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    on a polished polycrystalline chemically vapor deposited diamond film in water at a speed of 0.05 mm/s underVery low friction for diamond sliding on diamond in water Y. Tzeng Plasma Processing Laboratory for publication 17 September 1993) This letter reports the lowest coefficient of friction measured for diamond

  9. Idaho_BlackCanyon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT | NationalMentoringWind Power -Mtn. Black

  10. Method to fabricate micro and nano diamond devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M; Anderson, Richard J; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Skinner, Jack L; Rye, Michael J

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method including forming a diamond material on the surface of a substrate; forming a first contact and a separate second contact; and patterning the diamond material to form a nanowire between the first contact and the second contact. An apparatus including a first contact and a separate second contact on a substrate; and a nanowire including a single crystalline or polycrystalline diamond material on the substrate and connected to each of the first contact and the second contact.

  11. amorphous diamond-like carbon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b, Materials Science Websites Summary: Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon...

  12. adherent diamond-like carbon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b, Materials Science Websites Summary: Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon...

  13. Precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.; Paul, H.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the effect of machine parameters and material properties on precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass. The critical grinding depth to initiate the plastic flow-to-brittle fracture regime will be directly measured using plunge-grind tests. This information will be correlated with machine parameters such as wheel bonding and diamond grain size. Multiaxis grinding tests will then be made to provide data more closely coupled with production technology. One important aspect of the material property studies involves measuring fracture toughness at the very short crack sizes commensurate with grinding damage. Short crack toughness value`s can be much less than the long-crack toughness values measured in conventional fracture tests.

  14. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  15. Luminescence Dating `I also brought it [a diamond] to some

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

    Includes ­ Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), infrared stimulatedLuminescence Dating `I also brought it [a diamond] to some kind of glimmering light by taking

  16. Radiation Hardness and Linearity Studies of CVD Diamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Behnke; M. Doucet; N. Ghodbane; A. Imhof

    2002-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the behavior of CVD diamonds under intense electromagnetic radiation and on the response of the detector to high density of deposited energy. Diamonds have been found to remain unaffected after doses of 10 MGy of MeV-range photons and the diamond response to energy depositions of up to 250 GeV/cm^3 has been found to be linear to better than 2 %. These observations make diamond an attractive detector material for a calorimeter in the very forward region of the detector proposed for TESLA.

  17. Robust Diamond-Based RF Switch Yields Enhanced Communication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Robust Diamond-Based RF Switch Yields Enhanced Communication Capabilities Technology available for licesning: A radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch...

  18. amorphous diamond films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulations of the nanometer-scale indentation of amorphous-carbon thin films Materials Science Websites Summary: , and lattice constants of both solid-state diamond and...

  19. Microsoft Word - DiamondB_Easement_CX.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cecilia Brown Project Manager - KEWM-4 Proposed Action: Provision of funds to Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks to purchase the Diamond B conservation easement. Fish and Wildlife...

  20. Argonne researchers develop two new diamond inventions | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    develop two new diamond inventions By Jared Sagoff * October 10, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, IL - Researchers at the US Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory have...

  1. Electroless nickel: an important coating for diamond turning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W.

    1980-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond turning is the use of a single-point diamond tool on a precision lathe under very precisely controlled machine and environmental conditions to fabricate finished components. With a machine presently available at LLNL a part accuracy between 0.05 and 1.0 ..mu..m (2 and 40 millionths of an inch) is obtainable. Coatings offer significant advantages for diamond turning applications inasmuch as they can be applied to lightweight substrates such as aluminum or beryllium. One of the most used coatings for diamond turning applications is electroless nickel. Purpose of this paper is to document case histories of such applications and suggest areas for future work.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of a nanocrystalline diamond aerogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nanocrystalline diamond aerogel Peter J. Pauzauskie a,1,2 ,Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 Aerogel materials have myriadcreating a nanodiamond aerogel matrix has remained an

  3. amorphous diamond flat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    32 Synthesis and characterization of single-wall carbon nanotubeamorphous diamond thin-film composites Materials Science Websites Summary: . Ultrahard, transparent,...

  4. advanced diamond product: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve allowing one to extrapolate their performance as a function of dose. W....

  5. Quantum black hole inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. B. Altaie

    2001-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we follow a new approach for particle creation by a localized strong gravitational field. The approach is based on a definition of the physical vacuum drawn from Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Using the fact that the gravitational field red-shifts the frequency modes of the vacuum, a condition on the minimum stregth of the gravitational field required to achieve real particle creation is derived. Application of this requirement on a Schwartzchid black hole resulted in deducing an upper limit on the region, outside the event horizon, where real particles can be created. Using this regional upper limit, and considering particle creation by black holes as a consequence of the Casimir effect, with the assumption that the created quanta are to be added to the initial energy, we deduce a natural power law for the development of the event horizon, and consequently a logarithmic law for the area spectrum of an inflating black hole. Application of the results on a cosmological model shows that if we start with a Planck-dimensional black hole, then through the process of particle creation we end up with a universe having the presently estimated critical density. Such a universe will be in a state of eternal inflation.

  6. Panel 2 - properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.J.; Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ajayi, O.O.; Liu, Y.Y.; Purohit, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bartelt, P.F. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Baughman, R.H. [Allied Signal, Morristown, NJ (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Cooper, C.V. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Dugger, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freedman, A. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Larsen-Basse, J. [National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States); McGuire, N.R. [Caterpillar, Peoria, IL (United States); Messier, R.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Noble, G.L.; Ostrowki, M.H. [John Crane, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States); Sartwell, B.D. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Wei, R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This panel attempted to identify and prioritize research and development needs in determining the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films (D/DLCF). Three specific goals were established. They were: (1) To identify problem areas which produce concern and require a better knowledge of D/DLCF properties. (2) To identify and prioritize key properties of D/DLCF to promote transportation applications. (3) To identify needs for improvement in properties-measurement methods. Each of these goals is addressed subsequently.

  7. Patterning of nanocrystalline diamond films for diamond microstructures useful in MEMS and other devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Busmann, Hans-Gerd (Bremen, DE); Meyer, Eva-Maria (Bremen, DE); Auciello, Orlando (Bolingbrook, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (late of Naperville, IL); Krauss, Julie R. (Naperville, IL)

    2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    MEMS structure and a method of fabricating them from ultrananocrystalline diamond films having average grain sizes of less than about 10 nm and feature resolution of less than about one micron . The MEMS structures are made by contacting carbon dimer species with an oxide substrate forming a carbide layer on the surface onto which ultrananocrystalline diamond having average grain sizes of less than about 10 nm is deposited. Thereafter, microfabrication process are used to form a structure of predetermined shape having a feature resolution of less than about one micron.

  8. Black Pine Engineering Wins Clean Energy Trust Clean Energy Challenge...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    power plants. Geothermal plants waste a portion of well steam due to steam compressors that remove harmful gases. The Black Pine Engineering system replaces current plant...

  9. Yield Optimization of Nitrogen Vacancy Centers in Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jeson

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    To fully exploit the capability of NV centers in diamond as magnetic sensors and quantum bits, the optimum production recipe as well as the method to enhance its optical performance has been studied in this work. The NV centers in bulk diamond were...

  10. Electrically conductive polycrystalline diamond and particulate metal based electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg M.; Wang, Jian

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conducting and dimensionally stable diamond (12, 14) and metal particle (13) electrode produced by electrodepositing the metal on the diamond is described. The electrode is particularly useful in harsh chemical environments and at high current densities and potentials. The electrode is particularly useful for generating hydrogen, and for reducing oxygen and oxidizing methanol in reactions which are of importance in fuel cells.

  11. NEW HIGH STRENGTH AND FASTER DRILLING TSP DIAMOND CUTTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Radtke

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  12. Test of a prototype neutron spectrometer based on diamond detectors in a fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Osipenko; F. Pompili; M. Ripani; M. Pillon; G. Ricco; B. Caiffi; R. Cardarelli; G. Verona-Rinati; S. Argiro

    2015-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype of neutron spectrometer based on diamond detectors has been developed. This prototype consists of a $^6$Li neutron converter sandwiched between two CVD diamond crystals. The radiation hardness of the diamond crystals makes it suitable for applications in low power research reactors, while a low sensitivity to gamma rays and low leakage current of the detector permit to reach good energy resolution. A fast coincidence between two crystals is used to reject background. The detector was read out using two different electronic chains connected to it by a few meters of cable. The first chain was based on conventional charge-sensitive amplifiers, the other used a custom fast charge amplifier developed for this purpose. The prototype has been tested at various neutron sources and showed its practicability. In particular, the detector was calibrated in a TRIGA thermal reactor (LENA laboratory, University of Pavia) with neutron fluxes of $10^8$ n/cm$^2$s and at the 3 MeV D-D monochromatic neutron source named FNG (ENEA, Rome) with neutron fluxes of $10^6$ n/cm$^2$s. The neutron spectrum measurement was performed at the TAPIRO fast research reactor (ENEA, Casaccia) with fluxes of 10$^9$ n/cm$^2$s. The obtained spectra were compared to Monte Carlo simulations, modeling detector response with MCNP and Geant4.

  13. Test of a prototype neutron spectrometer based on diamond detectors in a fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osipenko, M; Ripani, M; Pillon, M; Ricco, G; Caiffi, B; Cardarelli, R; Verona-Rinati, G; Argiro, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype of neutron spectrometer based on diamond detectors has been developed. This prototype consists of a $^6$Li neutron converter sandwiched between two CVD diamond crystals. The radiation hardness of the diamond crystals makes it suitable for applications in low power research reactors, while a low sensitivity to gamma rays and low leakage current of the detector permit to reach good energy resolution. A fast coincidence between two crystals is used to reject background. The detector was read out using two different electronic chains connected to it by a few meters of cable. The first chain was based on conventional charge-sensitive amplifiers, the other used a custom fast charge amplifier developed for this purpose. The prototype has been tested at various neutron sources and showed its practicability. In particular, the detector was calibrated in a TRIGA thermal reactor (LENA laboratory, University of Pavia) with neutron fluxes of $10^8$ n/cm$^2$s and at the 3 MeV D-D monochromatic neutron source na...

  14. Method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsells, Robert; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Perry, Erik; Rule, Keith

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures, such as nuclear reactor vessels, is provided. A diamond wire saw having a plurality of diamond beads with beveled or chamfered edges is provided for sawing into the walls of the metal structure. The diamond wire is guided by a plurality of support structures allowing for a multitude of different cuts. The diamond wire is cleaned and cooled by CO.sub.2 during the cutting process to prevent breakage of the wire and provide efficient cutting. Concrete can be provided within the metal structure to enhance cutting efficiency and reduce airborne contaminants. The invention can be remotely controlled to reduce exposure of workers to radioactivity and other hazards.

  15. Nanocrystalline diamond synthesized from C60 Natalia Dubrovinskaia*, Leonid Dubrovinsky, Falko Langenhorst,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Steven D.

    , the synthesis of nanocrystalline films of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and polycrystalline cubic diamond have display excellent properties as surface coating for metals [9]. Polycrystalline cubic diamond synthesisedNanocrystalline diamond synthesized from C60 Natalia Dubrovinskaia*, Leonid Dubrovinsky, Falko

  16. The electrical and optical properties of thin lm diamond implanted with silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolodzey, James

    :Si alloys were formed by the implantation of Si into polycrystalline diamond ®lms grown by che- mical vaporThe electrical and optical properties of thin ®lm diamond implanted with silicon K.J. Roea,* , J of diamond make it an attractive material for use in extreme conditions. Diamond devices have been fabricated

  17. Integrated High-Quality Factor Optical Resonators in Diamond B. J. M. Hausmann,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loncar, Marko

    -performance devices places stringent requirements on the diamond film quality. For example, polycrystalline diamond associated with polycrystalline and ion-sliced single crystal diamond films. For example, low-loss opticalIntegrated High-Quality Factor Optical Resonators in Diamond B. J. M. Hausmann,, I. B. Bulu,, P. B

  18. Reduced thermal resistance of the silicon-synthetic diamond composite substrates at elevated temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /Si sub- strates, depends on the polycrystalline-diamond grain size, diamond layer thicknessReduced thermal resistance of the silicon-synthetic diamond composite substrates at elevated of synthetic diamond-silicon composite substrates. Although composite substrates are more thermally resistive

  19. Mantle-related carbonados? Geochemical insights from diamonds from the Dachine komatiite (French Guiana)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    Carbonado is a unique type of polycrystalline diamond characterised, among others, by 13 C-depleted isotope carbonado diamonds are polycrystalline, but the reciprocal is not true, i.e. a polycrystalline diamond is not necessarily a carbonado. Most classifications for polycrystalline diamonds are established according

  20. THE ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN FILM DIAMOND IMPLANTED WITH SILICON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolodzey, James

    devices. The C:Si alloys were formed by the implantation of Si into polycrystalline diamond films grownTHE ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN FILM DIAMOND IMPLANTED WITH SILICON K. J. Roe and J and electrical properties of diamond make it an attractive material for use in extreme conditions. Diamond

  1. Field emission properties of phosphorus doped microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition diamond films by ion implantation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    2002; published 5 February 2003 Phosphorus doped polycrystalline diamond films were grown using ion the electrical char- acteristics of diamond FEAs to lower the operating voltage. Polycrystalline diamond hasField emission properties of phosphorus doped microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition diamond

  2. Boron Doping of Microcrystalline and Nanocrystalline Diamond Films: Where is the Boron Paul William May1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    is that polycrystalline boron-doped CVD diamond films possess grain boundaries containing a small-volume fraction of non-diamondBoron Doping of Microcrystalline and Nanocrystalline Diamond Films: Where is the Boron Going? Paul `cauliflower'-type nanocrystalline (c-NCD) CVD diamond films vary as a function of B content. The conductivity

  3. Estimation of parameters in thermal-field emission from diamond D.G. Walkera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    : Thermal field emission; Diamond film 1. Introduction Polycrystalline diamond films can exhibit outstanding polycrystalline diamond films at elevated temperatures. Thermal effects are included in the models and provide. Wang et al. [10] observed emission from the region between grains in polycrystalline diamond films

  4. Atomistic simulations of structures and mechanical properties of S011diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, Donald W.

    Polycrystalline diamond films obtained by chemical vapor deposition CVD have numerous applications due and their triple junctions in diamond O. A. Shenderova and Donald W. Brenner Department of Materials Science triple junctions TJ's in diamond as well as a multiply twinned diamond particle have been calculated

  5. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  6. Bruce Diamond | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations GuideAlternate WatchBenefitsDiamond |

  7. Performance evaluation of bound diamond ring tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piscotty, M.A.; Taylor, J.S.; Blaedel, K.L.

    1995-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    LLNL is collaborating with the Center for Optics Manufacturing (COM) and the American Precision Optics Manufacturers Association (APOMA) to optimize bound diamond ring tools for the spherical generation of high quality optical surfaces. An important element of this work is establishing an experimentally-verified link between tooling properties and workpiece quality indicators such as roughness, subsurface damage and removal rate. In this paper, we report on a standardized methodology for assessing ring tool performance and its preliminary application to a set of commercially-available wheels. Our goals are to (1) assist optics manufacturers (users of the ring tools) in evaluating tools and in assessing their applicability for a given operation, and (2) provide performance feedback to wheel manufacturers to help optimize tooling for the optics industry. Our paper includes measurements of wheel performance for three 2-4 micron diamond bronze-bond wheels that were supplied by different manufacturers to nominally- identical specifications. Preliminary data suggests that the difference in performance levels among the wheels were small.

  8. Implantation conditions for diamond nanocrystal formation in amorphous silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buljan, Maja; Radovic, Iva Bogdanovic; Desnica, Uros V.; Ivanda, Mile; Jaksic, Milko [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Saguy, Cecile; Kalish, Rafi [Physics Department and Solid State Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Djerdj, Igor [Department of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Tonejc, Andelka [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Gamulin, Ozren [School of Medicine, Zagreb University, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of carbon ion implantation in amorphous silica, which, followed by annealing in a hydrogen-rich environment, leads to preferential formation of carbon nanocrystals with cubic diamond (c-diamond), face-centered cubic (n-diamond), or simple cubic (i-carbon) carbon crystal lattices. Two different annealing treatments were used: furnace annealing for 1 h and rapid thermal annealing for a brief period, which enables monitoring of early nucleation events. The influence of implanted dose and annealing type on carbon and hydrogen concentrations, clustering, and bonding were investigated. Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil detection analysis, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption measurements, and Raman spectroscopy were used to study these carbon formations. These results, combined with the results of previous investigations on similar systems, show that preferential formation of different carbon phases (diamond, n-diamond, or i-carbon) depends on implantation energy, implantation dose, and annealing conditions. Diamond nanocrystals formed at a relatively low carbon volume density are achieved by deeper implantation and/or lower implanted dose. Higher volume densities led to n-diamond and finally to i-carbon crystal formation. This observed behavior is related to damage sites induced by implantation. The optical properties of different carbon nanocrystal phases were significantly different.

  9. Well drilling tool with diamond radial/thrust bearings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagel, D.D.; Aparicio, T. Jr.

    1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbodrill is disclosed for connection to a drill string and has a rotating shaft for turning a drill bit. The turbodrill has rotor and stator blades operated by drilling mud flowing therethrough to rotate the shaft. The shaft is provided with radial/thrust bearing consisting of a pair of annular plates, each of which has conical surfaces supporting a plurality of friction bearing members of polycrystalline diamond. The radial and thrust loads are carried by the wear-resistant diamond bearing surfaces. The bearing members are preferably cylindrical studs having flat faces with flat disc-shaped diamond bearing members supported thereon around the adjacent surfaces of the supporting plates. The faces of the diamond bearings will wear into smoothly mating conical bearing surfaces with use. There are two or more pairs of diamond radial/thrust bearings to handle longitudinal as well as radial loads. The use of the diamond radial/thrust bearings makes it possible to eliminate the lubricant-flooded construction of prior art turbodrills and allow the bearings to be cooled and lubricated be drilling fluid flowing therethrough. The diamond radial/thrust bearings may be used with lubricant-flooded turbodrills and with other types of downhole motor driven drills such as drills driven by positive displacement motors.

  10. Robust Dynamical Decoupling for Arbitrary Quantum States of a Single NV Center in Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. H. Shim; I. Niemeyer; J. Zhang; D. Suter

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamical decoupling is a powerful technique for extending the coherence time (T$_2$) of qubits. We apply this technique to the electron spin qubit of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in type IIa diamond. In a crystal with natural abundance of $^{13}$C nuclear spins, we extend the decoherence time up to 2.2 ms. This is close to the T$_1$ value of this NV center (4 ms). Since dynamical decoupling must perform well for arbitrary initial conditions, we measured the dependence on the initial state and compared the performance of different sequences with respect to initial state dependence and robustness to experimental imperfections.

  11. Stability and breakdown of Ca{sup 13}CO{sub 3} melt associated with formation of {sup 13}C-diamond in static high pressure experiments up to 43 GPa and 3900 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spivak, A.V., E-mail: spivak@iem.ac.ru [Institute of Experimental Mineralogy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Litvin, Yu.A. [Institute of Experimental Mineralogy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ovsyannikov, S.V. [Bayerishes Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Dubrovinskaia, N.A. [Material Physics and Technology at Extreme Conditions, Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Dubrovinsky, L.S. [Bayerishes Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Melting of calcium carbonate Ca{sup 13}CO{sub 3}, stability of the melt and its decomposition were studied in static high pressure experiments at pressures of 11-43 GPa and temperatures of 1600-3900 K using diamond anvil cell technique with laser heating. We observed formation of {sup 13}C-graphite (below 16 GPa) and {sup 13}C-diamond (between 16 and 43 GPa) on decomposition of the Ca{sup 13}CO{sub 3} melt at temperatures above 3400 K. At temperatures below 3400 K congruent melting of calcium carbonate was confirmed. The experimental results were applied to construction of the phase diagram of CaCO{sub 3} up to 43 GPa and 3900 K focusing at the melting curve of calcium carbonate and the decomposition phase boundary of CaCO{sub 3} melt. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase states of CaCO{sub 3} were studied at P=11-43 GPa and T=1600-3900 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 13}C-diamond easily crystallizes in carbonate-carbon (Ca{sup 13}CO{sub 3-}{sup 13}C-graphite) melt-solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca-carbonate melts congruently that was observed in experiments in DAC with laser heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposition of CaCO{sub 3} melt, indicated by formation of graphite and/or diamond. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposition of CaCO{sub 3} was observed at temperatures above 3400 K in the pressure interval studied.

  12. Stokes--anti-Stokes Correlations in Raman Scattering from Diamond Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasperczyk, Mark; Neu, Elke; Maletinsky, Patrick; Novotny, Lukas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the arrival statistics of Stokes (S) and anti-Stokes (aS) Raman photons generated in diamond membranes. Strong quantum correlations between the S and aS signals are observed, which implies that the two processes share the same phonon, that is, the phonon excited by the S process is consumed in the aS process. We show that the intensity cross-correlation $g_{\\rm S,aS}^{(2)}(0)$, which describes the simultaneous detection of Stokes and anti-Stokes photons, decreases steadily with laser power as $1/{\\rm P_L}$. Contrary to many other material systems, diamond exhibits a maximum $g_{\\rm S,aS}^{(2)}(0)$ at very low pump powers, implying that the Stokes-induced aS photons outnumber the thermally generated aS photons. On the other hand, the coincidence rate shows a quadratic plus cubic power dependence, which indicates a departure from the Stokes-induced anti-Stokes process.

  13. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  14. Software optimization for electrical conductivity imaging in polycrystalline diamond cutters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanov, G.; Ludwig, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Rd, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K. [US Synthetic, 1260 South 1600 West, Orem, UT 84058 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We previously reported on an electrical conductivity imaging instrument developed for measurements on polycrystalline diamond cutters. These cylindrical cutters for oil and gas drilling feature a thick polycrystalline diamond layer on a tungsten carbide substrate. The instrument uses electrical impedance tomography to profile the conductivity in the diamond table. Conductivity images must be acquired quickly, on the order of 5 sec per cutter, to be useful in the manufacturing process. This paper reports on successful efforts to optimize the conductivity reconstruction routine, porting major portions of it to NVIDIA GPUs, including a custom CUDA kernel for Jacobian computation.

  15. Printable, flexible and stretchable diamond for thermal management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Dae Hyeong; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Carlisle, John

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Various heat-sinked components and methods of making heat-sinked components are disclosed where diamond in thermal contact with one or more heat-generating components are capable of dissipating heat, thereby providing thermally-regulated components. Thermally conductive diamond is provided in patterns capable of providing efficient and maximum heat transfer away from components that may be susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures. The devices and methods are used to cool flexible electronics, integrated circuits and other complex electronics that tend to generate significant heat. Also provided are methods of making printable diamond patterns that can be used in a range of devices and device components.

  16. RHIC | Black Holes?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black Holes at RHIC? Further discussion by Physicist Dmitri Kharzeev on why RHIC cannot produce a real gravitational black hole Black holes are among the most mysterious objects in...

  17. From Ultrananocrystalline Diamond to Single Crystal Diamond Growth in Hot Filament and Microwave Plasma-Enhanced CVD Reactors: a Unified Model for Growth Rates and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    From Ultrananocrystalline Diamond to Single Crystal Diamond Growth in Hot Filament and Microwave, Moscow State UniVersity, 119991 Moscow, Russia ReceiVed: April 29, 2008 CVD Diamond can now be deposited either in the form of single crystal homoepitaxial layers, or as polycrystalline films with crystal sizes

  18. black-bean-salad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Date: Mon, 22 Nov 93 13:06:59 PST From: Jane Colman BLACK BEAN SALAD 3 cups dried black beans, soaked and cooked 3-4 ears ...

  19. Coordinating diamond interchange and arterial street signal control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelbrecht, Roelof Johannes

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that under some conditions, notably particular cycle lengths, the coordination of diamond interchange and arterial signal control could be beneficial. This will be the case when the optimal cycle lengths of the arterial and interchange systems are similar...

  20. Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Shah, S. Ismat (Wilmington, DE)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

  1. Diamonds are an Electronic Device’s Best Friend

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at Argonne National Lab recently devised a way to use diamonds to brighten the performance of electronic devices, which could put a bit more sparkle in everyone’s day.

