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1

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract globalinventory of black carbon emissions. Atmos. Environ. 1993,commonly studied form of carbon emissions. Black carbon (BC)

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . Abstract: Black carbon (BC) may play an important role in the global C...

3

Black carbon in the Gulf of Maine : new insights into inputs and cycling of combustion-derived organic carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions of black carbon (BC), the soot and char formed during incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, have increased over the last century and are estimated to be between 8 and 270 Tg BC/yr. BC may affect ...

Flores Cervantes, Déborah Xanat, 1978-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

CARBON OFFSETTING IN A TOURSIM CONTEXT: WHISTLER BC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARBON OFFSETTING IN A TOURSIM CONTEXT: WHISTLER BC by Katie von Gaza Bachelor of Environmental: Carbon offsetting in a Tourism Context: Whistler, BC. Project No.: 471 Examining Committee: Chair 2.2 Carbon Offsetting

5

Multi-Proxy Approach on Black Carbon Characterization and Combustion Products Source Discrimination in Environmental Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental applications of pyrogenic carbon, aka black carbon (BC), have been hampered due to the poor characterization and quantification of environmental BC. This dissertation was dedicated to the better characterization of environmental char...

Kuo, Li-Jung

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

6

ARM - Field Campaign - Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsCharacterization of Black Carbon Mixing State govCampaignsCharacterization of Black Carbon Mixing State Related Campaigns Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State - II 2014.02.15, Sedlacek, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State 2012.11.01 - 2013.06.14 Lead Scientist : Arthur Sedlacek For data sets, see below. Description The objective of the proposed experiments was to characterize the mixing state of black carbon produced in biomass burning using the single particle soot photometer (SP2). The large uncertainty associated with black carbon (BC) direct forcing is due, in part, to the dependence of light absorption of BC-containing particles on the position of the BC aggregate within the particle. It is

7

Emission characteristics of black carbon in anthropogenic and biomass burning plumes over California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuel (FF) combustion and biomass burning (BB), respectively. The enhancements of BC and LSP in BBEmission characteristics of black carbon in anthropogenic and biomass burning plumes over. (2012), Emission characteristics of black carbon in anthropogenic and biomass burning plumes over

Jimenez, Jose-Luis

8

ORIGINAL PAPER Long-term black carbon dynamics in cultivated soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the term BC is used to describe the residual product from incomplete combustion of biomass either by land XPS Introduction Black carbon (BC) is a C-rich organic material derived from incomplete combustion

Lehmann, Johannes

9

Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and known emission factors for black carbon (BC) from South Asia yields 0.7 Tg yrÃ?1 (upper limit of about 1 Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325); KEYWORDS: Soot, black carbon, CO, emissions, India Citation of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions

Dickerson, Russell R.

10

Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

Schwarz, J. P.

11

Trend in Global Black Carbon Emissions from 1960 to 2007  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Black carbon (BC) warms the Earth system by absorbing sunlight and emitting infrared radiation, and by decreasing the ice/snow albedo. ... (2, 3) Therefore, any efforts to reduce BC emission can lead to the dual benefit of slowing down global warming and of protecting human health. ... This work measured PM (EFPM) and EC (EFEC) EF for 9 crop residues and 5 coals in actual rural cooking and coal stoves using the C mass balance method. ...

Rong Wang; Shu Tao; Huizhong Shen; Ye Huang; Han Chen; Yves Balkanski; Olivier Boucher; Philippe Ciais; Guofeng Shen; Wei Li; Yanyan Zhang; Yuanchen Chen; Nan Lin; Shu Su; Bengang Li; Junfeng Liu; Wenxin Liu

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

12

Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks Title Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ban-Weiss, George, Melissa M. Lunden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, and Robert A. Harley Journal Environmental Science and Technology Abstract Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and COB2B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were

14

Black carbon snow albedo reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Black carbon snow albedo reduction Black carbon snow albedo reduction Title Black carbon snow albedo reduction Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Hadley, Odelle L., and Thomas W. Kirchstetter Journal Nature Climate Change Volume 2 Pagination 437-440 Abstract Climate models indicate that the reduction of surface albedo caused by black-carbon contamination of snow contributes to global warming and near-worldwide melting of ice1, 2. In this study, we generated and characterized pure and black-carbon-laden snow in the laboratory and verified that black-carbon contamination appreciably reduces snow albedo at levels that have been found in natural settings1, 3, 4. Increasing the size of snow grains in our experiments decreased snow albedo and amplified the radiative perturbation of black carbon, which justifies the aging-related positive feedbacks that are included in climate models. Moreover, our data provide an extensive verification of the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation model1, which will be included in the next assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change5.

15

6, 34193463, 2006 Black carbon or  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous;ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $\\textnormal W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $\\textnormal W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $\\textnormal W^{-1} \\textnormal m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $\\textnormal PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

Mahajan, Salil [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Hack, James J [ORNL; Truesdale, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Can Reducing Black Carbon Emissions Counteract Global Warming?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Can Reducing Black Carbon Emissions Counteract Global Warming? ... It has been known for over 30 years that aerosols affect the Earth's radiative balance:? reflective particles (such as sulfates) have a cooling effect, and light-absorbing particles (such as BC) warm the system (3). ... Although Figure 3 shows many of the high-emitting devices that contribute most to global BC concentrations, much of the world's fuel is burned in low-emitting technologies such as pulverized coal burners and gasoline vehicles with current technology. ...

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

18

Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the past four decades: An empirical analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use data from a unique 40-year record of 150 urban and rural stations in the ''Black Smoke and SO2 Network'' in Great Britain to infer information about sources of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The data show a rapid decline of ambient atmospheric BC between 1962 and the early 1990s that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly fixed emission factors. This provides empirical confirmation of the existence and large impact of a time-dependent ''technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amounts in Great Britain comparable to those in western and central Europe, with diesel engines being the principal present source. From comparison of BC and SO2 data we infer that current BC emission inventories understate true emissions in the U.K. by about a factor of two. The results imply that there is the potential for improved technology to achieve large reduction of global ambient BC. There is a need for comparable monitoring of BC in other countries.

Novakov, T.; Hansen, J.E.

2004-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

19

Decadal growth of black carbon emissions in India - article no. L02807  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Geographical Information System (GIS) based methodology has been used to construct the black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Indian geographical region. The distribution of emissions from a broader level to a spatial resolution of 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid has been carried out by considering micro level details and activity data of fossil fuels and bio-fuels. Our calculated total BC emissions were 1343.78 Gg and 835.50 Gg for the base years 2001 and 1991 respectively with a decadal growth of around 61%, which is highly significant. The district level analysis shows a diverse spatial distribution with the top 10% emitting districts contributing nearly 50% of total BC emission. Coal contributes more than 50% of total BC emission. All the metropolitan cities show high BC emissions due to high population density giving rise to high vehicular emissions and more demand of energy.

Sahu, S.K.; Beig, G.; Sharma, C. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Sensitivity of stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon to aerosol size and altitude of injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geoengineering with black carbon (BC) aerosols using a general circulation model with fixed sea surface would enhance the Arctic ozone hole. Using diesel fuel to produce the aerosols is likely prohibitively. Engineered particles, such as resonant scatterers or self-levitating particles, have been proposed

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of fine black carbon (BC) particles, the principal light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol, have varied during the past century in response to changes of fossil-fuel utilization, technology developments, and emission controls. We estimate historical trends of fossil-fuel BC emissions in six regions that represent about two-thirds of present day emissions and extrapolate these to global emissions from 1875 onward. Qualitative features in these trends show rapid increase in the latter part of the 1800s, the leveling off in the first half of the 1900s, and the re-acceleration in the past 50 years as China and India developed. We find that historical changes of fuel utilization have caused large temporal change in aerosol absorption, and thus substantial change of aerosol single scatter albedo in some regions, which suggests that BC may have contributed to global temperature changes in the past century. This implies that the BC history needs to be represented realistically in climate change assessments.

Novakov, T.; Ramanathan, V.; Hansen, J.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Sato, M.; Sinton, J.E.; Sathaye, J.A.

2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

22

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOAA/ESRL. Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Annual Mean Data.H. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract globalanalysis of black carbon in soils. Global Biogeochem. Cycle.

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

The structure of the carbon black flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON BLACK FLAME A Dissertation By W1 111 ami Kermit Anderson THEHSR UCOF Approval as to style and content recommended Head of tiie Department of Chemistry A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural... and Mechanical College of. Texas in Parti ail Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON BLACK FLAME Major Subject: Chemistry AB William Hermit Anderson:\\ t * August 1945 THE STRUCTURE OF THE. CARBON...

Anderson, W. Kermi

1945-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Extraneous Carbon Assessments in Radiocarbon Measurements of Black Carbon in Environmental Matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rived (black/elemental) carbon in soils and sediments usingbon measurements of black carbon in aerosols and oceanMWI, Noack AG. 2000. Black carbon in soils and sediments:

Coppola, Alysha; Ziolkowski, L. A.; Druffel, E. R. M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

2007-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

26

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Black Carbon and the Carbon Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reduces net CO 2 release by permanent deforestation...constitute a substantial fraction of the “missing carbon...estimate of oxygen release assuming 10% of...constitute a substantial fraction of sedimentary organic...formation by vegetation fires may be important...from soils becoming airborne by wind erosion...

Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch

1998-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

28

Black Carbon Soot Impact on Snow Albedo: A Laboratory Investigation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Black Carbon Soot Impact on Snow Albedo: A Laboratory Investigation Black Carbon Soot Impact on Snow Albedo: A Laboratory Investigation Speaker(s): Odelle Hadley Date: August 13, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3075 This presentation examines the changing cryosphere and specifically the role of black carbon on the reflectivity of snow. Small amounts of black carbon in snow purportedly contribute to a reduction in snow albedo, contributing to regional climate change and early onset of melting. Our current research focuses on the connection between black carbon and albedo reduction. This presentation will describe our laboratory experiments wherein we make and characterize pure and contaminated snow and assess the black carbon snow albedo reduction as a function of black carbon mixing ratio and snow grain size. Experimental results are compared to verify or

29

Inferring Black Carbon Concentrations in Particulate Organic Matter by Observing Pyrene Fluorescence Losses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inferring Black Carbon Concentrations in Particulate Organic Matter by Observing Pyrene Fluorescence Losses ... For example, most atmospheric scientists are interested in the “blackness” of aerosols and the resultant effect on the radiative heat balance (3, 7), while oceanographers and soil scientists are interested in the refractory properties of BC in soils and sediments influencing its role in carbon cycling (5). ... Studies since the late 1970s and early 1980s have suggested that absorption into biogenic and diagenetic organic matter is a key process controlling the fate and effects of hydrophobic organic pollutants (8, 9), and this process has been described using a linear sorption model where Kd is the solid?water distribution coefficient (L/kgsolid), and this parameter is estimated using the product of the total organic carbon (TOC) fraction (fTOC, kgTOC/kgsediment) and the TOC-normalized distribution coefficient (KTOC, L/kgTOC). ...

D. Xanat Flores-Cervantes; Christopher M. Reddy; Philip M. Gschwend

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

30

Evaluation of Preindustrial to Present-day Black Carbon and its Albedo Forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against the observations including 12 ice core records, a long-term surface mass concentrations and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using the NCAR Community Land and Sea-Ice model 4 with prescribed meteorology from 1996-2000, which includes the SNICAR BC-snow model. We evaluated the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations to using recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to the differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology among models; 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However,models agree well on 2.5~3 times increase in the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day, which matches with the 2.5 times increase in BC emissions. We find a large model diversity at both NH and SH high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Jungfrauch and Ispra. However, the models fail to capture the Arctic BC seasonality due tosevere underestimations during winter and spring. Compared to recent snowpack measurements, the simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2-3 of observations except for Greenland and Arctic Ocean. However, model and observation differ widely due to missing interannual variations in emissions and possibly due to the choice of the prescribed meteorology period (i.e., 1996-2000).

Lee, Y. H.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, Drew; Berntsen, T.; Bisiauxs, M.; Cao, J.; Collins, W. J.; Curran, M.; Edwards, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; McConnell, J.R.; Ming, J.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Thevenon, F.; Xu, B.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

31

Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions Liquid Hydrogen. Note: Black carbon does not deplete ozone. What happens is the black carbon emissions from the rocket. Other black carbon emissions: The number one contributor to black carbon is burning biomass. Also

Toohey, Darin W.

32

Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This measurement characterizes the types of BC emissions that result in near­surface BC­ containing particles in a region that is dominated by biomass and open pit/stove cooking. Specifically, examine three primary BC emission sources: (i) urban setting (e.g., fossil fuel emissions); and (ii) biomass burning. Source (i) are captured at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bangalore. Biomass emissions (ii) contains a series of 1­2 day measurement excursions to the rural area surrounding Bangalore.

Sedlacek, Arthur; S, Satheesh; Springston, Stephen

33

4, 34853533, 2004 Black carbon from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-defined BC residence times. Here, the global BC cycle including emissions, transport, and re- moval emissions J. Hendricks 1 , B. K¨archer 1 , A. D¨opelheuer 2, * , J. Feichter 3 , U. Lohmann 4 , and D´osfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico Received: 19 April 2004 ­ Accepted: 25 May 2004

Boyer, Edmond

34

8, 98839929, 2008 Black carbon at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Earth's atmo-25 sphere. It is emitted from incomplete combustion, for example, fossil fuel combustion-friendly Version Interactive Discussion and biomass burning. The roles of BC in the atmosphere have been growing

Boyer, Edmond

35

Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Traditional and an Improved Cookstove Title Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Traditional and an Improved Cookstove Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6062E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., Chelsea Preble, Odelle L. Hadley, and Ashok J. Gadgil Keywords aethalometer, Berkeley Darfur Stove, black carbon, carbon monoxide, climate change, DustTrak, global warming, improved cookstoves, indoor air quality, LBNL Stove Testing Facility, particulate matter, photoacoustic absorption spectrometer, pollutant emission factor, three-stone fire Abstract Traditional methods of cooking in developing regions of the world emit pollutants that

36

Aged black carbon identified in marine dissolved organic carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pool in the northeast Pacific Ocean, Deep Sea Res. , Part I,?445‰ in the deep NE Pacific Ocean (Table S1). The Suwanneein the northeast Pacific Ocean. If the BC in the Amazon

Ziolkowski, Lori A; Druffel, Ellen R.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

A 700 year sediment record of black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near the EMEP air monitoring station in Aspvreten, Sweden  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In view of poor constraints on historical combustion emissions, past environmental loadings of black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were reconstructed from dated lake sediment cores collected 70 km south of Stockholm, Sweden. Compared to several dramatic variations over the recent 150 years, the preindustrial loadings were steady within {+-}50% through the entire medieval with BC fluxes of 0.071 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} and PAH fluxes of 6 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. In the wood-burning dominated century leading up to the industrial revolution around 1850, increasing BC fluxes were leading PAH fluxes. BC fluxes reached their millennial-scale maximum around 1920, whereas PAH fluxes increased exponentially to its record maximum around 1960, 50-fold above preindustrial values. For 1920-1950, BC fluxes consistently decreased as PAH fluxes kept increasing. Coal and coke represented >50% of the Swedish energy market in the 1930s. Combined with sharply decreasing (1,7-)/(1,7{+-}2,6-dimethylphenanthrene), indicative of diminishing wood combustion, and decreasing methylphenanthrenes/phenanthrene, indicative of higher-temperature combustion (coal instead of wood), the sediment archive suggests that the relative BC/PAH emission factors thus are lower for coal than for wood combustion. For the first time, both BC and PAH fluxes decreased after 1960. This trend break is a testament to the positive effects of decreasing reliance on petroleum fuels and a number of legislative actions aimed at curbing emissions and by 1990, the loading of BC was back at preindustrial levels, whereas that of PAH were the lowest since the 1910s. However, for the most recent period (1990-2004) the BC and PAH fluxes are no longer decreasing. 55 refs., 3 figs.

Marie Elmquist; Zdenek Zencak; Oerjan Gustafsson [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Applied Environmental Science

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Oh Canada! B.C. ratifies North America's first carbon tax  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

British Columbia began collecting increased tax revenue on fossil fuels on July 1 with a promise to rebate those taxes through reduced income and business tax rates. This 'revenue recycling' plan makes little progress toward the province's goal to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions 33% by 2020, yet it is hailed by proponents as a legislative milestone. Others believe BC residents are victims of another governmental 'bait and switch' program. This paper examines the legislation. 2 figs.

Peltier, R.

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

matter, BC from fossil/bio-fuel and biomass sources for theµgm ?3 for BC from fossil/bio-fuel over India (4 ? to 40 ? Nemissions for 1990, fossil/bio-fuel BC decreases over Europe

Menon, Surabi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Infrared spectra of carbon monoxide adsorbed on palladium black  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors investigate the heterogeneous adsorption of carbon monoxide and the concurrent catalytic and sorptive properties of palladium black from the standpoint of a comprehensive analysis of the infrared spectra of the reaction pathways and their various products as well as the pressure dependence of the line behavior at various wavelengths.

Vozdvizhenskii, V.F.; Levintova, T.D.; Sokol'skii, D.V.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

NSF GA-32589X I CHARACTERISTICS OF CARBON BLACK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for years. The amount of solar energy which can be absorbed by carbon black and transmitted to the air and the reduced solar radiation available inside the cloud. Such problems are to be expected when attempting particles in aerosol form spread artificially in the atmosphere to absorb solar radiation and hence

Gray, William

42

Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ('biochar'). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. BET-N{sub 2} surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous, but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved, (ii) in amorphous chars the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed, (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases, and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. The molecular variations among the different char categories translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents.

Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P.S.; Johnson, M.G.; Kleber, M.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Black Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for different materials and combustion temperatures. It is less than 1% for thermally altered biomass at combusBlack Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product? Simone resistant product of incomplete combustion, and consists out of a range of combustion products such as char

Fischlin, Andreas

44

Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black-based materials that have good catalytic activity, but the electrical conductivity of the AC is poor compared as a binder, as opposed to Nafion with Pt, which greatly reduces the cost of the cathode materials. AC

45

Fracture properties of natural rubber filled with hybrid carbon black/nanoclay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hybrid carbon black (CB) and nanoclay (NC) in a rubber matrix have provided superior mechanical performances over conventional composites. Yet the fracture and fatigue properties have...

Yuanbo Liu; Li Li; Qi Wang; Xin Zhang

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric black carbon Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 32 (1997) 401--407 Carbon blackhigh density polyethylene Summary: . The carbon black was then heated to 900 C in a nitrogen atmosphere and...

47

A Sensitivity Study on Modeling Black Carbon in Snow and its Radiative Forcing over the Arctic and Northern China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon in snow (BCS) simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is evaluated against measurements over Northern China and the Arctic, and its sensitivity to atmospheric deposition and two parameters that affect post-depositional enrichment is explored. The BCS concentration is overestimated (underestimated) by a factor of two in Northern China (Arctic) in the default model, but agreement with observations is good over both regions in the simulation with improvements in BC transport and deposition. Sensitivity studies indicate that uncertainty in the melt-water scavenging efficiency (MSE) parameter substantially affects BCS and its radiative forcing (by a factor of 2-7) in the Arctic through post-depositional enrichment. The MSE parameter has a relatively small effect on the magnitude of BCS seasonal cycle but can alter its phase in Northern China. The impact of the snow aging scaling factor (SAF) on BCS, partly through the post-depositional enrichment effect, shows more complex latitudinal and seasonal dependence. Similar to MSE, SAF affects more significantly the magnitude (phase) of BCS season cycle over the Arctic (Northern China). While uncertainty associated with the representation of BC transport and deposition processes in CAM5 is more important than that associated with the two snow model parameters in Northern China, the two uncertainties have comparable effect in the Arctic.

Qian, Yun; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Flanner, M. G.; Rasch, Philip J.

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

48

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

developing countries are now gaining more attention due to their role in reducing soot BC for climate change

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Nanowire Micronetworks from Carbon-Black Nanoparticles | Advanced Photon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Key Step in Repairing DNA Double-Strand Breaks A Key Step in Repairing DNA Double-Strand Breaks An X-ray Rainbow An Insulating Breakthrough Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Nanowire Micronetworks from Carbon-Black Nanoparticles JANUARY 11, 2007 Bookmark and Share Fig. 1. Diagram showing CB segregation to triple junctions during press sintering. Inset: USAXS image acquired from a press-sintered CB/PMMA sample with 1% CB mass fraction. Self-assembly is likely to play a decisive role in producing nanoscale elements for three dimensional (3D) electronic and nanoscale electro-mechanical systems. Until now, however, the difficult problem of fabricating a complex, interconnected 3D system of conductive nanoscale

50

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

51

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PYROLYSIS biomass lignin ? ? ? ? ? guaiacyl units ?soot yield is the cellulose/lignin ratio (Equations 11 andoxidation method to remove lignin and non-BC aromatic

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Are the Effects of Black Carbon Overestimated in Climate Models? | U.S. DOE  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Are the Effects of Black Carbon Overestimated in Climate Models? Are the Effects of Black Carbon Overestimated in Climate Models? Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) News & Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301) 903-5051 E: sc.ber@science.doe.gov More Information » September 2012 Are the Effects of Black Carbon Overestimated in Climate Models? Atmospheric black carbon may not cause as much warming of the climate as we thought. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe

53

Temporal and angular analysis of nonlinear scattering in carbon-black suspensions in water and ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The physical origin of the nonlinear scattering of light induced by the focusing of intense laser pulses onto carbon-black suspensions (CBS’s) is discussed through the...

Durand, Olivier; Grolier-Mazza, Valérie; Frey, Robert

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Picosecond-resolution study of nonlinear scattering in carbon black suspensions in water and ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The physical origin of the nonlinear scattering of light induced by focusing of intense laser pulses onto carbon black suspensions (CBS’s) is discussed through the interpretation of...

Durand, O; Grolier-Mazza, V; Frey, R

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols T. Novakov,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hansen,3 T. W. Kirchstetter,1 M. Sato,3 J. E. Sinton,1 and J. A. Sathaye1 Received 26 September 2002, M. Sato, J. E. Sinton, and J. A. Sathaye, Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon

56

Size and shape of crystallites and internal stresses in carbon blacks T. Ungara,*, J. Gubiczab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is generally used as a filler in rubber production to modify the mechanical properties of the tire. Although sites present on the surface determine reinfor- cing properties of carbon black in rubber [7]. Energy

Gubicza, Jenõ

57

Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

influence of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosolssplit Fossil fuel sources Bio fuel sources Open burningemissions from fossil-plus-bio-fuel and from open biomass

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Responsibility of electric resistance of polyethyleneimine-grafted carbon black against alcohol vapor and humidity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystalline polyethyleneimine (PEI(C)) was successfully grafted onto carbon black surface by direct condensation of imino groups of PEI with carboxyl groups on the surface using N,N?-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as a...

Norio Tsubokawa; Sachio Yoshikawa; Kiyotaka Maruyama; Tomoaki Ogasawara…

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Black Carbon-Inclusive Modeling Approaches for Estimating the Aquatic Fate of Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three versions of the model were developed in which sediment-water partitioning was described using (i) an amorphous organic carbon (AOC) partitioning sorption model without BC sorption, (ii) a combined AOC and BC sorption model based on the Freundlich isotherm, and (iii) a combined BC-AOC model based on the Langmuir isotherm. ... However, for estimation of KTOC or dissolved water concentrations, both versions of the combined AOC and BC sorption models provided greatly improved estimates compared to the AOC-only model. ... Multimedia fate models typically assume that amorphous organic carbon (AOC) is entirely responsible for the sorbing capacity of solids for hydrophobic compounds and that the solid-water distribution coefficient Kd (LW/kgdw) can be readily estimated from the mass fraction of organic carbon in the solid and the organic carbon normalized solid-water partition coefficient (KAOC) (1), where fAOC is the mass fraction of AOC in dried soil or sediment and KAOC (LW/kgAOC) is the organic carbon normalized solid–water partition coefficient. ...

James M. Armitage; Ian T. Cousins; N. Johan Persson; Örjan Gustafsson; Gerard Cornelissen; Tuomo Saloranta; Dag Broman; Kristoffer Næs

2008-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

60

Symmetry Properties of Single-Walled BC2N Nanotubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The symmetry properties of the single-walled BC2N nanotubes were investigated. All the BC2N nanotubes possess nonsymmorphic line groups. In contrast with the carbon and boron nitride nanotubes, armchair and zigzag BC2N nanotubes belong to different line groups, depending on the index n (even or odd) and the vector chosen. The number of Raman- active phonon modes is almost twice that of the infrared-active phonon modes for all kinds of BC2N nanotubes.

Pan, Hui [ORNL; Feng, Yuan Ping [National University of Singapore; Lin, Jainyi [Institute of Chemical and Engineering, Singapore

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon aerosol plays a unique and important role in Earth’s climate system. Black carbon is a type of carbonaceous material with a unique combination of physical properties. Predominant sources are combustion related; namely, fossil fuels for transportation, solid fuels for industrial and residential uses, and open burning of biomass. Total global emissions of black carbon using bottom-up inventory methods are 7500 Gg yr-1 in the year 2000 with an uncertainty range of 2000 to 29000. This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption, influence on liquid, mixed-phase, and ice clouds, and deposition on snow and ice. These effects are calculated with models, but when possible, they are evaluated with both microphysical measurements and field observations. Global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon is too low in many models, and should be increased by about about 60%. After this scaling, the best estimate for the industrial-era (1750 to 2005) direct radiative forcing of black carbon is +0.43 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of (+0.17, +0.68) W m-2. Total direct forcing by all black carbon sources in the present day is estimated as +0.49 (+0.20, +0.76) W m-2. Direct radiative forcing alone does not capture important rapid adjustment mechanisms. A framework is described and used for quantifying climate forcings and their rapid responses and feedbacks. The best estimate of industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon through all forcing mechanisms is +0.77 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of +-0.06 to +1.53 W m-2. Thus, there is a 96% probability that black carbon emissions, independent of co-emitted species, have a positive forcing and warm the climate. With a value of +0.77 W m-2, black carbon is likely the second most important individual climate-forcing agent in the industrial era, following carbon dioxide. Sources that emit black carbon also emit other short- lived species that may either cool or warm climate. Climate forcings from co-emitted species are estimated and used in the framework described herein. When the principal effects of co- emissions, including cooling agents such as sulfur dioxide, are included in net forcing, energy-related sources (fossil-fuel and biofuel) have a net climate forcing of +0.004 (-0.62 to +0.57) W m-2 during the first year after emission. For a few of these sources, such as diesel engines and possibly residential biofuels, warming is strong enough that eliminating all emissions from these sources would reduce net climate forcing (i.e., produce cooling). When open burning emissions, which emit high levels of organic matter, are included in the total, the best estimate of net industrial-era climate forcing by all black- carbon-rich sources becomes slightly negative (-0.08 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of -1.23 to +0.81 W m-2). The uncertainties in net climate forcing from black-carbon-rich sources are substantial, largely due to lack of knowledge about cloud interactions with both black carbon and co-emitted organic carbon. In prioritizing potential black-carbon mitigation actions, non-science factors, such as technical feasibility, costs, policy design, and implementation feasibility play important roles. The major sources of black carbon are presently in different stages with regard to the feasibility for near-term mitigation. This assessment, by evaluating the large number and complexity of the associated physical and radiative processes in black-carbon climate forcing, sets a baseline from which to improve future climate forcing estimates.

Bond, Tami C.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Fahey, D. W.; Forster, Piers; Berntsen, T.; DeAngelo, B. J.; Flanner, M. G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Karcher, B.; Koch, Dorothy; Kinne, Stefan; Kondo, Yutaka; Quinn, P. K.; Sarofim, Marcus; Schultz, Martin; Schulz, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Bellouin, N.; Guttikunda, S. K.; Hopke, P. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Kaiser, J. W.; Klimont, Z.; Lohmann, U.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Shindell, Drew; Storelvmo, Trude; Warren, Stephen G.; Zender, C. S.

