National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for black carbon aerosols

  1. Climate Impacts of Atmospheric Sulfate and Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Song, Qingyuan; Menon, Surabi; Yu, Shaocai; Liu, Shaw C.; Shi, Guangyu; Leung, Lai R.; Luo, Yunfeng

    2008-09-19

    Although the global average surface temperature has increased by about 0.6°C during the last century (IPCC, 2001), some regions such as East Asia, Eastern North America, and Western Europe have cooled rather than warmed during the past decades (Jones, 1988; Qian and Giorgi, 2000). Coherent changes at the regional scale may reflect responses to different climate forcings that need to be understood in order to predict the future net climate response at the global and regional scales under different emission scenarios. Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in global climate change (IPCC 2001). They perturb the earth’s radiative budget directly by scattering and absorbing solar and long wave radiation, and indirectly by changing cloud reflectivity, lifetime, and precipitation efficiency via their role as cloud condensation nuclei. Because aerosols have much shorter lifetime (days to weeks) compared to most greenhouse gases, they tend to concentrate near their emission sources and distribute very unevenly both in time and space. This non-uniform distribution of aerosols, in conjunction with the greenhouse effect, may lead to differential net heating in some areas and net cooling in others (Penner et al. 1994). Sulfate aerosols come mainly from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from fossil fuel burning. Black carbon aerosols are directly emitted during incomplete combustion of biomass, coal, and diesel derived sources. Due to the different optical properties, sulfate and black carbon affect climate in different ways. Because of the massive emissions of sulfur and black carbon that accompany the rapid economic expansions in East Asia, understanding the effects of aerosols on climate is particularly important scientifically and politically in order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  2. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  3. ARM - PI Product - Black Carbon aerosol mass concentration in snow and rain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    samples over Barrow in the Arctic ProductsBlack Carbon aerosol mass concentration in snow and rain samples over Barrow in the Arctic ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Black Carbon aerosol mass concentration in snow and rain samples over Barrow in the Arctic [ ARM research ] Deposition of black carbon aerosol (BC) on snow (i.e. wet deposition) is considered to lower snow albedo and

  4. Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Salil; Evans, Katherine J.; Hack, James J.; Truesdale, John

    2013-04-19

    The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $W^{-1}m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $ PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

  5. Evaluation of Black Carbon Estimations in Global Aerosol Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D.; Schulz, M.; Kinne, Stefan; McNaughton, C. S.; Spackman, J. R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Bond, Tami C.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Clarke, A. D.; De Luca, N.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Dubovik, O.; Easter, Richard C.; Fahey, D. W.; Feichter, J.; Fillmore, D.; Freitag, S.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Horowitz, L.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Klimont, Z.; Kondo, Yutaka; Krol, M.; Liu, Xiaohong; Miller, R.; Montanaro, V.; Moteki, N.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Perlwitz, Ja; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Sahu, L.; Sakamoto, H.; Schuster, G.; Schwarz, J. P.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Takemura, T.; Textor, C.; van Aardenne, John; Zhao, Y.

    2009-11-27

    We evaluate black carbon (BC) model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) from AERONET and OMI retrievals and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column) AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.6 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50N, the average model is a factor of 10 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC is 0.6 and underestimate the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model generated a smaller change in model predictions than the range represented by the full set of AeroCom models. Upper tropospheric concentrations of BC mass from the aircraft measurements are suggested to provide a unique new benchmark to test scavenging and vertical dispersion of BC in global models.

  6. Sensitivity of global-scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol - article no. L14701

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.S.; Jones, A.; Roberts, D.L.; Stott, P.A.; Williams, K.D.

    2005-07-16

    It is likely that greenhouse gas emissions caused most of the global mean warming observed during the 20th century, and that sulphate aerosols counteracted this warming to some extent, by reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby cooling the planet. However, the importance of another aerosol, namely black carbon, could be underestimated. Here we include fossil fuel black carbon aerosol in a detection and attribution analysis with greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols. We find that most of the warming of the 20th Century is attributable to changes in greenhouse gases offset by net aerosol cooling. However the pattern of temperature change due to black carbon is currently indistinguishable from the sulphate aerosol pattern of temperature change. The attribution of temperature change due to greenhouse gases is not sensitive to the inclusion of black carbon. We can be confident about the overall attribution of total aerosols, but less so about the contributions of black carbon emissions to 20th century climate change. This work presents no evidence that black carbon aerosol forcing outweighed the cooling due to sulphate aerosol.

  7. Optical Properties of Mixed Black Carbon, Inorganic and Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulson, S E

    2012-05-30

    Summarizes the achievements of the project, which are divided into four areas: 1) Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols; 2) Development and of a polar nephelometer to measure aerosol optical properties and theoretical approaches to several optical analysis problems, 3) Studies on the accuracy of measurements of absorbing carbon by several methods, and 4) Environmental impacts of biodiesel.

  8. Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000 - article no. GB2018

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, T.C.; Bhardwaj, E.; Dong, R.; Jogani, R.; Jung, S.K.; Roden, C.; Streets, D.G.; Trautmann, N.M.

    2007-05-15

    We present an emission inventory of primary black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) aerosols from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion between 1850 and 2000. We reconstruct fossil fuel consumption and represent changes in technology on a national and sectoral basis. Our estimates rely on new estimates of biofuel consumption, and updated emission factors for old technologies. Emissions of black carbon increase almost linearly, totaling about 1000 Gg in 1850, 2200 Gg in 1900, 3000 Gg in 1950, and 4400 Gg in 2000. Primary organic carbon shows a similar pattern, with emissions of 4100 Gg, 5800 Gg, 6700 Gg, and 8700 Gg in 1850, 1900, 1950, and 2000, respectively. Biofuel is responsible for over half of BC emission until about 1890, and dominates energy-related primary OC emission throughout the entire period. Coal contributes the greatest fraction of BC emission between 1880 and 1975, and is overtaken by emissions from biofuel around 1975, and by diesel engines around 1990. Previous work suggests a rapid rise in BC emissions between 1950 and 2000. This work supports a more gradual increase between 1950 and 2000, similar to the increase between 1850 and 1925; implementation of clean technology is a primary reason.

  9. Observed high-altitude warming and snow cover retreat over Tibet and the Himalayas enhanced by black carbon aerosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Y.; Ramanathan, V.; Washington, W. M.