  2. Slip sliding away: Graphene and diamonds prove a slippery combination...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Slip sliding away: Graphene and diamonds prove a slippery combination By Jared Sagoff * May 22, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National...

  3. Electrochemical hydrogen termination of boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, Rene; Kriele, Armin; Obloh, Harald; Hees, Jakob; Wolfer, Marco; Smirnov, Waldemar; Yang Nianjun; Nebel, Christoph E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF), Tullastrasse 72, Freiburg 79108 (Germany)

    2010-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Boron-doped diamond is a promising transducer material for numerous devices which are designed for contact with electrolytes. For optimized electron transfer the surface of diamond needs to be hydrogen terminated. Up to now H-termination of diamond is done by plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. In this paper, we show that boron-doped diamond can be H-terminated electrochemically by applying negative voltages in acidic solutions. Electrochemical H-termination generates a clean surface with virtually no carbon-oxygen bonds (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), a reduced electron affinity (scanning electron microscopy), a highly hydrophobic surface (water contact angle), and a fast electron exchange with Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup -3/-4} (cyclic voltammetry).

  4. Spin properties of very shallow nitrogen vacancy defects in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ofori-Okai, Benjamin Kwasi

    We investigate spin and optical properties of individual nitrogen vacancy centers located within 1–10 nm from the diamond surface. We observe stable defects with a characteristic optically detected magnetic-resonance ...

  5. Robust Decoupling Techniques to Extend Quantum Coherence in Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Colm A.

    We experimentally demonstrate over 2 orders of magnitude increase in the room-temperature coherence time of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by implementing decoupling techniques. We show that equal pulse spacing ...

  6. World-leading lab opens new frontiers in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machel, Hans

    and positioning Canada to be on the cutting edge of innovation." Pearson, a professor of geochemistry, came Pearson, also noting the support of colleagues-- leaders in diamond-related research who were a key factor

  7. Large piezoresistive effect in surface conductive nanocrystalline diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens, S. D., E-mail: stoffel.d.janssens@gmail.com; Haenen, K., E-mail: ken.haenen@uhasselt.be [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Drijkoningen, S. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface conductivity in hydrogen-terminated single crystal diamond is an intriguing phenomenon for fundamental reasons as well as for application driven research. Surface conductivity is also observed in hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond although the electronic transport mechanisms remain unclear. In this work, the piezoresistive properties of intrinsic surface conductive nanocrystalline diamond are investigated. A gauge factor of 35 is calculated from bulging a diamond membrane of 350?nm thick, with a diameter of 656??m and a sheet resistance of 1.45 M?/sq. The large piezoresistive effect is reasoned to originate directly from strain-induced changes in the resistivity of the grain boundaries. Additionally, we ascribe a small time-dependent fraction of the piezoresistive effect to charge trapping of charge carriers at grain boundaries. In conclusion, time-dependent piezoresistive effect measurements act as a tool for deeper understanding the complex electronic transport mechanisms induced by grain boundaries in a polycrystalline material or nanocomposite.

  8. Electrodeposited coatings for diamond turning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, A.; Bramlett, R.D.; Day, R.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Evans, C.J.; Polvani, R.S. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodeposited coatings are attractive for precision machining operations because thick coatings can be economically applied, with good adhesion, to a variety of substrates. Approximately 20 pure metals and a large number of alloys can be deposited from aqueous solutions. Fused salt and organic solvent electrolytes can be used to lengthen the list of metals that can be electrodeposited. However, both the choice of the metallic coating and the control of the plating process are critical for success in precision finishing of electrodeposited coatings. Some preliminary results at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory suggest that electrodeposited nickel-phosphorus alloys are excellent coatings for single point diamond turning from the standpoint of material properties and low tool wear. Electrodeposited aluminum and aluminum alloy coatings also merit consideration for precision finishing where weight is an important factor. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  9. The influence of surface preparation on the electrochemistry of boron doped diamond: A study of the reduction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    ; Surface modification 1. Introduction Electrodes based on polycrystalline diamond are presently generating significant interest. Polycrystalline diamond possesses physical properties that suggest that electrodesThe influence of surface preparation on the electrochemistry of boron doped diamond: A study

  10. Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, G.W.; Roybal, H.E.

    1983-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

  11. Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM); Roybal, Herman E. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

  12. Method for the preparation of nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing nanocrystalline diamond film on a substrate such as field emission tips. The method involves forming a carbonaceous vapor, providing a gas stream of argon, hydrocarbon and possibly hydrogen, and combining the gas with the carbonaceous vapor, passing the combined carbonaceous vapor and gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the carbonaceous vapor and deposition of a diamond film on the field emission tip. 40 figs.

  13. Yield Optimization of Nitrogen Vacancy Centers in Diamond 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jeson

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    /nmg2870 ………………………………………………………………. 21 3-7 The minimum implantation time to prevent graphitization versus temperature for various doses of 2 MeV nitrogen implantation………… 22 x FIGURE... is feasible and allows removal of most dirt, some amorphous carbon, and graphite on surface without eroding the diamond. The bond strength of diamond also allows heating in vacuum to high temperature up to 1700°C and can be baked in air up to 700°C...

  14. Analysis of the influence of tool dynamics in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fawcett, S.C.; Luttrell, D.E.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the progress in defining the role of machine and interface dynamics on the surface finish in diamond turning. It contains a review of literature from conventional and diamond machining processes relating tool dynamics, material interactions and tool wear to surface finish. Data from experimental measurements of tool/work piece interface dynamics are presented as well as machine dynamics for the DTM at the Center.

  15. Black Earth, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 | OpenEIBixby, Oklahoma: EnergyBlack DiamondEarth,

  16. Diagnostic of fusion neutrons on JET tokamak using diamond detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemtsev, G.; Amosov, V.; Marchenko, N.; Meshchaninov, S.; Rodionov, R. [Institution Project center ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popovichev, S. [EURATOM-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JET EFDA Conbributors

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2011-2012, an experimental campaign with a significant yield of fusion neutrons was carried out on the JET tokamak. During this campaign the facility was equipped with two diamond detectors based on natural and artificial CVD diamond. These detectors were designed and manufactured in State Research Center of Russian Federation TRINITI. The detectors measure the flux of fast neutrons with energies above 0.2 MeV. They have been installed in the torus hall and the distance from the center of plasma was about 3 m. For some of the JET pulses in this experiment, the neutron flux density corresponded to the operational conditions in collimator channels of ITER Vertical Neutron Camera. The main objective of diamond monitors was the measurement of total fast neutron flux at the detector location and the estimation of the JET total neutron yield. The detectors operate as threshold counters. Additionally a spectrometric measurement channel has been configured that allowed us to distinguish various energy components of the neutron spectrum. In this paper we describe the neutron signal measuring and calibration procedure of the diamond detector. Fluxes of DD and DT neutrons at the detector location were measured. It is shown that the signals of total neutron yield measured by the diamond detector correlate with signals measured by the main JET neutron diagnostic based on fission chambers with high accuracy. This experiment can be considered as a successful test of diamond detectors in ITER-like conditions.

  17. Evaluation of TexSIM for modeling traffic behavior at diamond interchanges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meadors, Allison Christine Cherry

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    traffic behavior at signalized diamond interchanges. To evaluate TexSIM 2.0 for simulating and providing accurate descriptive measures of performance for pretimed and actuated diamond interchanges, model outputs were compared to field data collected from...

  18. Amorphous boron gasket in diamond anvil cell research Jung-Fu Lin,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

    -pressure diamond anvil cell experiments. We have applied the boron gasket for laser-heating x-ray diffraction in the drilling process can cause can- cer. Diamond, the hardest material known, has also been used as a gasket

  19. Dynamic compression of synthetic diamond windows (final report for LDRD project 93531).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond is an attractive dynamic compression window for many reasons: high elastic limit,large mechanical impedance, and broad transparency range. Natural diamonds, however, aretoo expensive to be used in destructive experiments. Chemical vapor deposition techniquesare now able to produce large single-crystal windows, opening up many potential dynamiccompression applications. This project studied the behavior of synthetic diamond undershock wave compression. The results suggest that synthetic diamond could be a usefulwindow in this field, though complete characterization proved elusive.3

  20. Progress in the Advanced Synthetic-Diamond Drill Bit Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glowka, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dennis, T. [Dennis Tool Co., Houston, TX (United States); Le, Phi [Security DBS, Houston, TX (United States); Cohen, J. [Maurer Engineering, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Chow, J. [Hughes Christensen Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooperative research is currently underway among five drill bit companies and Sandia National Laboratories to improve synthetic-diamond drill bits for hard-rock applications. This work, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and individual bit companies, is aimed at improving performance and bit life in harder rock than has previously been possible to drill effectively with synthetic-diamond drill bits. The goal is to extend to harder rocks the economic advantages seen in using synthetic-diamond drill bits in soft and medium rock formations. Four projects are being conducted under this research program. Each project is investigating a different area of synthetic diamond bit technology that builds on the current technology base and market interests of the individual companies involved. These projects include: optimization of the PDC claw cutter; optimization of the Track-Set PDC bit; advanced TSP bit development; and optimization of impregnated-diamond drill bits. This paper describes the progress made in each of these projects to date.

  1. The 'Crazy Diamond' (and other blazars)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vercellone, S. [INAF/IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); INAF/IASF Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Donnarumma, I.; Pacciani, L.; Pucella, G.; Vittorini, V. [INAF/IASF Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bulgarelli, A. [INAF/IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Chen, A. W. [CIFS-Torino, Viale Settimio Severo 3, 10133 Torino (Italy); INAF/IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); D'Ammando, F.; Tavani, M. [INAF/IASF Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Dip. di Fisica, Univ. 'Tor Vergata', Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Giuliani, A. [INAF/IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Longo, F. [Dip. di Fisica and INFN, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    During the first year of observations, AGILE detected several blazars at high significance: 3 C 279, 3C 454.3, PKS 1510-089, S5 0716+714, 3 C 273, MKN 421, and W Comae. We obtained long-term coverage of the Crazy Diamond 3 C 454.3, for more than 100 days at energies above 100 MeV. 3 C 273 was the first blazar detected simultaneously by the AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector and by its hard X-ray monitor. S5 0716+714, an intermediate BL Lac object, exhibited a very fast and intense gamma-ray transient event during an optical high-state phase, while MKN 421 and W Comae where detected during an AGILE target of opportunity (ToO) repointing. Thanks to the rapid dissemination of our alerts, we were able to obtain multi-wavelength ToO data from other observatories such as Spitzer, Swift, INTEGRAL, RXTE, Suzaku, MAGIC, VERITAS, as well as optical coverage by means of the WEBT Consortium and REM.

  2. Stress state of diamond and gold under nonhydrostatic compression Jianghua Wang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Thomas S.

    for the polycrystalline gold under the highest load. Polycrystalline diamond can support a microscopic deviatoric stress of polycrystalline diamond and gold in the DAC under nonhydrostatic compression to above 300 GPa. The influenceStress state of diamond and gold under nonhydrostatic compression to 360 GPa Jianghua Wang,1

  3. Effects of phosphorus implantation and subsequent growth on diamond Euo Sik Choa,*, Cheon An Leea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    ]. Espe- cially, polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD, and their fabrication is easy and economical. Polycrystalline diamond film has a rough surface and a lot of defectsEffects of phosphorus implantation and subsequent growth on diamond Euo Sik Choa,*, Cheon An Leea

  4. Thermal conductivity of nitrogenated ultrananocrystalline diamond films M. Shamsa,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , polycrystalline diamond PCD , diamondlike carbon DLC , carbon nanotubes, and single-layer graphene, have recentlyThermal conductivity of nitrogenated ultrananocrystalline diamond films on silicon M. Shamsa,1,a S of nitrogenated ultrananocrystalline diamond UNCD films on silicon. For better accuracy, the thermal conductivity

  5. Grafting odorant binding proteins on diamond bio-MEMS R. Manai a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . Beside, cantilevers based on polycrystalline diamond surfaces are very promising as chemical transducers. Here two methods were investigated for chemically grafting porcine OBPs onto polycrystalline diamond1 Grafting odorant binding proteins on diamond bio-MEMS R. Manai a, *, E. Scorsone a , L. Rousseau

  6. A Study of the Grain Boundaries and Hydrogen in HF-CVD Diamond Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    composition of grain boundaries in polycrystalline diamond lms by transmission electron microscopy and highA Study of the Grain Boundaries and Hydrogen in HF-CVD Diamond Films Israel Yoel Koenka #12;A Study of the Grain Boundaries and Hydrogen in HF-CVD Diamond Films Research Thesis In partial fulllment

  7. Raman spectroscopy study of the influence of processing conditions on the structure of polycrystalline diamond films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boolchand, Punit

    of polycrystalline diamond films R. Ramamurti, V. Shanov, and R. N. Singha Department of Chemical and Materials is obvious, especially when polycrystalline diamond PCD is considered for optical and electronic applications-0030 Received 17 May 2005; accepted 14 November 2005; published 8 February 2006 Diamond films are prepared

  8. Simulations of polycrystalline CVD diamond film growth using a simplified Monte Carlo model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    Simulations of polycrystalline CVD diamond film growth using a simplified Monte Carlo model P online 6 November 2009 Keywords: CVD diamond growth Modelling Nucleation Nanodiamond A simple 1) of a diamond (100) surface. The model considers adsorption, etching/desorption, lattice incorporation

  9. Electrochemical studies of moderately boron doped polycrystalline diamond in non-aqueous solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    Electrochemical studies of moderately boron doped polycrystalline diamond in non-aqueous solvent being marketed [83,84]. The first paper on the electrochemistry of boron doped polycrystalline diamond The electrochemistry of boron doped diamond is currently an active field of research. In the majority of studies

  10. Moleculardynamics simulation of thermal stress at the (100) diamond/substrate interface: effect of film continuity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    with the development of advanced CVD techniques 2 producing polycrystalline diamond of quality approachingMolecular­dynamics simulation of thermal stress at the (100) diamond/substrate interface: effect at the (100) diamond/substrate interface. The stress­induced binding energy reduction obtained

  11. Transitions in morphology observed in nitrogenmethanehydrogen depositions of polycrystalline diamond films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayres, Virginia

    % and 1% methane­hydrogen depositions of polycrystalline diamond films. Five results are reported. 1.1063/1.1362406 I. INTRODUCTION Controlled, textured growth of polycrystalline diamond films would be desirable of polycrystalline diamond films: 2% CH4 /H2 and 1% CH4 /H2 . Five results are reported and discussed. II

  12. Charge Collection in the MERIT Diamond Detectors Kirk T. McDonald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    , Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (February 18, 2010) The polycrystalline diamond detectors usedCharge Collection in the MERIT Diamond Detectors Kirk T. McDonald Joseph Henry Laboratories detectors used a bias field of 1 V/m, i.e., 500 V.1 The capacitance of the diamond detector itself was about

  13. Studies of n-type doping and surface modification of CVD diamond for use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    strategy in chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of polycrystalline diamond films. Lithium nitride (Li3NStudies of n-type doping and surface modification of CVD diamond for use in thermionic applications-type dopants in diamond, the work has examined the use of Li-N codoping as a possible alternative doping

  14. Microcrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factor limited by thermoelastic damping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    using polycrystalline films. However, polycrystalline diamond films may not retain the desirable, while j approaching 2000 W mÀ1 KÀ1 has been demonstrated in thick (250­500 lm) polycrystalline diamondMicrocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factor limited by thermoelastic

  15. Spatially-Correlated Microstructure and Superconductivity in Polycrystalline Boron-Doped Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spatially-Correlated Microstructure and Superconductivity in Polycrystalline Boron-Doped Diamond F tunneling spectroscopies are performed below 100 mK on nano-crystalline boron-doped diamond films been discovered in heavily doped group IV covalent semicon- ductors [1], in particular diamond [2

  16. The Influence of Doping Levels and Surface Termination on the Electrochemistry of Polycrystalline Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    of Polycrystalline Diamond Matthew N. Latto, Gustavo Pastor-Moreno, D. Jason Riley* School of Chemistry, University on the redox chemistry of Fe(CN)3À=4À 6 at CVD polycrystalline diamond electrodes is considered diamond metallic electrochemical behavior is always observed, even at boron doping densities as low as 7 Â

  17. Elastic properties of transparent nano-polycrystalline diamond measured by GHz-ultrasonic interferometry and resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Steven D.

    Elastic properties of transparent nano-polycrystalline diamond measured by GHz-ultrasonic interferometry Sphere resonance Nano-polycrystalline diamond NPD Elastic properties Superhard materials a b s t r a c t The sound velocities and elastic moduli of transparent nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) have

  18. Atomistic simulations of structures and mechanical properties of polycrystalline diamond: Symmetrical S001< tilt grain boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, Donald W.

    Atomistic simulations of structures and mechanical properties of polycrystalline diamond for diamond to deposit as a polycrystalline film with a high density of grain boundaries and related defects structures and energies of symmetrical 001 tilt grain boundaries GB's in diamond have been calculated over

  19. Alumina atomic layer deposition nanocoatings on primary diamond particles using a fluidized bed reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven M.

    /high-temperature (HP/HT) synthesis methods [4­7] led to the discovery of polycrystalline diamond grit and the manufacture of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) materials [8]. PDC cutters are well known and widely usedAlumina atomic layer deposition nanocoatings on primary diamond particles using a fluidized bed

  20. Direct engraving of quantum point contacts in heterostructures with a diamond tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hohls, Frank

    of polycrystalline diamond onto a pre-patterned silicon substrate [7]. The results of the engraving procedure usingDirect engraving of quantum point contacts in heterostructures with a diamond tip J. Regul, U. F-Universit¨at Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany Abstract. We use the all-diamond tip of an atomic force microscope

  1. Fabrication of adherent porous diamond films on sintered WC-13 wt.%Co

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    and lower threshold voltages for field emission [10]. Conductive polycrystalline diamond films are alsoFabrication of adherent porous diamond films on sintered WC-13 wt.%Co substrates by bias enhanced 2011, accepted 3 May 2011 Published online 10 August 2011 Keywords diamond films, HFCVD, porous, WC

  2. Electrical and optical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by pulsed laser ablation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    films, which make them more useful than polycrystalline diamond films for many applications. For exampleElectrical and optical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by pulsed laser ablation K e i n f o Available online 11 March 2010 Keyword: Pulsed laser ablation Diamond-like carbon films

  3. Spatially-correlated microstructure and superconductivity in polycrystalline Boron-doped diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Spatially-correlated microstructure and superconductivity in polycrystalline Boron-doped diamond F are performed below 100 mK on polycrystalline Boron-doped diamond films characterized by Transmission Electron and the superconducting proximity effect.8,9 Neverthe- less, recent studies of polycrystalline diamond films10,11 did

  4. Atomistic modeling of the fracture of polycrystalline diamond O. A. Shenderova and D. W. Brenner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, Donald W.

    Atomistic modeling of the fracture of polycrystalline diamond O. A. Shenderova and D. W. Brenner characteristic of GB toughness. Crack propagation in polycrystalline diamond samples under an applied load of several 001 and 011 symmetrical tilt grain boundaries GB's in diamond. Cohesive energies, the work

  5. FIELD EMISSION FROM BORON-DOPING POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND FILMS ON SILICON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FIELD EMISSION FROM BORON-DOPING POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND FILMS ON SILICON J. A. N. Gonçalves, G. M material fail. The field emission current from boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films grown by hot Campos, SP, Brazi Abstract This work deals with the study and development of the boron-doped diamond

  6. Raman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films grown by Hot Filament CVD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    H4 flow-rate ratio of standard polycrystalline diamond deposition parameters on formationRaman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films grown by Hot Filament CVD of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia b,c Diamond Research Laboratory, School

  7. Unravelling aspects of the gas phase chemistry involved in diamond chemical vapour deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    of thin Ðlms of polycrystalline diamond by chemi- cal vapour deposition (CVD) methods,2h4 since which timeUnravelling aspects of the gas phase chemistry involved in diamond chemical vapour deposition been used to unravel details of the gas phase chemistry involved in diamond chemical vapour deposition

  8. EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF WAKEFIELD EFFECTS IN A 250 GHZ PLANAR DIAMOND ACCELERATING STRUCTURE*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    of a rectangular waveguide loaded with polycrystalline CVD diamond plates as an accelerating structure. It should polycrystalline diamond plates loaded in a 6 cm long waveguide (Fig. 2). The beam gap was 200 microns (Fig. TM11EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF WAKEFIELD EFFECTS IN A 250 GHZ PLANAR DIAMOND ACCELERATING STRUCTURE

  9. Characterization of B-doped polycrystalline diamond films using thermally stimulated luminescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Characterization of B-doped polycrystalline diamond films using thermally stimulated luminescence, boron level in polycrystalline diamond films was identified by TL by an intense glow peak at 226 K polycrystalline diamond films grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) have a wide array of potential applications

  10. Synthetic diamond and wurtzite structures self-assemble with isotropic pair interactions Mikael C. Rechtsman,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    Synthetic diamond and wurtzite structures self-assemble with isotropic pair interactions Mikael C with strongly repulsive cores that cause the tetrahedrally coordinated diamond and wurtzite lattices-dimensional diamond and wurtzite structures can self-assemble with isotropic in- teractions possessing a strongly

  11. Electrical characterisation of defects in polycrystalline B-doped diamond films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    applied to B-doped thin polycrystalline diamond films deposited on p+ -silicon by hot filament chemical]. Recently valuable information about defects in monocrystalline [3] and polycrystalline [7] diamond filmsElectrical characterisation of defects in polycrystalline B-doped diamond films O. S. Elsherif 1, a

  12. Electronic, Magnetic and Thermal Properties of Graphene-Diamond Hybrid S. Konabe,2, 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    of the graphene-diamond hybrid system. Energies are mea- sured from that of the Fermi level. Blue and redElectronic, Magnetic and Thermal Properties of Graphene-Diamond Hybrid Structure T. Shiga,1 S, it is demonstrated that the heat generated in the graphene nanoribbon can efficiently dissipate to the diamond region

  13. Design, characterization, and modeling of GaN based HFETs for millimeter wave and microwave power amplifier applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conway, Adam M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power GaN electronics thermally resistive substrates,” IEEE400um SiC (Si, GaN, Sapphire, Diamond) substrate 5um Au 50umfree standing GaN or SiC substrates). At room temperature,

  14. A diamond based neutron spectrometer for diagnostics of deuterium-tritium fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cazzaniga, C., E-mail: carlo.cazzaniga@mib.infn.it; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G. [University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Rebai, M.; Giacomelli, L. [University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Grosso, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Calvani, P.; Girolami, M.; Trucchi, D. M. [CNR-ISM, Research Area Roma 1, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015-Monterotondo Scalo (Rm) (Italy); Griesmayer, E. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Pillon, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single crystal Diamond Detectors (SDD) are being increasingly exploited for neutron diagnostics in high power fusion devices, given their significant radiation hardness and high energy resolution capabilities. The geometrical efficiency of SDDs is limited by the size of commercially available crystals, which is often smaller than the dimension of neutron beams along collimated lines of sight in tokamak devices. In this work, we present the design and fabrication of a 14 MeV neutron spectrometer consisting of 12 diamond pixels arranged in a matrix, so to achieve an improved geometrical efficiency. Each pixel is equipped with an independent high voltage supply and read-out electronics optimized to combine high energy resolution and fast signals (<30 ns), which are essential to enable high counting rate (>1 MHz) spectroscopy. The response function of a prototype SDD to 14 MeV neutrons has been measured at the Frascati Neutron Generator by observation of the 8.3 MeV peak from the {sup 12}C(n, ?){sup 9}Be reaction occurring between neutrons and {sup 12}C nuclei in the detector. The measured energy resolution (2.5% FWHM) meets the requirements for neutron spectroscopy applications in deuterium-tritium plasmas.

  15. Miniature CVD-diamond corning drills for robotic sample collection and analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaniman, D. T. (David T.); Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Bish, D. L. (David L.); Chipera, S. J. (Steve J.)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coring tools have been used etlectivelv on the Moon, but to date no such tools have been used on any other extraterrestrial surface. The lunar experience includes both manual (Apollo) and robotic (Luna) systems . These coring systems were concerned primarily with acquiring samples from depth for return to Earth or for the creation of instrument emplacement holes (e .g ., heat probes). Current designs for planetary drills differ from the lunar tools primarily in that they are integrated with robotic instrumentation for remote analysis, but the role of the drilling or coring system remains one of acquiring samples that must be extracted from the core barrel for analysis . Missing from current sample collection systems is a tool that can double as both a conng device and a sample holder. This dual utility can minimize the number of motions, the mass, and the power required for several classes of instruments in planetary surface exploration. To be effective, such a system must be durable and simple in operation. Hollow CVD diamond drills possess the hardness, excellent cutting properties, and heat resistance required for drilling into a wide variety of rocks and minerals. Because CVD diamond is also unreactive and transparent to infrared radiation and to X-rays of moderate to high energry, it can be used as a sample holder in various instruments for X-ray diffraction (XRD), Xray fluorescence (XRF), infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analysis.