2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

62

Responsiveness of electric resistance of polymer-grafted carbon black/alumina gel composite against solvent vapor and solute in solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbon black/alumina gel composites were prepared by sol-gel reaction of aluminum isopropoxide in the presence of polymer-grafted carbon black. The electric resistance of the alumina gel composite from polyme...

Norio Tsubokawa; Junya Inaba; Katsunori Arai; Kazuhiro Fujiki

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Natural Oxidation of Black Carbon in Soils: Changes in Molecular...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon in Soils: Changes in Molecular Form and Surface Charge along a Climosequence. Abstract: The aim of this work was to investigate changes in molecular form and surface...

64

Fluorinated carbon blacks : influence of the morphology of the starting material on the fluorination mechanism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, n° 2, p. 217-220. Abstract : The effect of fluorination, using CF4 r.f. plasmas, has been studied, we used CF4 r.f. plasma for the fluorination of carbon blacks and investigated, by X in r.f. plasma conditions was carried out in a SE-80 barrel reactor (Plasma Tech. System). CF4 gas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

65

Distant origins of Arctic black carbon: A Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

profile, cloud temperature and amount, the seasonal cycle, and the tropopause level and accelerating polar ice melting. We use the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model to investigate is generally assumed. Citation: Koch, D., and J. Hansen (2005), Distant origins of Arctic black carbon

66

Design of a bench-scale apparatus for processing carbon black derived from scrap tires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(incineration) or as a filler for asphalt. Incineration has been employed in an attempt to harness the high calorific value of scrap tires. However, disposal via incineration may not maximize the potential economic recovery of energy and chemical materials... into liquid fuels and forms of solid carbon such as carbon black and activated carbon. Previous work in this area utilizes pyrolysis. ' There are several commercial, pilot, and bench-scale tire 2-4, 6-8 pyrolysis systems in use today. Many of these employ...

Woodrow, Philip Travis

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

CHARTING BC'S ECONOMIC FUTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHARTING BC'S ECONOMIC FUTURE discussionguide 100communityconversations #12;1 Thank you for agreeing to participate in this Community Conversation about BC's economic future. Each year Simon Fraser is "Charting BC's Economic Future". Faced with an increasingly competitive global economy, it is more important

Kavanagh, Karen L.

68

Black carbon refractive index and morphology: a Laboratory study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.9 Coal 6.9 Cooking processes 4.9 Agricultural waste 4.8 Crop residues 4 Extra-tropical forest 2.9 Dung carbon (see Table). We intend to include some bulk samples of bio- mass burning. Due to the wide range of burning conditions; these cannot be simulated accurately in the laboratory. We thus intend to concentrate

Oxford, University of

69

Effect of composite microstructure on electrical and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl acetate) composites with carbon black and clay.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electrical and mechanical behavior of carbon black filled poly(vinyl acetate) latex-based and solution-based polymer composites was examined. A set of experiments were performed to distinguish composites with a segregated network (emulsion...

Miriyala, Sethu M.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Structure and Oxidation Activity Correlations for Carbon Blacks and Diesel Soot  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work focuses on a comprehensive investigation of structure–activity relationships for a diesel engine soot sample (Corning) and 10 commercially available carbon black samples. ... Su and colleagues used high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to study the relation between the microstructure and oxidation behavior of soot from exhausts of different heavy-duty diesel engines and discovered the microstructure-controlled oxidation behavior of diesel soot. ... FE-SEM images (see Figure S1 of the Supporting Information) of some carbon blacks (Monarch 1400, Monarch 280, and Printex-U) and diesel soot-1 show the agglomerates, which are composed of their fundamental units called primary particles. ...

Lakshitha Pahalagedara; Hom Sharma; Chung-Hao Kuo; Saminda Dharmarathna; Ameya Joshi; Steven L. Suib; Ashish B. Mhadeshwar

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

71

The Carbon balance of sorghum from anthesis to black layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measured Changes in Y and m The Integrated Carbon Balance Parameters dS, dW, and dSm as Functions of Biomass Page 87 96 Effects of Tissue Composi tion on Y g V CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES VI TA 101 117 122 125 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2. 1 2... dSm and dR plotted as functions of biomass, W. 4. 7 Plot of organ biomass, by organ, over time. 97 98 109 4. 8 Plot of the total biomass of a simulated plant, over time, in the model of Y 9 4. 9 Plot of the change in Y due to a simulated...

Stahl, Randal Scott

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

72

Dielectric study of Poly(styrene-co-butadiene) Composites with Carbon Black, Silica, and Nanoclay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dielectric study of Poly(styrene-co-butadiene) Composites with Carbon Black, Silica, and Nanoclay ... Given the possible nanoscale dimensions and high surface to volume ratio of the added particles, the glassy interphase can comprise a large fraction of the composite and can strongly influence the mechanical properties of the composite. ... The potential of nanoclays to serve as matrix sensitive structure-directing agents in tailor-made materials is demonstrated. ...

Loan T. Vo; Spiros H. Anastasiadis; Emmanuel P. Giannelis

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

73

EVOLUTION OF BLACK CARBON MIXING-STATE IN AN URBAN-BIOGENIC ENVIRONMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), the Department of Energy Gulfstream-1 (DOE G-1) and the incandescent signal peak from the BC core (BC; mass equivalent diameter = 60 - 650 nm). For nascent soot that must first "boil" off before the BC core can incandesce. It is this time ­ to vaporize the coating

74

Evaluation of Immobilized Enzyme in a High-Surface-Area Biofuel Cell Electrode Made of Redox-Polymer-Grafted Carbon Black  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, nanocarbon materials like carbon black, carbon nanotubes, and carbon aerogel particles have been used by several groups to form three-dimensional electrodes. ... The TEM micrograph of the GOD-coated electrode was shown in Figure 2A. Figure 2B shows magnified image of the dotted frame in Figure 2A. The location of GOD and carbon black in Figure 2B was indicated in Figure 2C. A few tens of stained GOD, which were small black spots with a diameter of about 5 nm, were dispersed on each carbon black particle, which was a gray spot with a diameter of about 30 nm. ...

Takanori Tamaki; Atsushi Hiraide; Faizly B. Asmat; Hidenori Ohashi; Taichi Ito; Takeo Yamaguchi

2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

75

Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Manufacture of Carbon Materials of Aerogel Type from Carbon Blacks of Various Origins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence exerted by the structure and origin of samples of technical grade carbon, conditions of their thermal treatment (temperature, nature of a gas medium) and preliminary impregnation with activating ...

S. S. Stavitskaya; V. E. Goba; A. N. Tomashevskaya…

77

Uptake of Reactive Black 5 by pumice and walnut activated carbon: Chemistry and adsorption mechanisms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The potential of using pumice and walnut wood activated carbon as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The Langmuir isotherm fit to the data specified the presence of two different natures of adsorption sites with different binding energies on the AC-W surface. Kinetic modelling showed that the adsorption behaviour and mechanism of RB5 for both adsorbents is believed to happen via surface adsorption followed by diffusion into the pores of the AC-W and pumice. The main adsorption mechanisms are hydrogen bonding, electrostatic bonding and n–? interactions.

Behzad Heibati; Susana Rodriguez-Couto; Abdeltif Amrane; Mohd. Rafatullah; Alaa Hawari; Mohammad A. Al-Ghouti

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

A Comparative Study on AC Conductivity and Dielectric Behavior of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Polyaniline Coated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Filled High Density Polyethylene-Carbon Black Nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an experimental investigation on AC conductivity and dielectric behavior of carbon black reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE-CB) and HDPE-CB filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-CB-HDPE) and Polyaniline (PAni) coated MWNTs-CB-HDPE nanocomposites. The electrical properties such as dielectric constant ({epsilon}'), dissipation factor (tan {delta}) and AC conductivity ({sigma}{sub ac}) of nanocomposites have been measured with reference to the weight fraction (0.5 and 1 wt% MWNTs), frequency (75 KHz-30 MHz), temperature (25-90 deg. C) and sea water ageing. The experimental results showed that the increased AC conductivity and dielectric constant of the nanocomposites were influenced by PAni coated MWNTs in HDPE-CB nanocomposites. The value of dielectric constant and tan {delta} decreased with increasing frequency. Further more, above 5 MHz the AC conductivity increases drastically whereas significant effect on tan {delta} was observed in less than 1 MHz.

Dinesh, P. [Department of Electronics and Communication, Nagarjuna College of Engineering and Technology, Bangalore-562 110 Karnataka (India); Department of Electronics and Communication, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore-570 006, Karnataka (India); Renukappa, N. M. [Department of Electronics and Communication, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore-570 006, Karnataka (India); Siddaramaiah [Department of Polymer Science and Technology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore-570 006, Karnataka (India); Lee, J. H. [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 561 756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeevananda, T. [R and D Centre, Department of Chemistry, R.N.S. Institute of Technology, Bangalore-560 061, Karnataka (India)

2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

79

Black carbon in Arctic snow and its effect on surface albedo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

= 1000 µm Typical values of BC in Arctic snow (ppb): Greenland 2-3 Canada 10 Siberia 20-25 #12 = 1000 µm Typical values of BC in Arctic snow (ppb): Greenland 2-3 Canada 10 Siberia 20-25 Snow grain large areas of snow are exposed to significant solar energy (snow albedo is less important in winter

80

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 41554163 Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Britain comparable to those in western and central Europe, with diesel engines being the principal present as it is responsible for the brown appearance of urban hazes and soiling of buildings. Soot in general and BC

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Immobilization of Hydroquinone through a Spacer to Polymer Grafted on Carbon Black for a High-Surface-Area Biofuel Cell Electrode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaluation of three different spacer arms tethering hydroquinone to linear polymers revealed that only the hydrophilic and flexible di(ethylene oxide) spacer made it possible for immobilized hydroquinone to transfer electrons from glucose oxidase (GOD) to an electrode; direct immobilization and an alkyl spacer did not. ... The carbon black used was Ketjen black (Ketjen Black International Co. Ltd, Japan) with a particle diameter of about 30 nm. ... FDH adsorbs strongly and stably on Ketjen black (KB) particles that were modified on carbon papers (CP) and produces the catalytic current with the max. ...

Takanori Tamaki; Taichi Ito; Takeo Yamaguchi

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

82

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

83

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report executive summary #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

84

Hydrotreatment of petroleum vaccum residue with NiMo supported on carbon black of hollow nano-particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogenation with NiMo catalyst on the carbon black of hollow sphere was very active to decrease asphaltene(hexane insoluble:HI) from 10% to 1% in the VR under the conditions of 340{degrees}C, 4h, and 10 MPa of H2. Non-protonated-aromatic carbons of remaining HI were converted to protonated carbons with increase of naphthenic carbons observed by {sup 13}C-NMR. Metallic compounds principally contained in HI were also converted to be hexane soluble(HS). It revealed that some of the metal containing compounds trapped in the asphaltene micelle are liberated from the micelle through the catalytic hydrogenation under mild conditions. The present catalyst was found much more active for the hydrogenative conversion of asphaltene and metallic compounds as well as the demetallation than the conventional demetallation catalysts, suggesting that NiMo/KB catalyst is highly dispersed to interact more intimately with asphaltene molecules.

Yamashita, N.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Effects of subchronic inhalation exposure to carbon black nanoparticles in the nasal airways of laboratory rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nose can be an efficient filter for inhaled gases, vapours and particles that may be harmful to the lung. Nasal airways may also be targets for injury caused by inhaled toxicants. To investigate the nasal toxicity of carbon black nanoparticles (CB), rats were exposed to 0, 1, 7 or 50 mg/m³ of high surface area CB (HSCB; primary particle size 17 nm; particle surface area 300 m²/g) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 13 week. Additional rats were exposed to 50 mg/m³ of low surface area CB (LSCB; primary particle size 70 nm; particle surface area 37 m²/g). Rats were sacrificed 1 day, 13 week, or 11 months postexposure (PE). Rats exposed to mid- or high-dose HSCB had nasal inflammatory and epithelial lesions at one day PE. HSCB-induced nasal inflammation resolved by 13 week PE, but some nasal epithelial lesions were still present in rats at 11 months after high-dose HSCB exposure. Low-dose HSCB or high-dose LSCB induced only minimal epithelial lesions that were resolved by 13 week PE. Results indicate that incidence, severity, and persistence of CB-induced nasal toxicity in rats is dependent on exposure concentration, particle surface area, and time PE. Effects of inhaled CB on human nasal airways are yet to be determined.

Priya Santhanam; James G. Wagner; Alison Elder; Robert Gelein; Janet M. Carter; Kevin E. Driscoll; Gunter Oberdorster; Jack R. Harkema

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Sensitivity of global-scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol - article no. L14701  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is likely that greenhouse gas emissions caused most of the global mean warming observed during the 20th century, and that sulphate aerosols counteracted this warming to some extent, by reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby cooling the planet. However, the importance of another aerosol, namely black carbon, could be underestimated. Here we include fossil fuel black carbon aerosol in a detection and attribution analysis with greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols. We find that most of the warming of the 20th Century is attributable to changes in greenhouse gases offset by net aerosol cooling. However the pattern of temperature change due to black carbon is currently indistinguishable from the sulphate aerosol pattern of temperature change. The attribution of temperature change due to greenhouse gases is not sensitive to the inclusion of black carbon. We can be confident about the overall attribution of total aerosols, but less so about the contributions of black carbon emissions to 20th century climate change. This work presents no evidence that black carbon aerosol forcing outweighed the cooling due to sulphate aerosol.

Jones, G.S.; Jones, A.; Roberts, D.L.; Stott, P.A.; Williams, K.D. [Hadley Center for Climate Predictions & Research, Exeter (United Kingdom)

2005-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

87

BC2 Chicane BPM Commissioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC2 Chicane BPM Commissioning 01-12-09 Goals: e-5 4e-5 to 9e-5 7e-5 2e-4 2e-4 + 1e-2 Energy resolution 80 mm25 mBC2 BPM 1.3 GHz front-end 1 mm2 mBC2 BPM optical front-end 2 mm15 m to 30 mPhotomultiplier Tube Monitor 10 cm70 mOut-of-loop Vector Sum

88

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

90

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

92

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

93

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

94

Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the atmosphere from biomass burning, Climatic Change, 2,Chemistry and Physics Biomass burning contribution to black2011 Y. H. Mao et al. : Biomass burning contribution to

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

A black body absorber from vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...water-assisted CVD “SuperGrowth...26). All optical components, the...solar absorber coatings for high-efficiency...nanotube black coating in the infrared...graphite black-coating for cryogenic...nickel-phosphorus alloy optical absorber . IEEE...thermometric applications at low temperatures...2007 ) Optical thin-film materials with low...

Kohei Mizuno; Juntaro Ishii; Hideo Kishida; Yuhei Hayamizu; Satoshi Yasuda; Don N. Futaba; Motoo Yumura; Kenji Hata

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

A black body absorber from vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2002 ) Deposition of PVD solar absorber coatings for high-efficiency thermal collectors...depositon of black nickel solar absorber coatings on stainless steel AISI316L for thermal...Solar selective black nickel-cobalt coatings on aluminum alloys . Sol Energy Mater Sol...

Kohei Mizuno; Juntaro Ishii; Hideo Kishida; Yuhei Hayamizu; Satoshi Yasuda; Don N. Futaba; Motoo Yumura; Kenji Hata

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

98

Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

Jacobson, Arne [Humboldt State Univ., MN (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lam, Nicholoas L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Hultman, Nathan [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Black carbon pollution of speleothems by fine urban aerosols in tourist caves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Previous work on airborne carbon particles...chemically defined organic fraction of the carbon particles...soot from natural fires and torch, bat guano...suggested that the As release was not the result...area electron dif-fraction (SAED) pattern...

Gi Young Jeong; Soo Jin Kim; Sae Jung Chang

100

Catalytic Conversion of Tars, Carbon Black and Methane from Pyrolysis/Gasification of Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of catalysts in biomass gasification has been suggested for a long time.1 Fung and Graham found that potassium carbonate and calcium oxide have catalytic influences on the gasification rate and the produc...

Clas Ekström; Nils Lindman; Rune Pettersson

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Black carbon in marine sediments : quantification and implications for the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sorption is a key factor in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Here, PAH sorption is proposed as the sum of two mechanisms: absorption into a biogenic, organic carbon (OC) ...

Accardi-Dey, AmyMarie, 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

103

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

104

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

105

Black carbon pollution of speleothems by fine urban aerosols in tourist caves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...washing with distilled water three times. A drop of a suspension of the residues from acid dissolution was loaded on a micro-grid of lacey formvar-carbon using a micro-pipette. Particle shapes and element compositions were analyzed using a Carl...

Gi Young Jeong; Soo Jin Kim; Sae Jung Chang

106

Fluorine-Doped Carbon Blacks: Highly Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a result of the energy crisis in the world, fuel cells are attractive as clean and sustainable energy conversion devices because they can help address the ever increasing global energy demand. ... (2, 3) To date, Pt-based materials are the most widely used electrocatalysts for ORR;(4-6) however, Pt-based catalysts suffer from problems, such as sluggish oxygen reduction at any pH, durability, very limited reserves, high cost, and inactivation by carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. ...

Xiujuan Sun; Yuwei Zhang; Ping Song; Jing Pan; Lin Zhuang; Weilin Xu; Wei Xing

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

107

Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables: common test methods part 4-1: methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds – resistance to environmental stress cracking – measurement of the melt flow index – carbon black and/or mineral filler content measurement in polyethylene by direct combustion – measurement of carbon black content by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) – assessment of carbon black dispersion in polyethylene using a microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Specifies the test methods to be used for testing polymeric insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables for power distribution and telecommunications including cables used on ships. Gives the methods for measurements of the resistance to environmental stress cracking, for wrapping test after thermal ageing in air, for measurement of melt flow index and for measurement of carbon black and/or mineral filler content, which apply to PE and PP coumpounds, including cellular compounds and foam skin for insulation.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Title Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., and Tracy L. Thatcher Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Volume 12 Pagination 6067-6072 Abstract A spectroscopic analysis of 115 wintertime partic- ulate matter samples collected in rural California shows that wood smoke absorbs solar radiation with a strong spectral se- lectivity. This is consistent with prior work that has demon- strated that organic carbon (OC), in addition to black car- bon (BC), appreciably absorbs solar radiation in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. We apportion light absorp-

109

Synthetic approaches to borocarbonitrides, BC{sub x}N (x=1-2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to synthesize borocarbonitrides of the general formula BC{sub x}N where x varies between 1 and 2, we have carried out high-temperature gas phase reaction of BBr{sub 3} with a mixture of ethylene and ammonia. The composition of the product was close to BC{sub 1.6}N as shown by x-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The products were further characterized by infra-red, Raman and other spectroscopic techniques. The borocarbonitrides obtained from the gas phase reaction have low surface areas, in contrast to those of similar compositions prepared by the urea method. First principles calculations show that the most stable structures of the compositions BCN and BC{sub 2}N contain BN-rich and carbon-rich domains where BN{sub 3} and NB{sub 3} units are present. - Graphical abstract: Vapor phase synthesis of BC{sub x}N (x=1-2) by the reaction of BBr{sub 3}, ethylene and ammonia leads to the formation of pan-like structure. Highlights: > We have carried out vapor phase reaction of BBr{sub 3}, ethylene and ammonia to synthesize BC{sub x}N (x=1-2). > HRTEM and AFM show the formation of pan-like structures with the central region formed of single layer of BC{sub x}N. > Borocarbonitrides formed by vapor phase synthesis show limited adsorption properties as compared to the urea route. > First principles calculations show that the most stable structure of the compositions BCN and BC{sub 2}N contain BN-rich and carbon-rich domains where BN{sub 3} and NB{sub 3} units are present.

Kumar, Nitesh; Raidongia, Kalyan; Mishra, Abhishek K.; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Sundaresan, A. [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry and International Centre for Materials Science, Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560064 (India); Rao, C.N.R., E-mail: cnrrao@jncasr.ac.in [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry and International Centre for Materials Science, Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560064 (India)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Temperature–pressure conditions in coalbed methane reservoirs of the Black Warrior basin: implications for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sorption of gas onto coal is sensitive to pressure and temperature, and carbon dioxide can be a potentially volatile supercritical fluid in coalbed methane reservoirs. More than 5000 wells have been drilled in the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior basin in west-central Alabama, and the hydrologic and geothermic information from geophysical well logs provides a robust database that can be used to assess the potential for carbon sequestration in coal-bearing strata. Reservoir temperature within the coalbed methane target zone generally ranges from 80 to 125 °F (27–52 °C), and geothermal gradient ranges from 6.0 to 19.9 °F/1000 ft (10.9–36.2 °C/km). Geothermal gradient data have a strong central tendency about a mean of 9.0 °F/1000 ft (16.4 °C/km). Hydrostatic pressure gradients in the coalbed methane fields range from normal (0.43 psi/ft) to extremely underpressured (wells have pressure gradients greater than 0.30 psi/ft, and 20% have pressure gradients lower than 0.10 psi/ft. Pockets of underpressure are developed around deep longwall coal mines and in areas distal to the main hydrologic recharge zone, which is developed in structurally upturned strata along the southeastern margin of the basin. Geothermal gradients within the coalbed methane fields are high enough that reservoirs never cross the gas–liquid condensation line for carbon dioxide. However, reservoirs have potential for supercritical fluid conditions beyond a depth of 2480 ft (756 m) under normally pressured conditions. All target coal beds are subcritically pressured in the northeastern half of the coalbed methane exploration fairway, whereas those same beds were in the supercritical phase window prior to gas production in the southwestern half of the fairway. Although mature reservoirs are dewatered and thus are in the carbon dioxide gas window, supercritical conditions may develop as reservoirs equilibrate toward a normal hydrostatic pressure gradient after abandonment. Coal can hold large quantities of carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, and supercritical isotherms indicate non-Langmiur conditions under which some carbon dioxide may remain mobile in coal or may react with formation fluids or minerals. Hence, carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery show great promise in subcritical reservoirs, and additional research is required to assess the behavior of carbon dioxide in coal under supercritical conditions where additional sequestration capacity may exist.

Jack C Pashin; Marcella R McIntyre

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery Through Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide: Potential for a Market-Based Environmental Solution in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coalbed Methane Recovery Through Sequestration of Coalbed Methane Recovery Through Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide: Potential for a Market-Based Environmental Solution in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama Jack C. Pashin (jpashin@gsa.state.al.us; 205-349-2852) Geological Survey of Alabama P.O. Box 869999 Tuscaloosa, AL 35486 Richard H. Groshong, Jr. (rgroshon@wgs.geo.ua.edu; 205-348-1882) Deparment of Geology University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 Richard E. Carroll (rcarroll@gsa.state.al.us; 205-349-2852) Geological Survey of Alabama P.O. Box 869999 Tuscaloosa, AL 35486 Abstract Sequestration of CO 2 in coal is a market-based environmental solution with potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while increasing coalbed methane recovery. Producing coalbed methane through injection of CO 2 is also more efficient than current techniques requiring

112

Furnace Black Characterization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Furnace Black Furnace Black Characterization Sid Richardson Carbon Co Fort Worth, TX Dr. Michel Gerspacher 005F 2 Definitions Particle Aggregate = 20nm to 100nm "Diameter" = 200nm to 1,000nm "Length" = Set of Percolated Aggregates Particle (?) Aggregate Agglomerate Constituents Size = Tech/Scientific Challenge 005F 3 Furnace Process High Temperature Refractory Feedstock Oil Air Natural Gas Reaction Zone Quench 005F 4 Specific Surface Area 005F 5 Structure 3-D Morphology Key Characteristic Summary of Crystallographic Studies 005F 7 Methodologies 005F 8 Summary * For all furnace carbon black 12Å < L C < 17Å * Crystallite L a ≈ 25Å * Amorphous Carbon * No micropores * Very few surface groups (hetero atoms) { 005F 9 Effect of Heat Treatment on Amorphous Carbon

113

Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

1987-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

114

Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

1985-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

115

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Wine Grape & Tree Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

Pedersen, Tom

116

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Livestock Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

Pedersen, Tom

117

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Why Sequence Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sequence Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC? Sequence Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC? Chlorate contamination of groundwater is a big problem that is often associated with the manufacture and use of explosives and munitions. To clean up chlorate-contaminated areas, some researchers turn to bacteria that can break down these compounds. These microbes can produce oxygen in anaerobic conditions, which can speed up the process of breaking down other compounds that do not degrade quickly in anaerobic environments such as the hydrocarbon benzene. Adding chlorate-reducing bacteria to contaminated, oxygen-poor environments could therefore encourage the growth of other bacteria that need oxygen to break down other compounds found at these sites. well Photo: istockphoto Microbes usually need oxygen to break down benzene; in anaerobic

120

100-B/C Target Analyte List Development for Soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-B/C remedial investigation/feasibility study addendum to DOE/RL-2008-46. This report also establishes the analyte exclusion criteria applicable for 100-B/C use and the analytical methods needed to analyze the target analytes.

R.W. Ovink

2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Fraser Valley & Metro Vancouver snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

122

RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION Project ID No. BC-MM-669 and BC-MM-673  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

669 and BC-MM-673 669 and BC-MM-673 Title: BC Site Building Upgrades, Phases II and III Description: Subcontractor shall provide all labor, tools, materials, equipment, and supervision required to perform various building upgrades at BC Buildings 401, 402, 403, 408, 415, and 416 (Phase II) and BC Buildings 401, 402, 413, and 414 (Phase III). Subcontractor shall evaluate and implement Green Building Design where applicable. Regulatory Requirements: NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021) 10 CFR 1021.410 (Application of Categorical Exclusions) (a) The actions listed in Appendices A and B of Subpart D are classes of actions that DOE has determined do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment (categorical exclusions).

123

BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

Eudy, L.; Post, M.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Black Mountain Insulation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Insulation Insulation Jump to: navigation, search Name Black Mountain Insulation Place United Kingdom Sector Carbon Product UK-based manufacturer of sheeps wool insulation which has a low carbon footprint than traditional glassfiber insulation. Website http://www.blackmountaininsula References Black Mountain Insulation Website[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Black Mountain Insulation is a company located in United Kingdom. It was formerly known as Ochre Natural Insulation Company. [2] References ↑ "Black Mountain Insulation Website" ↑ http://www.companiesintheuk.co.uk/ltd/black-mountain-insulation Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Black_Mountain_Insulation&oldid=391648

125

Data:58cf012c-9841-42bc-825a-93bc6e4087ef | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cf012c-9841-42bc-825a-93bc6e4087ef cf012c-9841-42bc-825a-93bc6e4087ef No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bangor Hydro-Electric Co Effective date: 2012/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Periodic Mercury Vapor-250 watts Sector: Lighting Description: Service under this rate is available for street and area lighting service installations, maintenance and use of energy, and traffic control lighting service provided the customer furnishes the equipment. Customers taking service under this rate schedule are responsible for paying both Distribution Service and Stranded Cost. Source or reference: http://www.bangorhydro.com/business/rates/rates-schedules.aspx

126

Data:Ef303637-53dd-4066-a4bc-3bc9294274b7 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ef303637-53dd-4066-a4bc-3bc9294274b7 Ef303637-53dd-4066-a4bc-3bc9294274b7 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Indiana Michigan Power Co (Michigan) Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: ECLS - 175 Watt MV Sector: Lighting Description: Energy Conversation Lighting Service Available for streetlighting service to municipalities, counties, and other governmental subdivisions. This rate is applicable for service that is supplied through new or rebuilt streetlight systems, including extension of streetlighting systems to additional locations where service is requested by customer.