    2015-07-10

    Himalayan mountain glaciers and the snowpack over the Tibetan Plateau provide the headwater of several major rivers in Asia. In-situ observations of snow cover fraction since the 1960s suggest that the snow pack in the region have retreated significantly, accompanied by a surface warming of 22.5 C observed over the peak altitudes (5000 m). Using a high-resolution oceanatmosphere global climate model and an observationally constrained black carbon (BC) aerosol forcing, we attribute the observed altitude dependence of the warming trends as well as the spatial pattern of reductions in snow depths and snow cover fraction to various anthropogenic factors. Atmorethe Tibetan Plateau altitudes, the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration exerted a warming of 1.7 C, BC 1.3 C where as cooling aerosols cause about 0.7 C cooling, bringing the net simulated warming consistent with the anomalously large observed warming. We therefore conclude that BC together with CO2 has contributed to the snow retreat trends. Especially, BC increase is the major factor in the strong elevation dependence of the observed surface warming. The atmospheric warming by BC as well as its surface darkening of snow are coupled with the positive snow albedo feedbacks to account for the disproportionately large role of BC in high-elevation regions. These findings reveal that BC impact needs to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections, in particular on high-altitude cryosphere.less

  10. Collection efficiency of the Soot-Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) for internally mixed particulate black carbon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Willis, M. D.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E. C.; Williams, L. R.; Lambe, A. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2014-05-26

    The soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) uses an intra-cavity infrared laser to vaporize refractory black carbon (rBC) containing particles, making the particle beam–laser beam overlap critical in determining the collection efficiency (CE) for rBC and associated non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM). This work evaluates the ability of the SP-AMS to quantify rBC and NR-PM mass in internally mixed particles with different thicknesses of organic coating. Using apparent relative ionization efficiencies for uncoated and thickly coated rBC particles, we report measurements of SP-AMS sensitivity to NR-PM and rBC, for Regal Black, the recommended particulate calibration material. Beam width probe (BWP) measurements aremore » used to illustrate an increase in sensitivity for highly coated particles due to narrowing of the particle beam, which enhances the CE of the SP-AMS by increasing the laser beam–particle beam overlap. Assuming complete overlap for thick coatings, we estimate CE for bare Regal Black particles of 0.6 ± 0.1, which suggests that previously measured SP-AMS sensitivities to Regal Black were underestimated by up to a factor of two. The efficacy of the BWP measurements is highlighted by studies at a busy road in downtown Toronto and at a non-roadside location, which show particle beam widths similar to, but greater than that of bare Regal Black and coated Regal Black, respectively. Further BWP measurements at field locations will help to constrain the range of CE for fresh and aged rBC-containing particles. The ability of the SP-AMS to quantitatively assess the composition of internally mixed particles is validated through measurements of laboratory-generated organic coated particles, which demonstrate that the SP-AMS can quantify rBC and NR-PM over a wide range of particle compositions and rBC core sizes.« less

  11. Collection efficiency of the soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) for internally mixed particulate black carbon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Willis, M. D.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E. C.; Williams, L. R.; Lambe, A. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2014-12-18

    The soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) uses an intra-cavity infrared laser to vaporize refractory black carbon (rBC) containing particles, making the particle beam–laser beam overlap critical in determining the collection efficiency (CE) for rBC and associated non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM). This work evaluates the ability of the SP-AMS to quantify rBC and NR-PM mass in internally mixed particles with different thicknesses of organic coating. Using apparent relative ionization efficiencies for uncoated and thickly coated rBC particles, we report measurements of SP-AMS sensitivity to NR-PM and rBC, for Regal Black, the recommended particulate calibration material. Beam width probe (BWP) measurements aremore » used to illustrate an increase in sensitivity for highly coated particles due to narrowing of the particle beam, which enhances the CE of the SP-AMS by increasing the laser beam–particle beam overlap. Assuming complete overlap for thick coatings, we estimate CE for bare Regal Black particles of 0.6 ± 0.1, which suggests that previously measured SP-AMS sensitivities to Regal Black were underestimated by up to a factor of 2. The efficacy of the BWP measurements is highlighted by studies at a busy road in downtown Toronto and at a non-roadside location, which show particle beam widths similar to, but greater than that of bare Regal Black and coated Regal Black, respectively. Further BWP measurements at field locations will help to constrain the range of CE for fresh and aged rBC-containing particles. The ability of the SP-AMS to quantitatively assess the composition of internally mixed particles is validated through measurements of laboratory-generated organic coated particles, which demonstrate that the SP-AMS can quantify rBC and NR-PM over a wide range of particle compositions and rBC core sizes.« less

  12. Observed high-altitude warming and snow cover retreat over Tibet and the Himalayas enhanced by black carbon aerosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Y.; Ramanathan, V.; Washington, W. M.

    2016-02-05

    Himalayan mountain glaciers and the snowpack over the Tibetan Plateau provide the headwater of several major rivers in Asia. In situ observations of snow cover extent since the 1960s suggest that the snowpack in the region have retreated significantly, accompanied by a surface warming of 2–2.5°C observed over the peak altitudes (5000 m). Using a high-resolution ocean–atmosphere global climate model and an observationally constrained black carbon (BC) aerosol forcing, we attribute the observed altitude dependence of the warming trends as well as the spatial pattern of reductions in snow depths and snow cover extent to various anthropogenic factors. At themore » Tibetan Plateau altitudes, the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration exerted a warming of 1.7°C, BC 1.3°C where as cooling aerosols cause about 0.7°C cooling, bringing the net simulated warming consistent with the anomalously large observed warming. We therefore conclude that BC together with CO2 has contributed to the snow retreat trends. In particular, BC increase is the major factor in the strong elevation dependence of the observed surface warming. The atmospheric warming by BC as well as its surface darkening of snow is coupled with the positive snow albedo feedbacks to account for the disproportionately large role of BC in high-elevation regions. Here, these findings reveal that BC impact needs to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections, in particular on high-altitude cryosphere.« less

  13. Sources of black carbon aerosols in South Asia and surrounding regions during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Nair, V. S.; Pfister, G. G.; Suresh Babu, S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Carmichael, G. R.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-05-19

    This study examines differences in the surface black carbon (BC) aerosol loading between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identifies dominant sources of BC in South Asia and surrounding regions during March–May 2006 (Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget, ICARB) period. A total of 13 BC tracers are introduced in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry to address these objectives. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variability of BC distribution observed over the AS and the BoB during the ICARB ship cruise and captured spatial variability at the inland sites. In general, the model underestimates the observed BC mass concentrations. However, the model–observation discrepancy in this study is smaller compared to previous studies. Model results show that ICARB measurements were fairly well representative of the AS and the BoB during the pre-monsoon season. Elevated BC mass concentrations in the BoB are due to 5 times stronger influence of anthropogenic emissions on the BoB compared to the AS. Biomass burning in Burma also affects the BoB much more strongly than the AS. Results show that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively, accounted for 60 and 37% of the average ± standard deviation (representing spatial and temporal variability) BC mass concentration (1341 ± 2353 ng m-3) in South Asia. BC emissions from residential (61%) and industrial (23%) sectors are the major anthropogenic sources, except in the Himalayas where vehicular emissions dominate. We find that regional-scale transport of anthropogenic emissions contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions in different regions of South Asia.

  14. Sources of black carbon aerosols in South Asia and surrounding regions during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Nair, V. S.; Pfister, G. G.; Suresh Babu, S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Carmichael, G. R.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-05-19

    This study examines differences in the surface black carbon (BC) aerosol loading between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identifies dominant sources of BC in South Asia and surrounding regions during March–May 2006 (Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget, ICARB) period. A total of 13 BC tracers are introduced in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry to address these objectives. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variability of BC distribution observed over the AS and the BoB during the ICARB ship cruise and captured spatial variability at the inlandmore » sites. In general, the model underestimates the observed BC mass concentrations. However, the model–observation discrepancy in this study is smaller compared to previous studies. Model results show that ICARB measurements were fairly well representative of the AS and the BoB during the pre-monsoon season. Elevated BC mass concentrations in the BoB are due to 5 times stronger influence of anthropogenic emissions on the BoB compared to the AS. Biomass burning in Burma also affects the BoB much more strongly than the AS. Results show that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively, accounted for 60 and 37% of the average ± standard deviation (representing spatial and temporal variability) BC mass concentration (1341 ± 2353 ng m-3) in South Asia. BC emissions from residential (61%) and industrial (23%) sectors are the major anthropogenic sources, except in the Himalayas where vehicular emissions dominate. We find that regional-scale transport of anthropogenic emissions contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions in different regions of South Asia.« less

  15. Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative...