  16. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4) Analysis of Phase 1 data indicated that there is decreased specific energy as the rotational speed increases; (5) Technology transfer, as part of Phase 1, was accomplished with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis, Boucher, McCammon, and Black); (6) TerraTek prepared a design concept for the high speed drilling test stand, which was planned around the proposed high speed mud motor concept. Alternative drives for the test stand were explored; a high speed hydraulic motor concept was finally used; (7) The high speed system was modified to accommodate larger drill bits than originally planned; (8) Prototype mud turbine motors and the high speed test stand were used to drive the drill bits at high speed; (9) Three different rock types were used during the testing: Sierra White granite, Crab Orchard sandstone, and Colton sandstone. The drill bits used included diamond impregnated bits, a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit, a thermally stable PDC (TSP) bit, and a hybrid TSP and natural diamond bit; and (10) The drill bits were run at rotary speeds up to 5500 rpm and weight on bit (WOB) to 8000 lbf. During Phase 2, the ROP as measured in depth of cut per bit revolution generally increased with increased WOB. The performance was mixed with increased rotary speed, with the depth cut with the impregnated drill bit generally increasing and the TSP and hybrid TSP drill bits generally decreasing. The ROP in ft/hr generally increased with all bits with increased WOB and rotary speed. The mechanical specific energy generally improved (decreased) with increased WOB and was mixed with increased rotary speed.

  17. Diamond-Silicon Carbide Composite And Method For Preparation Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Jiang (Los Alamos, NM); Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5-8 GPa, T=1400K-2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.multidot.m.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  18. Mapping the location and configuration of nitrogen in diamond nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, A. S.; Sternberg, M.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Oxford

    2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how impurities such as nitrogen are included in diamond nanoparticles is expected to be important for use in future nanodevices, such as qubits for quantum computing. Most commercial diamond nanoparticles contain approximately 2-3% nitrogen, but it is difficult to determine experimentally whether it is located within the core or at the surface of the nanoparticles. Presented here are density functional tight-binding simulations examining the configuration and potential energy surface of substitutional nitrogen in diamond nanoparticles, directly comparing results of different sizes, shapes and surface chemistry. The results predict that nitrogen is metastable within the core of both hydrogenated and dehydrogenated particles, but that the binding energy, coordination and preferred location is dependent upon the structure of the nanoparticle as a whole.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a nanocrystalline diamond aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Laurence, Ted A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Wang, Yinmin; Willey, Trevor M.; Visbeck, Kenneth S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Evans, William J.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogel materials have myriad scientific and technological applications due to their large intrinsic surface areas and ultralow densities. However, creating a nanodiamond aerogel matrix has remained an outstanding and intriguing challenge. Here we report the high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis of a diamond aerogel from an amorphous carbon aerogel precursor using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Neon is used as a chemically inert, near-hydrostatic pressure medium that prevents collapse of the aerogel under pressure by conformally filling the aerogel's void volume. Electron and X-ray spectromicroscopy confirm the aerogel morphology and composition of the nanodiamond matrix. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of recovered material reveal the formation of both nitrogen- and silicon- vacancy point-defects, suggesting a broad range of applications for this nanocrystalline diamond aerogel.

  20. Dichroism and birefringence of natural violet diamond crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantinova, A. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: afkonst@ns.crys.ras.ru; Titkov, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry (Russian Federation); Imangazieva, K. B. [Issyk Kul State University (Kyrgyzstan); Evdishchenko, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Sergeev, A. M. [Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Zudin, N. G. [OOO Roni Kerob (Russian Federation); Orekhova, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of the optical properties of natural violet diamonds from the Yakutian kimberlites is performed. A red shift of the absorption edge is revealed in the absorption spectra of these crystals. This shift is indicative of the presence of a high concentration of nitrogen in the diamonds studied. Along with the strong band at 0.550 {mu}m, weaker bands at 0.390, 0.456 and 0.496 {mu}m are revealed. It is shown that violet diamond crystals have birefringence and dichroism of about 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -6}, respectively. When a light beam propagates perpendicularly to colored lamellas, the dichroism is much larger and the birefringence is smaller than in the case where the beam direction is parallel to lamellas.

  1. Subtractive 3D Printing of Optically Active Diamond Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Aiden A; Aharonovich, Igor

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond has recently attracted considerable attention as a promising platform for quantum technologies, photonics and high resolution sensing applications. Here we demonstrate a chemical approach that enables the fabrication of functional diamond structures using gas-mediated electron induced etching. The method achieves chemical etching at room temperature through the dissociation of surface-adsorbed H2O molecules by electron irradiation in a water vapor environment. High throughput, parallel processing is possible by electron flood exposure and the use of an etch mask, while single step, mask-free three dimensional fabrication and iterative editing are achieved using a variable pressure scanning electron microscope. The electron induced chemical etching paves the way to a transformative technology for nanofabrication of diamond and other wide band-gap semiconductors.

  2. Diamond tool wear of electrodeposited nickel-phosphorus alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W.; Donaldson, R.R.; Syn, C.K. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Sugg, D.J. (Techmetals, Inc., Dayton, OH (USA))

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel-Phosphorus alloys are attractive materials for diamond turning applications such as fabrication of large optics and other high precision parts. Although the mechanism is not understood, diamond tool wear is minimized when the phosphorus content of the deposit is greater than 11% (wgt). In recent years, increased attention has been directed at electrodeposition as an alternate to electroless deposition for producing Ni-P alloys. One principal advantage of the electrodeposition process is that alloys with 14--15% P can be obtained; another is that an order of magnitude greater deposition thickness can be provided if necessary. This paper compares diamond turning results for electrodeposited and electroless Ni-P alloys and shows that the electrodeposited coatings provide promising results. 28 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The role of inert gas in MW-enhanced plasmas for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    in polycrystalline diamond film CVD [3,4]. While the mechanical, thermal and acoustic properties of MCD films haveThe role of inert gas in MW-enhanced plasmas for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond thin diamond Nanocrystalline Inert gas Growth Nanocrystalline diamond thin films have been deposited using

  4. High-pressure X-ray absorption fine structure in the diamond anvil cell and its applications in geological materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Thomas S.

    nano- polycrystalline diamond instead of single crystal anvils, the influence of diamond diffractionHigh-pressure X-ray absorption fine structure in the diamond anvil cell and its applications fine structure in the diamond anvil cell and its applications in geological materials Xinguo Hong1

  5. Fabrication of Diamond Nanowires for Quantum Information Processing Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birgit Hausmann; Mughees Khan; Tom Babinec; Yinan Zhang; Katie Martinick; Murray McCutcheon; Phil Hemmer; Marko Loncar

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a design and a top-down fabrication method for realizing diamond nanowires in both bulk single crystal and polycrystalline diamond. Numerical modeling was used to study coupling between a Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) color center and optical modes of a nanowire, and to find an optimal range of nanowire diameters that allows for large collection efficiency of emitted photons. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactive ion etching (RIE) with oxygen is used to fabricate the nanowires. Drop-casted nanoparticles (including $\\mathrm{Au}$, $\\mathrm{SiO_{2}}$ and $\\mathrm{Al_2O_3}$) as well as electron beam lithography defined spin-on glass and evaporated $\\mathrm{Au}$ have been used as an etch mask. We found $\\mathrm{Al_2O_3}$ nanoparticles to be the most etch resistant. At the same time FOx e-beam resist (spin-on glass) proved to be a suitable etch mask for fabrication of ordered arrays of diamond nanowires. We were able to obtain nanowires with near vertical sidewalls in both polycrystalline and single crystal diamond. The heights and diameters of the polycrystalline nanowires presented in this paper are $\\unit[\\approx1]{\\mu m}$ and $\\unit[120-340]{nm}$, respectively, having a $\\unit[200]{nm/min}$ etch rate. In the case of single crystal diamond (types Ib and IIa) nanowires the height and diameter for different diamonds and masks shown in this paper were $\\unit[1-2.4]{\\mu m}$ and $\\unit[120-490]{nm}$ with etch rates between $\\unit[190-240]{nm/min}$.

  6. Smooth diamond films as low friction, long wear surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Bindal, Cuma (Woodridge, IL); Zuiker, Christopher D. (LaGrange, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An article and method of manufacture of a nanocrystalline diamond film. The nanocrystalline film is prepared by forming a carbonaceous vapor, providing an inert gas containing gas stream and combining the gas stream with the carbonaceous containing vapor. A plasma of the combined vapor and gas stream is formed in a chamber and fragmented carbon species are deposited onto a substrate to form the nanocrystalline diamond film having a root mean square flatness of about 50 nm deviation from flatness in the as deposited state.

  7. Diamond turning of Si and Ge single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, P.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-point diamond turning studies have been completed on Si and Ge crystals. A new process model was developed for diamond turning which is based on a critical depth of cut for plastic flow-to-brittle fracture transitions. This concept, when combined with the actual machining geometry for single-point turning, predicts that {open_quotes}ductile{close_quotes} machining is a combined action of plasticity and fracture. Interrupted cutting experiments also provide a meant to directly measure the critical depth parameter for given machining conditions.

  8. Boron-doped superlattices and Bragg mirrors in diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiori, A. [University of Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, 38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr [University of Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, 38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Bellet-Amalric, E. [University of Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, 38042 Grenoble (France); CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A periodic modulation of the boron doping level of single crystal diamond multilayers over more than three orders of magnitude during epitaxial growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is shown to yield Bragg mirrors in the visible. The thicknesses and doping level of the individual layers were controlled by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, enabling to tune the reflectance peak to the wavelength range of diamond color centers, such as NV{sup 0} or NV{sup ?}. The crystalline quality, periodicity, and sharpness of the doping transitions in these doping superlattices over tens of periods were confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction.

  9. Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Ampem-Lassen; D. A. Simpson; B. C. Gibson; S. Trpkovski; F. M. Hossain; S. T. Huntington; K. Ganesan; L. C. L. Hollenberg; S. Prawer

    2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to manipulate nano-particles at the nano-scale is critical for the development of active quantum systems. This paper presents a new technique to manipulate diamond nano-crystals at the nano-scale using a scanning electron microscope, nano-manipulator and custom tapered optical fibre probes. The manipulation of a ~ 300 nm diamond crystal, containing a single nitrogen-vacancy centre, onto the endface of an optical fibre is demonstrated. The emission properties of the single photon source post manipulation are in excellent agreement with those observed on the original substrate.

  10. Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and slim well drilling John Casteel Nevada Geothermal Power Co. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies May...

  11. Blue Diamond Ventures Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in CarbonofBiotins Energia Jump to:Black Riverblogs

  12. Black Bean Burrito Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    under running water to remove sodium. 2. Heat beans, corn and salsa together. 3. Spread 1/8 salsaBlack Bean Burrito Ingredients: 15 ounces black beans, canned, drained and rinsed 10 ounces corn cheddar cheese, low-fat, shredded 8 whole wheat flour tortillas Directions 1. Drain and rinse black beans

  13. Quantum optics with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yiwen Chu; Mikhail D. Lukin

    2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the electronic level structure of the nitrogen-vacancy in diamond and some common experimental techniques to study its optical properties at low temperatures. We then summarize several recent experiments and advances in using nitrogen-vacancy centers for quantum optics.

  14. Single Crystal Diamond Beam Position Monitors with Radiofrequency Electronic Readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar, B.; Graafsma, H.; Potdevin, G.; Trunk, U. [Hasylab, Deutsches Elektronen Synchroton, Hamburg (Germany); Morse, J.; Salome, M. [Instrumentation Services and Development Division, European Synchroton Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the energy range 5{approx}30 keV a suitably contacted, thin ({approx}100 {mu}m) diamond plate can be operated in situ as a continuous monitor of X-ray beam intensity and position as the diamond absorbs only a small percentage of the incident beam. Single crystal diamond is a completely homogeneous material showing fast (ns), spatially uniform signal response and negligible (diamond beam position monitors of simple quadrant electrode designs with metal contacts, operated using wideband electronic readout corresponding to the RF accelerator frequency. The instrumentation for these monitors must cover a large range of operating conditions: different beam sizes, fluxes, energies and time structure corresponding to the synchrotron fill patterns. Sophisticated new RF sampling electronics can satisfy most requirements: using a modified Libera Brilliance readout system, we measured the center of gravity position of a 25 {mu}m beam at the DORIS III F4 beam line at a rate of 130 Msample/s with narrowband filtering of a few MHz bandwidth. Digitally averaging the signal further provided a spatial resolution {approx}20 nm.

  15. New route to the fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varshney, Deepak, E-mail: deepvar20@gmail.com; Morell, Gerardo [Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931, Puerto Rico (United States); Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PO Box 70377, Puerto Rico 00936, Puerto Rico (United States); Palomino, Javier; Resto, Oscar [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PO Box 70377, Puerto Rico 00936, Puerto Rico (United States); Gil, Jennifer [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936, Puerto Rico (United States); Weiner, Brad R. [Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931, Puerto Rico (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936, Puerto Rico (United States)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films offer applications in various fields, but the existing synthetic approaches are cumbersome and destructive. A major breakthrough has been achieved by our group in the direction of a non-destructive, scalable, and economic process of NCD thin-film fabrication. Here, we report a cheap precursor for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond in the form of paraffin wax. We show that NCD thin films can be fabricated on a copper support by using simple, commonplace paraffin wax under reaction conditions of Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD). Surprisingly, even the presence of any catalyst or seeding that has been conventionally used in the state-of-the-art is not required. The structure of the obtained films was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy recorded at the carbon K-edge region confirm the presence of nanocrystalline diamond. The process is a significant step towards cost-effective and non-cumbersome fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for commercial production.

  16. Resolving single molecule structures with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Kost; Jianming Cai; Martin B. Plenio

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy protocols based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond as efficient quantum sensors of protein structure. Continuous microwave driving fields are used to achieve Hartmann-Hahn resonances between NV spin sensor and proximate nuclei for selective control of nuclear spins and measurement of their polarization. Our protocols take advantage of the strong coupling between the NV sensor and the nuclei, thus facilitating coherence control of nuclear spins and relax the requirement of nuclear spin polarization. We dramatically reduce the experimental effort by employing a singular value thresholding matrix completion algorithm from signal processing to regain the resolution of protein structure based on sub-sampled data from NV based single molecule nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. As an illustration, we demonstrate the power of this approach by identifying the nitrogen-Hydrogen interaction peak in an Alanine spectrum based on merely 5% of the sample data.

  17. Proceedings of the conference on electrochemistry of carbon allotropes: Graphite, fullerenes and diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Scherson, D. [ed.] [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference provided an opportunity for electrochemists, physicists, materials scientists and engineers to meet and exchange information on different carbon allotropes. The presentations and discussion among the participants provided a forum to develop recommendations on research and development which are relevant to the electrochemistry of carbon allotropes. The following topics which are relevant to the electrochemistry of carbon allotropes were addressed: Graphitized and disordered carbons, as Li-ion intercalation anodes for high-energy-density, high-power-density Li-based secondary batteries; Carbons as substrate materials for catalysis and electrocatalysis; Boron-doped diamond film electrodes; and Electrochemical characterization and electrosynthesis of fullerenes and fullerene-type materials. Abstracts of the presentations are presented.

  18. Anti-Synchronization in Multiple Time Delay Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. M. Shahverdiev

    2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate chaos antisynchronization between two uni-directionally coupled multiple time delay power systems.The results are of certain importance to prevent power black-out in the entire power grid.

  19. Brownian Motion of Black Holes in Dense Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt; Peter Berczik; Frederik Laun

    2006-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the Brownian motion of a massive particle ("black hole") at the center of a galaxy using N-body simulations. Our galaxy models have power-law central density cusps like those observed at the centers of elliptical galaxies. The simulations show that the black hole achieves a steady-state kinetic energy that is substantially different than would be predicted based on the properties of the galaxy model in the absence of the black hole. The reason appears to be that the black hole responds to stars whose velocities have themselves been raised by the presence of the black hole. Over a wide range of density slopes and black hole masses, the black hole's mean kinetic energy is equal to what would be predicted under the assumption that it is in energy equipartition with stars lying within a distance ~r_h/2 from it, where r_h is the black hole's influence radius. The dependence of the Brownian velocity on black hole mass is approximately ~ 1/M^{1/(3-gamma)} with gamma the power-law index of the stellar density profile, rho~1/r^gamma. This is less steep than the 1/M dependence predicted in a model where the effect of the black hole on the stellar velocities is ignored. The influence of a stellar mass spectrum on the black hole's Brownian motion is also evaluated and found to be consistent with predictions from Chandrasekhar's theory. We use these results to derive a probability function for the mass of the Milky Way black hole based on a measurement of its proper motion velocity. Interesting constraints on M will require a velocity resolution exceeding 0.5 km/s.

  20. Black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Consonni, S. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dept. di Energetica; Larson, E.D.; Keutz, T.G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Berglin, N. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Technology

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kraft process dominates pulp and paper production worldwide. Black liquor, a mixture of lignin and inorganic chemicals, is generated in this process as fiber is extracted from wood. At most kraft mills today, black liquor is burned in Tomlinson boilers to produce steam for on-site heat and power and to recover the inorganic chemicals for reuse in the process. Globally, the black liquor generation rate is about 85,000 MW{sub fuel} (or 0.5 million tonnes of dry solids per day), with nearly 50% of this in North America. The majority of presently installed Tomlinson boilers will reach the end of their useful lives during the next 5 to 20 years. As a replacement for Tomlinson-based cogeneration, black liquor-gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration promises higher electrical efficiency, with prospective environmental, safety, and capital cost benefits for kraft mills. Several companies are pursuing commercialization of black liquor gasification for gas turbine applications. This paper presents results of detailed performance modeling of gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration systems using different black liquor gasifiers modeled on proposed commercial designs.

  1. Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

    2005-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations. Therefore, a custom diamond wire saw was designed and constructed. The diamond wire saw cuts through workpieces using a continuous loop of diamond-impregnated wire of length 840 mm. The wire loop runs around several idler pulleys and is driven by a simple geared DC motor that rotates at 17 rpm. The linear speed of the wire is 107 inches/minute. The saw is oriented at an angle of 20{sup o} from horizontal, so the operator can view the wire through the cutout at the front end of the saw. When looking through a microscope or camera with a horizontal line of sight, the operator can clearly see the wire as it cuts through the workpiece, as shown in the right side of Figure 1. The saw is mounted on a two-axis stage that allows the operator to align the wire with the workpiece. To cut through the workpiece, the operator drives the wire through the workpiece by turning the feed micrometer. An image of the interior of the diamond wire saw appears in Figure 2. This picture was taken after removing the protective cover plate from the saw.

  2. BLACK HISTORY MONTH

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black History Month is an annual celebration of achievements by black Americans and a time for recognizing the central role of African Americans in U.S. history. The event grew out of “Negro History Week,” created by historian Carter G. Woodson and other prominent African Americans. Other countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, also devote a month to celebrating black history.

  3. Process for making a cesiated diamond film field emitter and field emitter formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.W.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making a cesiated diamond film comprises (a) depositing a quantity of cesium iodide on the diamond film in a vacuum of between about 10{sup {minus}4} Torr and about 10{sup {minus}7} Torr, (b) increasing the vacuum to at least about 10{sup {minus}8} Torr, and (c) imposing an electron beam upon the diamond film, said electron beam having an energy sufficient to dissociate said cesium iodide and to incorporate cesium into interstices of the diamond film. The cesiated diamond film prepared according to the process has an operating voltage that is reduced by a factor of at least approximately 2.5 relative to conventional, non-cesiated diamond film field emitters. 2 figs.

  4. Thursday, February 28, 2013 Diamond Alumni Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and University Awards Community and University Awards Dahabieh, Sam BC Hydro Power Smart Leadership Excellence Officer of the Order of Canada Harris, Gordon City of Burnaby Environment Award Lee, Jack Glenfiddich SFU Excellence in Teaching Award McCarthy, Ian Business Insider, 54 Smart Thinkers Everyone Should

  5. Dynamics of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean A. Hayward

    2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping horizon which manifests temporally as separate horizons.

  6. Simulation of ultraviolet- and soft X-ray-pulse generation as a result of cooperative recombination of excitons in diamond nanocrystals embedded in a polymer film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kukushkin, V. A., E-mail: vakuk@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Applied Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using numerical simulation, it is shown that the recombination of free excitons photoexcited in diamond nanocrystals embedded in a polymer film can occur in the cooperative mode. It is found that this mode can be implemented despite the fact that diamond is an 'indirect' semiconductor. It is shown that the power of the generated radiation at the pulse peak during the cooperative recombination of free excitons can exceed that of the incoherent spontaneous emission of the same initial number of free excitons by more than an order of magnitude. Finally, it is shown that the process under consideration can be used to generate picosecond pulses of ultraviolet and soft X-ray electromagnetic field at a wavelength of 235 nm.

  7. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon <100>substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  8. Negative vacuum energy densities and the causal diamond measure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salem, Michael P. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Arguably a major success of the landscape picture is the prediction of a small, nonzero vacuum energy density. The details of this prediction depend in part on how the diverging spacetime volume of the multiverse is regulated, a question that remains unresolved. One proposal, the causal diamond measure, has demonstrated many phenomenological successes, including predicting a distribution of positive vacuum energy densities in good agreement with observation. In the string landscape, however, the vacuum energy density is expected to take positive and negative values. We find the causal diamond measure gives a poor fit to observation in such a landscape - in particular, 99.6% of observers in galaxies seemingly just like ours measure a vacuum energy density smaller than we do, most of them measuring it to be negative.

  9. Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with diamond nanophotonic circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rath, Patrik; Ferrari, Simone; Sproll, Fabian; Lewes-Malandrakis, Georgia; Brink, Dietmar; Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael; Nebel, Christoph; Pernice, Wolfram

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic quantum technologies promise to repeat the success of integrated nanophotonic circuits in non-classical applications. Using linear optical elements, quantum optical computations can be performed with integrated optical circuits and thus allow for overcoming existing limitations in terms of scalability. Besides passive optical devices for realizing photonic quantum gates, active elements such as single photon sources and single photon detectors are essential ingredients for future optical quantum circuits. Material systems which allow for the monolithic integration of all components are particularly attractive, including III-V semiconductors, silicon and also diamond. Here we demonstrate nanophotonic integrated circuits made from high quality polycrystalline diamond thin films in combination with on-chip single photon detectors. Using superconducting nanowires coupled evanescently to travelling waves we achieve high detection efficiencies up to 66 % combined with low dark count rates and timing resolu...

  10. Diamond neutral particle spectrometer for fusion reactor ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasilnikov, V.; Amosov, V.; Kaschuck, Yu.; Skopintsev, D. [Institution PROJECT CENTER ITER, 1, Akademik Kurchatov Sq., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact diamond neutral particle spectrometer with digital signal processing has been developed for fast charge-exchange atoms and neutrons measurements at ITER fusion reactor conditions. This spectrometer will play supplementary role for Neutral Particle Analyzer providing 10 ms time and 30 keV energy resolutions for fast particle spectra in non-tritium ITER phase. These data will also be implemented for independent studies of fast ions distribution function evolution in various plasma scenarios with the formation of a single fraction of high-energy ions. In tritium ITER phase the DNPS will measure 14 MeV neutrons spectra. The spectrometer with digital signal processing can operate at peak counting rates reaching a value of 10{sup 6} cps. Diamond neutral particle spectrometer is applicable to future fusion reactors due to its high radiation hardness, fast response and high energy resolution.

  11. Diamond Amplified Photocathode at BNL | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Diamond amplified photocathode Developed at: Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York Developed in: 2004-2007 Result of NP research: Electron cooling R&D for RHIC...