127

Satellite-Based Modeling of the Carbon Fluxes in Mature Black Spruce Forests in Alaska: A Synthesis of the Eddy Covariance Data and Satellite Remote Sensing Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Scaling up of observed point data to estimate regional carbon fluxes is an important issue in the context of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. In this study, the authors proposed a new model to scale up the eddy covariance data to estimate ...

Masahito Ueyama; Yoshinobu Harazono; Kazuhito Ichii

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

Eudy, L.; Post, M.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Scaling-up Renewable Electricity in BC: Tackling the Institutional and Political Challenges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scaling-up Renewable Electricity in BC: Tackling the Institutional and Political Challenges Dr.................................................................................................................................... 4 2. Renewable Electricity and Hydropower in BC................................................................................................... 6 3. Institutions and Processes for Renewable Electricity Development

Pedersen, Tom

130

The Architecture of the Qo Site of Cytochrome bc1 Complex Probed...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Architecture of the Qo Site of Cytochrome bc1 Complex Probed by Superoxide Production. The Architecture of the Qo Site of Cytochrome bc1 Complex Probed by Superoxide Production....

131

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No obtained by the scaling- down of the elastic (design) spectra via the use of response modification factors in case of an elasto-plastic oscillator undergoing strength and stiffness degradations. A new model

Gupta, Vinay Kumar

132

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Grain & Oilseed Production Peace Region snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri

Pedersen, Tom

133

agework@bc.edu 1 issue brief 28  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Aging & Work Co-Director, Center for Social Innovation Cal J. Halvorsen, MSW Director of Research and Evaluation Encore.org Stephanie Berzin, Ph.D. Co-Director, Center for Social Innovation een a long time of social work center for social innovation #12;http://www.bc.edu/agingandwork2 introduction In 1997, Encore

Huang, Jianyu

134

Innovation. Collaboration. Value BC Public Post-Secondary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Innovation. Collaboration. Value BC Public Post-Secondary Collaborative Services 2013/14 Progress innovation, collaboration and supply management expertise. #12;Building on success Creating a new partnership is never simple, but when you start with an already strong culture of collaboration and innovation, you can

Victoria, University of

135

Origin of palladium black by an infrared spectroscopic method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal blacks are used as catalysts in a number of organic synthesis processes. Using the method of matrix insulation of blacks obtained from organometallic compounds in the inert atmosphere the IR spectra have been recorded for carbon monoxide adsorbed on actual palladium blacks. The controllable mild conditions for reduction of the initial complex by hydrazine hydrate provide a means of separating the intermediate states of this process. By discontinuing at various stages the reduction of the organometallic complex being investigated the authors have obtained IR spectra of carbon monoxide characterizing the stages of forming the metallic palladium black.

Vozdvizhenskii, V.F.; Levintova, T.D.; Sokol'skii, D.V.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

MHK Projects/Ucluelet BC Canada | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ucluelet BC Canada Ucluelet BC Canada < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"File:Aquamarine-marker.png","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.9398,"lon":-125.544,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"http:\/\/prod-http-80-800498448.us-east-1.elb.amazonaws.com\/w\/images\/7\/74\/Aquamarine-marker.png","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

137

Microsoft Word - BC-MM-815 NEPA.docx  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

15 15 Title: BC Building 401 AHU-3 HVAC Replacement Description: Subcontractor shall provide all labor, tools, materials, equipment and supervision required to replace the BC Building 401 Air Handling Unit (AHU-3) and its associated air cooled condensing unit at the Bayou Choctaw SPR site for the existing Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) unit. Regulatory Requirements: NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021) 10 CFR 1021.410 (Application of Categorical Exclusions) (a) The actions listed in Appendices A and B of Subpart D are classes of actions that DOE has determined do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment (categorical exclusions). (b) To find that a proposal is categorically excluded, DOE shall determine the following:

138

November 20th, 2013November 20 , 2013 BC Hydro Today  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aMW Percent Biogas 6 10.3 0.6% Biomass 10 268.7 15.6% W H 3 16 0 0 9% On-Line June 2013 IPPs in BC Type: Number aMW Percent Biogas 0 0.0 0.0% Biomass 8 153.7 18.4% W H 0 0 0 0 0% In Development June

139

New BPM installed in BC2 Jan Hauschildt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New BPM installed in BC2 Compact! Thanks to: Jan Hauschildt Dirk Noelle Silke Vilcins Holger 30 40 time (ns) Volts chicane BPM scope traces for 12-16 MV/m gradient Scope in tunnel ~ 150 um resolution => 5*10-4 resolution #12;-20 -15 -10 -5 0 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 BPM slope phase (deg

140

The Carbon Cycle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle The Carbon Cycle The global carbon cycle involves the carbon in and exchanging between the earth's atmosphere, fossil fuels, the oceans, and the vegetation and soils of the earth's terrestrial ecosystems. image Each year, the world's terrestrial ecosystems withdraw carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and add it again through respiration and decay. A more detailed look at the global carbon cycle for the 1990s is shown below. The main annual fluxes in GtC yr-1 are: pre-industrial "natural" fluxes in black and "anthropogenic" fluxes in red (modified from Sarmiento and Gruber, 2006, with changes in pool sizes from Sabine et al., 2004a). The net terrestrial loss of -39 GtC is inferred from cumulative fossil fuel emissions minus atmospheric increase minus ocean storage. The loss of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

needs described in their application. Other BC Hydro incentives not based on income include a rebate program for insulation, draft-proof measures, heat pumps, and water heaters...

142

BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The number of British Columbia, Canada, households eligible for Better Buildings Residential Network member BC Hydro’s Energy Conservation Assistance Program (ECAP) just doubled. British Columbia...

143

E-Print Network 3.0 - apetiviton bc compared Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BC Bachelor of Arts Source: Simon Fraser University, School of Resource and Environmental Management, Energy and Materials Research Group Collection: Energy Storage,...

144

Data:Ca21910b-45bc-4b12-b67f-9534b55e41a2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

0b-45bc-4b12-b67f-9534b55e41a2 0b-45bc-4b12-b67f-9534b55e41a2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Flint Electric Membership Corp Effective date: 2007/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: Outdoor Lighting GOS Cobrahead/ Open Bottom MV 174 W Sector: Lighting Description: No Longer Available POLE CHARGES Type, Charge 30' Wood $205.00 35' Wood $220.00 16' Aluminum (Brushed) $250.00 16' Fiberglass (Black) $300.00 16' Fiberglass (Acorn, Black) $800.00 30' Steel & Sub Base $1325.00 30' Fiberglass with 6' Arm $625.00 30' Fiberglass with 2 - 6' Arm $725.00 Source or reference: http://www.flintenergies.com/myHome/residentialRates/covenantStreetLighting.aspx

145

Aerosol Simulations by LLNL IMPACT and Comparisons with Field...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

matter and black carbon (BC), are mainly emitted from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. As shown in Figure 2, biomass burning sources are dominant in south America,...

146

Data:54da9b11-0bc3-47c1-8abf-42a910faa4bc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

0bc3-47c1-8abf-42a910faa4bc 0bc3-47c1-8abf-42a910faa4bc No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Provo City Corp (Utility Company) Effective date: 2011/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Private Outdoor Security Lighting- 65W LED Sector: Lighting Description: This schedule is available at any point on the Energy Department electric system where facilities of adequate capacity and standard lighting voltage levels are available. Source or reference: http://secure.provocitypower.com/Schedule%2012.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months):

147

Data:A53ee7e3-082c-43bc-9d33-8d52bc60b99f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

e3-082c-43bc-9d33-8d52bc60b99f e3-082c-43bc-9d33-8d52bc60b99f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Ludlow, Vermont (Utility Company) Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: 07 Commercial & Industrial Demand Metered Three Phase Customer Owned Transformer Sector: Description: Source or reference: ISU Documentation DOE Sharepoint Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category:

148

Data:5c9b86bc-003a-4cd4-ae65-d613dcfd1bc6 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bc-003a-4cd4-ae65-d613dcfd1bc6 bc-003a-4cd4-ae65-d613dcfd1bc6 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Huntingburg, Indiana (Utility Company) Effective date: 2007/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Security Lighting- (175 W) Sector: Lighting Description: Current shall to available to any residential, farm, commercial, or industrial customers where 120 V service exists. Source or reference: ISU Documentation Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V):

149

Data:B9bc60b8-b27d-4d88-9d5d-729cf4bc9314 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bc60b8-b27d-4d88-9d5d-729cf4bc9314 bc60b8-b27d-4d88-9d5d-729cf4bc9314 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Troy, Indiana (Utility Company) Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Schedule B: General Power Sector: Commercial Description: Rate is subject to a Purchased Power Cost Adjustment Tracking Factor. Source or reference: Rates Binder 1, Illinois State University Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service

150

Data:C824bc3e-c14b-4db6-808e-7bc68716f1e0 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bc3e-c14b-4db6-808e-7bc68716f1e0 bc3e-c14b-4db6-808e-7bc68716f1e0 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Mascoutah, Illinois (Utility Company) Effective date: 2011/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Customer Area Lighting Service- Rate 7: Directional Lighting, Metal Halide, 20,000 Lumen, 250 Watt Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: Rates Binder 1, Illinois State University Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V):

151

B.C. Invention Disclosure Guidelines Do you want to get royalty money from your research?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B.C. Invention Disclosure Guidelines Do you want to get royalty money from your research, and bring in licensing royalty sharing with inventors. If you feel your research has any commercial value royalty! Please contact OTTL Director Dr. Jason Wen at jason.wen@bc.edu or (617) 552-1682 and Dr. Jill

Huang, Jianyu

152

Bacterial cellulose based hydrogel (BC-g-AA) and preliminary result of swelling behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, hydrogel based on Bacterial cellulose (BC) or local known as Nata de Coco, which grafted with monomer: Acrylic acid (AA) is synthesis by using gamma radiation technique. These hydrogel (BC-g-AA) has unique characteristic whereby responsive to pH buffer solution.

Hakam, Adil; Lazim, Azwan Mat [UKM-MIMOS Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, National University of Malaysia (UKM) (Malaysia); Abdul Rahman, I. Irman [Laboratory of Gamma Radiation Instrument, Science Nuclear Program, School of Applied Physics, National University of Malaysia (UKM) (Malaysia)

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

153

Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ? To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ? ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ? PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ? The findings suggest that ELF has a protective role against PM. ? The synthetic ELF system could reduce the use of animals in PM-driven ROS testing.

Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United Wildland fires can be an important source of greenhouse gases as well as black carbon emissions that have of climate response to fire emissions compared to other emission sources of GHG, aerosols, and black carbon

155

Black Carbon A Review and Policy Recommendations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

School #12;Front Cover: Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh, provided courtesy;Joshua Apte, PhD Candidate, Energy Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley Christo Artusio, Research Division, California Air Resources Board Morgan DeFoort, PhD Candidate, Associate Director

Mauzerall, Denise

156

Black Hole Horizons and Black Hole Thermodynamics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This work investigates how black holes can be described in terms of different definitions of horizons. Global definitions in terms of event horizons and Killing… (more)

Nielsen, Alex

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Synthesis of new Diamond-like B-C Phases under High Pressure and Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cubic BC3 (c-BC3) phase was synthesized by direct transformation from graphitic phases at a pressure of 39 GPa and temperature of 2200 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements lead us to conclude that the obtained phase is hetero-nano-diamond, c-BC3. The EELS measurements show that the atoms inside the cubic structure are bonded by sp3 bonds.

Ming, L. C. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii; Zinin, P. V. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii; Sharma, S. K. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

158

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C-C composite containing continuous PAN T300 fibers · SWB: Chopped Fiber Composite containing SWB fibers Crush strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

Rollins, Andrew M.

159

SFU"s Carbon Neutral Action Plan! (Compiled in a B.C. government format) !  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GHG emissions from stationary sources (buildings), mobile sources (fleet) and 8 -1/2 x also completed an inventory of its 2007 GHG emissions to set a baseline for GHG reporting of its 2007 GHG emissions. 2. SFU will develop green building guidelines to guide

160

Aged black carbon identified in marine dissolved organic carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

South Asia: Biomass or fossil fuel combustion? , Science,of combustion, in Sediment Records of Biomass Burning andduring biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, the sinks

Ziolkowski, L. A; Druffel, E. R. M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

An Integrated Geophysical Study Of The Geothermal Field Of Tule Chek, Bc,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tule Chek, Bc, Tule Chek, Bc, Mexico Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: An Integrated Geophysical Study Of The Geothermal Field Of Tule Chek, Bc, Mexico Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: A method is described to determine bounds characterizing axisymmetric bodies from a set of gravity data. Bounds on the density contrast as a function of depth to the top and thickness of the anomalous source are obtained by using Parker's ideal body theory and linear programming algorithms. Such bounds are given in terms of trade-off diagrams, where regions of feasible solutions compatible with the observed data can be assured. Gravity data from the Tule Chek, B.C., Mexico, geothermal area were used to compute such trade-off diagrams. Seismic

162

KELLY ALLRED, PhD, RN-BC, CNE University of Central Florida College of Nursing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KELLY ALLRED, PhD, RN-BC, CNE University of Central Florida College of Nursing 12201 Research Parkway Suite 455 Orlando, FL 32826 (407) 823-0160 Office (407) 823-5675 Fax Kelly

Wu, Shin-Tson

163

TECHNICAL REPORTS Biochar (BC) was evaluated for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Yao et al., 2011). Biomass (feedstock) and highest treatment temperature (HTT) during pyrolysis. Biochar (BC) is a solid residue produced by thermal degra- dation of organic material during pyrolysis

Lehmann, Johannes

164

BC Hydro Industrial Sector: Marketing Sector Marketing Plan (Fiscal 2005/Fiscal 2006)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Hydro, the major electricity utility in the Province of British Columbia has been promoting industrial energy efficiency for more than 15 years. Recently it has launched a new Demand Side Management initiative with the objective of obtaining 2000...

Willis, P.; Wallace, K.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Observation of the B(c) Meson in the Exclusive Decay B(c)?J/??  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

deviations, and confirms earlier observations of this decay. The measured mass of the B(c) meson is 6300±14(stat)±5(syst)??MeV/c(2)....

Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Hensel, Carsten; Moulik, Tania; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.

2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

166

rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org Cite this article: Trumble BC, Smith EA,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org Research Cite this article: Trumble BC, Smith EA, O'Connor KA A. Smith3,4, Kathleen A. O'Connor3,4, Hillard S. Kaplan5 and Michael D. Gurven2 1 Institute

Smith, Eric Alden

167

Black Hole Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mass of a black hole has traditionally been identified with its energy. We describe a new perspective on black hole thermodynamics, one that identifies the mass of a black hole with chemical enthalpy, and the cosmological constant as thermodynamic pressure. This leads to an understanding of black holes from the viewpoint of chemistry, in terms of concepts such as Van der Waals fluids, reentrant phase transitions, and triple points. Both charged and rotating black holes exhibit novel chemical-type phase behaviour, hitherto unseen.

David Kubiznak; Robert B. Mann

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

168

BC's Electricity Options: Multi-Attribute Trade-Off and Risk Analysis of the Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

losses) Cogeneration 628 1,255 1,883 Woodwaste 628 1,255 1,883 Small-Medium Hydro 628 1,255 1,883 Total 1 Jaccard and Murphy ii 05/01/02 Executive Summary BC Hydro's Integrated Electricity Plan (IEP) for 2000 overlooked in BC Hydro's latest planning process. By making this report available to the public, we hope

169

Combustion of biomass as a global carbon sink  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This note is intended to highlight the important role of black carbon produced from biomass burning in the global carbon cycle, and encourage further research in this area. Consideration of the fundamental physical chemistry of cellulose thermal decomposition suggests that suppression of biomass burning or biasing burning practices to produce soot-free flames must inevitably transfer more carbon to the atmosphere. A simple order-of-magnitude quantitative analysis indicates that black carbon may be a significant carbon reservoir that persists over geological time scales.

Ball, Rowena

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

RHIC | Black Holes?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Black Holes at RHIC? Black Holes at RHIC? Further discussion by Physicist Dmitri Kharzeev on why RHIC cannot produce a real gravitational black hole Black holes are among the most mysterious objects in the universe. The gravitational field of a black hole is so strong that Einstein's general relativity tells us that nothing, not even light, can escape from the black hole's interior. However, in 1974 physicist Stephen Hawking demonstrated that black holes must emit radiation once the quantum effects are included. According to quantum mechanics, the physical vacuum is bubbling with short-lived virtual particle-antiparticle pairs. Creation of a particle-antiparticle pair from the vacuum conflicts with energy conservation, but energy need not be conserved at short times in quantum mechanics, according to Heisenberg's

171

Carbon Fillers for Actuation of Electroactive Thermoset Shape Memory Polyurethane Composites by Resistive Heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, focusing on stimuli-responsive SMPs enables researchers to develop more versatile devices with SMP composites. The electroactive SMP composites incorporated with conductive fillers such as carbon black and carbon nanotubes allow shape recovery actuation...

Yu, Ya-Jen

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

4/25/11 12:25 PMRedOrbit NEWS | Scientists Tracking Black Carbon In The Arctic Page 1 of 3http://www.redorbit.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=2033713  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation, much like wearing a black shirt on a sunny day. If you want to be cooler, you would wear a light-colored shirt that would reflect the sun's warmth," said Tim Bates, a research chemist at NOAA's Pacific Marine Administration (NOAA), and research chemist at Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL). Heat from other

Rigor, Ignatius G.

173

Thermodynamics of an Aqueous-Alkaline/Carbonate Carbon Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In view of the fact that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial Black Cab in London, these recent results suggest the potential use of aqueous-alkaline carbon fuel cells for vehicular transportation. ... Thus, biocarbons can be a sustainable, environmentally friendly fuel for carbon fuel cell applications, whose production complements the production of bioethanol and biodiesel fuels in a biomass refinery. ... Our interest in the aqueous-alkaline biocarbon fuel cell is stimulated by the fact that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial London Black Cab.29-31 Thus, the development of a functional aqueous-alkaline carbon fuel cell could facilitate the replacement of non-renewable, liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels by renewable, solid biocarbons. ...

Michael Jerry Antal, Jr.; Gérard C. Nihous

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

174

Data:Bc655387-ced8-45b0-bc6b-9a6015caf31b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bc655387-ced8-45b0-bc6b-9a6015caf31b Bc655387-ced8-45b0-bc6b-9a6015caf31b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: MidAmerican Energy Co Effective date: 1995/12/15 End date if known: Rate name: General Service, Time-of-Use at Secondary Voltage Price Schedule GUN Sector: Industrial Description: APPLICABLE: At the option of the customer, to all electric service required on premises by customer where permanent time-of-use metering is installed, subject to applicable terms and conditions of the Company's Electric Policies and Electric Rate Application. Customer must agree to pay $75 of metering related costs at the time service is elected under this price schedule where such facilities are not already in place, or where such amount is refunded to a

175

Data:1aada3bc-49b4-4794-a31d-cea6694bc18d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

aada3bc-49b4-4794-a31d-cea6694bc18d aada3bc-49b4-4794-a31d-cea6694bc18d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Turlock Irrigation District Effective date: 2009/02/01 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule IT Small Industrial Service - Time-Of-Use 35 to 499 kW Sector: Industrial Description: Applicability This optional schedule is available to: 1) commercial and industrial customers for general power use with demand of 35 kW to 499 kW, and 2) other services where other Rate Schedules (other than Rate Schedules NM and SG) do not apply. This schedule is applicable on an annual basis only. Power Factor Charge, per kVAr $ 1.10

176

Data:1a5aa5b4-76bc-4625-b40f-8d41ea30bc4e | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

aa5b4-76bc-4625-b40f-8d41ea30bc4e aa5b4-76bc-4625-b40f-8d41ea30bc4e No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Salt River Electric Coop Corp Effective date: 2011/06/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Power 3,000 kW and over (500 kW - 999 kW) Sector: Industrial Description: Available to all commercial and industrial consumers for lighting and/or heating or/or power, and who are served directly from a distribution substation of 3000 kW capacity or above. Source or reference: www.srelectric.com Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months):

177

Data:24dcea7b-c33c-49ca-bc1c-3662d43e29ee | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dcea7b-c33c-49ca-bc1c-3662d43e29ee dcea7b-c33c-49ca-bc1c-3662d43e29ee No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southwest Rural Elec Assn Inc Effective date: 2010/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: 100 Watt HPS, No Energy Sector: Lighting Description: * Subject to Power Cost Adjustment. All bills are adjusted by applicable taxes. Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service

178

Data:5c496205-1173-41bc-bc65-3ef3abac7c5f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

05-1173-41bc-bc65-3ef3abac7c5f 05-1173-41bc-bc65-3ef3abac7c5f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Plymouth, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2011/12/22 End date if known: Rate name: Gs-1 Rural General Service Single Phase with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Sector: Commercial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0774 per kilowatt-hour.

179

Data:8ff64bc8-a3af-4285-83a5-eb235f1bc98b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4bc8-a3af-4285-83a5-eb235f1bc98b 4bc8-a3af-4285-83a5-eb235f1bc98b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wisconsin Rapids W W & L Comm Effective date: 2009/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Street Lighting Metal Halide 400 W Overhead Sector: Lighting Description: The Purchase Cost Adjustment Clause, a charge per all kWh that varies monthly, applies to this rate. Source or reference: http://www.wrwwlc.com/StreetYard.aspx Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage

180

Data:4cd68add-1a7b-4a03-91c4-173bc5a0bc62 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8add-1a7b-4a03-91c4-173bc5a0bc62 8add-1a7b-4a03-91c4-173bc5a0bc62 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Altamaha Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2011/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: School Service- SCH-1 Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: ISU Documentation Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Data:88cb5109-299a-4bc7-ac48-6544b6f9bc04 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

99a-4bc7-ac48-6544b6f9bc04 99a-4bc7-ac48-6544b6f9bc04 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Rappahannock Electric Coop Effective date: 2009/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: SMALL GENERAL SERVICE SCHEDULE B-1 Multi-Phase V2 Sector: Commercial Description: APPLICABILITY Applicable to all types of Customers for service along the lines of the Cooperative, for all uses unless another rate schedule is specifically applicable. The maximum demand to be provided under Schedule B-1 shall be 200 kW. Demand Delivery Charges: First 100 kW delivered per month @ $0.00 per kW Over 100 kW delivered per month @ $9.00 per kW

182

Uniformly accelerated black holes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The static and stationary C metric are examined in a generic framework and their interpretations studied in some detail, especially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We find that (i) the spacetime of an accelerated static black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or a lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon, (ii) by using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have a higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature of the accelerated frame, and (iii) the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/27) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated rotating black holes with no significant changes.

Patricio S. Letelier and Samuel R. Oliveira

2001-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

183

Bicycling Black Rings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present detailed physics analyses of two different 4+1-dimensional asymptotically flat vacuum black hole solutions with spin in two independent planes: the doubly spinning black ring and the bicycling black ring system ("bi-rings"). The latter is a new solution describing two concentric orthogonal rotating black rings which we construct using the inverse scattering technique. We focus particularly on extremal zero-temperature limits of the solutions. Such limits exist for both types of solutions; for the bi-rings it is obtained when the two rings drag each other to extremality through the effect of gravitational frame-dragging. We construct the phase diagram of currently known zero-temperature vacuum black hole solutions with a single event horizon, and discuss the non-uniqueness introduced by more exotic black hole configurations such as bi-rings and multi-ring saturns.

Elvang, Henriette

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Bicycling Black Rings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present detailed physics analyses of two different 4+1-dimensional asymptotically flat vacuum black hole solutions with spin in two independent planes: the doubly spinning black ring and the bicycling black ring system ("bi-rings"). The latter is a new solution describing two concentric orthogonal rotating black rings which we construct using the inverse scattering technique. We focus particularly on extremal zero-temperature limits of the solutions. We construct the phase diagram of currently known zero-temperature vacuum black hole solutions with a single event horizon, and discuss the non-uniqueness introduced by more exotic black hole configurations such as bi-rings and multi-ring saturns.

Henriette Elvang; Maria J. Rodriguez

2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

185

BLACK HISTORY MONTH  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Black History Month is an annual celebration of achievements by black Americans and a time for recognizing the central role of African Americans in U.S. history. The event grew out of “Negro History Week,” created by historian Carter G. Woodson and other prominent African Americans. Other countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, also devote a month to celebrating black history.

186

Accreting Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these interactions. Larger global magnetohydrodynamic simulations as well as simulations incorporating plasma microphysics and full radiation hydrodynamics will be needed to unravel some of the current mysteries of black hole accretion.

Begelman, Mitchell C

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

ARM - Black Forest News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

News Campaign Images Black Forest News ARM Mobile Facility Completes Field Campaign in Germany January 15, 2008 Microwave Radiometers Put to the Test in Germany September 15, 2007...

188

Black holes and thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A black hole of given mass, angular momentum, and charge can have a large number of different unobservable internal configurations which reflect the possible different initial configurations of the matter which collapsed to produce the hole. The logarithm of this number can be regarded as the entropy of the black hole and is a measure of the amount of information about the initial state which was lost in the formation of the black hole. If one makes the hypothesis that the entropy is finite, one can deduce that the black holes must emit thermal radiation at some nonzero temperature. Conversely, the recently derived quantum-mechanical result that black holes do emit thermal radiation at temperature ??2? k c, where ? is the surface gravity, enables one to prove that the entropy is finite and is equal to c3A4 G?, where A is the surface area of the event horizon or boundary of the black hole. Because black holes have negative specific heat, they cannot be in stable thermal equilibrium except when the additional energy available is less than 1/4 the mass of the black hole. This means that the standard statistical-mechanical canonical ensemble cannot be applied when gravitational interactions are important. Black holes behave in a completely random and time-symmetric way and are indistinguishable, for an external observer, from white holes. The irreversibility that appears in the classical limit is merely a statistical effect.

S. W. Hawking

1976-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Carbon atom adsorption on and diffusion into Fe(110) and Fe(100) from first principles D. E. Jiang and Emily A. Carter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(s): 68.43.Bc, 66.30.Jt, 68.47.De I. INTRODUCTION Iron as a cheap transition metal has been employed) subsurfaces goes through transition states where the carbon atom is coordinated to four Fe atoms. The barriers to form carbide. Another perspective of carbon-iron interactions is from materials science. When steels

Carter, Emily A.

190

Calorific and porosity development in carbonized wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wood of four species (red oak, southern yellow pine, black cherry, and hybrid poplar) were carbonized in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere at an average heating rate of 3 degrees Centigrade/minute to selected final temperatures up to 700 degrees Centigrade. The effects of final carbonization temperature on selected properties of the char were obtained using an adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter to investigate heat of combustion and a mercury porosimeter to investigate total porosity, real density, apparent density, and pore size distribution. Pore characteristics of carbonized wood developed before 300 degrees Centigrade in southern yellow pine and before 400 degrees Centigrade in red oak, black cherry, and hybrid poplar. Statistical analysis established linear relationships between heat of combustion versus final carbonization temperature in the carbonization temperature ranges investigated. The results of this study will aid in understanding optimum pryrolysis conditions for the development of calorific and porosity values. (Refs. 22).

Baileys, R.T.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Carbon sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Leaver and Howard Dalton Carbon sequestration Rattan Lal * * ( lal.1...and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric...and biomass burning. 3. Carbon sequestration Emission rates from fossil...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Carbon Sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon sequestration” refers to a portfolio of activities for ... capture, separation and storage or reuse of carbon or CO2. Carbon sequestration technologies encompass both the prevention of CO2 emissions into ...