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    carbon, primary organic aerosols (POA), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both man-made and biogenic sources. Black carbon and primary organic aerosols are emitted...

  16. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  17. ARM - Measurement - Black carbon concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of carbon in its very absorbing, elemental, non-organic, non-oxide form (e.g. graphite). Categories Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is...

  18. Chemical Bonding and Structural Information of Black CarbonReference Materials and Individual Carbonaceous AtmosphericAerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Marten, Bryan D.; Gilles, Mary K.

    2007-04-25

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratios and graphitic nature of a rangeof black carbon standard reference materials (BC SRMs), high molecularmass humic-like substances (HULIS) and atmospheric particles are examinedusing scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with nearedge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. UsingSTXM/NEXAFS, individual particles with diameter>100 nm are studied,thus the diversity of atmospheric particles collected during a variety offield missions is assessed. Applying a semi-quantitative peak fittingmethod to the NEXAFS spectra enables a comparison of BC SRMs and HULIS toparticles originating from anthropogenic combustion and biomass burns,thus allowing determination of the suitability of these materials forrepresenting atmospheric particles. Anthropogenic combustion and biomassburn particles can be distinguished from one another using both chemicalbonding and structural ordering information. While anthropogeniccombustion particles are characterized by a high proportion ofaromatic-C, the presence of benzoquinone and are highly structurallyordered, biomass burn particles exhibit lower structural ordering, asmaller proportion of aromatic-C and contain a much higher proportion ofoxygenated functional groups.

  19. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - 2006 MAX-Mex-Megacity Aerosol eXperiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characterization of the aerosols, on aerosol transformations including aging of the black carbon during outflow from the region, and on the effects of the megacity aerosol plume on...

  2. Arctic Black Carbon Loading and Profile Using the Single-Particle Soot

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Arctic Black Carbon Loading and Profile Using the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Arctic Black Carbon Loading and Profile Using the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report One of the major issues confronting aerosol climate simulations of the Arctic and Antarctic cryospheres is

  3. Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plains Site Field Campaign Report (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Program Document: Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report The purpose of this study was to measure the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) fractions of PM2.5 particulate matter at the U.S. Department

  4. Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State Field Campaign Report A Sedlacek P Davidovits ER Lewis TB Onasch April 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

  5. Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State Field Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State Field Campaign Report Interpreting the temporal relationship between the scattering and incandescence signals recorded by the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), Sedlacek et al. (2012) reported that 60% of the refractory black carbon containing particles in a plume containing biomass burning

  6. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was

  7. Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A theoretical black carbon (BC) aging model is developed to account for three typical evolution stages, namely, freshly emitted aggregates, coated BC by soluble material, and BC ...

  8. Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State Field Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon-containing particles of known morphology using Regal black (RB), a proxy for ... attempts to differentiate particle morphology using current SP2 lagtime analysis. ...

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the single particle soot photometer (SP2). The large uncertainty associated with black carbon (BC) direct forcing is due, in part, to the dependence of light absorption of...

  10. Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-11-28

    We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan Plateau using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the Plateau is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.55.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.74.3 W m-230 ) in the Plateau after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.

  11. Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State Title: Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State This measurement characterizes the types of BC emissions that result in near-surface BC- containing particles in a region that is dominated by biomass and open pit/stove cooking. Specifically, examine three primary BC emission sources: (i) urban setting (e.g., fossil fuel emissions); and (ii) biomass burning. Source (i) are captured at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bangalore. Biomass

  12. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  13. Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Tami C.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Fahey, D. W.; Forster, Piers; Berntsen, T.; DeAngelo, B. J.; Flanner, M. G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Karcher, B.; Koch, Dorothy; Kinne, Stefan; Kondo, Yutaka; Quinn, P. K.; Sarofim, Marcus; Schultz, Martin; Schulz, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Bellouin, N.; Guttikunda, S. K.; Hopke, P. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Kaiser, J. W.; Klimont, Z.; Lohmann, U.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Shindell, Drew; Storelvmo, Trude; Warren, Stephen G.; Zender, C. S.

    2013-06-06

    Black carbon aerosol plays a unique and important role in Earth’s climate system. Black carbon is a type of carbonaceous material with a unique combination of physical properties. Predominant sources are combustion related; namely, fossil fuels for transportation, solid fuels for industrial and residential uses, and open burning of biomass. Total global emissions of black carbon using bottom-up inventory methods are 7500 Gg yr-1 in the year 2000 with an uncertainty range of 2000 to 29000. This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption, influence on liquid, mixed-phase, and ice clouds, and deposition on snow and ice. These effects are calculated with models, but when possible, they are evaluated with both microphysical measurements and field observations. Global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon is too low in many models, and should be increased by about about 60%. After this scaling, the best estimate for the industrial-era (1750 to 2005) direct radiative forcing of black carbon is +0.43 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of (+0.17, +0.68) W m-2. Total direct forcing by all black carbon sources in the present day is estimated as +0.49 (+0.20, +0.76) W m-2. Direct radiative forcing alone does not capture important rapid adjustment mechanisms. A framework is described and used for quantifying climate forcings and their rapid responses and feedbacks. The best estimate of industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon through all forcing mechanisms is +0.77 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of +-0.06 to +1.53 W m-2. Thus, there is a 96% probability that black carbon emissions, independent of co-emitted species, have a positive forcing and warm the climate. With a value of +0.77 W m-2, black carbon is likely the second most important individual climate-forcing agent in the industrial era, following carbon dioxide. Sources that emit black carbon also emit other short- lived species that may either cool or warm climate. Climate forcings from co-emitted species are estimated and used in the framework described herein. When the principal effects of co- emissions, including cooling agents such as sulfur dioxide, are included in net forcing, energy-related sources (fossil-fuel and biofuel) have a net climate forcing of +0.004 (-0.62 to +0.57) W m-2 during the first year after emission. For a few of these sources, such as diesel engines and possibly residential biofuels, warming is strong enough that eliminating all emissions from these sources would reduce net climate forcing (i.e., produce cooling). When open burning emissions, which emit high levels of organic matter, are included in the total, the best estimate of net industrial-era climate forcing by all black- carbon-rich sources becomes slightly negative (-0.08 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of -1.23 to +0.81 W m-2). The uncertainties in net climate forcing from black-carbon-rich sources are substantial, largely due to lack of knowledge about cloud interactions with both black carbon and co-emitted organic carbon. In prioritizing potential black-carbon mitigation actions, non-science factors, such as technical feasibility, costs, policy design, and implementation feasibility play important roles. The major sources of black carbon are presently in different stages with regard to the feasibility for near-term mitigation. This assessment, by evaluating the large number and complexity of the associated physical and radiative processes in black-carbon climate forcing, sets a baseline from which to improve future climate forcing estimates.