  12. Method of forming fluorine-bearing diamond layer on substrates, including tool substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, R. P. H. (Glenview, IL); Grannen, Kevin J. (Evanston, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a fluorine-bearing diamond layer on non-diamond substrates, especially on tool substrates comprising a metal matrix and hard particles, such as tungsten carbide particles, in the metal matrix. The substrate and a fluorine-bearing plasma or other gas are then contacted under temperature and pressure conditions effective to nucleate fluorine-bearing diamond on the substrate. A tool insert substrate is treated prior to the diamond nucleation and growth operation by etching both the metal matrix and the hard particles using suitable etchants.

  13. Wireless Network Simplification: the Gaussian N-Relay Diamond Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " as opposed to s 1 2 ... N d h1s h2s hNs h1d h2d hNd Fig. 1. The Gaussian N-relay diamond network. The source is the loss in the capacity if we simplify the network by removing all but k of the N relays (for example, if we remove all but one of the relays). The performance loss can depend on the channel gains. Indeed

  14. Strategies for improving traffic operations at oversaturated signalized diamond interchanges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrick, George Curtis

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to reduce both recurring and nonrecurring congestion. Incident detection and management systems can be implemented on freeways to decrease incident durations and reduce the resulting traffic congestion. Surveillance and control systems can be integrated... urban diamond interchanges, the traffic engineer needs to better understand these control strategies and seek new and innovative control strategies to more effectively address them. This research addressed two major objectives. The first objective...

  15. Rotating Hairy Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kleihaus; J. Kunz

    2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct stationary black holes in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, which carry angular momentum and electric charge. Possessing non-trivial non-abelian magnetic fields outside their regular event horizon, they represent non-perturbative rotating hairy black holes.

  16. margrets-black-beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COM (Robert L. Simmons) Black Beans (Margret Simmons) 2 lbs. dry black beans soaked 8 hrs/overnight 1 qt. veggie stock soaking water plus enough ... 10 garlic cloves finely chopped 1/2 cup cooking sherry 1 tsp. allspice (ground) 1 lemon ...

  17. Amorphous Diamond Flat Panel Displays - Final Report of ER-LTR CRADA project with SI Diamond Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, Joel W.

    1998-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to determine why diamond-based films are unusually efficient electron emitters (field emission cathodes) at room temperature. Efficient cathodes based on diamond are being developed by SI Diamond Technology (SIDT) as components for bright, sunlight-readable, flat panel displays. When the project started, it was known that only a small fraction (<1%) of the cathode area is active in electron emission and that the emission sites themselves are sub-micron in size. The critical challenge of this project was to develop new microcharacterization methods capable of examining known emission sites. The research team used a combination of cathode emission imaging (developed at SIDT), micro-Raman spectroscopy (LBNL), and electron microscopy and spectroscopy (National Center for Electron Microscopy, LBNL) to examine the properties of known emission sites. The most significant accomplishment of the project was the development at LBNL of a very high resolution scanning probe that, for the first time, measured simultaneously the topography and electrical characteristics of single emission sites. The increased understanding of the emission mechanism helped SIDT to develop a new cathode material,''nano-diamond,'' which they have incorporated into their Field Emission Picture Element (FEPix) product. SIDT is developing large-format flat panel displays based on these picture elements that will be brighter and more efficient than existing outdoor displays such as Jumbotrons. The energy saving that will be realized if field emission displays are introduced commercially is in line with the energy conservation mission of DOE. The unique characterization tools developed in this project (particularly the new scanning microscopy method) are being used in ongoing BES-funded basic research.

  18. Deposition of CVD diamond onto GaN P.W. May a,*, H.Y. Tsai b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    of the polycrystalline diamond surface would prevent light from leaking out of the GaN layer and channel it to the endsDeposition of CVD diamond onto GaN P.W. May a,*, H.Y. Tsai b , W.N. Wang c , J.A. Smith a a School performed to deposit continuous layers of CVD diamond onto epitaxial GaN films. Such diamond coatings would

  19. Power Factor Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    motor power: 117.7 V x 5.1 A = 600 W? = 0.6 kW? NOT the power measured by meter #12;Page 9 PSERC: displacement power factor: angle between voltage and current = 0 degrees pf = cos(0 degrees) = 1.0 true powerPage 1 PSERC Power Factor and Reactive Power Ward Jewell Wichita State University Power Systems

  20. Evidence for a mantle component shown by rare gases, C and N isotopes in polycrystalline diamonds from Orapa (Botswana)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    Evidence for a mantle component shown by rare gases, C and N isotopes in polycrystalline diamonds. Farley Abstract In an attempt to constrain the origin of polycrystalline diamond, combined analyses in the source of the polycrystalline diamonds from Orapa. The y13 C and y15 N isotopic values of À1.04 to À9.79x

  1. Fabrication of diamond nanowires for quantum information processing applications Birgit J.M. Hausmann a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loncar, Marko

    and polycrystalline diamond. Numerical modeling was used to study coupling between a Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) color crystal diamond. The heights and diameters of the polycrystalline nanowires presented in this paper are 1Fabrication of diamond nanowires for quantum information processing applications Birgit J

  2. High-temperature electron emission from diamond films Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    This work examines electron field-emission characteristics of polycrystalline diamond films at elevated in applications where high temperatures exist. Nitrogen-doped polycrystalline diamond films were grown by plasmaHigh-temperature electron emission from diamond films S. H. Shin Department of Mechanical

  3. Diamond growth on WC-Co substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition: Effect of filamentsubstrate separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    Polycrystalline diamond films have been grown by hot filament (HF) chemical vapor deposition on WC-Co bar is an established technique for growing hard, wear- resistant polycrystalline diamond films on a range of substratesDiamond growth on WC-Co substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition: Effect of filament

  4. Field emission properties of the polycrystalline diamond film prepared by microwave-assisted plasma chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    Field emission properties of the polycrystalline diamond film prepared by microwave-assisted plasma Field emission characteristics for the diamond films grown using a gas mixture of different methane V 3.0 V/ m and 9 V 5.5 V/ m , respectively, for the diamond emitter of a little poor quality grown

  5. Evidence of universality in the dynamical response of nanomechanical ultra-nanocrystalline diamond resonators at millikelvin temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    independent theory. In particular, polycrystalline diamond is an exciting material for nanomechanical devicesEvidence of universality in the dynamical response of nanomechanical ultra-nanocrystalline diamond fabricated from ultra-nanocrystalline diamond. Frequency shift f/f0 and dissipa- tion Q-1 demonstrate

  6. Direct observation of electron emission from the grain boundaries of chemical vapour deposition diamond films by tunneling atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    .1063/1.3475506 Direct observation of electron emission site on boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films using or energy harvesting devices. Electron emission studies usually use doped polycrystalline diamond films observation of the emission sites over a large area of polycrystalline diamond using tunneling atomic force

  7. Strength of Materials, Vol. 46, No. 2, March, 2014 ANALYSIS OF FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF THIN POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qinghua

    POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND FILMS D. S. Li,a,c,1 D. W. Zuo,a,b UDC 539.4 and Q. H. Qinc The effect of the substrate temperature and CH4 concentrations on the fracture behavior of thin polycrystalline diamond films that the fracture behavior of thin polycrystalline diamond films synthesized by direct current plasma jet chemical

  8. Fabrication of quantum point contacts by engraving GaAsAlGaAs heterostructures with a diamond tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hohls, Frank

    by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition of polycrystalline diamond onto a prepat- terned siliconFabrication of quantum point contacts by engraving GaAsÕAlGaAs heterostructures with a diamond tip for publication 17 July 2002 We use the all-diamond tip of an atomic force microscope for the direct engraving

  9. Optical properties of polycrystalline diamond films in the far-infrared A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, J. Waldman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Optical properties of polycrystalline diamond films in the far-infrared A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles for the complex refractive index (n - ik) of polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced a CO2 optically pumped submillimeter laser. Due to their polycrystalline nature, the diamond films

  10. MetalBosonic InsulatorSuperconductor Transition in Boron-Doped Granular Diamond Gufei Zhang,1,* Monika Zeleznik,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    . Second, the giant RðTÞ peak is observed in heavily boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thick filmsMetal­Bosonic Insulator­Superconductor Transition in Boron-Doped Granular Diamond Gufei Zhang,1 the onset of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond. This anomalous RðTÞ peak in a 3D system

  11. On Noncommutative Black Holes Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faizal, Mir; Ulhoa, S C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we will analyze noncommutative deformation of the Schwarzschild black holes and Kerr black holes. We will perform our analysis by relating the commutative and the noncommutative metrics using an Moyal product. We will also analyze the thermodynamics of these noncommutative black hole solutions. We will explicitly derive expression for the corrected entropy and temperature of these black hole solutions.

  12. High-dynamic-range magnetometry with a single nuclear spin in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    High-dynamic-range magnetometry with a single nuclear spin in diamond G. Waldherr1 *, J. Beck1 , P, we implement a quantum phase estimation algorithm6­8 on a single nuclear spin in diamond to combineT). If this priorinformation aboutthemagnetic fieldisnotavailable, estimation of B cannot be performed. To summarize, shorter

  13. REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTS ON ARTIFICIAL CULTURE OF DIAMOND-BACK TERRAPIN 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTS ON ARTIFICIAL CULTURE OF DIAMOND-BACK TERRAPIN 1 By SAMUEL F. HILDEBRAND It is a well-known fact that the diamond-back terrapin (Malll.clemmys) once was plentiful. When this animal a heavy drain, as they do not reproduce rapidly and growth is gained slowly. The natural supply, therefore

  14. Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    1 Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame K Abstract Diamond growth in low pressure combustion flames was studied using a safer, more economical and chemical kinetic time scales in the combustion reactor. 1 Present Address: 3M Corporation, Bldg. 60-1N-01

  15. Method of bonding diamonds in a matrix and articles thus produced

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, G.W.

    1981-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  16. Thermal conductivity changes upon neutron transmutation of {sup 10}B doped diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jagannadham, K., E-mail: jag-kasichainula@ncsu.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Verghese, K. [Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Butler, J. E. [Code 6174, Naval research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    {sup 10}B doped p-type diamond samples were subjected to neutron transmutation reaction using thermal neutron flux of 0.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} and fast neutron flux of 0.09 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2} s{sup ?1}. Another sample of epilayer grown on type IIa (110) single crystal diamond substrate was subjected to equal thermal and fast neutron flux of 10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?2} s{sup ?1}. The defects in the diamond samples were previously characterized by different methods. In the present work, thermal conductivity of these diamond samples was determined at room temperature by transient thermoreflectance method. The thermal conductivity change in the samples as a function of neutron fluence is explained by the phonon scattering from the point defects and disordered regions. The thermal conductivity of the diamond samples decreased more rapidly initially and less rapidly for larger neutron fluence. In addition, the thermal conductivity in type IIb diamond decreased less rapidly with thermal neutron fluence compared to the decrease in type IIa diamond subjected to fast neutron fluence. It is concluded that the rate of production of defects during transmutation reaction is slower when thermal neutrons are used. The thermal conductivity of epilayer of diamond subjected to high thermal and fast neutron fluence is associated with the covalent carbon network in the composite structure consisting of disordered carbon and sp{sup 2} bonded nanocrystalline regions.

  17. Electronic Structure of Diamond Surfaces Functionalized by Ru(tpy)2 Ioannis Zegkinoglou,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himpsel, Franz J.

    by reducing the output voltage by almost a factor of 2.4 For all solar energy conversion processes of the frontier orbitals of the dye relative to the band edges of diamond are inferred from the spectroscopic data. The implications of using diamond films as inert electron donors in photocatalysis and dye-sensitized solar cells

  18. Homoepitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Diamond Membranes for Quantum Information Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor Aharonovich; Jonathan C. Lee; Andrew P. Magyar; Bob B. Buckley; Christopher G. Yale; David D. Awschalom; Evelyn L. Hu

    2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of devices designed to fully harness the unique properties of quantum mechanics through their coupling to quantum bits (qubits) is a prominent goal in the field of quantum information processing (QIP). Among various qubit candidates, nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently emerged as an outstanding platform for room temperature QIP. However, formidable challenges still remain in processing diamond and in the fabrication of thin diamond membranes, which are necessary for planar photonic device engineering. Here we demonstrate epitaxial growth of single crystal diamond membranes using a conventional microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. The grown membranes, only a few hundred nanometers thick, show bright luminescence, excellent Raman signature and good NV center electronic spin coherence times. Microdisk cavities fabricated from these membranes exhibit quality factors of up to 3000, overlapping with NV center emission. Our methodology offers a scalable approach for diamond device fabrication for photonics, spintronics, optomechanics and sensing applications.

  19. Vacuum encapsulated hermetically sealed diamond amplified cathode capsule and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, Triveni; Walsh, John; Gangone, Elizabeth

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A vacuum encapsulated, hermetically sealed cathode capsule for generating an electron beam of secondary electrons, which generally includes a cathode element having a primary emission surface adapted to emit primary electrons, an annular insulating spacer, a diamond window element comprising a diamond material and having a secondary emission surface adapted to emit secondary electrons in response to primary electrons impinging on the diamond window element, a first cold-weld ring disposed between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and a second cold-weld ring disposed between the annular insulating spacer and the diamond window element. The cathode capsule is formed by a vacuum cold-weld process such that the first cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and the second cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the annular spacer and the diamond window element whereby a vacuum encapsulated chamber is formed within the capsule.

  20. Charging Black Saturn?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenda Chng; Robert Mann; Eugen Radu; Cristian Stelea

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordstrom solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we could find present either a conical singularity or a naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  1. Do Black Holes Exist?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Moffat

    1993-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of information loss in black hole formation and the associated violations of basic laws of physics, such as conservation of energy, causality and unitarity, are avoided in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory, if the NGT charge of a black hole and its mass satisfy an inequality that does not violate any known experimental data and allows the existence of white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  2. Helical superconducting black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristomenis Donos; Jerome P. Gauntlett

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct novel static, asymptotically $AdS_5$ black hole solutions with Bianchi VII$_0$ symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, non-isotropic dual ground states with emergent scaling symmetry.

  3. Method and apparatus for making diamond-like carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pern, Fu-Jann (Golden, CO); Touryan, Kenell J. (Indian Hills, CO); Panosyan, Zhozef Retevos (Yerevan, AM); Gippius, Aleksey Alekseyevich (Moscow, RU)

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion-assisted plasma enhanced deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the surface of photovoltaic solar cells is accomplished with a method and apparatus for controlling ion energy. The quality of DLC layers is fine-tuned by a properly biased system of special electrodes and by exact control of the feed gas mixture compositions. Uniform (with degree of non-uniformity of optical parameters less than 5%) large area (more than 110 cm.sup.2) DLC films with optical parameters varied within the given range and with stability against harmful effects of the environment are achieved.

  4. All optical control of a single electron spin in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yiwen Chu; Matthew Markham; Daniel J. Twitchen; Mikhail D. Lukin

    2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise coherent control of the individual electronic spins associated with atom-like impurities in the solid state is essential for applications in quantum information processing and quantum metrology. We demonstrate all-optical initialization, fast coherent manipulation, and readout of the electronic spin of the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV$^-$) center in diamond at T$\\sim$7K. We then present the observation of a novel double-dark resonance in the spectroscopy of an individual NV center. These techniques open the door for new applications ranging from robust manipulation of spin states using geometric quantum gates to quantum sensing and information processing.

  5. PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) bit research at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finger, J.T.; Glowka, D.A.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From the beginning of the geothermal development program, Sandia has performed and supported research into polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits. These bits are attractive because they are intrinsically efficient in their cutting action (shearing, rather than crushing) and they have no moving parts (eliminating the problems of high-temperature lubricants, bearings, and seals.) This report is a summary description of the analytical and experimental work done by Sandia and our contractors. It describes analysis and laboratory tests of individual cutters and complete bits, as well as full-scale field tests of prototype and commercial bits. The report includes a bibliography of documents giving more detailed information on these topics. 26 refs.

  6. The reflection of very cold neutrons from diamond powder nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Nesvizhevsky; E. V. Lychagin; A. Yu. Muzychka; A. V. Strelkov; G. Pignol; K. V. Protasov

    2008-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study possibility of efficient reflection of very cold neutrons (VCN) from powders of nanoparticles. In particular, we measured the scattering of VCN at a powder of diamond nanoparticles as a function of powder sample thickness, neutron velocity and scattering angle. We observed extremely intense scattering of VCN even off thin powder samples. This agrees qualitatively with the model of independent nanoparticles at rest. We show that this intense scattering would allow us to use nanoparticle powders very efficiently as the very first reflectors for neutrons with energies within a complete VCN range up to $10^{-4}$ eV.

  7. Blue Diamond, Nevada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyonsBirchBlockVI Jump to:Diamond, Nevada:

  8. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.3, Simulative corrosion of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1 and Task 1.2. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors were tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. The best performing materials in the cup testing were fused cast materials. However, 2 castables appear to outperforming any of the previously tested materials and may perform better than the fused cast materials in operation. The basis of the high performance of these materials is the low open porosity and permeability to black liquor smelt.

  9. Optical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, X.X.; Eklund, P.C.; Zhang, J.G.; Rao, A.M. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA)); Perry, T.A.; Beetz, C.P. Jr. (Physics Department, General Motors Research Laboratory, Warren, MI (USA))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of room-temperature optical studies on {similar to}10 micron thick, free-standing diamond films are reported. The films were grown on Si(100) substrates by hot filament-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a methane/hydrogen mixture. The as-grown, free surface of the films exhibited a surface roughness of scale {sigma}{similar to}0.2 to 5 microns, depending on the methane/hydrogen mixture, which introduces significant optical scattering loss for frequencies greater than 0.5 eV. Specular reflection and transmission spectra in the range 0.01--10 eV were collected. Below the threshold for interband adsorption near {similar to}5 eV, the films studied behaved approximately as thin parallel plates of refractive index 2.4, with the rough free surface leading to increasingly larger loss of specular transmission/reflection with decreasing wavelength. Structure in the mid-infrared transmission spectra was observed and attributed to disorder-induced one-phonon absorption, intrinsic multi-phonon absorption, and infrared active --C--H{sub 2} stretching modes. The strength of the C--H band was observed to increase with increasing methane pressure in the growth chamber. At 5.3 eV, the onset of interband absorption was observed, in good agreement with the value of the indirect bandgap in type IIa (intrinsic) diamond.

  10. Increasing the creation yield of shallow single defects in diamond by surface plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osterkamp, Christian; Scharpf, Jochen; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor [Institut für Quantenoptik, Ulm University, Albert Einstein Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany)] [Institut für Quantenoptik, Ulm University, Albert Einstein Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Pezzagna, Sebastien; Meijer, Jan [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Abteilung Nukleare Festkörperphysik, Universität Leipzig, Linnestraße 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany)] [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Abteilung Nukleare Festkörperphysik, Universität Leipzig, Linnestraße 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany); Diemant, Thomas; Jürgen Behm, Rolf [Institut für Oberflächenchemie und Katalyse, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, Ulm 89081 (Germany)] [Institut für Oberflächenchemie und Katalyse, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, Ulm 89081 (Germany)

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond close to the crystal surface are very promising magnetic field sensors with very high sensitivity. Here, we report the enhanced creation of very shallow (less than 3 nm below the diamond surface) NV centers by using fluorine and oxygen plasma treatment. We observe a four fold increase—from 0.11% to about 0.45% in the production yield when the sample surface is terminated with fluorine or oxygen atoms. This effect is explained by the stabilization of the NV's negative charge state which is influenced by the various defects present on the diamond surface.

  11. Plasma etching of cavities into diamond anvils for experiments at high pressures and high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weir, S.T.; Cynn, H.; Falabella, S.; Evans, W.J.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Farber, D.; Vohra, Y.K. (LLNL); (UAB)

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a method for precisely etching small cavities into the culets of diamond anvils for the purpose of providing thermal insulation for samples in experiments at high pressures and high temperatures. The cavities were fabricated using highly directional oxygen plasma to reactively etch into the diamond surface. The lateral extent of the etch was precisely controlled to micron accuracy by etching the diamond through a lithographically fabricated tungsten mask. The performance of the etched cavities in high-temperature experiments in which the samples were either laser heated or electrically heated is discussed.

  12. Long coherence time of spin qubits in $^{12}$C enriched polycrystalline CVD diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. D. Jahnke; B. Naydenov; T. Teraji; S. Koizumi; T. Umeda; J. Isoya; F. Jelezko

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Single defects in diamond and especially negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers are very promising quantum systems with wide applications in physics and biology. It was shown that their coherence properties can be strongly improved by growing ultrapure diamond with low concentration of parasitic spins associated with nitrogen electron spins and nuclear spins related to $^{13}$C carbon isotope. Here we report a high quality $^{12}$C-enriched polycrystalline CVD diamond material with properties comparable with single crystals. We find single NVs in the grains of this material, which show extremely long electron spin coherence time $T_2 > 2\\,ms$.

  13. Diamondization of Graphene and Graphene-BN Bilayers: Chemical Functionalization and Electronic Structure Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Long; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, Jian Guo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, based on first-principles calculations, we systematically study functionalization induced diamonization of graphene bilayer and graphene-BN hybrid bilayer. With single-side functionalization, the diamondized structures are magnetic semiconductor. Interestingly, if both sides of the bilayer are functionalized, diamondization becomes spontaneous without a barrier. On the other hand, when the bottom layer of the bilayer graphene is replaced by a single hexagonal BN layer, the diamondized structure becomes nonmagnetic metal. The tunable electronic and magnetic properties pave new avenues to construct graphene-based electronics and spintronics devices.

  14. The mass function of high redshift seed black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giuseppe Lodato; Priyamvada Natarajan

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we derive the mass function of seed black holes that result from the central mass concentrated via disc accretion in collapsed haloes at redshift $z\\approx 15$. Using standard arguments including stability, we show that these pre-galactic discs can assemble a significant mass concentration in the inner regions, providing fuel for the formation and initial growth of super-massive black holes. Assuming that these mass concentrations do result in central seed black holes, we determine the mass distribution of these seeds as a function of key halo properties. The seed mass distribution determined here turns out to be asymmetric and skewed to higher masses. Starting with these initial seeds, building up to $10^9$ solar masses by $z = 6$ to power the bright quasars is not a problem in the standard LCDM cosmogony. These seed black holes in gas rich environments are likely to grow into the supermassive black holes at later times via mergers and accretion. Gas accretion onto these seeds at high redshift will produce miniquasars that likely play an important role in the reionization of the Universe. Some of these seed black holes on the other hand could be wandering in galaxy haloes as a consequence of frequent mergers, powering the off-nuclear ultra-luminous X-ray sources detected in nearby galaxies.

  15. Black hole accretion discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. outbursting black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We then turn to the role of advection in accretion flow onto black holes illustrating its action and importance with a toy model describing both ADAFs and slim discs. We conclude with a presentation of the general-relativistic formalism describing accretion discs in the Kerr space-time.

  16. Alternate Explosions: Collapse and Accretion Events with Red Holes instead of Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James S. Graber

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A red hole is "just like a black hole" except it lacks an event horizon and a singularity. As a result, a red hole emits much more energy than a black hole during a collapse or accretion event. We consider how a red hole solution can solve the "energy crisis" and power extremely energetic gamma ray bursts and hypernovae.

  17. Black Bean Orange Salad Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    beans in a colander under running water to remove sodium. Allow to drain. 2. Cut the ends offBlack Bean Orange Salad Ingredients: 15 ounces black beans, canned, drained and rinsed 1/4 red

  18. Gasification of black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for treating a concentrated aqueous black liquor carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt comprising: (a) providing a gasifier vessel maintained at a pressure of from about 1 to 50 atmospheres and containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom within a sump equipped with an overflow discharge; (b) introducing into the top of the drying zone the concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds; (c) evaporating water from the concentrated aqueous black liquor in the drying zone by direct contact of the aqueous black liquor with the hot gas rising from the gasification zone to produce dried black liquor solids; (d) introducing a first portion of an oxygen-containing gas into the gas space in the gasification zone located below the drying zone immediately above the molten salt pool to partially oxidize and gasify a fraction of the carbonaceous material in the dried black liquor solids falling through the zone to form a hot combustible gas; (e) introducing a second portion of the oxygen-containing gas beneath the surface of the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of essentially all carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool; (f) withdrawing the cooled combustible gas having a higher heating value of at least about 90 Btu/scf (dry basis) from an upper portion of the drying zone; and (g) withdrawing from the overflow discharge in the molten salt reduction zone a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide.