Robert L. Kane MS; Daniel E. Klein MBA

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

DOE Solar Decathlon: Team Ontario/BC: Inspiring Sustainability From North  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

North House on the National Mall at Solar Decathlon 2009. Enlarge North House on the National Mall at Solar Decathlon 2009. Enlarge image Team Ontario/BC's North House returned to the University of Waterloo campus after placing fourth overall at Solar Decathlon 2009. (Credit: Jim Tetro/U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon) Photo of West House surrounded by skyscrapers in Vancouver. Enlarge image Team Ontario/BC's North House inspired West House, pictured here. While West House went to the Winter 2010 Olympics in Vancouver, North House now resides permanently near the University of Waterloo campus. (Credit: Lyn Bartram/City of Vancouver) Who: Team Ontario/BC What: North House Where: North House University of Waterloo 200 University Ave. West Waterloo, Ontario Map This House West House East Vancouver Cedar Cottage Community Garden

194

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 799816, 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/799/2011/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosols on near surface temperature changes G. S. Jones, N. In the simulations black carbon, from fossil fuel and bio- fuel sources (fBC), produces a positive radiative forcing and bio-fuel black carbon is found to have a detectable contribution to the warming over the last 50 yr

Meskhidze, Nicholas

195

"Hybrid" Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss a solution of the Einstein equations, obtained by gluing the external Kerr metric and the internal Weyl metric, describing an axisymmetric static vacuum distorted black hole. These metrics are glued at the null surfaces representing their horizons. For this purpose we use the formalism of massive thin null shells. The corresponding solution is called a "hybrid" black hole. The massive null shell has an angular momentum which is the origin of the rotation of the external Kerr spacetime. At the same time, the shell distorts the geometry inside the horizon. The inner geometry of the "hybrid" black hole coincides with the geometry of the interior of a non-rotating Weyl-distorted black hole. Properties of the "hybrid" black holes are briefly discussed.

Valeri P. Frolov; Andrei V. Frolov

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

Data:8bc56774-2f90-4619-a2bc-96476eb18cf3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

-2f90-4619-a2bc-96476eb18cf3 -2f90-4619-a2bc-96476eb18cf3 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Kings Mountain, North Carolina (Utility Company) Effective date: 2011/07/31 End date if known: Rate name: Outdoor Lighting Service- 400W High Pressure Sodium- Urban, New Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Available to individual customer at locations on the City's distribution system. Source or reference: http://www.cityofkm.com/Downloads/billing/Electric_Rates.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh):

197

Data:4bc6bc35-d43e-4e3d-b851-45a595847a4a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bc35-d43e-4e3d-b851-45a595847a4a bc35-d43e-4e3d-b851-45a595847a4a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Covington, Indiana (Utility Company) Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Security Light: Monthly Sector: Lighting Description: Note: August to August, advance usage. A Fuel Cost Adjustment will apply. The Adjustment is calculated on a quarterly basis. Source or reference: Rates Binder 1, Illinois State University Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage

198

Data:E14bc24c-5151-4937-b92b-c64f5a6bf83a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4c-5151-4937-b92b-c64f5a6bf83a 4c-5151-4937-b92b-c64f5a6bf83a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Public Service Elec & Gas Co Effective date: 2010/06/07 End date if known: Rate name: 175 WATT METAL HALIDE Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http://www.pseg.com/family/pseandg/tariffs/electric/pdf/electric_tariff.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous

199

RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION Project ID No. BC-MM-789  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

789 789 Title: Replace BC Warehouse Firewater Piping Description: Subcontractor shall provide design, plans, materials, labor and supervision required to replace the dry automatic sprinkler system found in the BC Property Warehouse (Building 411). Tasks include installation and hydrostatic testing of the new sprinkler system. Regulatory Requirements: NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021) 10 CFR 1021.410 (Application of Categorical Exclusions) (a) The actions listed in Appendices A and B of Subpart D are classes of actions that DOE has determined do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment (categorical exclusions). (b) To find that a proposal is categorically excluded, DOE shall determine the following:

200

10-04-2010 CA-B-10-0154  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4 Sandia National LaboratoriesCalifornia (SNLCA) will develop a novel fieldable laser-induced incandescence sensor to measure black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) organic...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Smoke over haze: Aircraft observations of chemical and optical properties and the effects on heating rates and stability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the layer maintained the temperature inversion through the afternoon. This created a positive feedback loop by organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) [Crutzen and Andreae, 1990; Martins et al., 1998] that reduce

Li, Zhanqing

202

Information Herodotus called by many "The Father of History" traveled to Egypt around 450 BC to study Egypt.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

© 2012 Information Age Herodotus called by many "The Father of History" traveled to Egypt around 450 BC to study Egypt. Herodotus indicated that each of the four "perfectly triangle faces in 24 BC wrote forty-seven books about the History of Egypt. Unfortunately, most of his work was lost

Bardsley, John

203

Heterodimer SRP9/14 is an integral part of the neural BC200 RNP in primate brain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heterodimer SRP9/14 is an integral part of the neural BC200 RNP in primate brain Joachim that of the Alu domain of 7SL RNA, which is an integral part of the signal recognition particle (SRP). This would with antibodies against SRP9. This further supports the notion that the 5 domain of the BC200 RNA can fold

Walter, Peter

204

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

205

Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-2 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work plan and attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-2 operable unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The 100 Area is one of four areas at the Hanford Site that are on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) National Priorities List under CERCLA. The 100-BC-2 operable unit is one of two source operable units in the 100-B/C Area (Figure ES-1). Source operable units are those that contain facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. The 100-BC-2 source operable unit contains waste sites that were formerly in the 100-BC-2, 100-BC-3, and 100-BC-4 operable units. Because of their size and geographic location, the waste sites from these two operable units were added to 100-BC-2. This allows for a more efficient and effective investigation of the remaining 100-B/C Reactor area waste sites. The investigative approach to waste sites associated with the 100-BC-2 operable unit are listed in Table ES-1. The waste sites fall into three general categories: high priority liquid waste disposal sites, low priority liquid waste disposal sites, and solid waste burial grounds. Several sites have been identified as candidates for conducting an IRM. Two sites have been identified as warranting additional limited field sampling. The two sites are the 116-C-2A pluto crib, and the 116-C-2C sand filter.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

SMART OCEANS BC Media Backgrounder From sensors to decisions when seconds count  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SMART OCEANS BC ­ Media Backgrounder From sensors to decisions ­ when seconds count Introduction Oceans 2.0 and high speed, real-time analytics to monitor the #12;hundreds of sensors. Funding for Smart to develop fast event detection and enable a mobile Oceans 2.0 for use in geographically remote sensor

Pedersen, Tom

207

The pottery from a fifth century B.C. shipwreck at Ma'agan Michael, Israel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Between 1988 and 1990 a shipwreck tentatively dated to the 5th century B.C. was excavated off the coast of Israel at Ma'agan Michael by Dr. Elisha Linder of the Center for Maritime Studies. This study presents one category of material from the Ma...

Lyon, Jerry Dean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

208

Nov. 28, 2011 Leading Australian climate change communicator to hold BC lecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEDIA TIP Nov. 28, 2011 Leading Australian climate change communicator to hold BC lecture: John Cook is the Climate Change Communication Fellow for the Global Change Institute at the University analyses climate change skeptics' arguments against actual peer-reviewed scientific findings -- has

Pedersen, Tom

209

LATTICE POLYMER AUTOMATA Steen RASMUSSEN a;b and Joshua R. SMITH b;c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LATTICE POLYMER AUTOMATA Steen RASMUSSEN a;b and Joshua R. SMITH b;c a TSA­DO/SA MS M997 and CNLS Pecos Trail Santa Fe, NM 87505 U.S.A. c Physics and Media Group MIT Media Laboratory, 20 Ames Street

Herr, Hugh

210

Health Hazards in Indoor Air J.M. Logue, M. H. Sherman, B.C. Singer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords: Indoor air quality; hazard analysis; residential; criteria pollutants; VOCs; air toxics Citation Health Hazards in Indoor Air J.M. Logue, M. H. Sherman, B.C. Singer.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control through

211

RHIC | Black Holes?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Black Holes at RHIC? Black Holes at RHIC? Before RHIC began operations in 2000, some were concerned that it would produce black holes that would threaten the earth. Here's why those concerns were unfounded. Committee Review of Speculative "Disaster Scenarios" at RHIC In July 1999, Brookhaven Lab Director John Marburger convened a committee of distinguished physicists to write a comprehensive report on the arguments that address the safety of speculative disaster scenarios at RHIC. The scenarios are: Creation of a black hole that would "eat" ordinary matter. Initiation of a transition to a new, more stable universe. Formation of a "strangelet" that would convert ordinary matter to a new form. jaffee "We conclude that there are no credible mechanisms for catastrophic

212

Charged Schrodinger black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct charged and rotating asymptotically Schrödinger black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity. We begin by obtaining a closed-form expression for the null Melvin twist of a broad class of type IIB backgrounds, ...

Adams, Allan

213

The Black Bear  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Black Bear Black Bear Nature Bulletin No. 286-A December 9, 1967 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Richard B. Ogilvie, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE BLACK BEAR The most amusing and human-like of all our American wild animals is the Black Bear. Slow, clumsy and loose-jointed in appearance, with a shambling gait, he can be very swift and nimble. Like any good clown he is also a good acrobat with a fine sense of balance and timing. He is a great climber in spite of his bulk. Shrewd and droll, he is very popular in menageries and as a performer in circuses and side shows because he learns tricks easily. He can stand on his hind legs to wrestle, box, dance, or beg for food and, occasionally, one becomes a graceful artist on roller skates. They love applause.

214

Accounting for forest carbon pool dynamics in product carbon footprints: Challenges and opportunities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modification and loss of forests due to natural and anthropogenic disturbance contribute an estimated 20% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. Although forest carbon pool modeling rarely suggests a 'carbon neutral' flux profile, the life cycle assessment community and associated product carbon footprint protocols have struggled to account for the GHG emissions associated with forestry, specifically, and land use generally. Principally, this is due to underdeveloped linkages between life cycle inventory (LCI) modeling for wood and forest carbon modeling for a full range of forest types and harvest practices, as well as a lack of transparency in globalized forest supply chains. In this paper, through a comparative study of U.S. and Chinese coated freesheet paper, we develop the initial foundations for a methodology that rescales IPCC methods from the national to the product level, with reference to the approaches in three international product carbon footprint protocols. Due to differences in geographic origin of the wood fiber, the results for two scenarios are highly divergent. This suggests that both wood LCI models and the protocols need further development to capture the range of spatial and temporal dimensions for supply chains (and the associated land use change and modification) for specific product systems. The paper concludes by outlining opportunities to measure and reduce uncertainty in accounting for net emissions of biogenic carbon from forestland, where timber is harvested for consumer products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Typical life cycle assessment practice for consumer products often excludes significant land use change emissions when estimating carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article provides a methodology to rescale IPCC guidelines for product-level carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle inventories and product carbon footprint protocols need more comprehensive land use-related accounting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interdisciplinary collaboration linking the LCA and forest carbon modeling communities is necessary.

Newell, Joshua P., E-mail: jpnewell@umich.edu [School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Vos, Robert O., E-mail: vos@usc.edu [Spatial Sciences Institute, University of Southern California (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

On Black Hole Entropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two techniques for computing black hole entropy in generally covariant gravity theories including arbitrary higher derivative interactions are studied. The techniques are Wald's Noether charge approach introduced recently, and a field redefinition method developed in this paper. Wald's results are extended by establishing that his local geometric expression for the black hole entropy gives the same result when evaluated on an arbitrary cross-section of a Killing horizon (rather than just the bifurcation surface). Further, we show that his expression for the entropy is not affected by ambiguities which arise in the Noether construction. Using the Noether charge expression, the entropy is evaluated explicitly for black holes in a wide class of generally covariant theories. Further, it is shown that the Killing horizon and surface gravity of a stationary black hole metric are invariant under field redefinitions of the metric of the form $\\bar{g}_{ab}\\equiv g_{ab} + \\Delta_{ab}$, where $\\Delta_{ab}$ is a tensor field constructed out of stationary fields. Using this result, a technique is developed for evaluating the black hole entropy in a given theory in terms of that of another theory related by field redefinitions. Remarkably, it is established that certain perturbative, first order, results obtained with this method are in fact {\\it exact}. The possible significance of these results for the problem of finding the statistical origin of black hole entropy is discussed.}

Ted Jacobson; Gungwon Kang; Robert C. Myers

1994-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

216

Carbon Conference  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon Conference ... The Fourth Hienninl Conference on Carbon will be held at the University of Buffalo, June 15 to 19. ... The Pittsburgh Section's coal technology group will meet in the conference room at Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh, June ... ...

1959-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Data:Bc92189b-dfc4-47c4-ace9-5a7bc50c6368 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2189b-dfc4-47c4-ace9-5a7bc50c6368 2189b-dfc4-47c4-ace9-5a7bc50c6368 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: PUD No 2 of Grant County Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: RATE SCHEDULE No. 1 DOMESTIC SERVICE Sector: Residential Description: To single family dwelling, individual apartment or farm for single-phase service. FOR QUALIFYING LOW-INCOME CUSTOMERS: Qualified low Income senior citizens or qualified low income disabled customers shall receive a discount equal to 20% of the monthly bill, exclusive of taxes. Eligibility and qualification requirements for these low income rate discounts will be as specified in the District's Customer Service Policies. TAX ADJUSTMENT: The amounts of any tax levied by any city or town, in accordance with RCW 54.28.070, of the Laws of the State of Washington, will be added to the above charges.

218

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs William T: Available online 6 January 2014 Keywords: Wildland fire Climate Forests Carbon cycle Emissions a b s t r a c climate change and the principal emissions component of wildland fires, while black carbon and other

219

Data:45f14dff-9bcb-4656-bc67-fbcecaaae6bb | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9bcb-4656-bc67-fbcecaaae6bb 9bcb-4656-bc67-fbcecaaae6bb No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Stratford, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2008/11/18 End date if known: Rate name: Street Lighting- 100W HPS Sector: Lighting Description: This schedule will be applied to municipal street lighting and private area lighting. The utility will furnish, install, and maintain lighting units. This rate is subject to a Power Cost Adjustment, which is a charge per all kWh that varies monthly. The Commitment to Community Program Rider fee is denoted in the Flat Rate Adjustments Field.

220

RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION Project ID No. BC-10-112  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

112 112 Title: Remove Abandoned BC Timber Bridge Over North/South Canal Description: Subcontractor shall furnish all materials, labor, equipment, supplies, transportation, facilities, supervision, and services required to remove and dispose of the abandoned BC Timber Bridge over the North/South Canal. Tasks also include installation of erosion protection/bank stabilization as required. Regulatory Requirements: NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021) 10 CFR 1021.410 (Application of Categorical Exclusions) (a) The actions listed in Appendices A and B of Subpart D are classes of actions that DOE has determined do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment (categorical exclusions). (b) To find that a proposal is categorically excluded, DOE shall determine the following:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION Project ID No. BC-10-071  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 1 Title: Replace BC Timber Pile Pipe Supports Description: Subcontractor shall provide all materials, equipment, tools, transportation, supervision, labor, mobile lifting equipment, and rigging needed to replace the timber piles and cross beams which support aboveground steel pipelines at BC. Regulatory Requirements: NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021) 10 CFR 1021.410 (Application of Categorical Exclusions) (a) The actions listed in Appendices A and B of Subpart D are classes of actions that DOE has determined do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment (categorical exclusions). (b) To find that a proposal is categorically excluded, DOE shall determine the following: (1) The proposed action fits within a class of actions that is listed in Appendix A or B of Subpart D;

222

RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION Project ID No. BC-MM-772C  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

772C 772C Title: Tear Down, Inspect and Repair BC Brine Filters at BOW Pad 1 Description: Subcontractor shall provide all supervision, transportation, labor, materials and equipment required to pickup, inspect, refurbish, install new closures, blast and paint, and deliver three filter pod vessels for brine disposal service at BC. The existing filter pods will be disconnected from piping by OM personnel. Site personnel and equipment will be available for loading/unloading the filter pods onto the subcontractor's transport vehicle during pickup and delivery. Regulatory Requirements: NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021) 10 CFR 1021.410 (Application of Categorical Exclusions) (a) The actions listed in Appendices A and B of Subpart 0 are classes of actions that DOE has

223

Almerio B. Franca Petrobras-E&P-BC, Av. Chile 65, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUTHORS Alme´rio B. Franc¸a Petrobra´s-E&P-BC, Av. Chile 65, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil Alme´rio B. Franc¸a received his B.S. degree in geology from the Universidade de Brasi´lia, Brazil in 1974 and his of glacially influenced deposits in the Gondwana of the Parana´ basin, southern Brazil. He joined Petrobra

Maynard, J. Barry

224

Black holes at accelerators.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ar X iv :h ep -p h/ 05 11 12 8v 3 6 A pr 2 00 6 Black Holes at Accelerators Bryan Webber Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK In theories with large extra dimensions and TeV-scale gravity, black holes... 2000 3000 Missing ET (GeV) Ar bi tra ry S ca le p p ? QCD SUSY 5 TeV BH (n=6) 5 TeV BH (n=2) (PT > 600 GeV) (SUGRA point 5) Figure 10: Missing transverse energy for various processes at the LHC. 4.2. Event Characteristics Turning from single...

Webber, Bryan R

225

Carbon Cycle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Including CDIAC Estimates Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass (δ 13C) of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values

226

Carbon Isotopes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Carbon Isotopes Gateway Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of Various Isotopic Species from Ice Cores Carbon-13 13C in CO Measurements from Niwot Ridge, Colorado and Montana de Oro, California (Tyler) 13C in CO2 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (White and Vaughn) CSIRO GASLAB Flask Network (Allison, Francey, and Krummel) CSIRO in situ measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania (Francey and Allison) Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Keeling et al.) 13C in CH4 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (Miller and White) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Quay and Stutsman) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Stevens)

227

Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage).

Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Berge, Nicole D., E-mail: berge@cec.sc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Crystal structure of the cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex from bovine heart mitochondria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the basis of x-ray diffraction data to a resolution of 2.9 angstroms, atomic models of most protein components of the bovine cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex were built, including core 1, core 2, cytochrome b, subunit 6, and subunit 7, a carboxyl-terminal fragment of cytochrome c{sub 1}, and an amino-terminal fragment of the iron-sulfur protein. The positions of the four iron centers within the bc{sub 1} complex and the binding sites of the two specific respiratory inhibitors antimycin A and myxothiazol were identified. The membrane-spanning region of each bc{sub 1} complex monomer consists of 13 transmembrane helices, eight of which belong to cytochrome b. Closely interacting monomers are arranged as symmetric dimers and form cavities through which the inhibitor binding pockets can be accessed. The proteins core 1 and core 2 are structurally similar to each other and consist of two domains of roughly equal size and identical folding topology. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Xia, Di; Kim, Hoeon; Deisenhofer, J. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Zhang, Li [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others] [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); and others

1997-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

229

Extremal black disks in QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We argue that in the high energy QCD a true black disk wave function necessarily contains many quarks. This corresponds to necessity of non-vacuum reggeon loops in formation of a black disk. The result comes from decomposition of the black disk S-matrix in characters on group manifold.

Alexey V. Popov

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

Black holes and black strings in plane waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the construction of black holes and black strings in vacuum plane wave spacetimes using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. We find solutions of the linearised equations of motion in the asymptotic region for a general source on a plane wave background. We observe that these solutions do not satisfy our previously defined conditions for being asymptotically plane wave. Hence, the space of asymptotically plane wave solutions is restricted. We consider the solution in the near region, treating the plane wave as a perturbation of a black object, and find that there is a regular black string solution but no regular black hole solution.

Julian Le Witt; Simon F. Ross

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

231

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Black brane steady states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We follow the evolution of an asymptotically AdS black brane with a fixed temperature gradient at spatial infinity until a steady state is formed. The resulting energy density and energy flux of the steady state in the boundary theory are compared to a conjecture on the behavior of steady states in conformal field theories. Very good agreement is found.

Amado, Irene

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Inside a black hole  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... interior. These models reveal several significantly different behaviours. The simplest model, of a 'Schwarzschild' black hole, which possesses mass but no charge or angular momentum, has an ... into account, seal off the 'tunnel', and yield an interior similar to the Schwarzschild model, with an all-encompassing crushing singularity. More recently, there have been attempts6- ...

William A. Hiscock

1991-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

234

Carbon Nanotubes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Carbon nanotubes have extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal andoptical properties. They are harder than diamond yet exible, have betterelectrical conductor than copper, but can also… (more)

Fredriksson, Tore

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Capturing carbon | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capturing carbon Capturing carbon New technology enables molecular-level insight into carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration is a potential solution for reducing greenhouse...

236

Supermassive Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supermassive black holes have generally been recognized as the most destructive force in nature. But in recent years, they have undergone a dramatic shift in paradigm. These objects may have been critical to the formation of structure in the early universe, spawning bursts of star formation and nucleating proto-galactic condensations. Possibly half of all the radiation produced after the Big Bang may be attributed to them, whose number is now known to exceed 300 million. The most accessible among them is situated at the Center of Our Galaxy. In the following pages, we will examine the evidence that has brought us to this point, and we will understand why many expect to actually image the event horizon of the Galaxy's central black hole within this decade.

Fulvio Melia

2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

237

Black hole lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High frequency dispersion does not alter the low frequency spectrum of Hawking radiation from a single black hole horizon, whether the dispersion entails subluminal or superluminal group velocities. We show here that in the presence of an inner horizon as well as an outer horizon the superluminal case differs dramatically however. The negative energy partners of Hawking quanta return to the outer horizon and stimulate more Hawking radiation if the field is bosonic or suppress it if the field is fermionic. This process leads to exponential growth or damping of the radiated flux and correlations among the quanta emitted at different times, unlike in the usual Hawking effect. These phenomena may be observable in condensed matter black hole analogues that exhibit “superluminal” dispersion.

Steven Corley and Ted Jacobson

1999-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

238

Black Pine Circle Project  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

Mytko, Christine

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Black Pine Circle Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

Mytko, Christine

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advanced Algorithm Design Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia #12;Red-Black Tree A red-black tree is a binary search tree, and each node contains one extra field: its color, it can be either black or red of the binary search tree. If a binary search tree satisfies all the following red-black properties, it is a red

Chen, Yangjun

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Data:27f303a5-db48-4bc2-99db-53e75327fc70 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3a5-db48-4bc2-99db-53e75327fc70 3a5-db48-4bc2-99db-53e75327fc70 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Black River Falls, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/04/15 End date if known: Rate name: Pgs-2 Customer-Owned Generation Systems(Greater than 20kW) Sector: Description: Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or all of the electrical requirements of the customer are supplied by the customer's generating facilities, where such facilities have a total generating capability of greater than 20 kW and less than or equal to 100 kW, where such facilities are connected in parallel with the utility. Customers not desiring to sell energy under this rate have the right to negotiate a buy-back rate. The energy rate indicated below is the standard buy-back rate for electrical energy. Customers with generating facilities greater than 100 kW can negotiate a buy-back rate, unless the utility is unwilling to pay the standard buy-back rate for electrical energy from such a customer, in which case the utility shall agree to transport such electrical energy to another utility that will pay such a rate. The utility shall recover actual costs of such transportation from the generating customer. Customers shall receive monthly payments for all electricity delivered to the utility and shall be billed by the utility for metering and associated billing expenses specified in the latest rates of the wholesale supplier unless the latest rates of the wholesale supplier do not properly reflect avoided costs. In such event, the Commission, upon request, may determine appropriate rates. The utility shall have on file a copy of the latest customer-owned generation system rates for its wholesale supplier.

242

Data:52292588-d13e-466a-85dc-3192bc405028 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8-d13e-466a-85dc-3192bc405028 8-d13e-466a-85dc-3192bc405028 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Detroit Edison Co Effective date: 2011/12/21 End date if known: Rate name: INTERRUPTIBLE GENERAL SERVICE D3.3 (RETAIL SERVICE) Sector: Description: Available to no more than 300 customers desiring interruptible service in conjunction with service taken under the general service rate. Service to interruptible load shall be taken through separately metered circuits and permanently wired. The design and method of installation for application of this rate shall be subject to the approval of the Company. Service to interruptible load may not be transferred to firm service circuits to avoid interruption. At the Company's option, in lieu of the requirement for separately metered circuits and associated interrupted equipment the customer may elect to have interval demand metering installed in order to monitor compliance when called to interrupt load. Customers electing this option will pay a $25.00 per month service charge instead of the normal $8.78 per month service charge. This rate is not available for loads that are primarily off-peak, such as outdoor lighting.

243

Data:28c7865c-8581-4104-bc5b-47164108574f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8581-4104-bc5b-47164108574f 8581-4104-bc5b-47164108574f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southern California Edison Co Effective date: 2013/05/16 End date if known: Rate name: GS-1 General Service Non-Demand Single Phase Above 50 kV but below 220 kV Discount Sector: Commercial Description: Applicable to single- and three-phase general service including lighting and power, except that the customer whose monthly maximum demand, in the opinion of SCE, is expected to exceed 20 kW or has exceeded 20 kW in any three months during the preceding 12 months is ineligible for service under this Schedule. Effective with the date of ineligibility of any customer served under this Schedule, the customer's account shall be transferred to Schedule GS-2. This Schedule is subject to meter availability.

244

Carbon Sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

David a. Lang David a. Lang Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4881 david.lang@netl.doe.gov andrew chizmeshya Arizona State University Center for Solid State Science Tempe, AZ 85287-1704 480-965-6072 chizmesh@asu.edu A Novel ApproAch to MiNerAl cArboNAtioN: eNhANciNg cArboNAtioN While AvoidiNg MiNerAl pretreAtMeNt process cost Background Carbonation of the widely occurring minerals of the olivine group, such as forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), is a potential large-scale sequestration process that converts CO 2 into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO 3 ). Because the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is the key to economic viability. Previous

245

Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A broad review of the structure and properties of carbon nanotubes is presented. Particular emphasis is given to ... dimensional density of states predicted for single-wall nanotubes of small diameter. The eviden...

M. S. Dresselhaus; G. Dresselhaus…

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Carbon Fiber  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

247

Carbon Fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

248

Semileptonic and nonleptonic decays of Bc mesons to orbitally excited heavy mesons in the relativistic quark model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The form factors of weak decays of the Bc meson to orbitally excited charmonium, D, Bs, and B mesons are calculated in the framework of the QCD-motivated relativistic quark model based on the quasipotential approach. Relativistic effects are systematically taken into account. The form factor dependence on the momentum transfer is reliably determined in the whole kinematical range. The form factors are expressed through the overlap integrals of the meson wave functions, which are known from the previous mass spectra calculations within the same model. On this basis, semileptonic and nonleptonic Bc decay rates to orbitally excited heavy mesons are calculated. Predictions for the Bc decays to the orbitally and radially excited 2P and 3S charmonium states are given, which could be used for clarifying the nature of the recently observed charmoniumlike states above the open charm production threshold.

D. Ebert, R. N. Faustov, and V. O. Galkin

2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

249

Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Hispanics in the Why Blacks Help Less U.S. Economy, eds.71(1):42-71. Why Blacks Help Less Fernandez, Roberto M. andProblems 49 (1): 11- Why Blacks Help Less Heflin, Coleen M.

Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly scales...photonic structure| Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly scales...ultrastructure Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly scales...Controlled absorption of incident solar radiation is the principal...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Black-white asymmetry in visual perception  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tion of black and white in human vision. Investi- gativeneural responses to black and white ments are balanced, weand observers. The black– white asymmetry with a ¼ 1.28 is

Lu, Z.-L.; Sperling, G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Black Stars and Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stars that are collapsing toward forming a black hole but are frozen near the Schwarzschild horizon are termed ``black stars''. Collisions of black stars, in contrast to black hole collisions, may be sources of gamma ray bursts, whose basic parameters are estimated quite simply and are found to be consistent with observed gamma ray bursts. Black star gamma ray bursts should be preceded by gravitational wave emission similar to that from the coalescence of black holes.