  14. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-05-27

    Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

  15. Climate implications of carbonaceous aerosols: An aerosol microphysical study using the GISS/MATRIX climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Bond, Tami; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2010-04-09

    Recently, attention has been drawn towards black carbon aerosols as a likely short-term climate warming mitigation candidate. However the global and regional impacts of the direct, cloud-indirect and semi-direct forcing effects are highly uncertain, due to the complex nature of aerosol evolution and its climate interactions. Black carbon is directly released as particle into the atmosphere, but then interacts with other gases and particles through condensation and coagulation processes leading to further aerosol growth, aging and internal mixing. A detailed aerosol microphysical scheme, MATRIX, embedded within the global GISS modelE includes the above processes that determine the lifecycle and climate impact of aerosols. This study presents a quantitative assessment of the impact of microphysical processes involving black carbon, such as emission size distributions and optical properties on aerosol cloud activation and radiative forcing. Our best estimate for net direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing change is -0.56 W/m{sup 2} between 1750 and 2000. However, the direct and indirect aerosol effects are very sensitive to the black and organic carbon size distribution and consequential mixing state. The net radiative forcing change can vary between -0.32 to -0.75 W/m{sup 2} depending on these carbonaceous particle properties. Assuming that sulfates, nitrates and secondary organics form a coating shell around a black carbon core, rather than forming a uniformly mixed particles, changes the overall net radiative forcing from a negative to a positive number. Black carbon mitigation scenarios showed generally a benefit when mainly black carbon sources such as diesel emissions are reduced, reducing organic and black carbon sources such as bio-fuels, does not lead to reduced warming.

  16. The importance of China's household sector for black carbon emissions - article no. L12708

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D.G.; Aunan, K.

    2005-06-30

    The combustion of coal and biofuels in Chinese households is a large source of black carbon (BC), representing about 10-15% of total global emissions during the past two decades, depending on the year. How the Chinese household sector develops during the next 50 years will have an important bearing on future aerosol concentrations, because the range of possible outcomes (about 550 Gg yr{sup -1}) is greater than total BC emissions in either the United States or Europe (each about 400-500 Gg yr{sup -1}). In some Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios biofuels persist in rural China for at least the next 50 years, whereas in other scenarios a transition to cleaner fuels and technologies effectively mitigates BC emissions. This paper discusses measures and policies that would help this transition and also raises the possibility of including BC emission reductions as a post-Kyoto option for China and other developing countries.

  17. The impact of biogenic carbon emissions on aerosol absorption inMexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marley, N; Gaffney, J; Tackett, M J; Sturchio, N; Hearty, L; Martinez, N; Hardy, K D; Machany-Rivera, A; Guilderson, T P; MacMillan, A; Steelman, K

    2009-02-24

    In order to determine the wavelength dependence of atmospheric aerosol absorption in the Mexico City area, the absorption angstrom exponents (AAEs) were calculated from aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths obtained with a seven-channel aethalometer during two field campaigns, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area study in April 2003 (MCMA 2003) and the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The AAEs varied from 0.76 to 1.56 in 2003 and from 0.54 to 1.52 in 2006. The AAE values determined in the afternoon were consistently higher than the corresponding morning values, suggesting the photochemical formation of absorbing secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the afternoon. The AAE values were compared to stable and radiocarbon isotopic measurements of aerosol samples collected at the same time to determine the sources of the aerosol carbon. The fraction of modern carbon (fM) in the aerosol samples, as determined from {sup 14}C analysis, showed that 70% of the carbonaceous aerosols in Mexico City were from modern sources, indicating a significant impact from biomass burning during both field campaigns. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of the aerosol samples illustrate the significant impact of Yucatan forest fires (C-3 plants) in 2003 and local grass fires (C-4 plants) at site T1 in 2006. A direct comparison of the fM values, stable carbon isotope ratios, and calculated aerosol AAEs suggested that the wavelength dependence of the aerosol absorption was controlled by the biogenically derived aerosol components.

  18. Investigation of refractory black carbon-containing particle morphologies using the single-particle soot photometer (SP2)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sedlacek, III, Arthur J.; Lewis, Ernie R.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Lambe, Andrew T.; Davidovits, Paul

    2015-07-24

    An important source of uncertainty in radiative forcing by absorbing aerosol particles is the uncertainty in their morphologies (i.e., the location of the absorbing substance on/in the particles). To examine the effects of particle morphology on the response of an individual black carbon-containing particle in a Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), a series of experiments was conducted to investigate black carbon-containing particles of known morphology using Regal black (RB), a proxy for collapsed soot, as the light-absorbing substance. Particles were formed by coagulation of RB with either a solid substance (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) or a liquid substance (dioctyl sebacate),more » and by condensation with dioctyl sebacate, the latter experiment forming particles in a core-shell configuration. Each particle type experienced fragmentation (observed as negative lagtimes), and each yielded similar lagtime responses in some instances, confounding attempts to differentiate particle morphology using current SP2 lagtime analysis. SP2 operating conditions, specifically laser power and sample flow rate, which in turn affect the particle heating and dissipation rates, play an important role in the behavior of particles in the SP2, including probability of fragmentation. This behavior also depended on the morphology of the particles and on the thermo-chemical properties of the non-RB substance. Although these influences cannot currently be unambiguously separated, the SP2 analysis may still provide useful information on particle mixing states and black carbon particle sources.« less

  19. Investigation of refractory black carbon-containing particle morphologies using the single-particle soot photometer (SP2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedlacek, III, Arthur J.; Lewis, Ernie R.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Lambe, Andrew T.; Davidovits, Paul

    2015-07-24

    An important source of uncertainty in radiative forcing by absorbing aerosol particles is the uncertainty in their morphologies (i.e., the location of the absorbing substance on/in the particles). To examine the effects of particle morphology on the response of an individual black carbon-containing particle in a Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), a series of experiments was conducted to investigate black carbon-containing particles of known morphology using Regal black (RB), a proxy for collapsed soot, as the light-absorbing substance. Particles were formed by coagulation of RB with either a solid substance (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) or a liquid substance (dioctyl sebacate), and by condensation with dioctyl sebacate, the latter experiment forming particles in a core-shell configuration. Each particle type experienced fragmentation (observed as negative lagtimes), and each yielded similar lagtime responses in some instances, confounding attempts to differentiate particle morphology using current SP2 lagtime analysis. SP2 operating conditions, specifically laser power and sample flow rate, which in turn affect the particle heating and dissipation rates, play an important role in the behavior of particles in the SP2, including probability of fragmentation. This behavior also depended on the morphology of the particles and on the thermo-chemical properties of the non-RB substance. Although these influences cannot currently be unambiguously separated, the SP2 analysis may still provide useful information on particle mixing states and black carbon particle sources.

  20. Void morphology in polyethylene/carbon black composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, D.W.M.; Wartenberg, M.; Schwartz, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    A combination of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and contrast matching techniques is used to determine the size and quantity of voids incorporated during fabrication of polyethylene/carbon black composites. The analysis used to extract void morphology from SANS data is based on the three-phase model of microcrack determination via small angle x-rayscattering (SAXS) developed by W.Wu{sup 12} and applied to particulate reinforced composites.

  1. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was characterized via measurement of the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the particulate matter, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the BBCSI used standard Tisch hi-vol motors which have a known lifetime of ~1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance and it is suggested that the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers for future deployment in the Arctic. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples from Barrow, AK from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the organic and black carbon concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer.