  19. Thermodynamical instability of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Kiselev

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to Hawking radiation of black hole with a given spacetime structure, we consider a competitive transition due to a heat transfer from a hotter inner horizon to a colder outer horizon of Kerr black hole, that results in a stable thermodynamical state of extremal black hole. In this process, by supposing an emission of gravitational quanta, we calculate the mass of extremal black hole in the final state of transition.

  20. Towards noncommutative quantum black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Dominguez, J. C.; Obregon, O.; Sabido, M.; Ramirez, C. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, P.O. Box E-143, 37150 Leon Gto. (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, P.O. Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.

  1. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  2. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  3. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  4. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  5. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  6. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development were divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  7. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  8. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  9. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  10. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  11. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  12. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  13. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  14. Reactive ion etching: Optimized diamond membrane fabrication for transmission electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Luozhou

    Commonly used preparation method for thin diamond membranes by focused ion beam (FIB) techniques results in surface damage. Here, the authors introduce an alternative method based on reactive ion etching (RIE). To compare ...

  15. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid...

  16. Homoepitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Diamond Membranes for Quantum Information Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aharonovich, Igor; Magyar, Andrew P; Buckley, Bob B; Yale, Christopher G; Awschalom, David D; Hu, Evelyn L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of devices designed to fully harness the unique properties of quantum mechanics through their coupling to quantum bits (qubits) is a prominent goal in the field of quantum information processing (QIP). Among various qubit candidates, nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently emerged as an outstanding platform for room temperature QIP. However, formidable challenges still remain in processing diamond and in the fabrication of thin diamond membranes, which are necessary for planar photonic device engineering. Here we demonstrate epitaxial growth of single crystal diamond membranes using a conventional microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. The grown membranes, only a few hundred nanometers thick, show bright luminescence, excellent Raman signature and good NV center electronic spin coherence times. Microdisk cavities fabricated from these membranes exhibit quality factors of up to 3000, overlapping with NV center emission. Our methodology offers a scalable approach for dia...

  17. Examination of the Material Removal Rate in Lapping Polycrystalline Diamond Compacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sowers, Jason Michael

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the lapping machining process used during the manufacturing of polycrystalline diamond compacts (PDCs). More specifically, it is aimed at improving the productivity of the process by developing a better understanding...

  18. Development and analysis of a flexible signal phasing strategy for diamond interchange control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, Gregory David

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many signal timing strategies for diamond interchanges. Due to the different geometric and traffic conditions, however, none of the available strategies is always optimal. The two most widely used strategies, three-phase, and four...

  19. Evaluation of traffic operations at diamond interchanges using advanced actuated control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koonce, Peter John Vincent

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis documents an operational analysis of ographics. advanced actuated traffic control at signalized diamond interchanges. The study attempts to determine the benefits a "flexible'' phasing strategy provides to the interchange. Flexible...

  20. Diamond thin films: a 21st-century material By Paul W. May

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    in Kimberley, South Africa, creating a huge rush of European prospectors. The wealth this created helped between them at room temperature and pressure. Ironically, this large energy barrier, which makes diamond

  1. Power Plant Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    Basin Center for Geothermal Energy at University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) 2 Nevada Geodetic LaboratoryStillwater Power Plant Wabuska Power Plant Casa Diablo Power Plant Glass Mountain Geothermal Area Lassen Geothermal Area Coso Hot Springs Power Plants Lake City Geothermal Area Thermo Geothermal Area

  2. Optically transparent, scratch-resistant, diamond-like carbon coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Xiao-Ming; Lee, Deok-Hyung; Nastasi, Michael A.; Walter, Kevin C.; Tuszewski, Michel G.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma-based method for the deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings is described. The process uses a radio-frequency inductively coupled discharge to generate a plasma at relatively low gas pressures. The deposition process is environmentally friendly and scaleable to large areas, and components that have geometrically complicated surfaces can be processed. The method has been used to deposit adherent 100-400 nm thick DLC coatings on metals, glass, and polymers. These coatings are between three and four times harder than steel and are therefore scratch resistant, and transparent to visible light. Boron and silicon doping of the DLC coatings have produced coatings having improved optical properties and lower coating stress levels, but with slightly lower hardness.

  3. Persistence of Single Spin Coherence above 600K in Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toyli, D M; Alkauskas, A; Buckley, B B; Van de Walle, C G; Awschalom, D D

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spin and orbital dynamics of single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond between room temperature and 700 K. We find that the ability to optically address and coherently control single spins above room temperature is limited by nonradiative processes that quench the NV center's fluorescence-based spin readout between 550 K and 700 K. Combined with electronic structure calculations, our measurements indicate that the energy difference between the 3E and 1A1 electronic states is approximately 0.8 eV. We also find that the inhomogeneous spin lifetime (T2*) is independent of temperature up to at least 625 K, suggesting that single NV centers could be applied as nanoscale thermometers over a broad temperature range.

  4. The Discrete Geometry of a Small Causal Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mriganko Roy; Debdeep Sinha; Sumati Surya

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the discrete causal set geometry of a small causal diamond in a curved spacetime using the average abundance of k-element chains or total orders in the underlying causal set C. We begin by obtaining the first order curvature corrections to the flat spacetime expression for the abundance using Riemann normal coordinates. For fixed spacetime dimension this allows us to find a new expression for the discrete scalar curvature of C as well as the time-time component of its Ricci tensor in terms of the abundances of k-chains. We also find a new dimension estimator for C which replaces the flat spacetime Myrheim-Meyer estimator in generic curved spacetimes.

  5. Study of narrowband single photon emitters in polycrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandstrom, Russell G.; Shimoni, Olga; Martin, Aiden A.; Aharonovich, Igor, E-mail: igor.aharonovich@uts.edu.au [School of Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology, Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum information processing and integrated nanophotonics require robust generation of single photon emitters on demand. In this work, we demonstrate that diamond films grown on a silicon substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition can host bright, narrowband single photon emitters in the visible—near infra-red spectral range. The emitters possess fast lifetime (?several ns), absolute photostability, and exhibit full polarization at excitation and emission. Pulsed and continuous laser excitations confirm their quantum behaviour at room temperature, while low temperature spectroscopy is performed to investigate inhomogeneous broadening. Our results advance the knowledge of solid state single photon sources and open pathways for their practical implementation in quantum communication and quantum information processing.

  6. Combustion of black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, W.T.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improvement in the combustion of black liquor in an existing Tomlison recovery boiler unit in which black liquor is sprayed into a furnace in which it is successively dried, pyrolyzed and converted to a bed of solid carbonaceous residue, using a primary air stream and a secondary air stream and the residue is subsequently converted to a smelt. The improvement comprises: the addition of between an effective amount up to 5% oxygen by volume to the primary air stream directed at the bed of solid carbonaceous residue, the amount of oxygen added being sufficient to increase the adiabatic flame temperature, the combustion rate of the solid carbonaceous material, the rate of pyrolysis, the temperature in the lower portion of the furnace, the the drying rate of black liquor droplets, and to decrease the temperature of the gases entering the heat transfer surfaces in the upper portion of the furnace and the rate of deposit formation on the surfaces and wherein the amount of black liquor combusted is increased as compared with the amount combusted in the same furnace operated without the addition of oxygen to the primary air.

  7. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  8. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  9. Black Holes at Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Webber

    2006-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In theories with large extra dimensions and TeV-scale gravity, black holes are copiously produced in particle collisions at energies well above the Planck scale. I briefly review some recent work on the phenomenology of this process, with emphasis on theoretical uncertainties and possible strategies for measuring the number of extra dimensions.

  10. Matter Conditions for Regular Black Holes in $\\mathbf{f(T)}$ Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshua Aftergood; Andrew DeBenedictis

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the conditions imposed on matter to produce a regular (non-singular) interior of a class of spherically symmetric black holes in the $f(T)$ extension of teleparallel gravity. The class of black holes studied is necessarily singular in general relativity. We derive a tetrad which is compatible with the black hole interior and utilize this tetrad in the gravitational equations of motion to study the black hole interior. It is shown that in the case where the gravitational Lagrangian is expandable in a power series $f(T)=T+\\underset{n\

  11. The effects of diamond injector angles on flow structures at various Mach numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLellan, Justin Walter

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS OF DIAMOND INJECTOR ANGLES ON FLOW STRUCTURES AT VARIOUS MACH NUMBERS A Thesis by JUSTIN WALTER MCLELLAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2005 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering THE EFFECTS OF DIAMOND INJECTOR ANGLES ON FLOW STRUCTURES AT VARIOUS MACH NUMBERS A Thesis by JUSTIN WALTER...

  12. On the wave energy potential of Western Black Sea shelf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galabov, Vasko

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study we evaluate the approaches to estimate the wave energy potential of the western Black Sea shelf with numerical models. For the purpose of our evaluation and due to the lack of long time series of measurements in the selected area of the Black Sea, we compare the modeled mean wave power flux output from the SWAN wave model with the only available long term measurements from the buoy of Gelendzhik for the period 1997-2003 (with gaps). The forcing meteorological data for the numerical wave models for the selected years is extracted from the ERA Interim reanalysis of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium range Forecasts). For the year 2003 we also compare the estimated wave power with the modeled by SWAN, using ALADIN regional atmospheric model winds. We try to identify the shortcomings and limitations of the numerical modeling approach to the evaluation of the wave energy potential in Black Sea.

  13. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

  14. hal-00761492,version1-5Dec2012 Author manuscript, published in "Diamond and Related Materials 17 (2008) 1324" DOI : 10.1016/j.diamond.2008.01.090

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the n-type phosphorus-doped polycrystalline diamond films PN04 (grain size: 1m), PN11 (grain size: 3m-00761492,version1-5Dec2012 Author manuscript, published in "Diamond and Related Materials 17 (2008) 1324" DOI : 10.1016/j.diamond.2008.01.090 #12;1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

  15. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagan, Harris; Kass, Richard; Gan, K.K.

    2014-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    With the LHC upgrades in 2013, and further LHC upgrades scheduled in 2018, most LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require more radiation hard technologies than presently available. At present all LHC experiments now have some form of diamond detector. As a result Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. Moreover CVD diamond is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the HL-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications. Our accomplishments include: • Developed a two U.S.companies to produce electronic grade diamond, • Worked with companies and acquired large area diamond pieces, • Performed radiation hardness tests using various proton energies: 70 MeV (Cyric, Japan), 800 MeV (Los Alamos), and 24 GeV (CERN).

  16. The Black Hole Particle Accelerator as a Machine to make Baby Universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. S. Hamilton

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    General relativity predicts that the inner horizon of an astronomically realistic rotating black hole is subject to the mass inflation instability. The inflationary instability acts like a gravity-powered particle accelerator of extraordinary power, accelerating accreted streams of particles along the principal outgoing and ingoing null directions at the inner horizon to collision energies that would, if nothing intervened, typically exceed exponentially the Planck energy. The inflationary instability is fueled by ongoing accretion, and is occurring inevitably in essentially every black hole in our Universe. This extravagant machine, the Black Hole Particle Accelerator, has the hallmarks of a device to make baby universes. Since collisions are most numerous inside supermassive black holes, reproductive efficiency requires our Universe to make supermassive black holes efficiently, as is observed.

  17. A comparative study of the conventional diamond and cloverleaf interchanges with respect to ramp capacity and vehicular delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnett, James David

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume. . 37 14 Eeighted Aver' ?. . e Tr; rcl Ti!ae Curve for Inside Lane or Left Turn Pueues. 40 15 Diamond Rarup Dcl-y Curves. 16 Cloverleaf H=mi Travel Thee Curves. 45 17 Plot cf Diamond -nd Cloverle-f Ramp Capacity Curves. . Comparison of Dia... indicating specific ;- rrcnts 2. V rrant A certain tr )ffic rolumn 0 Intersection cf tvc h'gh type road;; ys All urban ctree ccnnc ticn: (diamond) d. Cross road vrth less than 3000 vpd (diamond) o e. Cross road must have high s-eed o. )er. bien...

  18. Focused-ion-beam overlay-patterning of three-dimensional diamond structures for advanced single-photon properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Qianqing; Liu, Dongqi; Liu, Gangqin; Chang, Yanchun; Li, Wuxia, E-mail: liwuxia@aphy.iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: czgu@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Pan, Xinyu; Gu, Changzhi, E-mail: liwuxia@aphy.iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: czgu@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Sources of single photons are of fundamental importance in many applications as to provide quantum states for quantum communication and quantum information processing. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, even at room temperature. However, the efficiency of photon collection of the color centers in bulk diamond is greatly reduced by refraction at the diamond/air interface. To address this issue, diamond structuring has been investigated by various methods. Among them, focused-ion-beam (FIB) direct patterning has been recognized as the most favorable technique. But it has been noted that diamond tends to present significant challenges in FIB milling, e.g., the susceptibility of forming charging related artifacts and topographical features. In this work, periodically-positioned-rings and overlay patterning with stagger-superimposed-rings were proposed to alleviate some problems encountered in FIB milling of diamond, for improved surface morphology and shape control. Cross-scale network and uniform nanostructure arrays have been achieved in single crystalline diamond substrates. High quality diamond solid immersion lens and nanopillars were sculptured with a nitrogen-vacancy center buried at the desired position. Compared with the film counterpart, an enhancement of about ten folds in single photon collection efficiency was achieved with greatly improved signal to noise ratio. All these results indicate that FIB milling through over-lay patterning could be an effective approach to fabricate diamond structures, potentially for quantum information studies.

  19. Shape of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, María E Gabach

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that celestial bodies tend to be spherical due to gravity and that rotation produces deviations from this sphericity. We discuss what is known and expected about the shape of black holes' horizons from their formation to their final, stationary state. We present some recent results showing that black hole rotation indeed manifests in the widening of their central regions, limits their global shapes and enforces their whole geometry to be close to the extreme Kerr horizon geometry at almost maximal rotation speed. The results depend only on the horizon area and angular momentum. In particular they are entirely independent of the surrounding geometry of the spacetime and of the presence of matter satisfying the strong energy condition. We also discuss the the relation of this result with the Hoop conjecture.

  20. Cemex Black Mountain Quarry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformationCashtonGoCaterpillar JumpCedroBlack Mountain

  1. Masses of Stellar Black Holes and Testing Theories of Gravitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. A. Postnov; A. M. Cherepashchuk

    2004-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the mass distribution of stellar black holes derived from the light and radial velocity curves of optical stars in close binary systems using dynamical methods. The systematic errors inherent in this approach are discussed. These are associated primarily with uncertainties in models for the contribution from gaseous structures to the optical brightness of the systems under consideration. The mass distribution is nearly flat in the range 4-15M_sun. This is compared with the mass distribution for black holes in massive close binaries, which can be manifest as ultraluminous X-ray sources (L_x > 10^39 erg/s) observed in other galaxies. If the X-ray luminosities of these objects correspond to the Eddington limit, the black-hole mass distribution should be described by a power law, which is incompatible with the flat shape derived dynamically from observations of close binaries in our Galaxy. One possible explanation of this discrepancy is the rapid evaporation of stellar-mass black holes predicted in recent multi-dimensional models of gravity. This hypothesis can be verifed by measuring the stellar black-hole mass spectrum or finding isolated or binary black holes with masses below 3M_sun.

  2. Recaustization of kraft black liquor via bipolar electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koumoundouros, J.A.; Oshen, S.; Lynch, J.D.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy in conjunction with HPD Inc. supported a research program to perform a laboratory feasibility study with various black liquor samples for the recaustization of these samples via bipolar electrodialysis. The research was conducted at the HPD pilot plant facility in Plainfield, Illinois, beginning in April 1989. This report is a summary of the work completed thru November 1989. The program was designed to operate the electrodialyzer in order to obtain performance and engineering data such as current efficiency, power consumption per gram of NaOH produced, and assess fouling and/or membrane durability. Prior to the electrodialysis laboratory runs, the black liquor samples were pretreated in order to remove as much lignin as possible. The black liquor samples were air oxidized, acidified to pH = 9.0 and pH = 2.0 and later filtered via a Buchner funnel under vacuum. The filtrate was then utilized to become the feed to the electrodialysis stack. Initial test runs were performed with synthetic solutions of either sodium sulfate or sodium bicarbonate in order to determine acceptable operating current, power, current efficiencies, and fouling behavior. A second set of test were conducted with a series of four Southern Kraft black liquor samples. Based on the results of this study, it was determined that the use of bipolar electrodialysis for producing a caustic stream and an acidified black liquor stream is feasible and was demonstrated. 9 refs., 27 figs., 32 tabs.

  3. Black Pine Circle Project

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  4. Black Pine Circle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  5. High-Power Microwave Switch Employing Electron Beam Triggering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power active microwave pulse compressor is described that modulates the quality factor Q of the energy storage cavity by a new means involving mode conversion controlled by a triggered electron-beam discharge through a switch cavity. The electron beam is emitted from a diamond-coated molybdenum cathode. This report describes the principle of operation, the design of the switch, the configuration used for the test, and the experimental results. The pulse compressor produced output pulses with 140 - Ã?Â?165 MW peak power, power gain of 16 - 20, and pulse duration of 16 - 20 ns at a frequency of 11.43 GHz.

  6. Diamond and Related Materials, 3 (1994) 783-786 783 Comparison of two models of thin diamond film microhardness data to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, Queen's Building, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TR ( UK) Paul of diamond films (1-3 ~tm thick) on silicon and on a titanium alloy is reported. The measured hardness for the silicon and titanium alloy substrates respectively. There is a large titanium carbide interfacial layer

  7. Black holes in massive gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babichev, Eugeny

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the black hole solutions of the ghost-free massive gravity theory and its bimetric extension and outline the main results on the stability of these solutions against small perturbations. Massive (bi)-gravity accommodates exact black hole solutions, analogous to those of General Relativity. In addition to these solutions, hairy black holes -- solutions with no correspondent in General Relativity -- have been found numerically, whose existence is a natural consequence of the absence of the Birkhoff's theorem in these theories. The existence of extra propagating degrees of freedom, makes the stability properties of these black holes richer and more complex than those of General Relativity. In particular, the bi-Schwarzschild black hole exhibits an unstable spherically symmetric mode, while the bi-Kerr geometry is also generically unstable, both against the spherical mode and against superradiant instabilities. If astrophysical black holes are described by these solutions, the superradiant instability o...

  8. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  9. Density matrix of black hole radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasma Alberte; Ram Brustein; Andrei Khmelnitsky; A. J. M. Medved

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Hawking's model of black hole evaporation is not unitary and leads to a mixed density matrix for the emitted radiation, while the Page model describes a unitary evaporation process in which the density matrix evolves from an almost thermal state to a pure state. We compare a recently proposed model of semiclassical black hole evaporation to the two established models. In particular, we study the density matrix of the outgoing radiation and determine how the magnitude of the off-diagonal corrections differs for the three frameworks. For Hawking's model, we find power-law corrections to the two-point functions that induce exponentially suppressed corrections to the off-diagonal elements of the full density matrix. This verifies that the Hawking result is correct to all orders in perturbation theory and also allows one to express the full density matrix in terms of the single-particle density matrix. We then consider the semiclassical theory for which the corrections, being non-perturbative from an effective field-theory perspective, are much less suppressed and grow monotonically in time. In this case, the R\\'enyi entropy for the outgoing radiation is shown to grow linearly at early times; but this growth slows down and the entropy eventually starts to decrease at the Page time. In addition to comparing models, we emphasize the distinction between the state of the radiation emitted from a black hole, which is highly quantum, and that of the radiation emitted from a typical classical black body at the same temperature.

  10. Studies of the frictional heating of polycrystalline diamond compact drag tools during rock cutting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortega, A.; Glowka, D.A.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical-analytical model is developed to analyze temperatures in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drag tools subject to localized frictional heating at a worn flat area and convective cooling at exposed lateral surfaces. Experimental measurements of convective heat transfer coefficients of PDC cutters in a uniform crossflow are presented and used in the model to predict temperatures under typical drilling conditions with fluid flow. The analysis compares favorably with measurements of frictional temperatures in controlled cutting tests on Tennessee marble. It is found that average temperatures at the wearflat contact zone vary directly with frictional force per unit area and are proportional to the one-half power of the cutting speed at the velocities investigated. Temperatures are found to be much more sensitive to decreases in the dynamic friction by lubrication than to increases in convective cooling rates beyond currently achievable levels with water or drilling fluids. It is shown that use of weighted drilling fluids may actually decrease cooling rates compared to those achieved with pure water. It is doubtful that tool temperatures can be kept below critical levels (750/sup 0/C) if air is employed as the drilling fluid. The degree of tool wear is found to have a major influence on the thermal response of the friction contact zone, so that for equal heating per contact area, a worn tool will run much hotter than a sharp tool. It is concluded that tool temperatures may be kept below critical levels with conventional water or mud cooling as long as the fluid provides good cutter-rock lubrication.

  11. Diamond-anvil high-pressure cell with improved X-ray collimation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiferl, David (Los Alamos, NM); Olinger, Barton W. (Santa Fe, NM); Livingston, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An adjustable X-ray collimation system for a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell of the type including a cooperable piston and cylinder and a pair of opposing diamonds located between the head of the piston and the head of the cylinder. The X-ray collimation system includes a tubular insert which contains an X-ray collimator. The insert is engageable in the bore of the piston. The collimator is mounted within the insert by means of an elastomeric O-ring at the end closest the opposed diamonds, and by means of a set of adjustable set screws at the opposite end. By adjustment of the set screws the collimator can be pivoted about the O-ring and brought into alignment with the opposed diamonds and the sample contained therein. In the preferred embodiment there is further provided a set of plugs which are insertable in the bore of the collimator. The plugs have bores of different diameters. By successively inserting plugs of progressively smaller bore diameters and adjusting the alignment of the collimator with each plug, the collimator can be quickly brought into accurate alignment with the diamonds. The collimation system allows alignment of the collimator either before or after the cell has been loaded and pressurized.

  12. Diamond-anvil high-pressure cell with improved x-ray collimation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiferl, D.; Olinger, B.W.; Livingston, R.W.

    1984-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An adjustable x-ray collimation system for a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell of the type including a cooperable piston and cylinder and a pair of opposing diamonds located between the head of the piston and the head of the cylinder. The x-ray collimation system includes a tubular insert which contains an x-ray collimator. The insert is engageable in the bore of the piston. The collimator is mounted within the insert by means of an elastomeric o-ring at the end closest the opposed diamonds, and by means of a set of adjustable set screws at the opposite end. By adjustment of the set screws the collimator can be pivoted about the o-ring and brought into alignment with the opposed diamonds and the sample contained therein. In the preferred embodiment there is further provided a set of plugs which are insertable in the bore of the collimator. The plugs have bores of different diameters. By successively inserting plugs of progressively smaller bore diameters and adjusting the alignment of the collimator with each plug, the collimator can be quickly brought into accurate alignment with the diamonds. The collimation system allows alignment of the collimator either before or after the cell has been loaded and pressurized.

  13. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benecha, E. M. [Department of Physics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa); Lombardi, E. B. [College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr{sup +2} and substitutional Fe{sup +1} order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 ?{sub B}) and 33.3 meV (1.0 ?{sub B}), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe{sup +1} exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond’s extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  14. Creation of deep blue light emitting nitrogen-vacancy center in nanosized diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himics, L., E-mail: himics.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu; Tóth, S.; Veres, M.; Koós, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Center for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Balogh, Z. [Uzhhorod National University, 88000 Uzhhorod (Ukraine)

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the formation of complex defect centers related to the N3 center in nanosized diamond by employing plasma immersion and focused ion beam implantation methods. He{sup +} ion implantation into nanosized diamond “layer” was performed with the aim of creating carbon atom vacancies in the diamond structure, followed by the introduction of molecular N{sub 2}{sup +} ion and heat treatment in vacuum at 750?°C to initiate vacancy diffusion. To decrease the sp{sup 2} carbon content of nanosized diamond formed during the implantation processes, a further heat treatment at 450?°C in flowing air atmosphere was used. The modification of the bonding properties after each step of defect creation was monitored by Raman scattering measurements. The fluorescence measurements of implanted and annealed nanosized diamond showed the appearance of an intensive and narrow emission band with fine structures at 2.98?eV, 2.83?eV, and 2.71?eV photon energies.