Tanmay Vachaspati

2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

253

NSA-Old Black Spruce Site  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NSA-OBS) NSA-OBS) The NSA-OBS site from the air. This aerial shot of the OBS site shows the generator in the lower-right corner, one of the huts in the upper-left corner, and part of the boardwalk leading away from the hut. View an aerial photo-map of the NSA-OBS site. OBS spruce trees and flux tower The road to the OBS site. The road to the OBS site was often a muddy mess, accessable only by ARGO all-terrain vehicles, and even they got stuck often. The OBS flux tower The NSA black spruce carbon model evaluation site and TE canopy access tower. Oblique view of the trail leading into the NSA Old Black Spruce site. Highway 391 is beyond the image at the bottom and the power line is viewable at the top of the image. The NSA-OBS site would be off to the upper left. The NSA-OBS Rohn tower where Amar Bazzaz of Harvard University is climbing the tower for maintenance.

254

Sequencing the Black Aspergilli species complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ~15 members of the Aspergillus section Nigri species complex (the "Black Aspergilli") are significant as platforms for bioenergy and bioindustrial technology, as members of soil microbial communities and players in the global carbon cycle, and as food processing and spoilage agents and agricultural toxigens. Despite their utility and ubiquity, the morphological and metabolic distinctiveness of the complex's members, and thus their taxonomy, is poorly defined. We are using short read pyrosequencing technology (Roche/454 and Illumina/Solexa) to rapidly scale up genomic and transcriptomic analysis of this species complex. To date we predict 11197 genes in Aspergillus niger, 11624 genes in A. carbonarius, and 10845 genes in A. aculeatus. A. aculeatus is our most recent genome, and was assembled primarily from 454-sequenced reads and annotated with the aid of >2 million 454 ESTs and >300 million Solexa ESTs. To most effectively deploy these very large numbers of ESTs we developed 2 novel methods for clustering the ESTs into assemblies. We have also developed a pipeline to propose orthologies and paralogies among genes in the species complex. In the near future we will apply these methods to additional species of Black Aspergilli that are currently in our sequencing pipeline.

Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf; Zhou, Kemin; Otillar, Robert; Baker, Scott; Grigoriev, Igor

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

255

Black Holes And Their Entropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation covers two di erent but related topics: the construction of new black hole solutions and the study of the microscopic origin of black hole entropy. In the solution part, two di erent sets of new solutions are found. The rst...

Mei, Jianwei

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

256

Black Hole Energy Extraction Problems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... non-rotating black hole the particle can be lowered to no closer than 1.14 Schwarzschild radii, and the energy extracted can be no more than 63.2 per cent ... gram of matter-and the rope could be lowered no closer than 5 x 1011 Schwarzschild radii. This seems to rule out black holes as practical sources of energy. ...

1972-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

257

Optical black holes and solitons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We exhibit a static, cylindrically symmetric, exact solution to the Euler-Heisenberg field equations (EHFE) and prove that its effective geometry contains (optical) black holes. It is conjectured that there are also soliton solutions to the EHFE which contain black hole geometries.

Shawn Westmoreland

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

258

Entropy of Lovelock Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general formula for the entropy of stationary black holes in Lovelock gravity theories is obtained by integrating the first law of black hole mechanics, which is derived by Hamiltonian methods. The entropy is not simply one quarter of the surface area of the horizon, but also includes a sum of intrinsic curvature invariants integrated over a cross section of the horizon.

Ted Jacobson; Robert C. Myers

1993-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

259

AMF Deployment, Black Forest, Germany  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Germany Germany Black Forest Deployment AMF Home Black Forest Home Data Plots and Baseline Instruments CERA COPS Data University of Hohenheim COPS Website COPS Update, April 2009 Experiment Planning COPS Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns Science Plan (PDF, 12.4M) Outreach COPS Backgrounder (PDF, 306K) Posters AMF Poster, German Vesion Researching Raindrops in the Black Forest News Campaign Images AMF Deployment, Black Forest, Germany Main Site: 48° 32' 24.18" N, 08° 23' 48.72" E Altitude: 511.43 meters In March 2007, the third deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will take place in the Black Forest region of Germany, where scientists will study rainfall resulting from atmospheric uplift (convection) in mountainous terrain, otherwise known as orographic precipitation. ARM

260

String-Corrected Black Holes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect -- the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive! The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

Hubeny, Veronika; Maloney, Alexander; Rangamani, Mukund

2005-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Conference Services | | 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC| T/250.960.5520 | F/250.960.5291 | conference@unbc.ca | www.unbc.ca/conference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conference Services | | 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC| T/250.960.5520 | F/250.960.5291 | conference@unbc.ca | www.unbc.ca/conference Congratulations and thank you for considering the University's 2012 #12;Conference Services | | 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC| T/250.960.5520 | F/250

Northern British Columbia, University of

262

Conference Services | | 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC| T/250.960.5520 | F/250.960.5291 | conference@unbc.ca | www.unbc.ca/conference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conference Services | | 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC| T/250.960.5520 | F/250.960.5291 | conference@unbc.ca | www.unbc.ca/conference Congratulations and thank you for considering the University's 2013 #12;Conference Services | | 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC| T/250.960.5520 | F/250

Northern British Columbia, University of

263

Data:4e4a537b-c5d8-4f98-bc9f-205ab69c6f97 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a537b-c5d8-4f98-bc9f-205ab69c6f97 a537b-c5d8-4f98-bc9f-205ab69c6f97 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Rice Lake Utilities Effective date: 2011/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: Ms-1 Street Lighting Service Fixture and Lamp 55 W IND Sector: Lighting Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positiv¬e or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0773 per kilowatt-hour.

264

Data:B29e3a0f-cca2-42d9-b1f7-bc0d25bc85d8 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cca2-42d9-b1f7-bc0d25bc85d8 cca2-42d9-b1f7-bc0d25bc85d8 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Juneau Utility Comm Effective date: 2010/07/15 End date if known: Rate name: Cp-1 Small Power Service between 50kW and 200kW Demand Transformer Ownership Discount Sector: Industrial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0753 per kilowatt-hour.

265

Data:E9d5da6b-c9e2-49c6-94f7-7adc66a6f2bc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

d5da6b-c9e2-49c6-94f7-7adc66a6f2bc d5da6b-c9e2-49c6-94f7-7adc66a6f2bc No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Frankfort, Indiana (Utility Company) Effective date: 1997/10/27 End date if known: Rate name: B Commercial Sector: Commercial Description: Availability. Available through one meter for single phase commercial service including lighting, miscellaneous small appliances, refrigeration, cooking, water heating, and incidental small motors not exceeding five horsepower individual capacity. Character of service. Alternating current, 60 Hertz, single phase, at a voltage of approximately 120 volts two-wire or 120/240 volts three-wire.

266

Data:3d97c80d-2f0f-4a1a-b651-303bc2dd2bc4 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c80d-2f0f-4a1a-b651-303bc2dd2bc4 c80d-2f0f-4a1a-b651-303bc2dd2bc4 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Sawnee Electric Membership Corporation Effective date: 2011/09/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Time- Of - Use Three- Phase Rate Sector: Residential Description: The minimum monthly charge shall be the base charge plus $1.00 per kVA of installed transformer capacity in excess of 25 kVA. Source or reference: http://www.sawnee.com/Rate%20Pdfs/TU.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh):

267

Preparation of supported electrocatalyst comprising multiwalled carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparing a durable non-precious metal oxygen reduction electrocatalyst involves heat treatment of a ball-milled mixture of polyaniline and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the presence of a Fe species. The catalyst is more durable than catalysts that use carbon black supports. Performance degradation was minimal or absent after 500 hours of operation at constant cell voltage of 0.40 V.

Wu, Gang; Zelenay, Piotr

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

268

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Microsoft Word - DE-AC26-99BC15225Final.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Census and Statistical Characterization of Soil and Water Quality at Abandoned and Other Census and Statistical Characterization of Soil and Water Quality at Abandoned and Other Centralized and Commercial Drilling-Fluid Disposal Sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas Final Technical Report by Alan R. Dutton and H. Seay Nance June 2003 DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225 Bureau of Economic Geology Scott W. Tinker, Director The University of Texas at Austin University Station, Box X Austin, Texas 78713-8924 ii iii DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of its employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus,

270

RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION Project ID No. BC-10-077A  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7A 7A Title: Refurbish BC Static Mixer GFE Description: Subcontractor shall provide all supervision, transportation, labor, materials, and equipment to pickup, refurbish, install new baffles, and deliver an axial flow type mixer for crude oil service to the Bayou Choctaw SPR site. Government will furnish the old static mixer complete with flanges. Regulatory Requirements: NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021) 10 CFR 1021.410 (Application of Categorical Exclusions) (a) The actions listed in Appendices A and B of Subpart D are classes of actions that DOE has determined do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment (categorical exclusions). (b) To find that a proposal is categorically excluded, DOE shall determine the following:

271

Microsoft Word - DE-AC26-99BC15210 Final Report.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery -A Search for Synergy Final Report Project Start Date: 1 June 1999 Project End Date: 31 May 2002 By Lewis R. Brown Charles U. Pittman, Jr. F. Leo Lynch A. Alex Vadie W. Todd French June 2002 DE-AC26-99BC15210 Prepared by Mississippi State University P.O. Drawer GY Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 ii DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warrant, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately

272

Contract NO. DE-FG22-93BC14862 Department of Petroleum Engineering  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Productivity and Injectivity of Horizontal Wells Productivity and Injectivity of Horizontal Wells Contract NO. DE-FG22-93BC14862 Department of Petroleum Engineering Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 Contract Date: March 10, 1993 Anticipated Completion: March 10, 1998 Principal Investigator: Co- Inves t igat ors: Research Associate: Administrative Assistant: Technical Project Manager (DOE): F. John Fayers Khalid Aziz Thomas A. Hewett Sepehr Arbabi Marilyn Smith Thomas B. Reid _ - ; . ? --.i # 4 . - - - - 9 \ r c . 1 _ > -- r n * : - * c-2 : , / Quarterly Report /, -3 . * - -A," c f 2 1-3 .-- :+: Reporting Period: January 1, 1995 - March 31, 1995 -- * .- . - - "U.S./DOE patent clearance is not required prior to the publication of this document" MASTER DIS CLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible

273

Carbon Capture and Storage: How Green Can Black Be?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...experiments are developing 40-MW burners, intended to be commercially...involves the use of multiple burners and air separation trains...low SO x required on leaving burners, as well as the higher-temperature...gasify coal and chemically shift syngas or methane to hydrogen. Using...

R. Stuart Haszeldine

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

274

Carbon Capture and Storage: How Green Can Black Be?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of solvents from recovery columns need to...consumption of water needs to be reduced...parts per million of water), conventional...avoid dew-point condensation into liquids from...from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) activities...in many fields, water injected to undertake...

R. Stuart Haszeldine

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

275

Antagonistic Interaction of Antiwear Additives and Carbon Black  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This antagonism suggests that removal of the ZDDP film by CB may ... a series of other antiwear and extreme pressure additives that might be considered likely to react...

Yewande Olomolehin; Rita Kapadia; Hugh Spikes

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The impacts of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. This paper presents the results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4), coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4–SOM) ...

Salil Mahajan; Katherine J. Evans; James J. Hack; John E. Truesdale

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the zonal steppe soils of Russia. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. ,CD-ROM "Land Resources of Russia", International Institute

Hammes, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Carbon Capture and Storage: How Green Can Black Be?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coal, gas, and oil) and sometimes...the highest cost. Historical...progressively larger equipment from pilot...introduction, operation, and establishment...reducing the cost and also...To avoid costs of overcompression...aquifers, oil fields, or gas fields...commercial pipe operation. Fig. 3...

R. Stuart Haszeldine

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

279

MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES' CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., Billerica, MA; 2 Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA; 3 NOAA CIRES, Boulder, CO; 4 UC Davis, Davis, CA; 5 of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02- 98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy

280

Aged black carbon in marine sediments and sinking particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combining reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for more com-using coupled reverse osmosis–electrodialysis, Geochim.and POC. Reverse osmosis coupled to electrodialysis (RO/ED)

Coppola, Alysha I; Ziolkowski, Lori A; Masiello, Caroline A; Druffel, Ellen R. M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Carbon Capture and Storage: How Green Can Black Be?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reduced by 40%. Oxyfuel combustion has not previously been developed...recycled flue gas to cool the combustion. Burners for oxyfuel have been...trains. Attractions of oxyfuel combustion are the much easier separation...coal and chemically shift syngas or methane to hydrogen. Using...

R. Stuart Haszeldine

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

282

Aged black carbon in marine sediments and sinking particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the incomplete combustion of biomass, coals, and otherwhile cool combustion conditions of biomass burning produceSouth Asia: Biomass or fossil fuel combustion? , Science,

Coppola, Alysha I; Ziolkowski, Lori A; Masiello, Caroline A; Druffel, Ellen R. M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of plant biomass and combustion, and thus are largelyfrom incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has beenincomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning (

Hammes, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Carbon Capture and Storage: How Green Can Black Be?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...have been proposed. Norway will form a state...pipelines built to offshore hubs accessing large-scale...Utsira and Snohvhit, Norway and In Salah, Algeria...shown to be viable offshore. Since 2000, several...introduce renewable energies. But this critical...variable output from wind power to 30% or...

R. Stuart Haszeldine

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

285

Carbon Capture and Storage: How Green Can Black Be?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...been proposed. Norway will form a state...pipelines built to offshore hubs accessing large-scale...and Snohvhit, Norway and In Salah...shown to be viable offshore. Since 2000...given to introduce renewable energies. But this critical...

R. Stuart Haszeldine

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

286

Carbon Capture and Storage: How Green Can Black Be?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...plant. The challenge here lies less...continuous integration. In China...operation. National CCS targets...to introduce renewable energies. But this...funds, then national governments have...Electricity Grid The electricity...

R. Stuart Haszeldine

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

287

Hydrogen Bonds Involved in Binding the Qi-site Semiquinone in the bc1 Complex, Identified through Deuterium Exchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Bonds Involved in Binding the Qi-site Semiquinone in the bc1 Complex, Identified through them. The strength of interactions indicates that the protons are involved in hydrogen bonds with SQ. The hyperfine cou- plings differ from values typical for in-plane hydrogen bonds previously observed in model

Crofts, Antony R.

288

Stimuli-Tailored Dispersion State of Aqueous Carbon Nanotube Suspensions and Solid Polymer Nanocomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoparticles (such as, carbon nanotubes, carbon black, clay etc.) have one or more dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. Owing to very high van der Waals force of attraction, these nanoparticles exist in a highly aggregated state. It is often...

Etika, Krishna

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

289

The 20th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena 7-10 July, 2009, Victoria BC, CANADA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

experiences a transient that can lead to carbon oxidation in the cathode catalyst. During the transient outlet. This negative current includes carbon oxidation at the cathode. Capacitance effects have been (2006) that the introduction of hydrogen in the air filled anode of a PEMFC at open-circuit start-up can

Wetton, Brian

290

Delayed carbon sequestration and rising carbon prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We set out a dynamic model to investigate optimal time paths of emissions, carbon stocks and carbon sequestration by land conversion, allowing for non-instantaneous carbon sequestration. Previous research in a dy...

Alejandro Caparrós

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Spectrally edited 2D 13 C NMR spectra without diagonal ridge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contaminants such as metals [6], and for soil amendments and carbon sequestration [7,8]. Carbon-rich materials-enriched low-temperature carbon materials Robert L. Johnson a,c , Jason M. Anderson b,c , Brent H. Shanks b June 2013 Available online 22 June 2013 Keywords: Spectral editing Black carbon structure Char

Hong, Mei

292

The structure of black hole magnetospheres — I. Schwarzschild black holes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......2000 RAS, MNRAS 315, 89 97 force-free black hole magnetosphere...However, there is nothing fundamental about the paraboloidal shape...in stationary axisymmetric force-free magnetospheres. Therefore...Stegun I. A., 1972, Handbook of Mathematical Functions......

Pranab Ghosh

2000-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

293

Black Holes in Active Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent years have seen tremendous progress in the quest to detect supermassive black holes in the centers of nearby galaxies, and gas-dynamical measurements of the central masses of active galaxies have been valuable contributions to the local black hole census. This review summarizes measurement techniques and results from observations of spatially resolved gas disks in active galaxies, and reverberation mapping of the broad-line regions of Seyfert galaxies and quasars. Future prospects for the study of black hole masses in active galaxies, both locally and at high redshift, are discussed.

A. J. Barth

2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Thermodynamics of Lifshitz black holes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We apply the recently extended conserved Killing charge definition of Abbott-Deser-Tekin formalism to compute, for the first time, the energies of analytic Lifshitz black holes in higher dimensions. We then calculate the temperature and the entropy of this large family of solutions, and study and discuss the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Along the way we also identify the possible critical points of the relevant quadratic curvature gravity theories. Separately, we also apply the generalized Killing charge definition to compute the energy and the angular momentum of the warped AdS3 black hole solution of the three-dimensional new massive gravity theory.

Deniz Olgu Devecio?lu and Özgür Sar?o?lu

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

295

Ecology, Silviculture, and Management of Black Hills  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ponderosa pine forests, and watershed management of the Black Hills. Keywords: Black Hills, silviculture of the Black Hills National Forest. The authors are grateful for the insightful and helpful reviews, and members of the Black Hills National Forest. We are thankful for Bob Hamre's editing of the manuscript

Fried, Jeremy S.

296

First law of black Saturn thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The physical process version and equilibrium state version of the first law of thermodynamics for a black object consisting of n-dimensional charged stationary axisymmetric black hole surrounded by a black rings, the so-called black Saturn, was derived. The general setting for our derivations is n-dimensional dilaton gravity with p+1 strength form fields.

Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics Maria Curie-Sklodowska University 20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1 (Poland)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

First law of black Saturn thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The physical process version and equilibrium state version of the first law of thermodynamics for a black object consisting of n-dimensional charged stationary axisymmetric black hole surrounded by a black rings, the so-called black Saturn, was derived. The general setting for our derivations is n-dimensional dilaton gravity with p+1 strength form fields.

Marek Rogatko

2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

298

DOE Science Showcase - Carbon Capture research in DOE Databases | OSTI,  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

DOE Science Showcase - Carbon Capture research in DOE Databases DOE Science Showcase - Carbon Capture research in DOE Databases Information Bridge : Natural materials for carbon capture. ... Realistic costs of carbon capture ... Technology and international climate policy Energy Citations Database : What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions ... Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest ... ScienceCinema : Carbon Smackdown ... Extrapolate the Past or Invent the Future ... Two Billion Cars: What it means for Climate and Energy Policy ... DOE Data Explorer : Big Sky Carbon Atlas... NATCARB Interactive Maps ... Videos of experiments from ORNL's Gas Hydrate Research DOE Green Energy : Thinking Like a Whole Building: A Whole Foods Market New Construction Case

299

Rare earth magnetic order in RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C and RNiBC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of neutron diffraction experiments on the magnetic order in the RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C and RNiBC (R-rare earth) systems is given. The RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C materials exhibit a wide variety of commensurate and incommensurate magnetic structures for different rare earths, along with superconductivity that is coupled to the magnetism. Simple commensurate antiferromagnetic structures are observed for R = Pr (T{sub N} = 4.0 K), Nd (T{sub N} = 4.8 K), Ho (T{sub N} = 8.5 K) and Dy (T{sub N} = 4.8 K). In addition, HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C exhibits a c-axis spiral and an a-axis modulated incommensurate structure above 5 K, while both structures collapse in favor of the commensurate structure at low T. A transversely polarized spin density wave (SDW) type incommensurate structure is observed for Er (T{sub N} = 6.8 K) and Tm (T{sub N} = 1.5 K), while a longitudinally polarized SDW structure is observed for Tb (T{sub N} = 15 K). No magnetic ordering of any type is detected for Y, Ce and Yb. HoNiBC is an antiferromagnet (T{sub N} = 9.8 K), ErNiBC is a ferromagnetic (T{sub C} = 4.6 K), while TbNiBC and DyNiBC exhibit both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ordering at 17 K and {approximately} 13 K, respectively.

Skanthakumar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Lynn, J.W. [National Inst. of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Center for Neutron Research

1998-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

300

Revisit Carbon/Sulfur Composite for Li-S Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To correlate the carbon properties e.g. surface area and porous structure, with the electrochemical behaviors of carbon/sulfur (C/S) composite cathodes for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, four different carbon frameworks including Ketjen Black (KB, high surface area and porous), Graphene (high surface area and nonporous), Acetylene Black (AB, low surface area and nonporous) and Hollow Carbon Nano Sphere (HCNS, low surface area and porous) are employed to immobilize sulfur (80 wt.%). It has been revealed that high surface area of carbon improves the utilization rate of active sulfur and decreases the real current density during the electrochemical reactions. Accordingly, increased reversible capacities and reduced polarization are observed for high surface area carbon hosts such as KB/S and graphene/S composites. The porous structure of KB or HCNS matrix promotes the long-term cycling stability of C/S composites but only at relatively low rate (0.2 C). Once the current density increases, the pore effect completely disappears and all Li-S batteries show similar trend of capacity degradation regardless of the different carbon hosts used in the cathodes. The reason has been assigned to the formation of reduced amount of irreversible Li2S on the cathode as well as shortened time for polysulfides to transport towards lithium anode at elevated current densities. This work provides valuable information for predictive selection on carbon materials to construct C/S composite for practical applications from the electrochemical point of view.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Zuo, Pengjian; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 64276442, 2014 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/6427/2014/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biomass burning, has been used to study the influence of residential wood burning, agricultural waste-6427-2014 � Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Quantifying black carbon from biomass burning by means burning and Boreal forest fire emissions on the Arctic atmo- sphere black carbon (BC) concentration. A one

Pierce, Jeffrey

302

ECOHYDROLOGY Ecohydrol. 3, 497508 (2010)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2010; Accepted 7 July 2010 INTRODUCTION Black carbon derived from low-temperature pyrolysis of biomass; Lehmann, 2007a,b). In addition to engineered pyrolysis, black carbon is also formed by forest fire, slash). A preferable approach in the pyrolysis process is to combine the production of bioenergy and BC so that one

Lehmann, Johannes

303

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 25212541, 2004 www.atmos-chem-phys.org/acp/4/2521/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-defined BC residence times. Here, the global BC cycle including emissions, transport, and removal is explic atmospheric black carbon cycle: a revisit to the contribution of aircraft emissions J. Hendricks1, B. K Atm´osfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico *now at: ETH, Institut f

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

Chapter 5 - Environmental Impact of Black Liquor Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmental impact of black liquor gasification (BLG) is discussed. Biofuels from a BLG process excel in terms of well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emission reduction and energy efficiency. Forest biorefinery utilizing gasification (in a black liquor gasification combined cycle (BLGCC) configuration) rather than a Tomlinson boiler is predicted to produce significantly fewer pollutant emissions due to the intrinsic characteristics of the BLGCC technology. Syngas cleanup conditioning removes a considerable amount of contaminants and gas turbine combustion is more efficient and complete than boiler combustion. Also, there could be reductions in pollutant emissions and hazardous wastes resulting from cleaner production of chemicals and fuels that are now manufactured using fossil energy resources. Production of power, fuels, chemicals, and other products from biomass resources creates a net zero generation of carbon dioxide as plants are renewable carbon sinks. BLG whether conducted at high or low temperatures is still superior to the current recovery boiler combustion technology. Implementation of IGCC power plants will cause net savings in cooling water requirements and net reductions in wastewater discharges. The most significant environmental impact caused by BLG will occur in air emissions. The overall reduction of Total reduced sulphur (TRS) gases using gasification technology will also reduce odor, which will improve public acceptance of pulp and paper mills, particularly in populated areas.

Pratima Bajpai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

306

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Thermodynamics of regular black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate thermodynamics for a magnetically charged regular black hole (MCRBH), which comes from the action of general relativity and nonlinear electromagnetics, comparing with the Reissner-Norstr\\"om (RN) black hole in both four and two dimensions after dimensional reduction. We find that there is no thermodynamic difference between the regular and RN black holes for a fixed charge $Q$ in both dimensions. This means that the condition for either singularity or regularity at the origin of coordinate does not affect the thermodynamics of black hole. Furthermore, we describe the near-horizon AdS$_2$ thermodynamics of the MCRBH with the connection of the Jackiw-Teitelboim theory. We also identify the near-horizon entropy as the statistical entropy by using the AdS$_2$/CFT$_1$ correspondence.

Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

308

Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ahead, and identifying the carbon pools and other green house gas emissions sources and savings coveredCarbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 Carbon

309

Of the Black Hole Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

About thirty years ago, Bekenstein and Hawking introduced three basic concepts relating to black hole, namely, the "area entropy", "gravitation temperature" and "thermal radiation". The author analyzes these concepts systematically and concludes that they are mostly inadequate or wrong. He points out that a black hole's taking in thermal radiation from the space is an energy-gathering process. It is special, even extraordinary. It reduces entropy, violating Clausius' second law.

Xinyong Fu

2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

310

Simulating Soil Carbon Dynamics, Erosion and Tillage with EPIC  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Simulating Soil Carbon Dynamics, Erosion Simulating Soil Carbon Dynamics, Erosion and Tillage with EPIC 1 R. C. Izaurralde (cesar.izaurralde@pnl.gov; 202-646-5227) Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) Pacific Northwest Nat'l Lab. - Univ. of Maryland 901 D St. S.W., Suite 900 Washington, DC 20024-2115 J. R. Williams (williams@brc.tamus.edu; 254-774-6124) Texas A&M University Blackland Research Center 808 East Blackland Road Temple, TX 76502 W. B. McGill (mcgill@unbc.ca) Faculty of Science and Management University of Northern British Columbia 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9 N. J. Rosenberg (nj.rosenberg@pnl.gov; 202-646-5029) Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) Pacific Northwest Nat'l Lab. - Univ. of Maryland 901 D St. S.W., Suite 900 Washington, DC 20024-2115

311

Carbon Sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technology Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-4966 jose.figueroa@netl.doe.gov Kevin o'Brien Principal Investigator SRI International Materials Research Laboratory 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, AK 94025 650-859-3528 kevin.obrien@sri.com Fabrication and Scale-Up oF polybenzimidazole - baSed membrane SyStem For pre - combUStion captUre oF carbon dioxide Background In order to effectively sequester carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from a gasification plant, there must be an economically viable method for removing the CO 2 from other gases. While CO 2 separation technologies currently exist, their effectiveness is limited. Amine-based separation technologies work only at low temperatures, while pressure-swing absorption and cryogenic distillation consume significantly

312

Carbon Sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

andrea Mcnemar andrea Mcnemar National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 304-285-2024 andrea.mcnemar@netl.doe.gov Gregory J. Elbring Principal Investigator Sandia National Laboratory P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185 505-844-4904 gjelbri@sandia.gov GeoloGic SequeStration of carbon DioxiDe in a DepleteD oil reServoir: a comprehenSive moDelinG anD Site monitorinG project Background The use of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is a familiar and frequently used technique in the United States. The oil and gas industry has significant experience with well drilling and injecting CO 2 into oil-bearing formations to enhance production. While using similar techniques as in oil production, this sequestration field

313

Lattice Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Hawking process on lattices falling into static black holes. The motivation is to understand how the outgoing modes and Hawking radiation can arise in a setting with a strict short distance cutoff in the free-fall frame. We employ two-dimensional free scalar field theory. For a falling lattice with a discrete time-translation symmetry we use analytical methods to establish that, for Killing frequency $\\omega$ and surface gravity $\\kappa$ satisfying $\\kappa\\ll\\omega^{1/3}\\ll 1$ in lattice units, the continuum Hawking spectrum is recovered. The low frequency outgoing modes arise from exotic ingoing modes with large proper wavevectors that "refract" off the horizon. In this model with time translation symmetry the proper lattice spacing goes to zero at spatial infinity. We also consider instead falling lattices whose proper lattice spacing is constant at infinity and therefore grows with time at any finite radius. This violation of time translation symmetry is visible only at wavelengths comparable to the lattice spacing, and it is responsible for transmuting ingoing high Killing frequency modes into low frequency outgoing modes.