  2. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report (Program

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Document) | SciTech Connect Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact campaign was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in Barrow, Alaska. The carbonaceous

  3. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact campaign was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in Barrow, Alaska. The carbonaceous component was characterized by measuring the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the PM, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine PM fractions (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) PM fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) study used standard Tisch “hi-vol” motors that have a known lifetime of approximately 1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance, and it is suggested that, for future deployment in the Arctic, the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric PM samples from Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the OC and BC concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer. However, the annual OC concentrations had a very different seasonal pattern with the highest concentrations during the summer, lowest concentrations during the fall, and increased concentrations during the winter and spring (Figure 1).

  4. Carbon black and carbon black-conducting polymer composites for environmental applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajeshwar, K.; Wampler, W.A.; Goeringer, S.; Gerspacher, M.; Richardson, S.

    1996-10-01

    The preparation and use of the title materials for the treatment of Cr(VI) in aqueous media will be described. The carcinogenic Cr(VI) will be shown to be efficiently reduced to the less toxic specie Cr(III). The preparation and process variables will be described using a furnace black (N135) and polypyrrole as model candidates. Other aspects to be discussed include reaction kinetics, mechanism and thermodynamics. Finally, the practical implications of this new Cr(VI) pollution abatement approach are discussed.

  5. An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, Mian; De Luca, N.; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, Dorothy; Liu, Xiaohong; Mann, G. W.; Penner, Joyce E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Noije, T.; Yun, Yuxing; Zhang, Kai

    2014-03-07

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea-ice. Here, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea-ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004-2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng g−1 for an earlier Phase of AeroCom models (Phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng g−1 for a more recent Phase of AeroCom models (Phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g−1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model–measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90◦N) atmospheric residence time for BC in Phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC deposition originates from extra-Arctic emissions, these results suggest that aerosol removal processes are a leading source of variation in model performance. The multi-model mean (full range) of Arctic radiative effect from BC in snow is 0.15 (0.07-0.25) W m−2 and 0.18 (0.06-0.28) W m−2 in Phase I and Phase II models, respectively. After correcting for model biases relative to observed BC concentrations in different regions of the Arctic, we obtain a multi-model mean Arctic radiative effect of 0.17 W m−2 for the combined AeroCom ensembles. Finally, there is a high correlation between modeled BC concentrations sampled over the observational sites and the Arctic as a whole, indicating that the field campaign provided a reasonable sample of the Arctic.

  6. Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Andreae, Tracey W.; taxo, Paulo Ar-; Maenhaut, Willy; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Novakov, T.; Chow, Judith C.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2011-06-03

    Aerosol samples were collected at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin as part of the project LBA-SMOCC-2002 (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate). Sampling was conducted during the late dry season, when the aerosol composition was dominated by biomass burning emissions, especially in the submicron fraction. A 13-stage Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) was used to collect particles with nominal aerodynamic diameters (D{sub p}) ranging from 0.03 to 0.10 m. Gravimetric analyses of the DLPI substrates and filters were performed to obtain aerosol mass concentrations. The concentrations of total, apparent elemental, and organic carbon (TC, EC{sub a}, and OC) were determined using thermal and thermal-optical analysis (TOA) methods. A light transmission method (LTM) was used to determine the concentration of equivalent black carbon (BC{sub e}) or the absorbing fraction at 880 nm for the size-resolved samples. During the dry period, due to the pervasive presence of fires in the region upwind of the sampling site, concentrations of fine aerosols (D{sub p} < 2.5 {mu}m: average 59.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}) were higher than coarse aerosols (D{sub p} > 2.5 {mu}m: 4.1 {mu}g m{sup -3}). Carbonaceous matter, estimated as the sum of the particulate organic matter (i.e., OC x 1.8) plus BC{sub e}, comprised more than 90% to the total aerosol mass. Concentrations of EC{sub a} (estimated by thermal analysis with a correction for charring) and BCe (estimated by LTM) averaged 5.2 {+-} 1.3 and 3.1 {+-} 0.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively. The determination of EC was improved by extracting water-soluble organic material from the samples, which reduced the average light absorption {angstrom} exponent of particles in the size range of 0.1 to 1.0 {mu}m from > 2.0 to approximately 1.2. The size-resolved BC{sub e} measured by the LTM showed a clear maximum between 0.4 and 0.6 m in diameter. The concentrations of OC and BC{sub e} varied diurnally during the dry period, and this variation is related to diurnal changes in boundary layer thickness and in fire frequency.

  7. Formation of carbon black as a byproduct of pyrolysis of light hydrocarbons in plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.G.; Zhang, X.B.; Li, F.; Xie, K.C.; Dai, B.; Fan, Y.S.

    1997-12-31

    The light hydrocarbons undergo a complex reaction of flash hydropyrolysis in a DC arc H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet at atmospheric pressure and average temperatures between 1,500 K and 4,000 K. The raw material was LPG. Acetylene is the major product. Carbon black is a byproduct. Carbon black is characterized with XRD, TEM, and adsorption-and-desorption of liquid nitrogen, respectively. The present work proposes to use the plasma process to replace the classical thermal process in order to produce acetylene directly from LPG with carbon black being a byproduct.

  8. SP2 Deployment at Boston College-Aerodyne-Led Coated Black Carbon Study

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BC4) Final Campaign Summary (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SP2 Deployment at Boston College-Aerodyne-Led Coated Black Carbon Study (BC4) Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SP2 Deployment at Boston College-Aerodyne-Led Coated Black Carbon Study (BC4) Final Campaign Summary The main objective of the Boston College-Aerodyne led laboratory study (BC4) was to measure the optical properties of black carbon (BC) particles from a diffusion flame directly and

  9. The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) Current climate models generally under-predict the surface concentration of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic due to

  10. Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I

    2006-01-01

    This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2}) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal gelation. The broth results from mixing a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea solution with an acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solution. Carbon black, which is previously added to one or other of the components, must stay dispersed during gelation. The report provides a detailed description of characterization efforts and results, aimed at identification and testing carbon black and surfactant combinations that would produce stable dispersions, with carbon particle sizes below 1 {micro}m, in aqueous HMTA/urea and ADUN solutions. A battery of characterization methods was used to identify the properties affecting the water dispersability of carbon blacks, such as surface area, aggregate morphology, volatile content, and, most importantly, surface chemistry. The report introduces the basic principles for each physical or chemical method of carbon black characterization, lists the results obtained, and underlines cross-correlations between methods. Particular attention is given to a newly developed method for characterization of surface chemical groups on carbons in terms of their acid-base properties (pK{sub a} spectra) based on potentiometric titration. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic. In addition, background information on carbon black properties and the mechanism by which surfactants disperse carbon black in water is also provided. A list of main physical and chemical properties characterized, samples analyzed, and results obtained, as well as information on the desired trend or range of values generally associated with better dispersability, is provided in the Appendix. Special attention was given to characterization of several surface-modified carbon blacks produced by Cabot Corporation through proprietary diazonium salts chemistry. As demonstrated in the report, these advanced carbons offer many advantages over traditional dispersions. They disperse very easily, do not require intensive mechanical shearing or sonication, and the particle size of the dispersed carbon black aggregates is in the target range of 0.15-0.20 {micro}m. The dispersions in water and HMTA/urea solutions are stable for at least 30 days; in conditions of simulated broth, the dispersions are stable for at least 6 hours. It is proposed that the optimization of the carbon black dispersing process is possible by replacing traditional carbon blacks and surfactants with surface-modified carbon blacks having suitable chemical groups attached on their surface. It is recognized that the method advanced in this report for optimizing the carbon black dispersion process is based on a limited number of tests made in aqueous and simulated broth conditions. The findings were corroborated by a limited number of tests carried out with ADUN solutions by the Nuclear Science and Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). More work is necessary, however, to confirm the overall recommendation based on the findings discussed in this report: namely, that the use of surface-modified carbon blacks in the uranium-containing broth will not adversely impact the chemistry of the gelation process, and that high quality uranium oxicarbide (UCO) kernels will be produced after calcination.