  15. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  16. Single-crystal diamond plate liftoff achieved by ion implantation and subsequent annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parikh, N.R.; Hunn, J.D.; McGucken, E.; Swanson, M.L. (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States)); White, C.W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6048 (United States)); Rudder, R.A.; Malta, D.P.; Posthill, J.B.; Markunas, R.J. (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709-2194 (United States))

    1992-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a new method for removing thin, large area sheets of diamond from bulk or homoepitaxial diamond crystals. This method consists of an ion implantation step, followed by a selective etching procedure. High energy (4--5 MeV) implantation of carbon or oxygen ions creates a well-defined layer of damaged diamond that is buried at a controlled depth below the surface. For C implantations, this layer is graphitized by annealing in vacuum, and then etched in either an acid solution, or by heating at 550--600 [degree]C in oxygen. This process successfully lifts off the diamond plate above the graphite layer. For O implantations of a suitable dose (3[times]10[sup 17] cm[sup [minus]2] or greater), the liftoff is achieved by annealing in vacuum or flowing oxygen. In this case, the O required for etching of the graphitic layer is also supplied internally by the implantation. This liftoff method, combined with well-established homoepitaxial growth processes, has considerable potential for the fabrication of large area single crystalline diamond sheets.

  17. Kinetically Inhibited Order in a Diamond-Lattice Antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDougall, Gregory J [ORNL; Gout, Delphine J [ORNL; Zarestky, Jerel L [ORNL; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Podlesnyak, Andrey A [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Mandrus, David [ORNL; Nagler, Stephen E [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Frustrated magnetic systems exhibit highly degenerate ground states and strong fluctuations, often leading to new physics. An intriguing example of current interest is the antiferromagnet on a diamond lattice, realized physically in the A-site spinel materials. This is a prototypical system in three dimensions where frustration arises from competing interactions rather than purely geometric constraints, and theory suggests the possibility of novel order at low temperature. Here we present a comprehensive single crystal neutron scattering study CoAl2O4, a highly frustrated A-site spinel. We observe strong diffuse scattering that peaks at wavevectors associated with Neel ordering. Below the temperature T*=6.5K, there is a dramatic change in elastic scattering lineshape accompanied by the emergence of well-defined spin-wave excitations. T* had previously been associated with the onset of glassy behavior. Our new results suggest instead that in fact T* signifies a first-order phase transition, but with true long-range order inhibited by the kinetic freezing of domain walls. This scenario might be expected to occur widely in frustrated systems containing first-order phase transitions and is a natural explanation for existing reports of anomalous glassy behavior in other materials.

  18. Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dimitrov, D. A. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smithe, D. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Cary, J. R. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Rao, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smedley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed modeling capabilities, within the Vorpal particle-in-cell code, for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of surface effects and electron emission from semiconductor photocathodes. They include calculation of emission probabilities using general, piece-wise continuous, space-time dependent surface potentials, effective mass and band bending field effects. We applied these models, in combination with previously implemented capabilities for modeling charge generation and transport in diamond, to investigate the emission dependence on applied electric field in the range from approximately 2 MV/m to 17 MV/m along the [100] direction. The simulation results were compared to experimental data. For the considered parameter regime, conservation of transverse electron momentum (in the plane of the emission surface) allows direct emission from only two (parallel to [100]) of the six equivalent lowest conduction band valleys. When the electron affinity ? is the only parameter varied in the simulations, the value ? = 0.31 eV leads to overall qualitative agreement with the probability of emission deduced from experiments. Including band bending in the simulations improves the agreement with the experimental data, particularly at low applied fields, but not significantly. Using surface potentials with different profiles further allows us to investigate the emission as a function of potential barrier height, width, and vacuum level position. However, adding surface patches with different levels of hydrogenation, modeled with position-dependent electron affinity, leads to the closest agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dimitrov, D. A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Smithe, D.; Cary, J. R.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wang, E.

    2015-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed modeling capabilities, within the Vorpal particle-in-cell code, for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of surface effects and electron emission from semiconductor photocathodes. They include calculation of emission probabilities using general, piece-wise continuous, space-time dependent surface potentials, effective mass and band bending field effects. We applied these models, in combination with previously implemented capabilities for modeling charge generation and transport in diamond, to investigate the emission dependence on applied electric field in the range from approximately 2 MV/m to 17 MV/m along the [100] direction. The simulation results were compared to experimental data. For the considered parameter regime, conservation of transversemore »electron momentum (in the plane of the emission surface) allows direct emission from only two (parallel to [100]) of the six equivalent lowest conduction band valleys. When the electron affinity ? is the only parameter varied in the simulations, the value ? = 0.31 eV leads to overall qualitative agreement with the probability of emission deduced from experiments. Including band bending in the simulations improves the agreement with the experimental data, particularly at low applied fields, but not significantly. Using surface potentials with different profiles further allows us to investigate the emission as a function of potential barrier height, width, and vacuum level position. However, adding surface patches with different levels of hydrogenation, modeled with position-dependent electron affinity, leads to the closest agreement with the experimental data.« less

  20. Diamond detector for high rate monitors of fast neutrons beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Fazzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Frost, C. D.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, and Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Centro NAST, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); STFC, ISIS facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton Didcot Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, and Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast neutron detection system suitable for high rate measurements is presented. The detector is based on a commercial high purity single crystal diamond (SDD) coupled to a fast digital data acquisition system. The detector was tested at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The SDD event signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy (pulse amplitude) and neutron arrival time; the event time of flight (ToF) was obtained relative to the recorded proton beam signal t{sub 0}. Fast acquisition is needed since the peak count rate is very high ({approx}800 kHz) due to the pulsed structure of the neutron beam. Measurements at ISIS indicate that three characteristics regions exist in the biparametric spectrum: i) background gamma events of low pulse amplitudes; ii) low pulse amplitude neutron events in the energy range E{sub dep}= 1.5-7 MeV ascribed to neutron elastic scattering on {sup 12}C; iii) large pulse amplitude neutron events with E{sub n} < 7 MeV ascribed to {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be and 12C(n,n')3{alpha}.

  1. Diamond tool wear vs cutting distance on electroless nickel mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syn, C.K.; Taylor, J.S.; Donaldson, R.R.

    1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Wear data are presented for diamond tools cutting electroless nickel (eNi) for cut lengths up to 70,000 ft (13 miles). Two tools having different infrared absorption characteristics were used to cut an eNi preparation that had yielded minimum values for surface roughness and tool wear rate in a previous study. The data include Talystep measurement of the rms amplitude of the feed-marks versus cumulative cutting distance, representative examples of shape changes for the feed-mark profiles, SEM and optical micrographs of the tool rake and flank face wear zones, and measurements of the cutting edge profile and edge recession distance by a tool-nose replication technique. Feed-mark roughness values were found to increase from 5 to 90 A rms over the duration of the test, with an associated edge recession of about 1000 A and the development of a periodic tool edge grooving indicative of burnishing of the part surface. The ir absorption data successfully predicted the order of the two tools in terms of wear rate and fracture toughness.

  2. Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiziana Di Matteo; Volker Springel; Lars Hernquist

    2005-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early Universe, while galaxies were still forming, black holes as massive as a billion solar masses powered quasars. Supermassive black holes are found at the centers of most galaxies today, where their masses are related to the velocity dispersions of stars in their host galaxies and hence to the mass of the central bulge of the galaxy. This suggests a link between the growth of the black holes and the host galaxies, which has indeed been assumed for a number of years. But the origin of the observed relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion, and its connection with the evolution of galaxies have remained unclear. Here we report simulations that simultaneously follow star formation and the growth of black holes during galaxy-galaxy collisions. We find that in addition to generating a burst of star formation, a merger leads to strong inflows that feed gas to the supermassive black hole and thereby power the quasar. The energy released by the quasar expels enough gas to quench both star formation and further black hole growth. This determines the lifetime of the quasar phase (approaching 100 million years) and explains the relationship between the black hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion.

  3. Stability of Horava-Lifshitz Black Holes in the Context of AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Yen Chin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence is a powerful tool that promises to provide new insights toward a full understanding of field theories under extreme conditions, including but not limited to quark-gluon plasma, Fermi liquid, and superconductor. In many such applications, one typically models the field theory with asymptotically AdS black holes. These black holes are subjected to stringy effects that might render them unstable. Horava-Lifshitz gravity, in which space and time undergo different transformations, has attracted attention due to its power-counting renormalizability. In terms of AdS/CFT correspondence, Horava-Lifshitz black holes might be useful to model holographic superconductors with Lifshitz scaling symmetry. It is thus interesting to study the stringy stability of Horava-Lifshitz black holes in the context of AdS/CFT. We find that uncharged topological black holes in {lambda} = 1 Horava-Lifshitz theory are nonperturbatively stable, unlike their counterparts in Einstein gravity, with the possible exceptions of negatively curved black holes with detailed balance parameter {epsilon} close to unity. Sufficiently charged flat black holes for {epsilon} close to unity, and sufficiently charged positively curved black holes with {epsilon} close to zero, are also unstable. The implication to the Horava-Lifshitz holographic superconductor is discussed.

  4. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CT, Bean AS. Black-spot poison ivy: A rare phenomenon. J AmJG, Lucky AW. Black spot poison ivy: A report of 5 cases andis unique for black-spot poison ivy. The UFLC-MS/MS urushiol

  5. Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exclude Black Men from Blue-Collar Jobs. Berkeley, CA:How Black and Latino Blue Collar Workers Make Decisionsof Sample Respondents Blue-Collar Latinos Blue-Collar Black

  6. Rome 2007 2nd International Industrial Diamond Conference Proceedings, Rome April 19-Development of a Procedure for Fatigue Crack Growth in PCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the crack morphology. #12;1. Background Polycrystalline diamond cutters are known to fail during drilling polycrystalline diamond material inevitably leads to premature degradation of the cutter's ability to drill rockRome 2007 2nd International Industrial Diamond Conference Proceedings, Rome April 19- 20, 2007

  7. FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF DIAMOND FILMS A. J. Gatesman*, R. H. Giles*, G. C. Phillips*, J. Waldman*, L. P. Bourget** and R. Post**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    **Applied Science and Technology, Inc., Woburn, MA 01801 High quality polycrystalline diamond films grownFAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF DIAMOND FILMS A. J. Gatesman*, R. H. Giles*, G. C. Phillips*, J in this frequency regime. INTRODUCTION Recent interest in the growth, production and application of diamond thin

  8. singapore_composites5.doc submitted to World Scientific 22/10/2003 -14:46 1/1 DIAMOND-FIBRE REINFORCED PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    thin films of polycrystalline diamond on different substrates has enabled scientists and engineerssingapore_composites5.doc submitted to World Scientific 22/10/2003 - 14:46 1/1 DIAMOND of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR, UK Email: David.Smith@bris.ac.uk Diamond fibre reinforced poly

  9. Validating optical emission spectroscopy as a diagnostic of microwave activated CH4/Ar/H2 plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    chemical vapor deposition of polycrystalline diamond. Several tracer species are monitored in order to gain used for diamond chemical vapor deposition Jie Ma,1 Michael N. R. Ashfold,1,a and Yuri A. Mankelevich2 spectroscopic methods used to diagnose microwave MW plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition CVD . Zhu

  10. Reply to: "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds--Evidence from nitrogen and noble gas isotopic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    and Honda [R.K. Mohapatra, and M. Honda, "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds--evidence from (2005) 559­572.]. We present here reasons why the alternative view of Mohapatra and Honda [R.K. Mohapatra and M. Honda, "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds--evidence from nitrogen and noble

  11. Synthetic diamond and wurtzite structures selfassemble with isotropic pair interactions Mikael Rechtsman, Frank Stillinger, Salvatore Torquato 2,3,4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    Synthetic diamond and wurtzite structures self­assemble with isotropic pair interactions Mikael wurtzite lattices stabilize, evidenced lattice sums, phonon spectra, positive­energy defects, self result three­dimensional diamond and wurtzite structures self­assemble with isotropic teractions

  12. Salsbury and Diamond: Automated Testing of HVAC Systems for Commissioning -1 -Automated Testing of HVAC Systems for Commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Diamond: Automated Testing of HVAC Systems for Commissioning - 1 - Automated Testing of HVAC Systems for Commissioning Tim Salsbury and Rick Diamond Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 Synopsis This paper describes an approach to the automation of the commissioning of HVAC systems. The approach

  13. Plasma-activated direct bonding of diamond-on-insulator wafers to thermal oxide grown silicon wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akin, Tayfun

    microscopy, profilometer and wafer bow measurements. Plasma-activated direct bonding of DOI wafers to thermalPlasma-activated direct bonding of diamond-on-insulator wafers to thermal oxide grown silicon (CMP) on the diamond surface makes a poor bonding to silicon wafers with thermal oxide. Our results

  14. Seasonal steroid hormone levels and their relation to reproduction in the Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Emily

    Seasonal steroid hormone levels and their relation to reproduction in the Western Diamond-backed levels in blood samples from free-ranging Western Diamond-backed Rattle- snakes (Crotalus atrox physiology, from under- standing basic mechanisms to designing treatments for reproductive dysfunction

  15. Black Stars and Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanmay Vachaspati

    2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Stars that are collapsing toward forming a black hole but are frozen near the Schwarzschild horizon are termed ``black stars''. Collisions of black stars, in contrast to black hole collisions, may be sources of gamma ray bursts, whose basic parameters are estimated quite simply and are found to be consistent with observed gamma ray bursts. Black star gamma ray bursts should be preceded by gravitational wave emission similar to that from the coalescence of black holes.

  16. The Development of Open Water-lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Thrust Bearings for Use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, Craig, H.; Khonsari, Michael,, M; Lingwall, Brent

    2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycrstalline diamond (PCD) bearings were designed, fabricated and tested for marine-hydro-kinetic (MHK) application. Bearing efficiency and life were evaluated using the US Synthetic bearing test facility. Three iterations of design, build and test were conducted to arrive at the best bearing design. In addition life testing that simulated the starting and stopping and the loading of real MHK applications were performed. Results showed polycrystalline diamond bearings are well suited for MHK applications and that diamond bearing technology is TRL4 ready. Based on life tests results bearing life is estimated to be at least 11.5 years. A calculation method for evaluating the performance of diamond bearings of round geometry was also investigated and developed. Finally, as part of this effort test bearings were supplied free of charge to the University of Alaska for further evaluation. The University of Alaska test program will subject the diamond bearings to sediment laden lubricating fluid.

  17. Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vohra, Yogesh, K.

    2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

  18. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nardini, E; Gofford, J; Harrison, F A; Risaliti, G; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Matzeu, G A; Walton, D J; Behar, E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Matt, G; Miller, J M; O'Brien, P T; Stern, D; Turner, T J; Ward, M J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband X-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10^46 ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy co-evolution.

  19. Thermodynamics of topological nonlinear charged Lifshitz black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zangeneh, M Kord; Dehghani, M H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we construct a new class of analytic topological Lifshitz black holes with constant curvature horizon in the presence of power-law Maxwell field in four and higher dimensions. We find that in order to obtain these exact Lifshitz solutions, we need a dilaton and at least three electromagnetic fields. Interestingly enough, we find that the reality of the charge of the electromagnetic field which is needed for having solutions with curved horizon rules out black holes with hyperbolic horizon. Next, we study the thermodynamics of these nonlinear charged Lifshitz black holes with spherical and flat horizons by calculating all the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the solutions. Furthermore, we obtain a generalized Smarr formula and show that the first law of thermodynamics is satisfied. Finally, we perform a stability analysis in both canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. We find that the solutions are thermally stable in a proper ranges of the metric parameters.

  20. Optical black holes and solitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawn Westmoreland

    2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We exhibit a static, cylindrically symmetric, exact solution to the Euler-Heisenberg field equations (EHFE) and prove that its effective geometry contains (optical) black holes. It is conjectured that there are also soliton solutions to the EHFE which contain black hole geometries.

  1. Black Holes of Negative Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    I demonstrate that, under certain circumstances, regions of negative energy density can undergo gravitational collapse into a black hole. The resultant exterior black hole spacetimes necessarily have negative mass and non-trivial topology. A full theory of quantum gravity, in which topology-changing processes take place, could give rise to such spacetimes.

  2. Black Beans and Rice Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Black Beans and Rice Ingredients: 1 teaspoon vegetable oil 1 medium onion, chopped 2 bay leaves 4 cloves garlic, minced 2 (15 oz.) cans black beans, drained and rinsed 1 tbsp. cilantro 15 ounces low-fat, shredded Directions 1. Rinse beans with water in colander to remove sodium. 2. Sauté onions, garlic

  3. Black Bean Stuffed Peppers Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    except cheese. 4. Fill each pepper half with bean mixture and place in pan. 5. Pour 1/4 cup waterBlack Bean Stuffed Peppers Ingredients: Non stick cooking spray 3 green peppers 15 ounces black beans, canned, drained and rinsed to remove sodium 8 ounces corn, canned 1 cup brown rice, cooked 1

  4. Nano-fabricated solid immersion lenses registered to single emitters in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Marseglia; J. P. Hadden; A. C. Stanley-Clarke; J. P. Harrison; B. Patton; Y. -L. D. Ho; B. Naydenov; F. Jelezko; J. Meijer; P. R. Dolan; J. M. Smith; J. G. Rarity; J. L. O'Brien

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a technique for fabricating micro- and nano-structures incorporating fluorescent defects in diamond with a positional accuracy in the hundreds of nanometers. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy and focused ion beam (FIB) etching we first locate a suitable defect with respect to registration marks on the diamond surface and then etch a structure using these coordinates. We demonstrate the technique here by etching an 8 micron diameter hemisphere positioned such that a single negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy defect lies at its origin. This type of structure increases the photon collection efficiency by removing refraction and aberration losses at the diamond-air interface. We make a direct comparison of the fluorescence photon count rate before and after fabrication and observe an 8-fold increase due to the presence of the hemisphere.

  5. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainer Wallny

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

  6. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrents around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials’ photosensitivity.

  7. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrentsmore »around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials’ photosensitivity.« less

  8. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrents around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials’ photosensitivity.

  9. Temperature distributions in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell from 3-D numerical modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainey, E. S. G.; Kavner, A. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hernlund, J. W. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Earth-Life Science Institute, Megoro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present TempDAC, a 3-D numerical model for calculating the steady-state temperature distribution for continuous wave laser-heated experiments in the diamond anvil cell. TempDAC solves the steady heat conduction equation in three dimensions over the sample chamber, gasket, and diamond anvils and includes material-, temperature-, and direction-dependent thermal conductivity, while allowing for flexible sample geometries, laser beam intensity profile, and laser absorption properties. The model has been validated against an axisymmetric analytic solution for the temperature distribution within a laser-heated sample. Example calculations illustrate the importance of considering heat flow in three dimensions for the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. In particular, we show that a “flat top” input laser beam profile does not lead to a more uniform temperature distribution or flatter temperature gradients than a wide Gaussian laser beam.

  10. Energy Extraction from Boosted Black Holes: Penrose Process, Jets, and the Membrane at Infinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penna, Robert F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulations indicate that black holes carrying linear momentum and/or orbital momentum can power jets. The jets extract the kinetic energy stored in the black hole's motion. This could provide an important electromagnetic counterpart to gravitational wave searches. We develop the theory underlying these jets. In particular, we derive the analogues of the Penrose process and the Blandford-Znajek jet power prediction for boosted black holes. The jet power we find is $(v/2M)^2 \\Phi^2/(4\\pi)$, where $v$ is the hole's velocity, $M$ is its mass, and $\\Phi$ is the magnetic flux. We show that energy extraction from boosted black holes is conceptually similar to energy extraction from spinning black holes. However, we highlight two key technical differences: in the boosted case, jet power is no longer defined with respect to a Killing vector, and the relevant notion of black hole mass is observer-dependent. We derive a new version of the membrane paradigm in which the membrane lives at infinity rather than t...

  11. Improved x-ray collimation system for diamond-anvil high-pressure cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiferl, D.; Olinger, B.; Livingston, R.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved x-ray collimation system for diamond-anvil high-pressure cells is described. The usual practice of mounting the collimator directly in the diamond-anvil cell is not followed. Instead, the collimator is mounted and aligned in a fixture which can be removed from the diamong-anvil cell. The end of the collimator furthest from the sample can be fitted with a set of removable plugs, each with a different aperture. This collimation system is easily aligned, can be removed from the high-pressure cell with no loss of alignment, and is inexpensive to construct.

  12. Hyperfine-Enhanced Gyromagnetic Ratio of a Nuclear Spin in Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Sangtawesin; J. R. Petta

    2015-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear spins in the solid state environment of diamond are highly coherent, but difficult to rapidly control due to the small nuclear gyromagnetic ratio. Here we demonstrate a more than 50-fold enhancement of the effective nuclear gyromagnetic ratio by coupling the nuclear spin to an electronic spin of a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. The enhancement allows for faster nuclear spin rotations and is in good agreement with second-order perturbation theory. The method may be applied to other systems with similar electron-nuclear spin interactions, such as phosphorous donors in silicon, opening up the possibility of fast and direct nuclear spin control in coupled spin systems.

  13. Synthesis of new Diamond-like B-C Phases under High Pressure and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ming, L. C. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii; Zinin, P. V. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii; Sharma, S. K. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A cubic BC3 (c-BC3) phase was synthesized by direct transformation from graphitic phases at a pressure of 39 GPa and temperature of 2200 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements lead us to conclude that the obtained phase is hetero-nano-diamond, c-BC3. The EELS measurements show that the atoms inside the cubic structure are bonded by sp3 bonds.

  14. Field emission from bias-grown diamond thin films in a microwave plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Ding, Ming Q. (Beijing, CN); Auciello, Orlando (Bolinbrook, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing diamond or diamond like films in which a negative bias is established on a substrate with an electrically conductive surface in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system. The atmosphere that is subjected to microwave energy includes a source of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen. The negative bias is maintained on the substrate through both the nucleation and growth phase of the film until the film is continuous. Biases between -100V and -200 are preferred. Carbon sources may be one or more of CH.sub.4, C.sub.2 H.sub.2 other hydrocarbons and fullerenes.

  15. Design of flexible ultrahigh-Q microcavities in diamond-based photonic crystal slabs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snjezana Tomljenovic-Hanic; Andrew D. Greentree; C. Martijn de Sterke; Steven Prawer

    2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We design extremely flexible ultrahigh-Q diamond-based double-heterostructure photonic crystal slab cavities by modifying the refractive index of the diamond. The refractive index changes needed for ultrahigh-Q cavities with $Q ~ 10^7$, are well within what can be achieved ($\\Delta n \\sim 0.02$). The cavity modes have relatively small volumes $Vflexible because the range of parameters, cavity length and the index changes, that enables an ultrahigh-Q is quite broad. Furthermore as the index modification is post-processed, an efficient technique to generate cavities around defect centres is achievable, improving prospects for defect-tolerant quantum architectures.

  16. atomic power company: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CiteSeer Summary: INTRODUCTION BlackLight Power, Inc. (the Company), a Delaware corporation based in its 53,000 sq. ft. headquarters in Cranbury, New Jersey, believes it has...

  17. Comparison of Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, B.

    2004-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developmental advances have allowed silicon (Si) semiconductor technology to approach the theoretical limits of the Si material; however, power device requirements for many applications are at a point that the present Si-based power devices cannot handle. The requirements include higher blocking voltages, switching frequencies, efficiency, and reliability. To overcome these limitations, new semiconductor materials for power device applications are needed. For high power requirements, wide-bandgap semiconductors like silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond, with their superior electrical properties, are likely candidates to replace Si in the near future. This report compares wide-bandgap semiconductors with respect to their promise and applicability for power applications and predicts the future of power device semiconductor materials.

  18. Sensitivity comparison of searches for binary black hole coalescences with ground-based gravitational-wave detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohapatra, Satya

    Searches for gravitational-wave transients from binary black hole coalescences typically rely on one of two approaches: matched filtering with templates and morphology-independent excess power searches. Multiple algorithmic ...

  19. A MONTE CARLO MARKOV CHAIN BASED INVESTIGATION OF BLACK HOLE SPIN IN THE ACTIVE GALAXY NGC 3783

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Christopher S.

    The analysis of relativistically broadened X-ray spectral features from the inner accretion disk provides a powerful tool for measuring the spin of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, AGN ...