Steven Corley; Ted Jacobson

1998-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

314

Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z #12;Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison with its associated (2,4) tree

Alechina, Natasha

315

Radiological review of conditions created during & after a fire on the Hanford Site in the BC Crib controlled area & areas of radiological concern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiological implications of fighting a wildland fire in the BC Crib controlled area with the surrounding Soil Contamination Area (SCA) and for fighting a wildland fire in the genera1 600 Area are addressed in this document. The primary focus is on the BC Crib controlled area; however, the 600 Area radiological concerns are much lower and generally have the same constraints as the BC Crib controlled area. This analysis addresses only radiological hazards and does not address any physical hazards or industrial hygiene hazards.

EVANS, C.L.

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

Weiblen, George D

317

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-21:2 Subsite (100-B/C Discovery Pipeline DS-100BC-002), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 100-B-21:2 waste site consists of the immediate area of the DS-100BC-02 pipeline. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory and verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

J. M. Capron

2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

318

Black hole quantum tunnelling and black hole entropy correction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parikh-Wilczek tunnelling framework, which treats Hawking radiation as a tunnelling process, is investigated again. As the first order correction, the log-corrected entropy-area relation naturally emerges in the tunnelling picture if we consider the emission of a spherical shell. The second order correction of the emission rate for the Schwarzschild black hole is calculated too. In this level, the result is still in agreement with the unitary theory, however, the entropy of the black hole will contain three parts: the usual Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, the logarithmic term and the inverse area term. In our results the coefficient of the logarithmic term is -1. Apart from a coefficient, Our correction to the black hole entropy is consistent with that of loop quantum gravity.

Jingyi Zhang

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Data:0e260746-e127-4132-bc9e-9eb0178052c0 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

46-e127-4132-bc9e-9eb0178052c0 46-e127-4132-bc9e-9eb0178052c0 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Piedmont Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Small General Service Single Phase Sector: Commercial Description: AVAILABILITY: This Schedule is available in all territory served by the Cooperative, subject to the Cooperative's established Service Rules and Regulations and applicability stated herein. REPS MONTHLY RATE:In addition to all other charges stated in the Monthly Rate of the Schedule with which this Rider is used, the following charges shall also apply:Commercial $ 4.03 (INCLUDED IN THE FIXED MONTHLY CHARGE.)

320

Data:0254e382-ea24-4dff-9881-ff58417bc013 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

82-ea24-4dff-9881-ff58417bc013 82-ea24-4dff-9881-ff58417bc013 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Bangor, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/05/19 End date if known: Rate name: Rg-1 Residential Service Three Phase with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Sector: Residential Description: Application: This rate will be applied to residential single-phase customers for ordinary household purposes. Single-phase motors may not exceed 5 horsepower individual-rated capacity without utility permission. Fixed Monthly Charge includes Commitment to Community Rider: $1.10 per customer per month

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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321

Data:D8553821-d32a-4017-bc1a-cd2121546196 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

53821-d32a-4017-bc1a-cd2121546196 53821-d32a-4017-bc1a-cd2121546196 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Tell City, Indiana (Utility Company) Effective date: 2008/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Tariff B1: Single Phase Commercial, Greater Than 200 Amps and Less Than 400 Amps Sector: Commercial Description: The charges derived in the Tariff B1 rate are subject to adjustment for: Purchased Power Adjustment Tracking Factor. Source or reference: Rates Binder 1, Illinois State University Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months):

322

Data:0b3a8580-1126-449f-bc0d-387759487c08 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a8580-1126-449f-bc0d-387759487c08 a8580-1126-449f-bc0d-387759487c08 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Miami-Cass County Rural E M C Effective date: 2011/10/01 End date if known: Rate name: RATE SCHEDULE GSD- GENERAL SERVICE DEMAND ELECTRIC SERVICE RATE SCHEDULE Sector: Commercial Description: The Miami-Cass County Rural Electric Membership Corporation (REMC) shall charge and collect for general service demand electric service on the following bases of availability, application, character of service, monthly rate, minimum charge, purchased power cost adjustment clause, and tax adjustment.

323

Data:22d3bc85-7beb-4505-bb4e-df756717555a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bc85-7beb-4505-bb4e-df756717555a bc85-7beb-4505-bb4e-df756717555a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric Effective date: 2012/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Small Power Curtailable Rate Sector: Commercial Description: Available for all uses where the monthly maximum demand exceeds 100 kW. Three phase, 60 hertz, at available secondary voltages. A monthly credit of $0.40/kVA times the transformer size in KVA shall be applied to the bill. The application of this credit shall not result in a monthly bill that is less than the Service Charge for the applicable rate.

324

Data:38bce442-ae42-4b83-bc6e-35d846572213 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bce442-ae42-4b83-bc6e-35d846572213 bce442-ae42-4b83-bc6e-35d846572213 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Belmont, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2007/03/12 End date if known: Rate name: Ms-1 Street and Security Lighting Service: 400 W MV(Overhead) Sector: Lighting Description: This schedule will be applied to municipal street light lighting. The Utility will furnish, install, and maintain street lighting units. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly Commitment to Community Program Rider: 2.0% of the total electric bill. Source or reference: http://psc.wi.gov/apps40/tariffs/viewfile.aspx?type=electric&id=440

325

Data:4afee058-5039-4bc5-b14d-97016ab28581 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

afee058-5039-4bc5-b14d-97016ab28581 afee058-5039-4bc5-b14d-97016ab28581 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Butler Rural Electric Coop Inc Effective date: 2012/10/01 End date if known: Rate name: Security Light 400 W Sector: Lighting Description: Available to all customers for general area dusk to dawn lighting or for dawn lighting or for the purpose of street or highway lighting. The standard unit shall be a 175 W high pressured sodium light with an estimated average monthly usage of 50 kWh. Source or reference: Rate Binder#8(Illinois State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability

326

Data:20fc9193-eb7d-4eb4-bc5b-0664079039f0 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

193-eb7d-4eb4-bc5b-0664079039f0 193-eb7d-4eb4-bc5b-0664079039f0 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southeast Colorado Power Assn Effective date: 2012/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Industrial Large Power Sector: Industrial Description: Available to all three phase loads requiring 1,500 KVA transformer capacity or larger (to be determined by the seller) and subject to the established rules and regulations of Seller. RATE PER MONTH Access Charge,to be based on cost of facilities required for service,(No kWh allowed) Demand Charge, per KW of billing demand :$16.45 Energy Charge, per kWh:$0.04292

327

Data:86f74141-ebbd-4619-82ec-ae3bc2cdd191 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1-ebbd-4619-82ec-ae3bc2cdd191 1-ebbd-4619-82ec-ae3bc2cdd191 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Durant, Mississippi (Utility Company) Effective date: 2013/06/21 End date if known: Rate name: AL 3 Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: ISU Archive Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Seasonal/Monthly Demand Charge Structures

328

Data:40287625-ba8a-4895-bc0e-f1360731b74c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

25-ba8a-4895-bc0e-f1360731b74c 25-ba8a-4895-bc0e-f1360731b74c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Central Florida Elec Coop, Inc Effective date: 2011/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: Rate Schedule OL- Outside Lighting (100 W HPS) Sector: Lighting Description: Applicable to all members of the Cooperative for lighting of public or private thoroughfares, parking areas, homes, farms, or businesses. Source or reference: ISU Documentation Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months):

329

Data:1cfc6685-b392-457b-bc99-452953ebe6ff | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

-b392-457b-bc99-452953ebe6ff -b392-457b-bc99-452953ebe6ff No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Davenport, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/11/15 End date if known: Rate name: Industrial High Tension Service Sector: Industrial Description: Available in the retail distribution service territory of the District. Source or reference: http://www.nppd.com/my-account/rates-2/ Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V):

330

Data:Cb972ff3-0997-487d-99bc-584123d281b0 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ff3-0997-487d-99bc-584123d281b0 ff3-0997-487d-99bc-584123d281b0 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Warroad, Minnesota (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/03/20 End date if known: 2013/03/20 Rate name: Large commercial service rate Sector: Commercial Description: Capacity Charge of $0.8000 kva/mo is applied to the rate. Source or reference: http://mncable.net/~citysupt/RateSchedule.htm Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V):

331

Data:F741842e-8820-4383-9865-11dd3bc7012d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1842e-8820-4383-9865-11dd3bc7012d 1842e-8820-4383-9865-11dd3bc7012d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: PUD No 1 of Pend Oreille Cnty Effective date: 2011/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Tribal Residential Service Sector: Residential Description: Members of the Kalispel Tribe of Indians who receive energy at their premise on the Kalispel Indian Reservation are, by Washington State law, exempt from paying the District's public utility and privilege taxes. This schedule excludes these taxes from the otherwise applicable rate schedules. Public Utility Tax Exemption forms are available at the Kalispel Tribe of Indians office and District offices.

332

Data:Adda3706-0cfa-4923-93bc-ea4230aae30d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Adda3706-0cfa-4923-93bc-ea4230aae30d Adda3706-0cfa-4923-93bc-ea4230aae30d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Carey, Ohio (Utility Company) Effective date: 2011/04/16 End date if known: Rate name: New Commercial Customers Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http://www.conwaygreene.com/Carey/lpext.dll?f=templates&fn=main-hit-h.htm&2.0 Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category:

333

Data:81722ecd-51d4-4cb2-922f-3266815510bc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

51d4-4cb2-922f-3266815510bc 51d4-4cb2-922f-3266815510bc No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Cornell, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2008/05/12 End date if known: Rate name: Rg-2 Residential Service Optional Time-of-Day Three Phase Sector: Residential Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0644 per kilowatt-hour.

334

Data:5f73ef15-6dbb-47bc-9308-d7055142088e | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ef15-6dbb-47bc-9308-d7055142088e ef15-6dbb-47bc-9308-d7055142088e No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Bonners Ferry, Idaho (Utility Company) Effective date: 2009/10/01 End date if known: Rate name: Self Consumed with Demand: B1PI Sector: Industrial Description: Note: $10.00 added to Fixed monthly charge if Remote Read Device is used. Source or reference: Rates Binder 1, Illinois State University Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V):

335

Data:18733b2f-bbae-46bc-bbb1-ac5135bdd76a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b2f-bbae-46bc-bbb1-ac5135bdd76a b2f-bbae-46bc-bbb1-ac5135bdd76a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Natchez Trace Elec Power Assn Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Outdoor Lighting HPS 250 W Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http://www.ntepa.com/ Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Seasonal/Monthly Demand Charge Structures

336

Data:2cc1bc6c-42cb-4766-9762-ff3152293216 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cc1bc6c-42cb-4766-9762-ff3152293216 cc1bc6c-42cb-4766-9762-ff3152293216 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Sun River Electric Coop, Inc Effective date: 2012/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Security Lighting - 100 watt HPS - Additional Pole Sector: Lighting Description: * Single phase at available voltage. Available for automatic dusk-to-dawn lighting when cooperative furnishes all material, maintenance and electric energy. Source or reference: http://www.sunriverelectric.coop/Membership/Billing_Rates_and_Fees/Security_Lighting/index.html Source Parent: Comments Applicability

337

Data:78a73c39-e16d-4397-9272-01835bc56138 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9-e16d-4397-9272-01835bc56138 9-e16d-4397-9272-01835bc56138 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Town of Farmville, North Carolina (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Seasonal Service Sector: Commercial Description: Demand charge initiates over 15 kW. Source or reference: Rates Binder A Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous

338

Data:C10b4760-ecce-4408-8204-0008a19bc3a7 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

60-ecce-4408-8204-0008a19bc3a7 60-ecce-4408-8204-0008a19bc3a7 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Jones-Onslow Elec Member Corp Effective date: 2009/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Rate Sector: Residential Description: Source or reference: Direct contact Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Seasonal/Monthly Demand Charge Structures

339

Data:402afbd9-153d-4c91-bc03-e665f1268539 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

afbd9-153d-4c91-bc03-e665f1268539 afbd9-153d-4c91-bc03-e665f1268539 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: NSTAR Electric Company Effective date: 2012/03/01 End date if known: Rate name: ACTON Basic rate T1 Sector: Commercial Description: Default Generation Service ("Default Service") shall be available to any Customer who, for any reason, is not receiving Generation Service from a Competitive Supplier. Service under this rate to any Customer is subject to both the Company's printed requirements and the Company's Terms and Conditions - Distribution Service, each as in effect from time to time.

340

Data:4380174e-a521-4788-bc04-74682112b32a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

74e-a521-4788-bc04-74682112b32a 74e-a521-4788-bc04-74682112b32a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Dalton Utilities Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: 150 Watt Mercury Vapor Underground Service Sector: Lighting Description: Post-top type fixture, mounted on 14' tapered aluminum pole with underground wiring. Source or reference: Rate Binder Kelly 2 ISU Documentation Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Data:15415083-fcfc-48d7-8baa-88c590bc1a42 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

83-fcfc-48d7-8baa-88c590bc1a42 83-fcfc-48d7-8baa-88c590bc1a42 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Snohomish County PUD No 1 Effective date: 2002/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: 100 WATT MUNICIPAL OWNED STREET LIGHTING SERVICE Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http://www.snopud.com/Site/Content/Documents/rates/streetlighting_rates010105.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category:

342

Data:732931fc-2792-4c74-a9bc-46268f9acabd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

31fc-2792-4c74-a9bc-46268f9acabd 31fc-2792-4c74-a9bc-46268f9acabd No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Auburn Board of Public Works Effective date: 2012/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Rural Electric Space Heating(Single Phase-Summer) Sector: Commercial Description: To customers outside the corporate limits of the city of Auburn, NE as a rider to the General Service or Demand Service where only electric heating, cooling, and electric water heating, and associated equipment are connected as a separate service. Source or reference: http://auburnbpw.com/wp-content/files/2012_Electric_Rates.pdf

343

Data:309c4e73-dec1-4914-bbdf-36e4bc2dedef | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dec1-4914-bbdf-36e4bc2dedef dec1-4914-bbdf-36e4bc2dedef No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Sanborn, Iowa (Utility Company) Effective date: 2009/02/01 End date if known: Rate name: Security Lighting 100 W HPS Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: Rate Binder# 1B(Illinois State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

344

Data:146cf24b-fdfb-4205-b662-692d216b52bc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cf24b-fdfb-4205-b662-692d216b52bc cf24b-fdfb-4205-b662-692d216b52bc No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: PUD No 1 of Cowlitz County Effective date: 2011/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: PUBLIC STREET LIGHTING SERVICE SCHEDULE 40- 60C-530 mA LED Sector: Lighting Description: From dusk to dawn daily, controlled by a photoelectric control or time switch to be mutually agreeable to the Customer and District. Source or reference: http://www.cowlitzpud.org/pdf/Rate%20Schedule%2040%20Public%20Street%20Lighting%2010-25-11.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW):

345

Data:14bc7688-df82-4d62-8102-63de290aa229 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4bc7688-df82-4d62-8102-63de290aa229 4bc7688-df82-4d62-8102-63de290aa229 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Harmon Electric Assn Inc Effective date: 2010/04/25 End date if known: Rate name: Controllable Irrigation, 26 to 75 HP Sector: Commercial Description: * Available to members of the Cooperative for pump irrigation service located adjacent to its three-phase lines. Total load during peak period for up to four(4) hours per day and not to exceed 30 days per year. Subject to Power Factor Adjustment. Source or reference: Rate binder # 4 Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW)

346

Data:65134816-8f6a-4870-bc2f-8826aceb9556 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

816-8f6a-4870-bc2f-8826aceb9556 816-8f6a-4870-bc2f-8826aceb9556 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Maine Public Service Co Effective date: 2012/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Backup and Maintenance Service-Sub-Transmission(B) Sector: Commercial Description: This rate is available by contract only to all of the Company's non-residential customers requiring firm backup and/or maintenance service when the entire electrical requirements of the customer are not regularly delivered by the Company. Source or reference: http://www.mainepublicservice.com/media/40402/rate%20b%20010112.pdf

347

Data:49660549-4f71-4596-bc72-5fb4511f5541 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

49-4f71-4596-bc72-5fb4511f5541 49-4f71-4596-bc72-5fb4511f5541 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Town of Readsboro, Vermont (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/08/01 End date if known: Rate name: Outdoor Lighting Rate 18- Floodlights (400 W Sodium Vapor) Sector: Lighting Description: Street, area and flood lighting, traffic signal and specialty lighting equipment, energy and maintenance service is available within Green Mountain Power Corporation's ("GMP") service territory under this rate for GMP-owned or Customer-owned equipment to any city, village, town, fire district, political subdivision, Customer association or individual Customer in accordance with the specifications hereinafter set forth.

348

Data:E0ce00a1-7347-4651-9656-bc1e4705451c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

0a1-7347-4651-9656-bc1e4705451c 0a1-7347-4651-9656-bc1e4705451c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Coast Electric Power Assn Effective date: 2011/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: Light Service MH 175 W - Urban Sector: Lighting Description: *Fixed monthly charge is the sum of fixture charge, energy charge, and pole charge. Adjustment includes power cost adjustment rider and tax expense adjustment rider Source or reference: http://www.coastepa.com/myHome/rateSchedules/lightservice.aspx Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months):

349

Data:D5bc8db1-0699-4238-9855-451273353a58 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bc8db1-0699-4238-9855-451273353a58 bc8db1-0699-4238-9855-451273353a58 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Grand River Dam Authority Effective date: 2011/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: wholesale power service,Generation Bus Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: http://www.grda.com/electric/customer-service/wholesale-sales/power-service/ Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring:

350

Data:2b866d73-0bc5-439f-badf-3927868223cf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3-0bc5-439f-badf-3927868223cf 3-0bc5-439f-badf-3927868223cf No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Plymouth, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2011/12/22 End date if known: Rate name: Ms-1 Street Lighting Service Ornamental 150 W HPS Sector: Lighting Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0774 per kilowatt-hour.

351

Data:B0ecbebe-4893-469d-bc21-4487ce127754 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ecbebe-4893-469d-bc21-4487ce127754 ecbebe-4893-469d-bc21-4487ce127754 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Halifax Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2012/10/01 End date if known: Rate name: MEDIUM GENERAL SERVICE Sector: Commercial Description: AVAILABILITY: This Schedule is available in all territory served by the Cooperative, subject to its established Service Rules and Regulations. APPLICABILITY: This Schedule is applicable for nonresidential electric service when the consumer's energy use is 5,000 kilowatthours per month or more in any three consecutive months of any twelve month period. Service shall be taken at one location through one meter.

352

Data:Daa3abf4-d97d-4794-9801-cb571428bc4b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Daa3abf4-d97d-4794-9801-cb571428bc4b Daa3abf4-d97d-4794-9801-cb571428bc4b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Singing River Elec Pwr Assn (Mississippi) Effective date: 2009/12/04 End date if known: Rate name: Security Lighting HPS 250 W w/ Pole Sector: Lighting Description: *Subject to power cost adjustment, tax expense adjustment, and an environmental compliance charge.Includes cost of pole. Source or reference: http://www.singingriver.com/Files/R-18.pdf Source Parent: Comments Energy Adjustment is Power Cost Adjustment plus Environmental Clause plus Regulatory Adjustment Applicability

353

Data:7d4529bc-86ba-4690-9afb-6211ec54a08b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bc-86ba-4690-9afb-6211ec54a08b bc-86ba-4690-9afb-6211ec54a08b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Barton County Elec Coop, Inc Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Small Commercial Rate Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: Kelly Rate Binder 11, ISU Documentation Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

354

Data:A1b736d4-5344-4bc0-bea6-b42298144602 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b736d4-5344-4bc0-bea6-b42298144602 b736d4-5344-4bc0-bea6-b42298144602 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Delaware Electric Cooperative Effective date: 2011/02/01 End date if known: Rate name: Lighting Service--Schedule L-1 Mercury Vapor Lamp-Post Top Luminaire (175w) Contemporary Sector: Lighting Description: Available to Members, governments, agencies, public and private organizations desiring Electric Delivery or Electric Supply and Delivery Services through unmetered services for roadway and area lighting. Source or reference: http://www.delaware.coop/my-services/residential/billing/rates

355

Data:59ecc3fb-5aba-4306-bc41-d7291ac7a061 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fb-5aba-4306-bc41-d7291ac7a061 fb-5aba-4306-bc41-d7291ac7a061 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Columbus Southern Power Co Effective date: 2012/03/09 End date if known: Rate name: Cogeneration and/or Small Power Production -T.O.D-Polyphase Sector: Commercial Description: This schedule is available to customers with cogeneration and/or small power production (COGEN/SPP) facilities which qualify under Section 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978, and which have a total design capacity of 100 KW or less. Such facilities shall be designed to operate properly in parallel with the Company's system without adversely affecting the operation of

356

Data:0ace92dc-225c-4c10-8914-3efed13590bc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ace92dc-225c-4c10-8914-3efed13590bc ace92dc-225c-4c10-8914-3efed13590bc No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Edmond, Oklahoma (Utility Company) Effective date: 2009/09/30 End date if known: Rate name: OSL-1 Outdoor Security Lighting (existing wood pole)-25 ft Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http://edmondok.com/DocumentCenter/Home/View/442 Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category:

357

Data:08982f52-f538-4596-94a1-e04f02bc3975 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f52-f538-4596-94a1-e04f02bc3975 f52-f538-4596-94a1-e04f02bc3975 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Perennial Public Power Dist Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Rural Unmetered Security Lighting 175w Mercury Vapor Sector: Lighting Description: Rural Unmetered Security Lighting (Rate Code 61): For service supplied to the operation of security lights in rural areas when the energy is not metered, the following rates shall apply. These rates shall also apply to rural unmetered security lights that are billed under other rate codes (i.e., 01, 03, etc.).

358

Data:Dac01bc1-02cc-4910-8778-96ab66cf3521 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dac01bc1-02cc-4910-8778-96ab66cf3521 Dac01bc1-02cc-4910-8778-96ab66cf3521 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Nebraska Public Power District Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: 250 W Mercury Vapor- Nonwood Sector: Lighting Description: 137 To all night street lighting service (dusk to daylight) from the overhead systems conforming to the District's standard specifications. Nonwood; Enclosed Electricity is provided through the Village, which obtains electric power from Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD) Source or reference: http://www.nppd.com/assets/municipalstreetlightingservice.pdf

359

Data:175246c6-262d-43bc-a816-dbaa936b054c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

175246c6-262d-43bc-a816-dbaa936b054c 175246c6-262d-43bc-a816-dbaa936b054c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Delaware County Elec Coop Inc Effective date: 2012/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Commercial(> 25kW) Sector: Industrial Description: Available to consumers located on or near the Cooperative's three-phase or single-phase lines for all types of usage not less than 25 kW, subject to the established rules and regulations of the Cooperative. Source or reference: http://www.dce.coop/content/electricity-rates Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW):

360

Data:Ea645216-9374-4e44-b57c-176bb40bc626 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ea645216-9374-4e44-b57c-176bb40bc626 Ea645216-9374-4e44-b57c-176bb40bc626 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Imperial Irrigation District Effective date: 1994/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: SCHEDULE SL-1 STREET AND HIGHWAY LIGHTING SERVICE-MERCURY VAPOR 250W Sector: Lighting Description: APPLICABILITY Applicable to service to street and highway lighting installations supplied from overhead lines, where the District owns and maintains the entire equipment. Monthly Usage: 105kWh Source or reference: http://www.iid.com/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=2577 Source Parent: Comments

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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361

Hybrid fusions show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly supports cytochrome bc1 function in vivo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Electronic connection between Qo and Qi quinone catalytic sites of dimeric cytochrome bc1 is a central feature of the energy-conserving Q cycle. While both the intra- and inter-monomer electron transfers were shown to connect the sites in the enzyme, mechanistic and physiological significance of the latter remains unclear. Here, using a series of mutated hybrid cytochrome bc1-like complexes, we show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly sustains the function of the enzyme in vivo, even when the two subunits in a dimer come from different species. This indicates that minimal requirement for bioenergetic efficiency is to provide a chain of cofactors for uncompromised electron flux between the catalytic sites, while the details of protein scaffold are secondary.

Robert Ekiert; Monika Czapla; Marcin Sarewicz; Artur Osyczka

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Data:33ec2891-5140-47cd-bc12-f411605a4063 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

891-5140-47cd-bc12-f411605a4063 891-5140-47cd-bc12-f411605a4063 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Altamaha Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2011/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Outdoor Security Lighting Service- SL-9 (1000W MH-Flood) Sector: Lighting Description: Applicable to consumers for dusk to dawn outdoor lighting in close proximity to existing overhead distribution lines. Service will be rendered only at locations that, in the opinion of the Cooperative, are readily accessible for maintenance. Source or reference: ISU Documentation Source Parent: Comments Applicability

363

Data:127711b2-b161-455a-a666-f7633684f5bc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b2-b161-455a-a666-f7633684f5bc b2-b161-455a-a666-f7633684f5bc No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Ameren Illinois Company Effective date: 2010/11/19 End date if known: Rate name: DS-3 Zone 2 - General Delivery Service 15kV to 100kV Sector: Industrial Description: Availability: Service under this Rate is available for any eligible Non-Residential Customer within the territory served by Company that has demand metering installed and a maximum monthly Demand equal to or greater than 150 kilowatts (kW) but less than 1,000 kW as qualified in the Delivery Service Rate Reassignment section.

364

Data:22ea4996-611a-4677-8a52-bc86496a1782 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

996-611a-4677-8a52-bc86496a1782 996-611a-4677-8a52-bc86496a1782 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Maine Public Service Co Effective date: 2012/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Street Lighting Fluorescent 157 watts(SL) Sector: Lighting Description: This rate is available to any City, Town, Village or other governmental agency contracting for this service for lighting streets, public ways, or grounds. Source or reference: http://www.mainepublicservice.com/media/40532/rate%20sl%20010112.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months):

365

Data:224375d4-625d-4c80-86bc-04592da86106 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

d4-625d-4c80-86bc-04592da86106 d4-625d-4c80-86bc-04592da86106 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Orange City, Iowa (Utility Company) Effective date: 2009/10/18 End date if known: Rate name: Industrial Rate Sector: Industrial Description: Source or reference: Rate Binder#1B(Illinois State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous

366

Data:220342c7-5066-4ceb-b12b-c84599a95606 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c7-5066-4ceb-b12b-c84599a95606 c7-5066-4ceb-b12b-c84599a95606 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Cuivre River Electric Coop Inc Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Residential Sector: Residential Description: Source or reference: http://www.cuivre.com/Residential/ResidentialEnergyRates/tabid/83/Default.aspx Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

367

Data:0eef53ab-9c51-4617-bc1e-09495815f68d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

eef53ab-9c51-4617-bc1e-09495815f68d eef53ab-9c51-4617-bc1e-09495815f68d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Washington Elec Member Corp Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Rate-02 (GSND) Sector: Commercial Description: To all electric service consumers, other than for residential use, provided such service requires less than fifty (50) kVA of transformer capacity. Electric service of one standard voltage is delivered at one point and metered at or compensated to that voltage. Source or reference: http://facts.psc.state.ga.us/Public/GetDocument.aspx?ID=129296 Source Parent:

368

Data:7a81bc93-2683-4320-84ae-2fea1840591e | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bc93-2683-4320-84ae-2fea1840591e bc93-2683-4320-84ae-2fea1840591e No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Lebanon, Indiana (Utility Company) Effective date: 2013/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: OL - Outdoor Lighting 400 watt sodium vapor Sector: Lighting Description: Availability Available only for continuous year-round service for outdoor lighting to any residential, farm, commercial or industrial customer located adjacent to an electric distribution line of Utility. Character of Service Outdoor Lighting Service using lamps available under this schedule. Source or reference: http://www.lebanon-utilities.com/e_rates.html

369

Processing of Oak Ridge B&C pond sludge surrogate in the transportable vitrification system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) developed at the Savannah River Site is designed to process low-level and mixed radioactive wastes into a stable glass product. The TVS consists of a feed preparation and delivery system, a joule-heated melter, and an offgas treatment system. Surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) B&C pond sludge was treated in a demonstration of the TVS system at Clemson University and at ORR. After initial tests with soda-lime-silica (SLS) feed, three melter volumes of glass were produced from the surrogate feed. A forthcoming report will describe glass characterization; and melter feeding, operation, and glass pouring. Melter operations described will include slurry characterization and feeding, factors affecting feed melt rates, glass pouring and pour rate constraints, and melter operating temperatures. Residence time modeling of the melter will also be discussed. Characterization of glass; including composition, predicted liquidity and viscosity, Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and devitrification will be covered. Devitrification was a concern in glass container tests and was found to be mostly dependent on the cooling rate. Crucible tests indicated that melter shutdown with glass containing Fe and Li was also a devitrification concern, so the melter was flushed with SLS glass before cooldown.