  11. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

    2014-11-27

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

  12. Enhanced Solar Energy Absorption by Internally-mixed Black Carbon in Snow Grains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanner, M. G.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhou, Cheng; Penner, Joyce E.; Jiao, C.

    2012-05-30

    Here we explore light absorption by snowpack containing black carbon (BC) particles residing within ice grains. Basic considerations of particle volumes and BC/snow mass concentrations show that there are generally 0:05-109 BC particles for each ice grain. This suggests that internal BC is likely distributed as multiple inclusions within ice grains, and thus the dynamic effective medium approximation (DEMA) (Chylek and Srivastava, 1983) is a more appropriate optical representation for BC/ice composites than coated-sphere or standard mixing approximations. DEMA calculations show that the 460 nm absorption cross-section of BC/ice composites, normalized to the mass of BC, is typically enhanced by factors of 1.8-2.1 relative to interstitial BC. BC effective radius is the dominant cause of variation in this enhancement, compared with ice grain size and BC volume fraction. We apply two atmospheric aerosol models that simulate interstitial and within-hydrometeor BC lifecycles. Although only {approx}2% of the atmospheric BC burden is cloud-borne, 71-83% of the BC deposited to global snow and sea-ice surfaces occurs within hydrometeors. Key processes responsible for within-snow BC deposition are development of hydrophilic coatings on BC, activation of liquid droplets, and subsequent snow formation through riming or ice nucleation by other species and aggregation/accretion of ice particles. Applying deposition fields from these aerosol models in offline snow and sea-ice simulations, we calculate that 32-73% of BC in global surface snow resides within ice grains. This fraction is smaller than the within-hydrometeor deposition fraction because meltwater flux preferentially removes internal BC, while sublimation and freezing within snowpack expose internal BC. Incorporating the DEMA into a global climate model, we simulate increases in BC/snow radiative forcing of 43-86%, relative to scenarios that apply external optical properties to all BC. We show that snow metamorphism driven by diffusive vapor transfer likely proceeds too slowly to alter the mass of internal BC while it is radiatively active, but neglected processes like wind pumping and convection may play much larger roles. These results suggest that a large portion of BC in surface snowpack may reside within ice grains and increase BC/snow radiative forcing, although measurements to evaluate this are lacking. Finally, previous studies of BC/snow forcing that neglected this absorption enhancement are not necessarily biased low, because of application of absorption-enhancing sulfate coatings to hydrophilic BC, neglect of coincident absorption by dust in snow, and implicit treatment of cloud-borne BC resulting in longer-range transport.

  13. Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Bond, Tami C.

    2014-01-20

    Carbonaceous and sulfur aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to their impact on health and ecosystems. The magnitude of this influence has changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. An integrated picture of the changing climatic influence of black carbon, organic carbon and sulfate over the period 1850 through 2100, focusing on uncertainty, is presented using updated historical inventories and a coordinated set of emission projections. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing due to increases in greenhouse gas forcing and a global decrease in pollutant emissions. This outcome is even more certain under a successful implementation of a policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions as low-carbon energy technologies that do not emit appreciable aerosol or SO2 are deployed.

  14. An Index-Based Approach to Assessing Recalcitrance and Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Engineered Black Carbons (Biochars)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E.; Herbert, Bruce

    2012-01-10

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R{sub 50}, for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R{sub 50} is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R{sub 50}, with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R{sub 50} and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R{sub 50} is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R{sub 50} {>=} 0.70), Class B (0.50 {<=} R{sub 50} < 0.70) or Class C (R{sub 50} < 0.50) recalcitrance/carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, while Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R{sub 50}, to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  15. Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.

    2013-02-12

    Climate engineering with stratospheric aerosols, an idea inspired by large volcaniceruptions, could cool the Earth’s surface and thus alleviate some of the predicted dangerous impacts of anthropogenic climate change. However, the effectiveness of climate engineering to achieve a particular climate goal, and any associated side effects, depend on certain aerosol parameters and how the aerosols are deployed in the stratosphere. Through the examples of sulfate and black carbon aerosols, this paper examines "engineering" parameters-aerosol composition, aerosol size, and spatial and temporal variations in deployment-for stratospheric climate engineering. The effects of climate engineering are sensitive to these parameters, suggesting that a particle could be found ordesigned to achieve specific desired climate outcomes. This prospect opens the possibility for discussion of societal goals for climate engineering.

  16. Reactivity of liquid and semisolid secondary organic carbon with chloride and nitrate in atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; O'Brien, Rachel E.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Shilling, John E.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-05-14

    Constituents of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in atmospheric aerosols are often mixed with inorganic components and compose a significant mass fraction of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere. Interactions between SOC and other condensed-phase species are not well understood. Here, we investigate the reactions of liquid-like and semi-solid SOC from ozonolysis of limonene (LSOC) and ?-pinene (PSOC) with NaCl using a set of complementary micro-spectroscopic analyses. These reactions result in chloride depletion in the condensed phase, release of gaseous HCl, and formation of organic salts. The reactions attributed to acid displacement by SOC acidic components are driven by the high volatility of HCl. Similar reactions can take place in SOC/NaNO? particles. The results show that an increase in SOC mass fraction in the internally mixed SOC/NaCl particles leads to higher chloride depletion. Glass transition temperatures and viscosity of PSOC were estimated for atmospherically relevant conditions. Data show that the reaction extent depends on SOC composition, particle phase state and viscosity, mixing state, temperature, relative humidity (RH), and reaction time. LSOC shows slightly higher potential to deplete chloride than PSOC. Higher particle viscosity at low temperatures and RH can hinder these acid displacement reactions. Formation of organic salts from these overlooked reactions can alter particle physiochemical properties and may affect their reactivity and ability to act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The release and potential recycling of HCl and HNO? from reacted aerosol particles may have important implications for atmospheric chemistry.