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 19, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2004 455 Transient Power System Analysis With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stankoviæ, Aleksandar

    - timachine power system derived from the WSCC system. Index Terms--Black box models, gray box models, model planning, operation, and control of large in- terconnected power systems. Over the last several decades, in the development of adequate equivalents or lower order models for parts of the power system

  1. Black optic display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

  2. Strings, higher curvature corrections, and black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Mohaupt

    2005-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We review old and recent results on subleading contributions to black hole entropy in string theory.

  3. Measurement of Mass and Spin of Black Holes with QPOs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Aschenbach

    2007-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    There are now four low mass X-ray binaries with black holes which show twin resonant-like HFQPOs. Similar QPOs might have been found in Sgr A*. I review the power spectral density distributions of the three X-ray flares and the six NIR flares published for Sgr A* so far, in order to look for more similarities than just the frequencies between the microquasar black holes and Sgr A*. The three X-ray flares of Sgr A* are re-analysed in an identical way and white noise probabilities from their power density distributions are given for the periods reported around 1100 s. Progress of the resonant theory using the anomalous orbital velocity effect is summarized.

  4. Biomass gasification project gets funding to solve black liquor safety and landfill problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, N.P.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on biomass gasifications. The main by-product in pulp making is black liquor from virgin fiber; the main by-product in paper recycling is fiber residue. Although the black liquor is recycled for chemical and energy recovery, safety problems plague the boilers currently used to do this. The fiber residue is usually transported to a landfill. The system being developed by MTCI will convert black liquor and fiber residue into a combustible gas, which can then be used for a wide variety of thermal or power generation applications.

  5. Spectrum of the radiation from electric charges and from dipoles which free infall into a black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Shatskiy; I. D. Novikov; L. N. Lipatova

    2013-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The free fall of electric charges and dipoles, radial and freely falling into the Schwarzschild black hole event horizon, was considered. Inverse effect of electromagnetic fields on the black hole is neglected. Dipole was considered as a point particle, so the deformation associated with exposure by tidal forces are neglected. According to the theorem, "the lack of hair" of black holes, multipole magnetic fields must be fully emitted by multipole fall into a black hole. The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation power for these multipoles (monopole and dipole) was found. Differences were found in the spectra for different orientations of the falling dipole. A general method has been developed to find radiated electromagnetic multipole fields for the free falling multipoles into a black hole (including higher order multipoles - quadrupoles, etc.). The electromagnetic spectrum can be compared with observational data from stellar mass and smaller black holes.

  6. Diamond-anvil high-pressure cell with improved x-ray collimation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiferl, D.; Olinger, B.W.; Livingston, R.W.

    1986-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell having a tubular piston and a cylinder in which the piston is slidable to effect compression of a pair of opposed diamonds located between the piston and the cylinder. The piston includes a central bore opening on one end, an adjustable X-ray collimation system comprising a tubular insert engageable in the bore of the piston, the insert including a central bore and having first and second ends, with the first end of the insert being closest to the opposed diamonds and the second end of the insert extending out of the open end of the piston, a collimator insertable in the bore of the tubular insert. The collimator has a central bore and having first and second ends corresponding respectively with the first and second ends of the insert, elastomeric pivot means mounted in the bore of the insert at the first end of the insert for flexibly retaining the first end of the collimator while allowing the collimator to pivot within the pivot means, and adjustable locking means located at the second end of the insert for adjusting and securing the second end of the collimator so as to be in alignment with the opposed diamonds.

  7. Automated Testing of HVAC Systems for Commissioning Tim Salsbury and Rick Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamond, Richard

    carrying out a proof of operation. In large modern buildings, the energy management and control system to exercise systems while under closed-loop control. The test signals are in the form of setpoint changesAutomated Testing of HVAC Systems for Commissioning Tim Salsbury and Rick Diamond Lawrence Berkeley

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 83, 193410 (2011) Denser than diamond: Ab initio search for superdense carbon allotropes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oganov, Artem R.

    . At ambient conditions, the hP3 phase is a semiconductor with the GW band gap of 3.0 eV, tI12 is an insulator semimetallic (graphite, an excel- lent lubricant) and even superconducting (doped diamond and fullerenes).1 two-dimensional (2D) mate- rial is graphene. Such extremely high density, with uniquely high valence

  9. A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres P-vacancy centre within a few nanometres of a sample, and then scan it across the sample surface, while preserving the centre's spin coherence and readout fidelity. However, existing scanning techniques, which use a single

  10. Method to grow pure nanocrystalline diamond films at low temperatures and high deposition rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlisle, John A. (Plainfield, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Bolingbrook, IL); Xiao, Xingcheng (Woodridge, IL)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing nanocrystalline diamond film on a substrate at a rate of not less than about 0.2 microns/hour at a substrate temperature less than about 500.degree. C. The method includes seeding the substrate surface with nanocrystalline diamond powder to an areal density of not less than about 10.sup.10sites/cm.sup.2, and contacting the seeded substrate surface with a gas of about 99% by volume of an inert gas other than helium and about 1% by volume of methane or hydrogen and one or more of acetylene, fullerene and anthracene in the presence of a microwave induced plasma while maintaining the substrate temperature less than about 500.degree. C. to deposit nanocrystalline diamond on the seeded substrate surface at a rate not less than about 0.2 microns/hour. Coatings of nanocrystalline diamond with average particle diameters of less than about 20 nanometers can be deposited with thermal budgets of 500.degree. C.-4 hours or less onto a variety of substrates such as MEMS devices.

  11. Advances in PSII Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings for Use as a Corrosion Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advances in PSII Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings for Use as a Corrosion Barrier R. S to improve corrosion resistance, however, the necessary organometallics needed to implant these materials to produce an adherent, hard, wear and, corrosion-resistant coating plays a vital role. These applications

  12. Proceedings of the Seventh Applied Diamond Conference/Third Frontier Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    Proceedings of the Seventh Applied Diamond Conference/Third Frontier Carbon Technology Joint Conference (ADC/FCT 2003) NASA/CP--2003-212319 August 2003 #12;The NASA STI Program Office . . . in Profile. · CONFERENCE PUBLICATION. Collected papers from scientific and technical conferences, symposia, seminars

  13. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, C.L.; Morris, J.S.; Agnew, S.F.

    1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond anvil cell is described for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear. 4 figs.

  14. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, Curtis L. (Espanola, NM); Morris, John S. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear.

  15. Graphene-on-Diamond Devices with Increased Current-Carrying Capacity: Carbon sp2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graphene-on-Diamond Devices with Increased Current-Carrying Capacity: Carbon sp2 -on-sp3 Technology Laboratory, Illinois 60439, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Graphene demonstrated potential for practical applications owing to its excellent electronic and thermal properties. Typical graphene field

  16. High quality factor nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators limited by thermoelastic damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najar, Hadi, E-mail: hnajar@ucdavis.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Chan, Mei-Lin [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Yang, Hsueh-An; Lin, Liwei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Cahill, David G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Horsley, David A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate high quality factor thin-film nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factors limited by thermoelastic damping. Cantilevers, single-anchored and double-anchored double-ended tuning forks, were fabricated from 2.5??m thick in-situ boron doped nanocrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thermal conductivity measured by time-domain thermoreflectance resulted in 24?±?3?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond film. The resonant frequencies of the fabricated resonators were 46?kHz–8?MHz and showed a maximum measured Q???86?000 at f{sub n}?=?46.849?kHz. The measured Q-factors are shown to be in good agreement with the limit imposed by thermoelastic dissipation calculated using the measured thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties extracted from resonant frequency measurements indicate a Young's elastic modulus of ?788?GPa, close to that of microcrystalline diamond.

  17. Diamond Amplified Photocathode Ilan Ben-Zvi, Andrew Burrill, Xiangyun Chang, Peter D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the diamond sample This heat load can be handled by LN cooling #12;Experimental Program I · Measure SEY and temporal broadening · Determine High Current Performance (Heat load, electron temperature) · Establish temperature is calculated to be ~ 0.35eV. Electron temperature for transport mode #12;Transit time: Drift

  18. Standards Panel: 1. Stephen Diamond, General Manager, Industry Standards Office and Global Standards Officer, EMC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standards Officer, EMC Corporation, Office of the CTO Steve Diamond has 30 years of management, marketing was President of the IEEE Computer Society. Steve is General Manager of the Industry Standards Office at EMC Corporation, and Global Standards Officer in the Office of the CTO. Before EMC, he was responsible for cloud

  19. N-type droping of nanocrystalline diamond films with nitrogen and electrodes made therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (late of Naperville, IL); Auciello, Orlando H. (Bolingbrook, IL); Carlisle, John A. (Plainfield, IL)

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conducting n-type ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) having no less than 10.sup.19 atoms/cm.sup.3 of nitrogen is disclosed. A method of making the n-doped UNCD. A method for predictably controlling the conductivity is also disclosed.

  20. Vol 435|30 June 2005 Jianguo Liu and Jared Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Youqin

    , social conflicts and health costs within China. China's environmental prob- lems are also spilling overVol 435|30 June 2005 1179 Jianguo Liu and Jared Diamond China is the world's most popu- lous into other countries, while other coun- tries affect China's environment through globalization, pollution

  1. Ukraine's Military Role in the Black Sea Region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coffman, Amy Beth; Crump, James Andrew; Dickson, Robbi K.; Mueller, Meaghan; Pulis, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environment 5 Defining the Black Sea Region 5 Figure 1 5 Ukraine 6 Figure 2 7 Russia 8 Turkey 10 NATO... lacking the m ting powers, up eral disputes in o stability, the ation with inter ne e’s posture in phy, and capab llective Securit ive security ar n the sympath ment transition to Russia’s for kraine greatly e should consid are three influ ting...

  2. Ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films for MEMS and moving mechanical assembly devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Jayatissa, A.; Sumant, A.; Tucek, J.; Auciello, O.; Mancini, D.; Moldovan, N.; Erdemir, A.; Ersoy, D.; Gardos, M. N.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.; Ding, M. Q.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Raytheon Electronic Systems Comp.; Fraunhofer Inst. for Applied Materials Science; Univ. of Bremen; Beijing Inst. of Electronics

    2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MEMS devices are currently fabricated primarily in silicon because of the available surface machining technology. A major problem with the Si-based MEMS technology is that Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties [J.J. Sniegowski, in: B. Bushan (Ed.), Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS, Kluwer Academic Publisher, The Netherlands, 1998, p. 325; A.P. Lee, A.P. Pisano, M.G. Lim, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 276 (1992) 67.], and practical MEMS devices are currently limited primarily to applications involving only bending and flexural motion, such as cantilever accelerometers and vibration sensors. However, because of the poor flexural strength and fracture toughness of Si, and the tendency of Si to adhere to hydrophilic surfaces, even these simple devices have limited dynamic range. Future MEMS applications that involve significant rolling or sliding contact will require the use of new materials with significantly improved mechanical and tribological properties, and the ability to perform well in harsh environments, Diamond is a superhard material of high mechanical strength, exceptional chemical inertness, and outstanding thermal stability. The brittle fracture strength is 23 times that of Si, and the projected wear life of diamond MEMS moving mechanical assemblies (MEMS MMAs) is 10 000 times greater than that of Si MMAs. However, as the hardest known material, diamond is notoriously difficult to fabricate. Conventional CVD thin film deposition methods offer an approach to the fabrication of ultra-small diamond structures, but the films have large grain size, high internal stress, poor intergranular adhesion, and very rough surfaces, and are consequently ill-suited for MEMS MMA applications. Diamond-like films are also being investigated for application to MEMS devices. However, they involve mainly physical vapor deposition methods that are not suitable for good conformal deposition on high aspect ratio features, and generally they do not exhibit the outstanding mechanical properties of diamond. We demonstrate here the application of a novel microwave plasma technique using a unique C{sub 60}/Ar or CH{sub 4}/Ar chemistry that produces phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coatings with morphological and mechanical properties that are ideally suited for MEMS applications in general, and MMA use in particular. We have developed lithographic techniques for the fabrication of UNCD-MEMS components, including cantilevers and multi-level devices, acting as precursors to microbearings and gears, making UNCD a promising material for the development of high performance MEMS devices.

  3. Thermodynamics of regular black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2008-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate thermodynamics for a magnetically charged regular black hole (MCRBH), which comes from the action of general relativity and nonlinear electromagnetics, comparing with the Reissner-Norstr\\"om (RN) black hole in both four and two dimensions after dimensional reduction. We find that there is no thermodynamic difference between the regular and RN black holes for a fixed charge $Q$ in both dimensions. This means that the condition for either singularity or regularity at the origin of coordinate does not affect the thermodynamics of black hole. Furthermore, we describe the near-horizon AdS$_2$ thermodynamics of the MCRBH with the connection of the Jackiw-Teitelboim theory. We also identify the near-horizon entropy as the statistical entropy by using the AdS$_2$/CFT$_1$ correspondence.

  4. Black Hole Interior Mass Formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parthapratim Pradhan

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue by explicit computations that, although the area product, horizon radii product, entropy product and \\emph {irreducible mass product} of the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are universal, the \\emph{surface gravity product}, \\emph{surface temperature product} and \\emph{Komar energy product} of the said horizons do not seem to be universal for Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole space-time. We show the black hole mass formula on the \\emph{Cauchy horizon} following the seminal work by Smarr\\cite{smarr} for the outer horizon. We also prescribed the \\emph{four} laws of black hole mechanics for the \\emph{inner horizon}. New definition of the extremal limit of a black hole is discussed.

  5. Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, Carlee [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent hydroxyl radicals for these measurements; however, many of these approaches require use of radioactive sources or caustic oxidizing chemicals. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and optimize the use of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as a highly accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals as a means to induce a controllable level of oxidation on a range of intact proteins. These experiments utilize a relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber, along with a unique cell activation approach to improve control over the intact protein oxidation yield. Studies were conducted to evaluate the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface. This report demonstrates a robust protocol for the use of BDD electrochemistry and high performance LC-MS/MS as a high-throughput experimental pipeline for probing higher order protein structure, and illustrates how it is complementary to predictive computational modeling efforts.

  6. Tribological performance of diamond and diamondlike carbon films at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we investigated the tribological performance of diamond and diamondlike carbon (DLC) films as a function of ambient temperature. Both films were deposited on silicon carbide (SiC) by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and ion-beam deposition processes. Tribological tests were performed on a reciprocating wear machine in open air (20 to 30% relative humidity) and under a 10-N load using SiC pins. For the test conditions explored, the steady- state friction coefficients of test pairs without a diamond or DLC film were 0.7 to 0.9 and the average wear rates of pins were 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}7} mm{sup 3}/N.m, depending on ambient temperature. DLC films reduced the steady-state friction coefficients of test pairs by factors of 3 to 5 and the wear rates of pins by two to three orders of magnitude. Low friction coefficients were also obtained with the diamond films, but wear rates of the counterface pins were high due to the very abrasive nature of these films. The wear of SiC disks coated with either diamond or DLC films was virtually unmeasurable while the wear of uncoated disks was substantial. Test results showed that the DLC films could afford low friction up to about 300{degrees}C. At higher temperatures, the DLC films became graphitized and were removed from the surface. The diamond films could withstand much higher temperatures, but their tribological behavior degraded. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to elucidate the friction and wear mechanisms of both films at high temperatures.

  7. Fishing in Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Brotas

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coordinate system $(\\bar{x},\\bar{t})$ defined by $r = 2m + K\\bar{x}- c K \\bar{t}$ and $t=\\bar{x}/cK - 1 /cK \\int_{r_a}^r (1- 2m/r + K^2)^{1/2} (1 - 2m/r)^{-1}dr$ allow us to write the Schwarzschild metric in the form: \\[ds^2=c^2 d\\bar{t}^2 + (W^2/K^2 - 2W/K) d\\bar{x}^2 + 2c (1 + W/K) d\\bar{x}d\\bar{t} - r^2 (d\\theta^2 + cos^2\\theta d\\phi^2)\\] with $W=(1 - 2m/r + K^2)^{1/2}$, in which the coefficients' pathologies are moved to $r_K = 2m/(1+K^2)$. This new coordinate system is used to study the entrance into a black hole of a rigid line (a line in which the shock waves propagate with velocity c).

  8. Ventilation and Infiltration in High-Rise Apartment Buildings Richard C. Diamond, Helmut E. Feustel and Darryl J. Dickerhoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamond, Richard

    1 Ventilation and Infiltration in High-Rise Apartment Buildings Richard C. Diamond, Helmut E to characterize the ventilation rates for the individual apartments. Parametric simulations were performed flow simulations suggest that the ventilation to the individual units varies considerably

  9. Design of diamond turned holograms by the nonlinear conjugate gradients method Colin Dankwart, Claas Falldorf and Jurgen Jahns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Design of diamond turned holograms by the nonlinear conjugate gradients method Colin Dankwart investigate a different optimization approach, the nonlinear conjugate gradients (NCG) method. The NGC method design algorithm, based on the generalized projections method (GPM) [?] was established, taking

  10. Systematic studies of the nucleation and growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond films on silicon substrates coated with a tungsten layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Yueh-Chieh; Jiang, Gerald [Institute of Microelectronics, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tu, Chia-Hao [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang Chi [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chuan-pu; Ting, Jyh-Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hsin-Li [Industrial Technology Research Institute - South, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Yonhua [Institute of Microelectronics, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Auciello, Orlando [Argonne National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on effects of a tungsten layer deposited on silicon surface on the effectiveness for diamond nanoparticles to be seeded for the deposition of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). Rough tungsten surface and electrostatic forces between nanodiamond seeds and the tungsten surface layer help to improve the adhesion of nanodiamond seeds on the tungsten surface. The seeding density on tungsten coated silicon thus increases. Tungsten carbide is formed by reactions of the tungsten layer with carbon containing plasma species. It provides favorable (001) crystal planes for the nucleation of (111) crystal planes by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD) in argon diluted methane plasma and further improves the density of diamond seeds/nuclei. UNCD films grown at different gas pressures on tungsten coated silicon which is pre-seeded by nanodiamond along with heteroepitaxially nucleated diamond nuclei were characterized by Raman scattering, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy.

  11. Tests in Time: A Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Currie, Thomas E

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the island of Hispaniola (discussed in more detailCaribbean island of Hispaniola. Diamond wants to understandhave played a key role in Hispaniola’s history it is unclear

  12. Short pulse laser-induced optical damage and fracto-emission of amorphous, diamond-like carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SOKOLOWSKI-TINTEN,K.; VON DER LINDE,D.; SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Short pulse laser damage and ablation of amorphous, diamond-like carbon films is investigated. Material removal is due to fracture of the film and ejection of large fragments, which exhibit a broadband emission of microsecond duration.

  13. Perfect alignment and preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers during CVD growth of diamond on (111) surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julia Michl; Tokuyuki Teraji; Sebastian Zaiser; Ingmar Jakobi; Gerald Waldherr; Florian Dolde; Philipp Neumann; Marcus W. Doherty; Neil B. Manson; Junichi Isoya; Jörg Wrachtrup

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic diamond production is key to the development of quantum metrology and quantum information applications of diamond. The major quantum sensor and qubit candidate in diamond is the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center. This lattice defect comes in four different crystallographic orientations leading to an intrinsic inhomogeneity among NV centers that is undesirable in some applications. Here, we report a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor decomposition (MPCVD) diamond growth technique on (111)-oriented substrates that yields perfect alignment ($94\\pm2%$) of as-grown NV centers along a single crystallographic direction. In addition, clear evidence is found that the majority ($74\\pm4%$) of the aligned NV centers were formed by the nitrogen being first included in the (111) growth surface and then followed by the formation of a neighboring vacancy on top. The achieved homogeneity of the grown NV centers will tremendously benefit quantum information and metrology applications.

  14. Kraft black liquor delivery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. A Parametric Device Study for SiC Power Electronics Burak Ozpineci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    A Parametric Device Study for SiC Power Electronics Burak Ozpineci 1,3 burak@ieee.org Leon M to be used. The circuits people, including power electronics researchers, take the devices as black boxes Typically, power electronics researchers have to choose off-the-shelf power devices with the specifications

  16. Structural Vulnerability Assessment of Electric Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koç, Yakup; Kooij, Robert E; Brazier, Frances M T

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cascading failures are the typical reasons of black- outs in power grids. The grid topology plays an important role in determining the dynamics of cascading failures in power grids. Measures for vulnerability analysis are crucial to assure a higher level of robustness of power grids. Metrics from Complex Networks are widely used to investigate the grid vulnerability. Yet, these purely topological metrics fail to capture the real behaviour of power grids. This paper proposes a metric, the effective graph resistance, as a vulnerability measure to de- termine the critical components in a power grid. Differently than the existing purely topological measures, the effective graph resistance accounts for the electrical properties of power grids such as power flow allocation according to Kirchoff laws. To demonstrate the applicability of the effective graph resistance, a quantitative vulnerability assessment of the IEEE 118 buses power system is performed. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the effect...

  17. Bulk emission of scalars by a rotating black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Casals; S. R. Dolan; P. Kanti; E. Winstanley

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study in detail the scalar-field Hawking radiation emitted into the bulk by a higher-dimensional, rotating black hole. We numerically compute the angular eigenvalues, and solve the radial equation of motion in order to find transmission factors. The latter are found to be enhanced by the angular momentum of the black hole, and to exhibit the well-known effect of superradiance. The corresponding power spectra for scalar fields show an enhancement with the number of dimensions, as in the non-rotating case. We compute the total mass loss rate of the black hole for a variety of black-hole angular momenta and bulk dimensions, and find that, in all cases, the bulk emission remains significantly smaller than the brane emission. The angular-momentum loss rate is also computed and found to have a smaller value in the bulk than on the brane. We present accurate bulk-to-brane emission ratios for a range of scenarios.

  18. The contact heat conductance at diamond-OFHC copper interface with GaIn eutectic as a heat transfer medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assoufid, L.; Khounsary, A.M.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of an experimental study of the contact heat conductance across a single diamond crystal interface with OFHC copper (Cu) are reported. Gallium-indium (GaIn) eutectic was used as an interstitial material. Contact conductance data are important in the design and the prediction of the performance of x-ray diamond monochromators under high-heat-load conditions. Two sets of experiments were carried out. In one, the copper surface in contact with diamond was polished and then electroless plated with 1 {mu}m of nickel, while in the other, the copper contact surface was left as machined. Measured average interface heat conductances are 44.7 {plus_minus}8 W/cm{sup 2}{minus}K for nonplated copper and 23.0 {plus_minus}3 W/cm{sup 2}{minus}K for nickel-plated copper. For reference, the thermal contact conductances at a copper-copper interface (without diamond) were also measured, and the results are reported. A typical diamond monochromator, 0.2 mm thick, will absorb about 44 W under a standard undulator beam at the Advanced Photon Source. The measured conductance for nickel-plated copper suggests that the temperature drop across the interface of diamond and nickel-plated copper, with a 20 mm{sup 2} contact area, will be about 10{degree}C. Therefore temperature rises are rather modest, and the accuracy of the measured contact conductances presented here are sufficient for design purposes.

  19. Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, B.E.; Miller, A.C.; Maxey, L.C.; Cunningham, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moreshead, W.V.; Nogues, J.L.R. [Geltech Inc., Alachua, FL (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent combinations of diffractive and refractive functions in the same optical component allow designers additional opportunities to make systems more compact and enhance performance. This paper describes a research program for fabricating hybrid refractive/diffractive components from diamond-turned molds using the bulk casting of sol-gel silica glass. The authors use the complementary dispersive nature of refractive and diffractive optics to render two-color correction in a single hybrid optical element. Since diamond turning has matured as a deterministic manufacturing technology, techniques previously suitable only in the infrared are now being applied to components used at visible wavelengths. Thus, the marriage of diamond turning and sol-gel processes offers a cost-effective method for producing highly customized and specialized optical components in high quality silica glass. With the sol-gel casting method of replication, diamond-turned mold costs can be shared over many pieces. Diamond turning takes advantage of all of the available degrees of freedom in a single hybrid optical element: aspheric surface to eliminate spherical aberration, kinoform surface for control of primary chromatic aberration, and the flexibility to place the kinoform on non-planar surfaces for maximum design flexibility. The authors discuss the critical issues involved in designing the hybrid element, single point diamond-turning the mold, and fabrication in glass using the sol-gel process.

  20. International black tea market integration and price discovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dharmasena, Kalu Arachchillage Senarath Dhananjaya Bandara

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis we study three basic issues related to international black tea markets: Are black tea markets integrated? Where is the price of black tea discovered? Are there leaders and followers in black tea markets? We use two statistical...