Zamecnik, J.R.; Young, S.R.; Peeler, D.K.; Smith, M.E.

1997-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

370

VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF THE TYPE I b/c SUPERNOVA 2009bb  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on VLBI as well as Very Large Array radio observations of the Type I b/c supernova 2009bb. The high radio luminosity of this supernova seems to require relativistic outflow, implying that the early radio emission was 'engine-driven', that is, driven by collimated outflow from a compact object, even though no gamma-ray emission was seen. The radio light curve shows a general decline, with a 'bump' near t = 52 d, seen most prominently at 5 GHz. The light-curve bump could be either engine-driven or it might represent the turn-on of the normal radio emission from a supernova, driven by interaction with the circumstellar material rather than by the engine. We undertook VLBI observations to resolve SN 2009bb's relativistic outflow. Our observations constrain the angular outer radius at an age of 85 d to be <0.64 mas, corresponding to <4 x 10{sup 17} cm and an average apparent expansion speed of <1.74 c. This result is consistent with the moderately relativistic ejecta speeds implied by the radio luminosity and spectrum.

Bietenholz, M. F. [Hartebeesthoek Radio Observatory, P.O. Box 443, Krugersdorp, 1740 (South Africa); Soderberg, A. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Theory Division, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bartel, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, M3J 1P3, Ontario (Canada); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Horiuchi, S. [Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex, P.O. Box 1035, Tuggeranong, ACT 2901 (Australia); Phillips, C. J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Wieringa, M. H. [Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping NSW (Australia); Chugai, N. N. [Institute of Astronomy, RAS, Pyatnitskaya 48, Moscow 119017 (Russian Federation)

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

371

Data:181f8a1a-06a5-4606-b7d4-21bc046ba6f1 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

if known: Rate name: 100 Watt HPS with Black Post Top American Revolution Fixture on a 24-Foot Direct Buried Black Fiberglass Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Source or...

372

Comparative results of the combustion of lignin briquettes and black coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new type of biofuel - hydrolytic lignin briquettes - was tested as compared with ordinary SS coal from the Kuznetsk Basin in fuel-bed firing in a Universal-6 boiler. It was found that the (total) efficiency of the boiler with the firing of lignin briquettes was 38% higher than that with the use of black coal. Carbon loss in the combustion of briquettes was 1%, whereas it was 48.2% in the combustion of black coal. The emission of harmful gas pollutants into the environment in the combustion of briquettes was lower than that in the combustion of coal by a factor of 4.5.

V.G. Lurii [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

FE Carbon Capture and Storage News | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Carbon Capture and Storage News Carbon Capture and Storage News FE Carbon Capture and Storage News RSS November 7, 2013 Energy Department Invests to Drive Down Costs of Carbon Capture, Support Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Pollution 18 Innovative Carbon Capture Projects Will Help Make Fossil Energy Use Cleaner, Safer and More Sustainable as Part of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan August 15, 2013 Historically Black Colleges and Universities Receive Funds for Fossil Energy Research Five fossil energy-related projects that will help maintain the nation's energy portfolio while also providing educational and research training opportunities for tomorrow's scientists and engineers have been selected for funding by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). August 14, 2013 DOE Selects Ten Projects to Conduct Advanced Turbine Technology Research

374

Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Fiber Consortium SHARE Carbon Fiber Consortium Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium The Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium was established in 2011 to...

375

4/25/11 12:32 PMThe Canadian Press: Scientists searching for 'soot-print' in the Arctic; black carbon coating seen as causing melt Page 1 of 2http://www.google.com/hostednews/canadianpress/article/ALeqM5gpZC2HL9mLKe_nwaOPhaSQPdnuUg?docId=6621785  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the atmosphere by absorbing heat from the sun, explained Quinn, who works in NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental with Quinn, likened the process to wearing a black shirt on a sunny day. "If you want to be cooler, you would wear a light-colored shirt that would reflect t

Rigor, Ignatius G.

376

Energy on black hole spacetimes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the issue of defining energy for test particles on a background black hole spacetime. We revisit the different notions of energy as defined by different observers. The existence of a time-like isometry allows for the notion of a total conserved energy to be well defined, and subsequently the notion of a gravitational potential energy is also meaningful. We then consider the situation in which the test particle is adsorbed by the black hole, and analyze the energetics in detail. In particular, we show that the notion of horizon energy es defined by the isolated horizons formalism provides a satisfactory notion of energy compatible with the particle's conserved energy. As another example, we comment a recent proposal to define energy of the black hole as seen by an observer at rest. This account is intended to be pedagogical and is aimed at the level of and as a complement to the standard textbooks on the subject.

Alejandro Corichi

2012-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

377

Supermassive black holes from supermassive stars  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Supermassive black holes from supermassive stars Supermassive black holes from supermassive stars 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Supermassive black holes from supermassive stars Supermassive stars in the early universe gave supermassive black holes a head start March 25, 2013 simulations suggest that star formation conditions back then allowed the first stars to become supermassive themselves In this simulation, a black hole that was just formed by the collapse of a supermassive star is surrounded by a distribution of gas (color indicates density). Because the black hole (located at the center but too small to see) grows by consuming the available gas, simulations like this one help determine how quickly the black hole can grow. The progenitor of this black

378

Black hole binary inspiral and trajectory dominance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral, plunge and merger of a black hole binary carry linear momentum. This results in an astrophysically important recoil to the final merged black hole, a “kick” that can eject ...

Price, Richard H.

379

Black hole Meissner effect and entanglement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extremal black holes tend to expel magnetic and electric fields. Fields are unable to reach the horizon because the length of the black hole throat blows up in the extremal limit. The length of the throat is related to the ...

Penna, Robert

380

Information loss in black holes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The question of whether information is lost in black holes is investigated using Euclidean path integrals. The formation and evaporation of black holes is regarded as a scattering problem with all measurements being made at infinity. This seems to be well formulated only in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. The path integral over metrics with trivial topology is unitary and information preserving. On the other hand, the path integral over metrics with nontrivial topologies leads to correlation functions that decay to zero. Thus at late times only the unitary information preserving path integrals over trivial topologies will contribute. Elementary quantum gravity interactions do not lose information or quantum coherence.

S. W. Hawking

2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Hawking Emission and Black Hole Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A brief review of Hawking radiation and black hole thermodynamics is given, based largely upon hep-th/0409024.

Don N. Page

2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

382

Carbon Sequestration Project Portfolio  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Carbon Storage 2011 Carbon Storage Project Portfolio Table of Contents CARBON STORAGE OVERVIEW Carbon Storage Program Contacts [PDF-26KB] Carbon Storage Projects National Map [PDF-169KB] State Projects Summary Table [PDF-39KB] Carbon Storage Program Structure [PDF-181KB] Selected Carbon Sequestration Program Papers and Publications The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Beneficial Uses of Carbon Dioxide (2011) [PDF-3.3MB] Greenhouse Gas Science and Technology Carbon Capture and Sequestration: The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Efforts to Characterize Opportunities for Deep Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Resources (2011) [PDF-445KB]

383

CALIFORNIA CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN WASHINGTON. Carbon Sequestration Through Changes in Land Use in Washington: Costs and Opportunities. California for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Oregon. Report to Winrock International. #12;ii #12;iii Preface

384

White holes and eternal black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi- thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal.

Stephen D. H. Hsu

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

385

Conservation Assessment for Bloodroot in the Black  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conservation Assessment for Bloodroot in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region Black Hills National Forest Custer, South Dakota April 2003 #12;Species Assessment of Bloodroot in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming J. Hope

386

Absorption cross section in Lifshitz black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive the absorption cross section of a minimally coupled scalar in the Lifshitz black hole obtained from the new massive gravity. The absorption cross section reduces to the horizon area in the low energy and massless limit of s-wave mode propagation, indicating that the Lifshitz black hole also satisfies the universality of low energy absorption cross section for black holes.

Taeyoon Moon; Yun Soo Myung

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

387

Signatures of black holes at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Signatures of black hole events at CERN's Large Hadron Collider are discussed. Event simulations are carried out with the Fortran Monte Carlo generator CATFISH. Inelasticity effects, exact field emissivities, color and charge conservation, corrections to semiclassical black hole evaporation, gravitational energy loss at formation and possibility of a black hole remnant are included in the analysis.

Marco Cavaglia; Romulus Godang; Lucien M. Cremaldi; Donald J. Summers

2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

388

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Donald Byrne (white) vs. Robert James "Bobby" Fischer (black) 1956 White Black  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Donald Byrne (white) vs. Robert James "Bobby" Fischer (black) 1956 White Black 1. Nf3 Nf6 comments here are called "annotation" 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 Bg7 black bishop sits on long diagonal 4. d4 0-0 white black threatens the queen 7. Qxc4 c6 8. e4 Nbd7 black's knight on b moves to d7 9. Rd1 Nb6 white's rook

Zirbel, Craig L.

390

Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon leakage 12 3.4 Project carbon sequestration 12 3.5 Net carbon sequestration 13 4. Environmental quality 14

391

Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

Narasayya, Vivek

392

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in 1990. These many alternative-fuel initiatives failed tolow-cost, low-carbon alternative fuels would thrive. Theto introduce low-carbon alternative fuels. Former Federal

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Smit, Berend

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

394

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

soot ? aromatics PYROLYSIS biomass lignin ? ? ? ? ? guaiacylVigouroux, R.Z. Pyrolysis of Biomass; Ph.D. Thesis, RoyalPeacoke, G.V.C. Fast pyrolysis for biomass. Renew. Sust.

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Holocene Climate and Carbon Sequestration via Black Carbon Burial in Sediments.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Fire, a global process that depends on climate, volcanic activity, vegetation and human practices is not constant through time and varies at decadal, centennial and… (more)

Patel, Nidhi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinatedhydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), PCBs, and

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

427. 131. Ball, R. Combustion of biomass as a global carbonfrom incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel in thethe low temperature combustion of biomass at less than 600 °

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Optimization of carbon-supported platinum cathode catalysts for DMFC operation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe performance and optimization of carbon-supported cathode catalysts at low platinum loading. We find that at a loading below 0.6 mg cm-2 carbon-supported platinum outperforms platinum black as a DMFC cathode catalyst. A catalyst with a 1:1 volume ratio of the dry NafionTM to the electronically conducting phase (platinum plus carbon support) provides the best performance in oxygen reduction reaction. Thanks to improved catalyst utilization, carbon-supported catalysts with a platinum content varying from 40 wt% to 80 wt% deliver very good DMFC performance, even at relatively modest precious metal loadings investigated in this work.

Zhu, Y. (Yimin); Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.); Zelenay, P. (Piotr)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Deposition of Platinum Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes by Supercritical Fluid Method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon nanotube-supported platinum nanoparticles with a 5-15 nm diameter size range can be synthesized by hydrogen reduction of platinum(II) acetylacetonate in methanol modified supercritical carbon dioxide. XPS and XRD spectra indicate that the carbon nanotubes contain zero-valent platinum metal and high-resolution TEM images show that the visible lattice fringes of the Pt particles are crystallites. Carbon nanotubes synthesized with 25% by weight of Pt nanoparticles exhibit a higher activity for hydrogenation of benzene compared with a commercial carbon black platinum catalyst. The carbon nanotube-supported Pt nanocatalyst can be reused at least six times for the hydrogenation reaction without losing activity. The carbon nanotube-supported Pt nanoparticles are also highly active for electrochemical oxidation of methanol and for reduction of oxygen suggesting their potential use as a new electrocatalyst for polymer electrode fuel cell applications.

Yen, Clive; Cui, Xiaoli; Pan, H. B.; Wang, S.; Lin, Yuehe; Wai, Chien M.

2005-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

400

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

Lagow, R.J.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The Woodland Carbon Code  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

402

Mesoporous carbon materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

403

Understanding Brown Carbon Aerosols and Their Role in Climate Change  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Brown Carbon Aerosols Brown Carbon Aerosols Tiny aerosol particles in the atmosphere are a possible cause of climate change. Among the many contributors to climate change are aerosols in the atmosphere. These tiny particles suspended in the air come from many sources, some natural and some man-made. Some aerosols are organic (containing carbon), while others are inorganic (such as sea salt and sulfates). Most aerosols reflect sunlight, and some also absorb it. Many of these nanoparticles have severe health effects in addition to climate effects. Human activities that produce aerosols include transportation, industry, and agriculture. Black carbon particles (a component of soot) originating from combustion processes have been known for some time to absorb sunlight and warm the

404

Accelerating and rotating black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An exact solution of Einstein's equations which represents a pair of accelerating and rotating black holes (a generalised form of the spinning C-metric) is presented. The starting point is a form of the Plebanski-Demianski metric which, in addition to the usual parameters, explicitly includes parameters which describe the acceleration and angular velocity of the sources. This is transformed to a form which explicitly contains the known special cases for either rotating or accelerating black holes. Electromagnetic charges and a NUT parameter are included, the relation between the NUT parameter $l$ and the Plebanski-Demianski parameter $n$ is given, and the physical meaning of all parameters is clarified. The possibility of finding an accelerating NUT solution is also discussed.

J. B. Griffiths; J. Podolsky

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

405

Black Holes at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In these two lectures, we will address the topic of the creation of small black holes during particle collisions in a ground-based accelerator, such as LHC, in the context of a higher-dimensional theory. We will cover the main assumptions, criteria and estimates for their creation, and we will discuss their properties after their formation. The most important observable effect associated with their creation is likely to be the emission of Hawking radiation during their evaporation process. After presenting the mathematical formalism for its study, we will review the current results for the emission of particles both on the brane and in the bulk. We will finish with a discussion of the methodology that will be used to study these spectra, and the observable signatures that will help us identify the black-hole events.

Panagiota Kanti

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metallic nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon2 Carbon Nanotubes Physical and ElectronicStructure of Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . .

Graham, Matthew Werden

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 Carbon Nanotubes Physical andElectronic Structure of Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . .Photophysics in Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes . . . . .

Graham, Matthew Werden

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Dave Kaminsky Charles L. Black  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Edwin D. McKay Thomas L. McNeely Jean C. Persons Neysa P. Pickens Armant C. Touchy Jack S. Zoller 19511935 $50.00 Dave Kaminsky 1938 $200.00 Charles L. Black 1940 $50.00 Harold S. Miropol 1941 $67. Tennison Ben Thompson 1945 $250.00 Paul Finkelstein Harold J. Jacobs Lawrence Kahn 1946 $2,250.00 David W

409

Primordial black hole minimum mass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we revisit thermodynamic constraints on primordial black hole (PBH) formation in the early universe. Under the assumption that PBH mass is equal to the cosmological horizon mass, one can use the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics to put a lower limit on the PBH mass. In models of PBH formation, however, PBHs are created at some fraction of the horizon mass. We show that this thermodynamic constraint still holds for subhorizon PBH formation.

Chisholm, James R. [Institute for Fundamental Theory, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8440 (United States)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Black Hole Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show a strong parallel between the Hawking, Beckenstein black hole Thermodynamics and electromagnetism: When the gravitational coupling constant transform into the electromagnetic coupling constant, the Schwarzchild radius, the Beckenstein temperature, the Beckenstein decay time and the Planck mass transform to respectively the Compton wavelength, the Hagedorn temperature, the Compton time and a typical elementary particle mass. The reasons underlying this parallalism are then discussed in detail.

Burra G. Sidharth

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Red-Black Trees 11/26/2007 11:09 AM Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red-Black Trees 11/26/2007 11:09 AM 1 Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison

Alechina, Natasha

412

Red-Black Trees 11/11/2004 10:02 AM Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red-Black Trees 11/11/2004 10:02 AM 1 Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison

Alechina, Natasha

413

Quantum Geometry and Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an overall picture of the advances in the description of black hole physics from the perspective of loop quantum gravity. After an introduction that discusses the main conceptual issues we present some details about the classical and quantum geometry of isolated horizons and their quantum geometry and then use this scheme to give a natural definition of the entropy of black holes. The entropy computations can be neatly expressed in the form of combinatorial problems solvable with the help of methods based on number theory and the use of generating functions. The recovery of the Bekenstein-Hawking law and corrections to it is explained in some detail. After this, due attention is paid to the discussion of semiclassical issues. An important point in this respect is the proper interpretation of the horizon area as the energy that should appear in the statistical-mechanical treatment of the black hole model presented here. The chapter ends with a comparison between the microscopic and semiclassical app...

G., J Fernando Barbero

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Entanglement entropy of black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of the entanglement entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in 4 and 6 dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as 't Hooft's brick wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields which non-minimally couple to gravity is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the black hole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.

Sergey N. Solodukhin

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

415

Data:81b62b73-e5be-4858-9205-203bc2466112 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b62b73-e5be-4858-9205-203bc2466112 b62b73-e5be-4858-9205-203bc2466112 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Jacksonville Electric Authority Effective date: 2012/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: GSLDT General Service Large Demand Time of Day Optional - Primary Sector: Commercial Description: To any customer where the measured monthly On-Peak billing demand is 1000 kW or more four or more months out of twelve consecutive monthly billing periods ending with the current billing period. Also, at the option of the customer, to any customer with demands of less than 1000 kW, but more than 699 kW. Resale of energy purchased under this rate schedule is not permitted.

416

Data:99507272-4798-4496-92e4-88679bc43a2a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7272-4798-4496-92e4-88679bc43a2a 7272-4798-4496-92e4-88679bc43a2a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Modesto Irrigation District Effective date: 2011/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule FL Flat Rate Service-Not Exceeding 50% Load Factor 201 - 400 Watt Sector: Commercial Description: Applicability This Schedule is applicable to small, constant, non-metered incidental loads for utilities, communication agencies, state agencies, and applicable special districts where the customer owns and maintains the equipment. The customer must supply equipment wattage to the District. Such loads would include: Cathodic Protection Stations Motor Radial Gates Pressure Point Automatic Watering Systems Flashing Beacons Sign Illumination Communication Power Booster Devices Monthly Usage: 77kWh

417

Data:45924338-4973-402e-a2d1-b606bc45234a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8-4973-402e-a2d1-b606bc45234a 8-4973-402e-a2d1-b606bc45234a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Cleveland, Ohio (Utility Company) Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: area lighting 250 w hps floodlight Sector: Lighting Description: area lighting,250 w hps,floodlight maximum 112 kwh per lamp Source or reference: http://www.cpp.org/CPP%20RRR%20ORDINANCE%20as%20of%2011-14-06.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V):

418

Data:9a164f94-b9bb-4654-bc28-435c307feeca | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4f94-b9bb-4654-bc28-435c307feeca 4f94-b9bb-4654-bc28-435c307feeca No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 100W High Pressure Sodium -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

419

Data:6661bc18-ce82-42ad-83c1-75310757e945 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bc18-ce82-42ad-83c1-75310757e945 bc18-ce82-42ad-83c1-75310757e945 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Richland Center, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2007/07/09 End date if known: Rate name: Gs-1 General Service Single Phase with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Sector: Commercial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0582 per kilowatt-hour.

420

Data:Eef7990a-140e-42ae-843b-c89105fa9bce | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

990a-140e-42ae-843b-c89105fa9bce 990a-140e-42ae-843b-c89105fa9bce No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Reliant Energy Retail Services LLC Effective date: 2012/02/15 End date if known: Rate name: 12 (e-sense Time-Of with 20% Wind) Sector: Residential Description: This is an indexed product - your average price per kWh each month is determined by using the monthly customer charge and energy charges above and the predetermined formula below based on your actual kWh usage in each pricing tier. Price per kWh =(Monthly Customer Charge + (Monthly Billed kWh Usage for Off-Peak Hours x Energy Charge per kWh for Off-Peak Hours) + (Monthly Billed kWh Usage for Standard Hours x Energy Charge per kWh for Standard Hours) + (Monthly Billed kWh for Summer Peak Hours x Energy Charge per kWh for Summer Peak Hours) + (Monthly Billed kWh for Non-Time-of-Use Hours x Energy Charge per kWh for Non-Time-of-Use Hours)) / Total Monthly Billed kWh Usage

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Data:54207449-b218-41bc-ad6c-6c3782556408 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

54207449-b218-41bc-ad6c-6c3782556408 54207449-b218-41bc-ad6c-6c3782556408 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Texas-New Mexico Power Co Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Service Sector: Residential Description: This schedule is applicable to Delivery Service for residential purposes of a permanent nature to individual private dwellings and to individually metered apartments when such Delivery Service is to one Point of Delivery and measured through one Meter and is not for shared or resale purposes. Delivery Service will be single-phase, 60 hertz, at a standard secondary voltage. Delivery Service will be metered using Company's standard watt-hour Meter provided for this type of Delivery Service. Any other metering option(s) will be provided at an additional charge. Where Delivery Service of the type desired is not available at the Point of Delivery, additional charges and special contract arrangements may be required prior to Delivery Service being furnished, pursuant to Section 6.1.2.2 of this Tariff.

422

Data:39273049-c343-4baa-bc5c-314094ef5d69 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

049-c343-4baa-bc5c-314094ef5d69 049-c343-4baa-bc5c-314094ef5d69 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Clintonville, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2006/05/05 End date if known: Rate name: Gs-1 General Service Single Phase with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Sector: Commercial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kWh of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kWh of sales). The base cost of power is $0.0680 per kWh. See schedule PCAC.

423

Data:273701ad-06c9-43bc-9531-4d919459e638 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1ad-06c9-43bc-9531-4d919459e638 1ad-06c9-43bc-9531-4d919459e638 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Painesville, Ohio (Utility Company) Effective date: 1990/10/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential- within corporate limits Sector: Residential Description: For the purpose of paying the expenses of conducting and managing the Electric Division, Utilities Department of the City, the City Manager is hereby authorized and directed to charge the following rates for furnishing electric current for residential installations in a single-family house, a single suite in a multiple-family house, or a single suite in a multiple apartment, a mobile housing unit or any other single-family residential unit, which rates are hereby adopted, for all utility bills issued on and after October 1, 1990

424

Data:4abd8ea2-c947-4521-809b-c40934afea44 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

abd8ea2-c947-4521-809b-c40934afea44 abd8ea2-c947-4521-809b-c40934afea44 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of New Bern, North Carolina (Utility Company) Effective date: 2009/02/01 End date if known: Rate name: Energy Efficient Residential Rate- Single Phase Sector: Residential Description: Service under this Schedule is available for separately metered and billed supply of alternating electric current to single family residences, including a residential farm where the farm uses are not taken through a separate meter. Energy Conservation Discount Where Customer notifies company and customer's dwelling complies with the thermal requirements herein, the Schedule E01 kWh charges will be discounted by 5% per kWh.

425

Data:10f9fdbb-08a1-4951-93bc-86365f7cca06 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fdbb-08a1-4951-93bc-86365f7cca06 fdbb-08a1-4951-93bc-86365f7cca06 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Sauk City, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2008/08/18 End date if known: Rate name: Cp-1 Small Power Service with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Sector: Industrial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0756 per kilowatt-hour.

426

Data:6211d159-b8bf-4072-af2e-ead5977c59bc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1d159-b8bf-4072-af2e-ead5977c59bc 1d159-b8bf-4072-af2e-ead5977c59bc No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Town of Wheatland, Wyoming (Utility Company) Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation Time-Of-Day Sector: Commercial Description: To irrigators pumping irrigation water. Facilities Charge: $3.39 per Installed HP/Year which is to be billed in July. Source or reference: http://psc.state.wy.us/htdocs/tariffs/wy_whe1/0001a.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh):

427

Data:6af2574c-f828-4125-a5ad-3711088027bc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c-f828-4125-a5ad-3711088027bc c-f828-4125-a5ad-3711088027bc No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Lodi, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/03/01 End date if known: Rate name: Gs-2 General Service Optional Time-of-Day Single Phase less than 50kW Demand 9am-9pm Sector: Commercial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0811 per kilowatt-hour.

428

Data:6741e3fe-d6bc-4239-b729-9218542caafc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

e3fe-d6bc-4239-b729-9218542caafc e3fe-d6bc-4239-b729-9218542caafc No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Hartford Electric Effective date: 2005/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Cp-3 Industrial Power Time-of-Day Service above 1,000kW Demand Primary Metering (primary side of transformer) and Transformer Ownership Discount with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Sector: Industrial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0452 per kilowatt-hour.

429

Data:2404fb0c-9501-4897-bc5f-82eecc3f975e | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fb0c-9501-4897-bc5f-82eecc3f975e fb0c-9501-4897-bc5f-82eecc3f975e No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Burt County Public Power Dist Effective date: 2012/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation and Grain Dryer Service 6-11 Anyday Control Single Phase Sector: Commercial Description: 1.fixed monthly charge = $49.50 per hp or $210 per year whichever is higher. 2.In the event that Consumer notifies the Sellers in writing on or before April 1 of any year that service will not be used for the current year and requests that the service be disconnected, then and in that event the Consumer will be charged only for the investment charge per h.p as determined by the Seller for that year as follows: Single Phase $12.50 per h.p

430

Data:77917991-0154-4342-9d9a-f8afbdc83bc3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

91-0154-4342-9d9a-f8afbdc83bc3 91-0154-4342-9d9a-f8afbdc83bc3 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Potomac Electric Power Co Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: General Service Low Voltage Service - Schedule GSLV Sector: Description: Available for either Standard Offer Service when modified by Rider "SOS" or Distribution Service in the District of Columbia portion of the Company's service area, except if the customer's maximum demand is equal to or in excess of one hundred (100) kilowatts during two (2) or more billing months within twelve (12) consecutive billing months, the customer will be transferred to Schedule "GT LV", "GT 3A", or "GT 3B" in accordance with the availability provisions therein. Rate schedule transfers will be made annually and become effective with the billing month of June. Customers with monthly maximum demands less than 25 kW are served on Schedule "GS ND" subject to the provisions stated therein.

431

Data:391692f0-bc12-4832-9c5c-888500ac1faa | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bc12-4832-9c5c-888500ac1faa bc12-4832-9c5c-888500ac1faa No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Kiel, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2011/05/06 End date if known: Rate name: Cp-3 Industrial Power Time-of-Day Service above 600kW Demand 8am-10pm Primary Metering Discount with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Sector: Industrial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0754 per kilowatt-hour.

432

Colorful quantum black holes at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the LHC phenomenology of quantum black holes in models of TeV gravity. By quantum black holes we mean black holes of the smallest masses and entropies, far from the semiclassical regime. These black holes are formed and decay over short distances, and typically carry SU(3) color charges inherited from their parton progenitors. Based on a few minimal assumptions, such as gauge invariance, we identify interesting signatures for quantum black hole decay such as 2 jets, jet + hard photon, jet + missing energy and jet + charged lepton, which should be readily visible above background. The detailed phenomenology depends heavily on whether one requires a Lorentz invariant, low-energy effective field theory description of black hole processes.