  17. DOE ARM SP2 Deployment at Boston College_Aerodyne led Coated Black Carbon Study

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    15"068 ENERGY Science SP2 Deployment at Boston College-Aerodyne- Led Coated Black Carbon Study (BC4) Final Campaign Summary TB Onasch AJ Sedlacek March 2016 CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

  18. DOE-SC-ARM-16-017 Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    7 Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State Field Campaign Report A Sedlacek P Davidovits ER Lewis TB Onasch April 2016 CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or

  19. DOE ARM SP2 Deployment at Boston College_Aerodyne led Coated Black Carbon Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 SP2 Deployment at Boston College-Aerodyne- Led Coated Black Carbon Study (BC4) Final Campaign Summary TB Onasch AJ Sedlacek March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process

  20. DOE/SC-ARM-14-017 Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report July 2014 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately

  1. Particulate Matter Aerosols

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particulate Matter Aerosols The study of atmospheric aerosols is important because of its adverse effects on health, air quality, visibility, cultural heritage, and Earth's radiation balance. Techniques that can help better characterize particulate matter are required to better understand the constituents, causes and sources of particulate matter (PM) aerosols. Carbon is one of the main constituents of atmospheric aerosols. Radiocarbon (14C) measurement performed on aerosol particulate matter

  2. doe sc arm 14 038 Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulate at the SGP_edited_formatted

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    8 Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report R Cary April 2016 CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or

  3. TEM Observations of Corrosion Behaviors of Platinized Carbon Blacks under Thermal and Electrochemical Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.Y.; Zhang, J.L.; Yu, P.T.; Zhang, J.X.; Makharia, R.; More, Karren Leslie; Stach, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Carbon blacks such as Vulcan XC-72 are widely used to support platinum (Pt) or Pt alloy catalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Despite their widespread use, carbon blacks are susceptible to corrosion during fuel cell operations. In this work, the corrosion behaviors of platinized Vulcan XC-72 nanoparticles under thermal and electrochemical conditions were monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal corrosion experiment was carried out in a gas-cell TEM, which allows for a direct observation of the thermal oxidation behavior of the nanoparticles. The electrochemical corrosion experiment was performed outside of the TEM by loading the nanoparticles on a TEM grid and then electrochemically corroding them step by step followed by taking TEM images from exactly the same nanoparticles after each step. This work revealed four types of structural changes: (i) total removal of structurally weak aggregates, (ii) breakdown of aggregates via neck-breaking, (iii) center-hollowed primary particles caused by an inside-out corrosion starting from the center to outer region, and (iv) gradual decrease in the size of primary particles caused by a uniform removal of material from the surface. These structural changes took place in sequence or simultaneously depending on the competition of carbon corrosion dynamical processes. The results obtained from this work provide insight on carbon corrosion and its effects on fuel cells' long-term performance and durability.

  4. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

    2007-10-01

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  5. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

    2007-11-09

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  6. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  7. Enhanced light absorption by mixed source black and brown carbon particles in UK winter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison C.; Gorkowski, Kyle; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Williams, Leah R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Massoli, Paola; Fortner, Edward C.; Chhabra, Puneet S.; et al

    2015-09-30

    We report that black carbon (BC) and light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon, BrC) play key roles in warming the atmosphere, but the magnitude of their effects remains highly uncertain. Theoretical modelling and laboratory experiments demonstrate that coatings on BC can enhance BC’s light absorption, therefore many climate models simply assume enhanced BC absorption by a factor of ~1.5. However, recent field observations show negligible absorption enhancement, implying models may overestimate BC’s warming. Here we report direct evidence of substantial field-measured BC absorption enhancement, with the magnitude strongly depending on BC coating amount. Increases in BC coating result from a combinationmore » of changing sources and photochemical aging processes. When the influence of BrC is accounted for, observationally constrained model calculations of the BC absorption enhancement can be reconciled with the observations. In conclusion, we find that the influence of coatings on BC absorption should be treated as a source and regionally specific parameter in climate models.« less

  8. Decadal growth of black carbon emissions in India - article no. L02807

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, S.K.; Beig, G.; Sharma, C.

    2008-01-15

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) based methodology has been used to construct the black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Indian geographical region. The distribution of emissions from a broader level to a spatial resolution of 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid has been carried out by considering micro level details and activity data of fossil fuels and bio-fuels. Our calculated total BC emissions were 1343.78 Gg and 835.50 Gg for the base years 2001 and 1991 respectively with a decadal growth of around 61%, which is highly significant. The district level analysis shows a diverse spatial distribution with the top 10% emitting districts contributing nearly 50% of total BC emission. Coal contributes more than 50% of total BC emission. All the metropolitan cities show high BC emissions due to high population density giving rise to high vehicular emissions and more demand of energy.

  9. Variation of Radiative Properties During Black Carbon Aging. Theoretical and Experimental Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Cenlin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Zhang, Renyi; Zamora, Misty L.; Yang, Ping; Li, Qinbin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-10-28

    A theoretical model is developed to account for black carbon (BC) aging during three major evolution stages, i.e., freshly emitted aggregates, coated particles by soluble materials, and those after further hygroscopic growth. The geometric-optics surface-wave approach is employed to compute BC single-scattering properties at each stage, which are compared with laboratory measurements. Theoretical predictions using input parameters determined from experiments are consistent with measurements in extinction and scattering cross sections for coated BC (within 30 20%) and absorption enhancement from coating (within 15%). The calculated scattering cross sections of fresh BC aggregates are larger than those experimentally measured, because of uncertainties in measurements and calculations. We apply the aging model to compute BC direct radiative forcing (DRF) over the LA Basin using the CalNex 2010 field measurements. Our results demonstrate that accounting for the interactive radiative properties during BC aging is essential in obtaining reliable DRF estimates within a regional context.

  10. Evaluation of Preindustrial to Present-day Black Carbon and its Albedo Forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, Drew; Berntsen, T.; Bisiauxs, M.; Cao, J.; Collins, W. J.; Curran, M.; Edwards, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; McConnell, J.R.; Ming, J.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Thevenon, F.; Xu, B.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-03-05

    As a part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against the observations including 12 ice core records, a long-term surface mass concentrations and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using the NCAR Community Land and Sea-Ice model 4 with prescribed meteorology from 1996-2000, which includes the SNICAR BC-snow model. We evaluated the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations to using recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to the differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology among models; 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However,models agree well on 2.5~3 times increase in the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day, which matches with the 2.5 times increase in BC emissions. We find a large model diversity at both NH and SH high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Jungfrauch and Ispra. However, the models fail to capture the Arctic BC seasonality due tosevere underestimations during winter and spring. Compared to recent snowpack measurements, the simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2-3 of observations except for Greenland and Arctic Ocean. However, model and observation differ widely due to missing interannual variations in emissions and possibly due to the choice of the prescribed meteorology period (i.e., 1996-2000).

  11. Simulating Black Carbon and Dust and their Radiative Forcing in Seasonal Snow: A Case Study over North China with Field Campaign Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chun; Hu, Zhiyuan; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Maoyi; Jin, Jiming; Flanner, M. G.; Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Yan, Huiping; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, D. G.

    2014-10-30

    A state-of-the-art regional model, WRF-Chem, is coupled with the SNICAR model that includes the sophisticated representation of snow metamorphism processes available for climate study. The coupled model is used to simulate the black carbon (BC) and dust concentrations and their radiative forcing in seasonal snow over North China in January-February of 2010, with extensive field measurements used to evaluate the model performance. In general, the model simulated spatial variability of BC and dust mass concentrations in the top snow layer (hereafter BCS and DSTS, respectively) are quantitatively or qualitatively consistent with observations. The model generally moderately underestimates BCS in the clean regions but significantly overestimates BCS in some polluted regions. Most model results fall into the uncertainty ranges of observations. The simulated BCS and DSTS are highest with >5000 ng g-1 and up to 5 mg g-1, respectively, over the source regions and reduce to <50 ng g-1 and <1 ?g g-1, respectively, in the remote regions. BCS and DSTS introduce similar magnitude of radiative warming (~10 W m-2) in snowpack, which is comparable to the magnitude of surface radiative cooling due to BC and dust in the atmosphere. This study represents the first effort in using a regional modeling framework to simulate BC and dust and their direct radiative forcing in snow. Although a variety of observational datasets have been used to attribute model biases, some uncertainties in the results remain, which highlights the need for more observations, particularly concurrent measurements of atmospheric and snow aerosols and the deposition fluxes of aerosols, in future campaigns.