  1. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B. [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico-IST, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa-UTL, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Astronomical Institute of Kharkov, V. N. Karazin National University, 35 Sumskaya Street, Kharkov, 61022 (Ukraine)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to be less difficult than one could think of it.

  2. LEFT The electron gun at the Diamond Synchrotron in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    | HowItWorks TECHNOLOGY "To convert the electronic signals into power, heat is created by kinetic energy as thermionic emission. Inside the gun there is a small filament that heats the cathode, which makes it release. There are two main types of electron gun: thermionic and field emission. The former are much more common

  3. Call for Papers and Panels Unleashing the Black Erotic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    and the Hypersexuality of Black Women Alternative Modes of Black Love and Family The Politics and Economics of Porn

  4. Heat Engine of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeghi, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As we know, the cosmological constant in different theories of gravity acts as a thermodynamics variable. The cosmological constant exists in different actions of gravity and also appears in the solution of such theories. These lead to use the black hole as a heat engines. Also, there are two values for the cosmological constant as positive and negative values. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. In this paper, we are going to define heat engines for two different black holes as Dyonic BH and Kerr BH. And also, we calculate maximum efficiency for two black holes.

  5. Heat Engine of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Sadeghi; Kh. Jafarzade

    2015-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    As we know, the cosmological constant in different theories of gravity acts as a thermodynamics variable. The cosmological constant exists in different actions of gravity and also appears in the solution of such theories. These lead to use the black hole as a heat engines. Also, there are two values for the cosmological constant as positive and negative values. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. In this paper, we are going to define heat engines for two different black holes as Dyonic BH and Kerr BH. And also, we calculate maximum efficiency for two black holes.

  6. Energy on black hole spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Corichi

    2012-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the issue of defining energy for test particles on a background black hole spacetime. We revisit the different notions of energy as defined by different observers. The existence of a time-like isometry allows for the notion of a total conserved energy to be well defined, and subsequently the notion of a gravitational potential energy is also meaningful. We then consider the situation in which the test particle is adsorbed by the black hole, and analyze the energetics in detail. In particular, we show that the notion of horizon energy es defined by the isolated horizons formalism provides a satisfactory notion of energy compatible with the particle's conserved energy. As another example, we comment a recent proposal to define energy of the black hole as seen by an observer at rest. This account is intended to be pedagogical and is aimed at the level of and as a complement to the standard textbooks on the subject.

  7. "Meissner effect" and Blandford-Znajek mechanism in conductive black hole magnetospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. S. Komissarov; J. C. McKinney

    2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The expulsion of axisymmetric magnetic field from the event horizons of rapidly rotating black holes has been seen as an astrophysically important effect that may significantly reduce or even nullify the efficiency of the Blandford-Znajek mechanism of powering the relativistic jets in Active Galactic Nuclei and Gamma Ray Bursts. However, this Meissner-like effect is seen in vacuum solutions of black hole electrodynamics whereas the Blandford-Znajek mechanism is concerned with plasma-filled magnetospheres. In this paper we argue that conductivity dramatically changes the properties of axisymmetric electromagnetic solutions -- even for a maximally rotating Kerr black hole the magnetic field is pulled inside the event horizon. Moreover, the conditions resulting in outgoing Poynting flux in the Blandford-Znajek mechanism exist not on the event horizon but everywhere within the black hole ergosphere. Thus, the Meissner effect is unlikely to be of interest in astrophysics of black holes, at least not in the way this has been suggested so far. These conclusions are supported by the results of time-dependent numerical simulations with three different computer codes. The test problems involve black holes with the rotation parameter ranging from $a=0.999$ to $a=1$. The pure electrodynamic simulations deal with the structure of conductive magnetospheres of black holes placed in a uniform-at-infinity magnetic field (Wald's problem) and the magnetohydrodynamic simulations are used to study the magnetospheres arising in the problem of disk accretion.

  8. Black Literary Suite: Kansas Authors Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiggins, Meredith Joan

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    authors were born or lived in the Sunflower State, and their work often reflects their time in Kansas. This Black Literary Suite exhibit highlights four important black writers—Langston Hughes, Gwendolyn Brooks, Frank Marshall Davis, and Kevin Young...

  9. Low-temperature electrical transport in B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lin; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Zhaosheng; Quan, Baogang; Li, Junjie, E-mail: jjli@iphy.ac.cn; Gu, Changzhi, E-mail: czgu@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institution of Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films are grown using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition method, and their electrical transport properties varying with temperature are investigated. When the B-doped concentration of UNCD film is low, a step-like increase feature of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature, reflecting at least three temperature-modified electronic state densities at the Fermi level according to three-dimensional Mott's variable range hopping transport mechanism, which is very different from that of reported B-doped nanodiamond. With increasing B-doped concentration, a superconductive transformation occurs in the UNCD film and the highest transformation temperature of 5.3?K is observed, which is higher than that reported for superconducting nanodiamond films. In addition, the superconducting coherence length is about 0.63?nm, which breaks a reported theoretical and experimental prediction about ultra-nanoscale diamond's superconductivity.

  10. Local and bulk 13C hyperpolarization in NV-centered diamonds at variable fields and orientations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Gonzalo A; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Kanda, Hisao; Onoda, Shinobu; Isoya, Junichi; Gershoni, David; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polarizing nuclear spins is of fundamental importance in biology, chemistry and physics. Methods for hyperpolarizing 13C nuclei from free electrons in bulk, usually demand operation at cryogenic temperatures. Room-temperature approaches targeting diamonds with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers could alleviate this need, but hitherto proposed strategies lack generality as they demand stringent conditions on the strength and/or alignment of the magnetic field. We report here an approach for achieving efficient electron->13C spin alignment transfers, compatible with a broad range of magnetic field strengths and field orientations with respect to the diamond crystal. This versatility results from combining coherent microwave- and incoherent laser-induced transitions between selected energy states of the coupled electron-nuclear spin manifold. 13C-detected Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments demonstrate that this hyperpolarization can be transferred via first-shell or via distant 13Cs, throughout the nuclear ...

  11. Diamond pixel detector for beam profile monitoring in COMET experiment at J-PARC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Cerv; P. Sarin; H. Pernegger; P. Vageesvaran; E. Griesmayer

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the design and initial prototype results of a pixellized proton beam profile monitor for the COMET experiment at J-PARC. The goal of COMET is to look for charged lepton flavor violation by direct muon to electron conversion at a sensitivity of $0^{-19}$. An 8 GeV proton beam pulsed at 100 ns with $10^{10}$ protons/s will be used to create muons through pion production and decay. In the final experiment, the proton flux will be raised to $10^{14}$ protons/sec to increase the sensitivity. These requirements of harsh radiation tolerance and fast readout make diamond a good choice for constructing a beam profile monitor in COMET. We present first results of the characterization of single crystal diamond (scCVD) sourced from a new company, 2a systems Singapore. Our measurements indicate excellent charge collection efficiency and high carrier mobility down to cryogenic temperatures.

  12. Spectrally dependent photovoltages in Schottky photodiode based on (100) B-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?ermák, Jan, E-mail: cermakj@fzu.cz; Rezek, Bohuslav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnická 10, 16200 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Koide, Yasuo [Sensor Materials Center, National Institute for Material Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Takeuchi, Daisuke [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrally and spatially resolved photovoltages were measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on a Schottky photo-diode made of a 4?nm thin tungsten-carbide (WC) layer on a 500?nm oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond epitaxial layer (O-BDD) that was grown on a Ib (100) diamond substrate. The diode was grounded by the sideways ohmic contact (Ti/WC), and the semitransparent Schottky contact was let unconnected. The electrical potentials across the device were measured in dark (only 650?nm LED of KPFM being on), under broad-band white light (halogen lamp), UV (365?nm diode), and deep ultraviolet (deuterium lamp) illumination. Illumination induced shift of the electrical potential remains within 210?mV. We propose that the photovoltage actually corresponds to a shift of Fermi level inside the BDD channel and thereby explains orders of magnitude changes in photocurrent.

  13. Scanning localized magnetic fields in a microfluidic device using single spin in a nano-diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Kangmook; Shapiro, Benjamin; Taylor, Jacob M; Waks, Edo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond have emerged as highly versatile optical emitters that exhibit room temperature spin properties. These characteristics make NV centers ideal for magnetometry which plays an important role in a broad range of chemical and biological sensing applications. The integration of NV magnetometers with microfluidic systems could enable the study of isolated chemical and biological samples in a fluid environment with high spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate a method to perform localized magnetometry with nanometer spatial precision using a single NV center in a microfluidic device. We manipulate a magnetic particle within a liquid environment using a combination of planar flow control and vertical magnetic actuation to achieve 3-dimensional manipulation. A diamond nanocrystal containing a single NV center is deposited in the microfluidic channels and acts as a local magnetic field probe. We map out the magnetic field distribution of the magnetic particle by varying its...

  14. Heteroepitaxial ZnO films on diamond: Optoelectronic properties and the role of interface polarity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuster, Fabian, E-mail: Fabian.Schuster@wsi.tum.de; Hetzl, Martin; Garrido, Jose A.; Stutzmann, Martin [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany); Magén, Cesar [Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas (LMA) - Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA) and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fundación ARAID, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Arbiol, Jordi [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, CAT (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, CAT (Spain)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the growth of heteroepitaxial ZnO films on (110) diamond substrates by molecular beam epitaxy and report on a major advance in structural quality, as confirmed by XRD and high-resolution TEM measurements. The growth direction is found to be along the polar c-axis with Zn-polarity, deduced from annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. This is important information, as simulations of the electronic band structure reveal the ZnO polarity to dominate the electronic structure of the interface: the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas on the ZnO side or a two-dimensional hole gas on the diamond side are predicted for Zn- and O-polarity, respectively. In addition, photoluminescence and absorption studies exhibit good optical properties and reveal stimulated emission for optical excitation above a threshold of 30?kW/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Electroless vs electrodeposited Ni-P alloys for diamond turning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolytes nickel deposits with greater than 10% phosphorous have been widely used for diamond turning applications such as fabrications of large optics and other high precision parts. Although the coatings have worked well, they are not without their drawbacks. Porosity and nodule formation have been problems as well as the difficulty of obtaining deposits greater than about 75 {mu}m. In recent years much effort has been directed at the investigating electrodeposition of Ni-P alloys in an attempt to avoid these problems. The purpose of this paper is to compare diamond turning results for both electroless and electrodeposited alloys and speculate about the future uses of electrodeposited Ni-P for precision finishing applications. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Flexible electron field emitters fabricated using conducting ultrananocrystalline diamond pyramidal microtips on polynorbornene films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankaran, K. J.; Tai, N. H., E-mail: nhtai@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, I. N., E-mail: inanlin@mail.tku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance flexible field emitters made of aligned pyramidal shaped conducting ultrananocrystalline diamond (C-UNCD) microtips on polynorbornene substrates is demonstrated. Flexible C-UNCD pyramidal microtips show a low turn-on field of 1.80?V/?m with a field enhancement factor of 4580 and a high emission current density of 5.8?mA/cm{sup 2} (at an applied field of 4.20?V/?m) with life-time stability of 210 min. Such an enhancement in the field emission is due to the presence of sp{sup 2}-graphitic sheath with a nanowire-like diamond core. This high performance flexible C-UNCD field emitter is potentially useful for the fabrication of diverse, flexible electronic devices.

  17. Introduction to Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Henry Lambert

    2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    These lecture notes are an elementary and pedagogical introduction to the black hole evaporation, based on a lecture given by the author at the Ninth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics and are intended for PhD students. First, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is studied and tools needed for the remaining of the course are introduced. Then, quantum field theory in Rindler spacetime in 1+1 dimensions and in the spacetime of a spherically collapsing star are considered, leading to Unruh and Hawking effects, respectively. Finally, some consequences such as thermodynamics of black holes and information loss paradox are discussed.

  18. US Synthetic Corp (TRL 4 Component)- The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings for use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    US Synthetic Corp (TRL 4 Component) - The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings for use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

  19. Hawking Emission and Black Hole Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Don N. Page

    2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief review of Hawking radiation and black hole thermodynamics is given, based largely upon hep-th/0409024.

  20. Black Hills Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2,The Big Green BusNews and updatesTechnicalToday, ofIn

  1. Black Hills Power Inc (Wyoming) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in CarbonofBiotins Energia Jump to: navigation,BirahiCoral

  2. High-reliability passivation of hydrogen-terminated diamond surface by atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daicho, Akira, E-mail: notevayas-tales@ruri.waseda.jp; Saito, Tatsuya; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi, E-mail: kawarada@waseda.jp [School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hiraiwa, Atsushi [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) of a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface provides a unique p-type conducting layer for high-performance transistors, the conductivity is highly sensitive to its environment. Therefore, the surface must be passivated to preserve the 2DHG, especially at high temperature. We passivated the surface at high temperature (450?°C) without the loss of C-H surface bonds by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and investigated the thermal reliability of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. As a result, C-H bonds were preserved, and the hole accumulation effect appeared after the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition by ALD with H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The sheet resistivity and hole density were almost constant between room temperature and 500?°C by the passivation with thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film thicker than 38?nm deposited by ALD at 450?°C. After the annealing at 550?°C in air The sheet resistivity and hole density were preserved. These results indicate the possibility of high-temperature application of the C-H surface diamond device in air. In the case of lower deposition temperatures, the sheet resistivity increased after air annealing, suggesting an insufficient protection capability of these films. Given the result of sheet resistivity after annealing, the increase in the sheet resistivity of these samples was not greatly significant. However, bubble like patterns were observed in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films formed from 200 to 400?°C by air annealing at 550?°C for 1 h. On the other hand, the patterns were no longer observed at 450?°C deposition. Thus, this 450?°C deposition is the sole solution to enabling power device application, which requires high reliability at high temperatures.

  3. Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection Willett Kemptona,1 , Felipe M regional estimate, Kempton et al. (2) calculated that two-thirds of the offshore wind power off the U in the U.S. Atlantic region is already underway. Fig. 1 shows as black squares offshore wind developments

  4. Signatures of black holes at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Cavaglia; Romulus Godang; Lucien M. Cremaldi; Donald J. Summers

    2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Signatures of black hole events at CERN's Large Hadron Collider are discussed. Event simulations are carried out with the Fortran Monte Carlo generator CATFISH. Inelasticity effects, exact field emissivities, color and charge conservation, corrections to semiclassical black hole evaporation, gravitational energy loss at formation and possibility of a black hole remnant are included in the analysis.

  5. Black Shales Adina Paytan, Stanford University, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    Tales of Black Shales Adina Paytan, Stanford University, USA Several times during the middle of the Cretaceous period, between 125 and 80 million years ago, organic-carbon-rich black shales were deposited over large areas of the ocean floor. These black shales provide valuable information about past climates

  6. 6, 34193463, 2006 Black carbon or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous;ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page

  7. Absorption cross section in Lifshitz black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taeyoon Moon; Yun Soo Myung

    2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the absorption cross section of a minimally coupled scalar in the Lifshitz black hole obtained from the new massive gravity. The absorption cross section reduces to the horizon area in the low energy and massless limit of s-wave mode propagation, indicating that the Lifshitz black hole also satisfies the universality of low energy absorption cross section for black holes.

  8. Signal transduction and conversion with color centers in diamond and piezo-elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianming Cai; Fedor Jelezko; Martin B. Plenio

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to measure weak signals such as pressure, force, electric field, and temperature with nanoscale devices and high spatial resolution offers a wide range of applications in fundamental and applied sciences. Here we present a proposal for a hybrid device composed of thin film layers of diamond with color centers implanted and piezo-active elements for the transduction and measurement of a wide variety of physical signals. The magnetic response of a piezomagnetic layer to an external stress or a stress induced by the change of electric field and temperature is shown to affect significantly the spin properties of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Under ambient conditions, realistic environmental noise and material imperfections, our detailed numerical studies show that this hybrid device can achieve significant improvements in sensitivity over the pure diamond based approach in combination with nanometer scale spatial resolution. Beyond its applications in quantum sensing the proposed hybrid architecture offers novel possibilities for engineering strong coherent couplings between nanomechanical oscillator and solid state spin qubits.

  9. Local and bulk 13C hyperpolarization in NV-centered diamonds at variable fields and orientations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalo A. Alvarez; Christian O. Bretschneider; Ran Fischer; Paz London; Hisao Kanda; Shinobu Onoda; Junichi Isoya; David Gershoni; Lucio Frydman

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Polarizing nuclear spins is of fundamental importance in biology, chemistry and physics. Methods for hyperpolarizing 13C nuclei from free electrons in bulk, usually demand operation at cryogenic temperatures. Room-temperature approaches targeting diamonds with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers could alleviate this need, but hitherto proposed strategies lack generality as they demand stringent conditions on the strength and/or alignment of the magnetic field. We report here an approach for achieving efficient electron->13C spin alignment transfers, compatible with a broad range of magnetic field strengths and field orientations with respect to the diamond crystal. This versatility results from combining coherent microwave- and incoherent laser-induced transitions between selected energy states of the coupled electron-nuclear spin manifold. 13C-detected Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments demonstrate that this hyperpolarization can be transferred via first-shell or via distant 13Cs, throughout the nuclear bulk ensemble. This method opens new perspectives for applications of diamond NV centers in NMR, and in quantum information processing.

  10. Effect of Decreasing of Cobalt Content in Properties for Diamond/Cemented Carbide Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waratta, A.; Hamdi, M. [Department of Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Ariga, T. [Department of Materials Science, School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan)

    2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Powder metallurgy plays a role in manufacturing such as automotive and cutting tool applications. Diamond/cemented carbide tools are also made from this technique. Diamond particle and other matrix materials were employed in this study. The purpose is to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of different Cobalt (Co) content samples by using Taguchi's method. The materials used in the experiments were mixed by using a ball-mill machine. The mixed powders were pressed by conventional method. Then the green samples were sintered in a vacuum furnace. After reaching 500 deg. C, the samples were sintered with Argon (Ar) gas. The sintered samples were investigated density by immersion method, porosity by water saturation method, and hardness by Vicker hardness tester. It was found that with 59.5% Co content, plain diamond type, sintering temperature of 950 deg. C, sintering time of 40 minutes, and pressure of 625 MPa, density, porosity, and hardness got the best result in this study. From the Taguchi's analysis, the significant factors effected the performance were composition, sintering temperature, and sintering time.

  11. Black Holes in Galaxy Mergers: Evolution of Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip F. Hopkins; Lars Hernquist; Thomas J. Cox; Tiziana Di Matteo; Paul Martini; Brant Robertson; Volker Springel

    2005-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on numerical simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers, we discuss a model in which quasar activity is tied to the self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes in galaxies. Nuclear inflow of gas attending a galaxy collision triggers a starburst and feeds black hole growth, but for most of the duration of the starburst, the black hole is heavily obscured by surrounding gas and dust which limits the visibility of the quasar, especially at optical and UV wavelengths. Eventually, feedback energy from accretion heats the gas and expels it in a powerful wind, leaving a 'dead quasar'. Between buried and dead phases there is a window during which the galaxy would be seen as a luminous quasar. Because the black hole mass, radiative output, and distribution of obscuring gas and dust all evolve strongly with time, the duration of this phase of observable quasar activity depends on both the waveband and imposed luminosity threshold. We determine the observed and intrinsic lifetimes as a function of luminosity and frequency, and calculate observable lifetimes ~10 Myr for bright quasars in the optical B-band, in good agreement with empirical estimates and much smaller than the black hole growth timescales ~100 Myr, naturally producing a substantial population of 'buried' quasars. However, observed and intrinsic energy outputs converge in the IR and hard X-ray bands as attenuation becomes weaker and chances of observation greatly increase. We obtain the distribution of column densities along sightlines in which the quasar is seen above a given luminosity, and find that our result agrees remarkably well with observed estimates of the column density distribution from the SDSS for appropriate luminosity thresholds. (Abridged)

  12. Kraft black liquor combustion: Advancement in fundamental understanding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clay, D.T.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-generated fuel streams plus purchased fossil fuel and power supply the pulp and paper industry with its energy requirements. The total industry energy use for 1986 was approximately 2.3 Quad (2300 trillion Btus). Self-generated and residue fuels accounted for 57% of the energy requirements. Spent pulping liquors provide the single largest self-generated energy source, approximately one Quad (900 trillion Btus). The pulp and paper industry also leads the nation in cogeneration performance. In 1986 eighty-nine percent (89%) of the 46 billion KWHs generated were produced by cogeneration. Spent pulping liquors supply the single largest fuel source (35%) to these cogeneration facilities. Spent pulping liquors consist of solubilized wood organics, spent inorganic chemicals, and water. Since kraft pulp dominates the North American market, 74%, kraft black liquor is the dominant spent pulping liquor. Effective recovery of high level energy and chemicals from black liquor contributes heavily toward dominance of kraft pulping. The kraft chemical recovery cycle centers around the recovery boiler. Kraft recovery boilers have been commercially available for over 50 years. The potential still exists, however, for significant improvements in energy recovery and black liquor throughput. Potential energy benefits from black liquor combustion research amount to 30 trillion Btus. Energy recovery increases often are an additional benefit from modifications made to increase black liquor throughput. Capacity increases of at least 5% are often achievable. Increased energy productivity of the kraft chemical recovery boiler will come by incorporation of improved fundamental knowledge into the technology used for boiler upgrades and new boiler construction. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  13. EA-186 New England Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015 Business42.1Energy |Final Site-Wide Constellation PowerDiamondOrder authorizing

  14. EA-186-A New England Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015 Business42.1Energy |Final Site-Wide Constellation PowerDiamondOrder

  15. Einstein, Black Holes Gravitational Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Greg

    1 #12;Einstein, Black Holes and Gravitational Waves Gregory B. Cook Wake Forest University 2 #12;Einstein's Miraculous Year: 1905 · Einstein, A. "¨Uber einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light. · Einstein, A. "¨Uber die von der molekularkinetischen

  16. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  17. Diamond RF Switch for Enhanced Communications - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: Potential ApplicationYu, James CowinPhysics

  18. Radio Jets in Galaxies with Actively Accreting Black Holes: new insights from the SDSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guinevere Kauffmann; Timothy M. Heckman; Philip N. Best

    2007-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The majority of nearby radio-loud AGN are found in massive, old elliptical galaxies with weak emission lines. At high redshifts,however, most known radio AGN have strong emission lines. In this paper, we examine a subset of radio AGN with emission lines selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The probability for a nearby radio AGN to have emission lines is a strongly decreasing function of galaxy mass and an increasing function of radio luminosity above 10^25 W/Hz. Emission line and radio luminosities are correlated, but with large dispersion. At a given radio power, AGN with small black holes have higher [OIII] luminosities (which we interpret as higher accretion rates) than AGN with big black holes. However, if we scale both radio and emission line luminosities by the black hole mass, we find a correlation between normalized radio power and accretion rate in Eddington units that is independent of black hole mass. There is also a clear correlation between normalized radio power and the age of the stellar population in the galaxy. Present-day AGN with the highest normalized radio powers are confined to galaxies with small black holes. High-redshift, high radio-luminosity AGN could be explained if big black holes were similarly active at earlier cosmic epochs. To investigate why only a small fraction of emission line AGN become radio loud, we create matched samples of radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN and compare their host galaxy properties and environments. The main difference lies in their environments; our local density estimates are a factor 2 larger around the radio-loud AGN. We propose a scenario in which radio-loud AGN with emission lines are located in galaxies where accretion of both cold and hot gas can occur simultaneously. (Abridged)

  19. Nonlinear harmonic modeling of phemt devices for increased power amplifier efficiencies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strassner, Bernd Herbert

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effiency vs. load state contours with the large black dot representing optimum second harmonic termination (I n(2f)), and the small black dot representing I c(f) = 0. 57Z52. 8' used for power measurements: f = 2. 2 GHz, P, ?= -4. 0 dBm, SS = 67, I s...

  20. MIND: A Black-Box Energy Consumption Model for Disk Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    consumption is becoming a growing concern in data centers. Many energy-conservation techniques have beenMIND: A Black-Box Energy Consumption Model for Disk Arrays Zhuo Liu1,2 , Jian Zhou1 , Weikuan Yu2 with power conservation techniques. Accurate energy consumption and performance statistics are then collected