Xavier Calmet; Wei Gong; Stephen D. H. Hsu

2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

433

Magnetized black holes and black rings in the higher dimensional dilaton gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we consider magnetized black holes and black rings in the higher dimensional dilaton gravity. Our study is based on exact solutions generated by applying a Harrison transformation to known asymptotically flat black hole and black ring solutions in higher dimensional spacetimes. The explicit solutions include the magnetized version of the higher dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black holes, Myers-Perry black holes and five dimensional (dipole) black rings. The basic physical quantities of the magnetized objects are calculated. We also discuss some properties of the solutions and their thermodynamics. The ultrarelativistic limits of the magnetized solutions are briefly discussed and an explicit example is given for the $D$-dimensional magnetized Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black holes.

Stoytcho S. Yazadjiev

2005-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

434

Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Bi, [ORNL; Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Economic aspects of black bases in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Crack length ratios for District 5. . . . . . . 5cI Crack length ratios for District 25. . . . . . 60 Aggregate gradation for laboratory molded black base mixtures. . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 5 Asphalt properties. Determination of optimum...)5 Section identification of District 5 'black base projects. . 255 Structural characteristics of District & black base projects. 254 Section identification of District 5 flexible base projects 255 Structural characteristics of District 5 flexible base...

Schoen, Wayne Ayron

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

436

Spinning Black Holes as Particle Accelerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has recently been pointed out that particles falling freely from rest at infinity outside a Kerr black hole can in principle collide with an arbitrarily high center of mass energy in the limiting case of maximal black hole spin. Here we aim to elucidate the mechanism for this fascinating result, and to point out its practical limitations, which imply that ultraenergetic collisions cannot occur near black holes in nature.

Ted Jacobson and Thomas P. Sotiriou

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

437

Black hole entropy: inside or out?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A trialogue. Ted, Don, and Carlo consider the nature of black hole entropy. Ted and Carlo support the idea that this entropy measures in some sense ``the number of black hole microstates that can communicate with the outside world.'' Don is critical of this approach, and discussion ensues, focusing on the question of whether the first law of black hole thermodynamics can be understood from a statistical mechanics point of view.

Ted Jacobson; Donald Marolf; Carlo Rovelli

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

438

Interaction of fermions with black holes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bekenstein and Meisels used statistical thermodynamic arguments to obtain the probability distribution of fermions emitted by a black hole when a fermion is incident. In contrast with Bekenstein and Meisels, we model the black hole as a perfect blackbody surrounded by a mirror. Our probability distribution for emitted fermions agrees with the probability distribution of Bekenstein and Meisels, but the interpretation of how fermions interact with the black hole is different from the interpreteation given by Bekenstein and Meisels.

Jones T.O. III

1986-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Absorption cross section of RN black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The behavior of a charged scalar field in the RN black hole space time is studied using WKB approximation. In the present work it is assumed that matter waves can get reflected from the event horizon. Using this effect, the Hawking temperature and the absorption cross section for RN black hole placed in a charged scalar field are calculated. The absorption cross section $\\sigma _{abs}$ is found to be inversely proportional to square of the Hawking temperature of the black hole.

Sini R.; V. C. Kuriakose

2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

440

Red-black Trees To know what a red-black tree is (10.1).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

809 CHAPTER 10 Red-black Trees Objectives · To know what a red-black tree is (§10.1). · To convert a red-black tree to a 2-4 tree and vice versa (§10.2). · To design the RBTree class that extends the BinaryTree class (§10.3). · To insert an element in a red-black tree and resolve the double red problem

Liang, Y. Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Carbon International | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kingdom Zip: NW1 8LH Sector: Carbon Product: London-based energy and communications agency specialising in low carbon energy and climate change. References: Carbon...

442

Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

Sarkar, Tapan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Strengthening Our Partnerships with Historically Black Colleges...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Chu Secretary Chu Former Secretary of Energy Last February, President Obama renewed the White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities to encourage...

444

Black Hills Power- Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Black Hills Power provides rebates for its commercial customers who install energy efficient heat pumps, motors, variable frequency drives, lighting, and water heaters. Custom rebates for approved...

445

Black Hills Power- Residential Customer Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Black Hills Power offers cash rebates to residential customers who purchase and install energy efficient equipment in their homes. Incentives exist for water heaters, demand control units, air...

446

Thermodynamics of dilaton-axion black holes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considering a generalized action for the Einstein-Maxwell theory in four dimensions coupled to scalar and pseudoscalar fields, the thermodynamic properties of asymptotically flat black hole solutions in such a background are investigated. Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law is verified for these class of black holes. From the property of specific heat, it is shown that such black holes can be stable for a certain choice of the parameters like charge, mass, and the scalar vacuum expectation value. The possibility of a black hole phase transition is discussed in this context.

Ghosh, Tanwi; SenGupta, Soumitra [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta-700 032 (India)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Black Holes: from Speculations to Observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper provides a brief review of the history of our understanding and knowledge of black holes. Starting with early speculations on ``dark stars'' I discuss the Schwarzschild "black hole" solution to Einstein's field equations and the development of its interpretation from "physically meaningless" to describing the perhaps most exotic and yet "most perfect" macroscopic object in the universe. I describe different astrophysical black hole populations and discuss some of their observational evidence. Finally I close by speculating about future observations of black holes with the new generation of gravitational wave detectors.

Thomas W. Baumgarte

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

448

Symmetric space description of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using an innovative technique arising from the theory of symmetric spaces, we obtain an approximate analytic solution of the Dorokhov-Mello-Pereyra-Kumar (DMPK) equation in the insulating regime of a metallic carbon nanotube with symplectic symmetry and an odd number of conducting channels. This symmetry class is characterized by the presence of a perfectly conducting channel in the limit of infinite length of the nanotube. The derivation of the DMPK equation for this system has recently been performed by Takane, who also obtained the average conductance both analytically and numerically. Using the Jacobian corresponding to the transformation to radial coordinates and the parameterization of the transfer matrix given by Takane, we identify the ensemble of transfer matrices as the symmetric space of negative curvature SO^*(4m+2)/[SU(2m+1)xU(1)] belonging to the DIII-odd Cartan class. We rederive the leading-order correction to the conductance of the perfectly conducting channel and its variance Var(log(delta g)). Our results are in complete agreement with Takane's. In addition, our approach based on the mapping to a symmetric space enables us to obtain new universal quantities: a universal group theoretical expression for the ratio Var(log(delta g)/ and as a byproduct, a novel expression for the localization length for the most general case of a symmetric space with BC_m root system, in which all three types of roots are present.

M. Caselle; U. Magnea

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

449

Black Swans, Dragons-Kings and Prediction Black Swan (Cygnus atratus)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Black Swans, Dragons-Kings and Prediction Black Swan (Cygnus atratus) www.er.ethz.ch Didier hurricanes normalized to 1995 dollars by inflation, personal property increases and coastal county population;12 2008 FINANCIAL CRISIS #12;Crises are not but "Dragon-kings" Dragon-king hypothesis #12;Black Swan story

450

Protein synthesis and degradation of BC3H1 smooth and L6 skeletal muscle cells in response to anabolic growth regulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND DEGRADATION OF BC3H1 SMOOTH AND L6 SKELETAL MUSCLE CELLS IN RESPONSE TO ANABOLIC GROWTH REGULATORS A Thesis by CARLA NOHRA WELCH Submitted to The Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Nutrition PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND DEGRADATION OF BC3H1 SMOOTH AND L6 SKELETAL MUSCLE CELLS IN RESPONSE TO ANABOLIC GROWTH REGULATORS A Thesis by CARLA NOHRA WELCH Approved style...

Welch, Carla Nohra

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Dynamics of oscillating relativistic tori around Kerr black holes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......angular momentum discs around Schwarzschild black holes, namely that...transmission of the signal recycling mirror (Shoemaker 2004)]. This...angular momentum discs around Schwarzschild black holes were considered...accretion solution on to a Schwarzschild black hole (Michel 1972......

Olindo Zanotti; José A. Font; Luciano Rezzolla; Pedro J. Montero

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making a carbon-carbon composite having a combination of high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizable woven cloth are covered with petroleum or coal tar pitch and pressed at a temperature a few degrees above the softening point of the pitch to form a green laminated composite. The green composite is restrained in a suitable fixture and heated slowly to carbonize the pitch binder. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnation step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3000.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced pressure for approximately one hundred and fifty (150) hours.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Locking Information in Black Holes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show that a central presumption in the debate over black-hole information loss is incorrect. Ensuring that information not escape during evaporation does not require that it all remain trapped until the final stage of the process. Using the recent quantum information-theoretic result of locking, we show that the amount of information that must remain can be very small, even as the amount already radiated is negligible. Information need not be additive: A small system can lock a large amount of information, making it inaccessible. Only if the set of initial states is restricted can information leak.

John A. Smolin and Jonathan Oppenheim

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

454

Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA); Yantasee, Wassana (Richland, WA); Liu, Guodong (Fargo, ND); Lu, Fang (Burlingame, CA); Tu, Yi (Camarillo, CA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

455

Quantifying Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Perturbations to the carbon cycle could constitute large feedbacks on future changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. This paper demonstrates how carbon cycle feedback can be expressed in formally similar ways to climate feedback, ...

J. M. Gregory; C. D. Jones; P. Cadule; P. Friedlingstein

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

457

Terrestrial Carbon Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management Influence of Agricultural Management on Soil Organic Carbon: A Compendium and Assessment of Canadian Studies (VandenBygaart et al., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) Soil Carbon Sequestration by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis (West and Post, Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Preliminary Estimates of the Potential for Carbon Mitigation in European Soils Through No-Till Farming (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Potential for Carbon Sequestration in European Soils: Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Using Results from Long-Term Experiments (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management

458

Supernova: Carbon detonation redux  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... A DECADE ago carbon detonation was all the rage among supernova theorists. The idea was that the characteristic burst ... wind.

J. Craig Wheeler

1983-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

459

Carbon Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sector: Carbon Product: Manages a carbon fund specialised in forestry projects References: Carbon Capital1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Carbon...

460

T.D. Hooper, editor. Proceedings of the Species at Risk 2004 Pathways to Recovery Conference. 1 March 26, 2004, Victoria, B.C. Species at Risk 2004 Pathways to Recovery Conference Organizing Committee,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T.D. Hooper, editor. Proceedings of the Species at Risk 2004 Pathways to Recovery Conference. 1 March 2­6, 2004, Victoria, B.C. Species at Risk 2004 Pathways to Recovery Conference Organizing Conference. 2 March 2­6, 2004, Victoria, B.C. forest, and low-elevation forest) and forest stand type were

Gillingham, Michael

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Kinetics Of Carbon Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics Of Carbon Gasification ... The steam–carbon reaction, which is the essential reaction of the gasification processes of carbon-based feed stocks (e.g., coal and biomass), produces synthesis gas (H2 + CO), a synthetically flexible, environmentally benign energy source. ... Coal Gasification in CO2 and Steam:? Development of a Steam Injection Facility for High-Pressure Wire-Mesh Reactors ...

C. W. Zielke; Everett. Gorin

1957-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

How Carbon Capture Works  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Carbon capture, utilization and storage is a process that captures carbon dioxide emissions from sources like coal-fired power plants and either reuses or stores it so it will not enter the atmosphere. We'll break down the process step by step so you can learn how this technology can help us lower our carbon pollution.

463

Intro to Carbon Sequestration  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

464

Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, Inc. Meet/Match Procurement...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, Inc. MeetMatch Procurement Forum Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, Inc. MeetMatch Procurement Forum Presented by Congresswoman Sheila...

465

White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities How WHI-HBCU are ran White House...

466

U-012: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Collaboration Service Bug...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

12: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Collaboration Service Bug Lets Remote Users Impersonate Intra-organization Messages U-012: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Collaboration Service Bug...

467

Geochemistry of organic-rich black shales overlying the natural nuclear fission reactors of Oklo, Republic of Gabon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The organic-rich black shales of the Franceville Series` FB Formation overlying the uranium ores, and natural nuclear fission reactors of Oklo, Gabon, are not notably metalliferous. Chromium, gold, silver, and barium are slightly enriched in average Oklo black shale (AOK) relative to black shale standard SDO-1. Geochemical variations among the black shale samples of the sedimentary sequence include enrichment in potassium, barium, chromium, and silver in the four lowermost samples, the presence of a bleached zone depleted in organic carbon lowermost in the sequence, and elevated rare earth element (REE) content in samples closest to the Oklo reactor zones. Hydrothermal activity has influenced the geochemistry of the black shale but is evidently not linked to reactor-driven processes. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of Oklo black shale samples show slight enrichment in light REE and slight depletion in heavy REE, especially in the sample closest to the reactor zone. However, comparison of REE content with various petrographic facies in and near the Oklo reactors shows no apparent enrichment in fission product (intermediate) REE. With few exceptions, reactor facies all contain more REE than AOK. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern of AOK resembles that of greywacke-shale turbidites of Archean greenstone belts. The paucity of uranium and manganese in AOK is a curious anomaly in an area of world class uranium and manganese deposits.

Mossman, D.J. [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville, New Brunswick (Canada). Dept. of Physics, Engineering and Geoscience; Gauthier-Lafaye, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Geochimie de la Surface; Nagy, B.; Rigali, M.J. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Carbon Connections | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Product: Carbon Connections links partner universities with industry encouraging knowledge exchange and developing innovative ideas. References: Carbon Connections1 This...

469

Black holes cannot support conformal scalar hair  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown that the only static asymptotically flat non-extrema black hole solution of the Einstein-conformally invariant scalar field equations having the scalar field bounded on the horizon, is the Schwarzschild one. Thus black holes cannot be endowed with conformal scalar hair of finite length.

T. Zannias

1994-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

470

Chapter 2 - Black Liquor Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Black liquor gasification (BLG) is being considered primarily as an option for production of biofuels in recent years due to the focus on the transport sector’s high oil dependence and climate impact. BLG may be performed either at low temperatures or at high temperatures, based on whether the process is conducted above or below the melting temperature range of the spent pulping chemicals. The development of various BLG technologies—SCA-Billerud process, the Copeland recovery process, Weyerhaeuser’s process, the St. Regis hydropyrolysis process, the Texaco process, VTT’s circulating fluidized bed BLG process, Babcock and Wilcox’s bubbling fluidized bed gasification process, NSP process (Ny Sodahus Process), DARS (Direct Alkali Recovery System) process, BLG with direct causticization, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International fluidized bed gasification, Chemrec gasification, catalytic hydrothermal gasification of black liquor—is discussed in this chapter. The two main technologies under development are pressurized gasification and atmospheric gasification, being commercialized by Chemrec AB and ThermoChem Recovery International, respectively.

Pratima Bajpai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Wavy strings: Black or bright?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent developments in string theory have brought forth considerable interest in time-dependent hair on extended objects. This novel new hair is typically characterized by a wave profile along the horizon and angular momentum quantum numbers l,m in the transverse space. In this work, we present an extensive treatment of such oscillating black objects, focusing on their geometric properties. We first give a theorem of purely geometric nature, stating that such wavy hair cannot be detected by any scalar invariant built out of the curvature and/or matter fields. However, we show that the tidal forces detected by an infalling observer diverge at the {open_quotes}horizon{close_quotes} of a black string superposed with a vibration in any mode with l{ge}1. The same argument applied to longitudinal (l=0) waves detects only finite leading-order tidal forces. We also provide an example with a manifestly smooth metric, proving that at least a certain class of these longitudinal waves have regular horizons. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Kaloper, N. [Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N3L 3G1 (CANADA)] [Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N3L 3G1 (CANADA); Myers, R.C.; Roussel, H. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (CANADA)] [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (CANADA)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

477

Black Hole Superradiance in Dynamical Spacetime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the superradiant scattering of gravitational waves by a nearly extremal black hole (dimensionless spin $a=0.99$) by numerically solving the full Einstein field equations, thus including backreaction effects. This allows us to study the dynamics of the black hole as it loses energy and angular momentum during the scattering process. To explore the nonlinear phase of the interaction, we consider gravitational wave packets with initial energies up to $10%$ of the mass of the black hole. We find that as the incident wave energy increases, the amplification of the scattered waves, as well as the energy extraction efficiency from the black hole, is reduced. During the interaction the apparent horizon geometry undergoes sizable nonaxisymmetric oscillations. The largest amplitude excitations occur when the peak frequency of the incident wave packet is above where superradiance occurs, but close to the dominant quasinormal mode frequency of the black hole.

William E. East; Fethi M. Ramazano?lu; Frans Pretorius

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

478

Characterization of Sediments from the Soil Desiccation Pilot Test (SDPT) Site in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical report documents the results of laboratory geochemical and hydrologic measurements of sediments collected from new borehole 299-E13-65 (C7047) and comparison of the results with those of nearby borehole 299-13E-62 (C5923) both drilled in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area. The total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants will be used to update contaminant-distribution conceptual models and to provide more data for improving baseline risk predictions and remedial alternative selections. Improved understanding of subsurface conditions and methods to remediate these principal contaminants can be also used to evaluate the application of specific technologies to other contaminants across the Hanford Site.

Um, Wooyong; Truex, Michael J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Iovin, Cristian; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Chang, Hyun-shik; Clayton, Ray E.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Ward, Anderson L.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Baum, Steven R.; Smith, David M.

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

479

Data:E1267bc9-5bda-401f-bced-ac62531987b9 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

67bc9-5bda-401f-bced-ac62531987b9 67bc9-5bda-401f-bced-ac62531987b9 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Central Maine Power Co Effective date: 2012/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: A-TOU Residential Time of Use Short Term Bundled Standard Offer Sector: Residential Description: AVAILABILITY This rate is available for Residential Service taken on a continuous year-round basis at one point of delivery, except that service may be taken for a shorter period subject to the provisions of the short-term service charge. CHARACTER OF SERVICE End use service will be single phase, alternating current, 60 hertz, furnished at one standard secondary distribution voltage as described in the Company's Handbook of Requirements for Electric Service and Meter Installations. SHORT-TERM SERVICE CHARGE Customers who take short-term service will be billed for the first three months, or fraction thereof, $21.69 per month in addition to the regular monthly electric service rate (including the monthly minimum charge). A credit equal to one-ninth of the amount of short-term service charges billed during the first three months of short-term service will be applied to a short-term customer's bill for each month, or fraction thereof, that the short-term customer's term of service exceeds three months. In no case will the total amount of such credits exceed the total amount of short-term service charges billed. When seasonal service customers take service for less than twelve consecutive months, they will be considered to be short-term customers and their final bills will be adjusted to include any unbilled short-term service charges and credits.

480

Building bridges from B.C. to Brazil; Ties being developed through student exchanges will provide a foundation for future relationships that benefit all  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Building bridges from B.C. to Brazil; Ties being developed through student exchanges will provide growth and a new-found confidence to compete in complex industries with established world leaders. Brazil is one of these new powerhouses. With a population of more than 190 million, Brazil is set to become one

Pulfrey, David L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon bc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Suspended sediment dynamics over a dune in the Rio Paran Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada Ray Kostaschuk Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada Jim Best Departments of Geology and Geography and Ven Te Chow, USAa Dan Parsons Earth and Biosphere Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds

Ward, Brent C.

482

Effect of Inhibitors on the Ubiquinone Binding Capacity of the Primary Energy Conversion Site in the Rhodobacter capsulatus Cytochrome bc1 Complex  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Inhibitors on the Ubiquinone Binding Capacity of the Primary Energy Conversion Site-transducing organelles. The key primary energy conversion reaction of this complex is the two-electron oxidation: A key issue concerning the primary conversion (QO) site function in the cytochrome bc1 complex

Gibney, Brian R.

483

Carbon in detonations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review three principal results from a five year study of carbon and its properties in detonations and discuss the implications of these results to the behavior of explosives. We first present a new determination of the carbon melt line from release wave velocity measurements in the shocked state. We then outline a colloidal theory of carbon clustering which from diffusion limited coagulation predicts a slow energy release rate for the carbon chemistry. Finally, we show the results from the examination of recovered soot. Here we see support for the colloid theory and find the diamond phase of carbon. The main theme of this paper is that the carbon in detonation products is in the form of a colloidal suspension of carbon clusters which grow through diffusion limited collisions. Even the final state is not bulk graphite or diamond, but is a collection of small, less than 100 /angstrom/A, diamond and graphitic clusters. 23 refs., 4 figs.

Johnson, J.D.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 35153528, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/3515/2010/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by 0.5±0.3 and 0.4±0.2 C during these months. Tropo- spheric heating from black carbon (BC) absorption results imply a possible positive feedback loop in which anthropogenic burning in the region intensifies during the strong 1997­1998 El Ni~no. More recent estimates of carbon loss are near the lower end

Zender, Charles

485

SSA Old Black Spruce Site  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SSA-OBS) SSA-OBS) View an aerial photo-map of the SSA-OBS site. The 1.3 km road and boardwalk from OBS (facing North) The control box at the base of the flux tower The ARGO ATV used to haul equipment to OBS The double-scaffold flux tower The hut and boardwalk The TE canopy tower Construction during 1993 of the tower site at the Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Trail into SSA-OBS. Large scar and canal created by construction vehicles cutting a new path each visit to avoid being mired in bog. Photograph of construction vehicle in action as it lays the electrical cable into SSA-OBS sites. Tower construction crew working on the foundation for the SSA-OBS tower. Aerial view of double-scaffold flux tower at SSA-OBS site and 100 m cable tramway for transporting the PARABOLA instrument between the flux and Rohn tower.

486

Black Hole Evaporation in an Expanding Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the quantum radiation power of black holes which are asymptotic to the Einstein-de Sitter universe at spatial and null infinities. We consider two limiting mass accretion scenarios, no accretion and significant accretion. We find that the radiation power strongly depends on not only the asymptotic condition but also the mass accretion scenario. For the no accretion case, we consider the Einstein-Straus solution, where a black hole of constant mass resides in the dust Friedmann universe. We find negative cosmological correction besides the expected redshift factor. This is given in terms of the cubic root of ratio in size of the black hole to the cosmological horizon, so that it is currently of order $10^{-5} (M/10^{6}M_{\\odot})^{1/3} (t/14 {Gyr})^{-1/3}$ but could have been significant at the formation epoch of primordial black holes. Due to the cosmological effects, this black hole has not settled down to an equilibrium state. This cosmological correction may be interpreted in an analogy with the radiation from a moving mirror in a flat spacetime. For the significant accretion case, we consider the Sultana-Dyer solution, where a black hole tends to increase its mass in proportion to the cosmological scale factor. In this model, we find that the radiation power is apparently the same as the Hawking radiation from the Schwarzschild black hole of which mass is that of the growing mass at each moment. Hence, the energy loss rate decreases and tends to vanish as time proceeds. Consequently, the energy loss due to evaporation is insignificant compared to huge mass accretion onto the black hole. Based on this model, we propose a definition of quasi-equilibrium temperature for general conformal stationary black holes.

Hiromi Saida; Tomohiro Harada; Hideki Maeda

2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

487

CHARYBDIS: A Black hole event generator.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

model of black hole production and decay which can be interfaced to existing Monte Carlo programs using the Les Houches accord [4]. The major new theoretical input to the generator is the inclusion of the recently calculated ‘grey-body’ factors for black... ? TH geometric arguments show that ?l,m? ? (?rh)2 in any number of dimensions, which means that at high energies the shape of the spectrum is like that of a black body. However the low energy behaviour of the grey-body factors is spin-dependent and also...

Harris, Chris M; Richardson, P; Webber, Bryan R

488

Tunable optical properties of multilayers black phosphorus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculated the optical conductivity tensor of multilayers black phosphorus using the Kubo formula within an effective low-energy Hamiltonian. The optical absorption spectra of multilayers black phosphorus are shown to vary sensitively with thickness, doping, and light polarization. In conjunction with experimental spectra obtained from infrared absorption spectroscopy, we discuss the role of interband coupling and disorder on the observed anisotropic absorption spectra. Multilayers black phosphorus might offer attractive alternatives to narrow gap compound semiconductors for optoelectronics across mid- to near-infrared frequencies.

Low, Tony; Carvalho, A; Jiang, Yongjin; Wang, Han; Xia, Fengnian; Neto, A H Castro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Some remarks on black hole thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two thermodynamic "paradoxes" of black hole physics are re-examined. The first is that there is a thermal instability involving two coupled blackbody cavities containing two black holes, and second is that a classical black hole can swallow up entropy in the form of ambient blackbody photons without increasing its mass. The resolution of the second paradox by Bekenstein and by Hawking is re-visited. The link between Hawking radiation and Wigner's superluminal tunneling time is discussed using two equivalent Feynman diagrams, and Feynman's re-interpretation principle.

R. Y. Chiao

2010-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

490

Chaotic string-capture by black hole  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider a macroscopic charge-current carrying (cosmic) string in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole. The string is taken to be circular and is allowed to oscillate and to propagate in the direction perpendicular to its plane (that is parallel to the equatorial plane of the black hole). Numerical investigations indicate that the system is non-integrable, but the interaction with the gravitational field of the black hole still gives rise to various qualitatively simple processes like `adiabatic capture' and `string transmutation'.

A L Larsen

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Phase transitions and Geometrothermodynamics of Regular black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we study the thermodynamics and state space geometry of regular black hole solutions such as Bardeen black hole, Ay\\'{o}n-Beato and Garc\\'{i}a black hole, Hayward black hole and Berej-Matyjasek-Trynieki-Wornowicz black hole. We find that all these black holes show second order thermodynamic phase transitions(SOTPT) by observing discontinuities in heat capacity-entropy graphs as well as the cusp type double point in free energy-temperature graph. Using the formulation of geometrothermodynamics we again find the singularities in the heat capacity of the black holes by calculating the curvature scalar of the Legendre invariant metric.

R. Tharanath; Jishnu Suresh; V. C. Kuriakose

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

492

Potential of Silicon Carbide-Derived Carbon for Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Potential of Silicon Carbide-Derived Carbon for Carbon Capture ... In contrast to conventional carbons made from natural precursors, carbide derived carbons (CDCs),(8, 10-13) being synthesized from an inorganic source, have no polar functional groups and are composed of purely covalently bonded carbon. ...

S. K. Bhatia; T. X. Nguyen

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

493

Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 14 March 2002 Howard Herzog overview and assessment of carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation (referred to as "mineral sequestration R&D. The first is that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO2. Therefore, at least

494

Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions Dana S. Balser D. Anish Roshi (Raman (Agnes Scott College) #12;Carbon RRLs Carbon Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs) NGC 2024 (Orion B) IC 1795 (W3) Palmer et al. (1967) #12;Carbon RRLs Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) Hollenbach & Tielens (1997

Balser, Dana S.

495

Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

No 52-2013 Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry halshs-00870689,version1-7Oct2013 #12;Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

496

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert1 on climate can be characterized by a single statistic, called Cumulative Carbon. This is the aggregate amount of carbon emitted in the form of carbon dioxide by activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

497

Carbon Emissions: Food Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Food Industry Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 6.6% Total First Use of Energy: 1,193 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 5.5% Carbon Intensity: 20.44 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 24.4 Net Electricity 9.8 Natural Gas 9.1 Coal 4.2 All Other Sources 1.3 Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998

498

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

499

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

500

NETL: Carbon Storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Storage Storage Technologies Carbon Storage (formerly referred to as the "Carbon Sequestration Program") Program Overview For quick navigation of NETL's Carbon Storage Program website, please click on the image. NETL's Carbon Storage Program Fossil fuels are considered the most dependable, cost-effective energy source in the world. The availability of these fuels to provide clean, affordable energy is essential for domestic and global prosperity and security well into the 21st century. However, a balance is needed between energy security and concerns over the impacts of concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere - particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). NETL's Carbon Storage Program is developing a technology portfolio of safe, cost-effective, commercial-scale CO2 capture, storage, and mitigation