  12. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources. Case study of Murmansk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2015-07-27

    Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in the Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture), ships and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys to understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emissions in the Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 69 % of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source, emitting about 13 % of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 50.8 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 49 % of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.

  13. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources. Case study of Murmansk

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2015-07-27

    Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in the Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture), ships and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys tomore » understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emissions in the Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 69 % of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source, emitting about 13 % of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 50.8 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 49 % of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.« less

  14. Aerosol characterization study using multi-spectrum remote sensing measurement techniques.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen, Crystal Chanea; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Schmitt, Randal L.; Johnson, Mark S.; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Servantes, Brandon Lee

    2013-09-01

    A unique aerosol flow chamber coupled with a bistatic LIDAR system was implemented to measure the optical scattering cross sections and depolarization ratio of common atmospheric particulates. Each of seven particle types (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, black carbon and Arizona road dust) was aged by three anthropogenically relevant mechanisms: 1. Sulfuric acid deposition, 2. Toluene ozonolysis reactions, and 3. m-Xylene ozonolysis reactions. The results of pure particle scattering properties were compared with their aged equivalents. Results show that as most particles age under industrial plume conditions, their scattering cross sections are similar to pure black carbon, which has significant impacts to our understanding of aerosol impacts on climate. In addition, evidence emerges that suggest chloride-containing aerosols are chemically altered during the organic aging process. Here we present the direct measured scattering cross section and depolarization ratios for pure and aged atmospheric particulates.

  15. Regional Climate Effects of Aerosols Over China: Modeling and Observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Giorgi, Filippo

    2003-09-01

    We present regional simulations of aerosol properties, direct radiative forcing and aerosol climatic effects over China, and compare the simulations with observed aerosol characteristics and climatic data over the region. The climate simulations are performed with a regional climate model, which is shown to capture the spatial distribution and seasonal pattern of temperature and precipitation. Aerosol concentrations are obtained from a global tracer-transport model and are provided to the regional model for the calculation of radiative forcing. Different aerosols are included: sulfate, organic carbon, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt and MSA particles. Generally, the aerosol optical depth is well simulated in both magnitude and spatial distribution. The direct radiative forcing of the aerosol is in the range of –1 to –14 W m-2 in autumn and summer and -1 to –9 W m-2 in spring and winter, with substantial spatial variability at the regional scale. A strong maximum in aerosol optical depth and negative radiative forcing is found over the Sichuan Basin. The negative radiative forcing of aerosol induces a surface cooling in the range of –0.6 to –1.2oC in autumn and winter, –0.3 to –0.6oC in spring and 0.0 to –0.9oC in summer throughout East China. The aerosol-induced cooling is mainly due to a decrease in day-time maximum temperature. The cooling is maximum and is statistically significant over the Sichuan Basin. The effect of aerosol on precipitation is not evident in our simulations. The temporal and spatial patterns of the temperature trends observed in the second half of the twentieth century, including different trends for daily maximum and minimum temperature, are at least qualitatively consistent with the simulated aerosol-induced cooling over the Sichuan Basin and East China. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed temperature trends during the latter decades of the twentieth century, especially the cooling trends over the Sichuan Basin and some parts of East China, are at least partly related to the cooling induced by increasing atmospheric aerosol loadings over the region.

  16. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  17. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  19. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Development for the Study of Atmospheric Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Paul

    2011-12-10

    Soot particles are generated by incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels. Through direct effects clear air aerosols containing black carbon (BC) such as soot aerosols, absorb incoming light heating the atmosphere, while most other aerosols scatter light and produce cooling. Even though BC represents only 1-2% of the total annual emissions of particulate mass to the atmosphere, it has been estimated that the direct radiative effect of BC is the second-most important contributor to global warming after absorption by CO2. Ongoing studies continue to underscore the climate forcing importance of black carbon. However, estimates of the radiative effects of black carbon on climate remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of particles containing black carbon. Quantitative measurement of BC is challenging because BC often occurs in highly non-spherical soot particles of complex morphology. Freshly emitted soot particles are typically fractal hydrophobic aggregates. The aggregates consist of black carbon spherules with diameters typically in the range of about 15-40 nm, and they are usually coated by adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced during combustion. Diesel-generated soot particles are often emitted with an organic coating composed primarily of lubricating oil and unburned fuel, as well as well as PAH compounds. Sulfuric acid has also been detected in diesel and aircraft-emitted soot particles. In the course of aging, these particle coatings may be substantially altered by chemical reactions and/or the deposition of other materials. Such processes transform the optical and CCN properties of the soot aerosols in ways that are not yet well understood. Our work over the past seven years consisted of laboratory research, instrument development and characterization, and field studies with the central focus of improving our understanding of the black carbon aerosol climate impacts. During the sixth year as well as during this seventh year (no-cost extension period) of our grant, we extended our studies to perform experiments on the controlled production and characterization of secondary organic aerosol.

  20. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  1. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  2. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  3. Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Dorothy; Menon, Surabi; Del Genio, Anthony; Ruedy, Reto; Alienov, Igor; Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2008-08-22

    Aerosol direct (DE), indirect (IE), and black carbon-snow albedo (BAE) effects on climate between 1890 and 1995 are compared using equilibrium aerosol-climate simulations in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. Pairs of control(1890)-perturbation(1995) with successive aerosol effects allow isolation of each effect. The experiments are conducted both with and without concurrent changes in greenhouse gases (GHG's). A new scheme allowing dependence of snow albedo on black carbon snow concentration is introduced. The fixed GHG experiments global surface air temperature (SAT) changed -0.2, -1.0 and +0.2 C from the DE, IE, and BAE. Ice and snow cover increased 1.0% from the IE and decreased 0.3% from the BAE. These changes were a factor of 4 larger in the Arctic. Global cloud cover increased by 0.5% from the IE. Net aerosol cooling effects are about half as large as the GHG warming, and their combined climate effects are smaller than the sum of their individual effects. Increasing GHG's did not affect the IE impact on cloud cover, however they decreased aerosol effects on SAT by 20% and on snow/ice cover by 50%; they also obscure the BAE on snow/ice cover. Arctic snow, ice, cloud, and shortwave forcing changes occur mostly during summer-fall, but SAT, sea level pressure, and long-wave forcing changes occur during winter. An explanation is that aerosols impact the cryosphere during the warm-season but the associated SAT effect is delayed until winter.

  4. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Paul

    2015-10-20

    Aerosols containing black carbon (and some specific types of organic particulate matter) directly absorb incoming light, heating the atmosphere. In addition, all aerosol particles backscatter solar light, leading to a net-cooling effect. Indirect effects involve hydrophilic aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud cover and cloud stability, impacting both atmospheric radiation balance and precipitation patterns. At night, all clouds produce local warming, but overall clouds exert a net-cooling effect on the Earth. The effect of aerosol radiative forcing on climate may be as large as that of the greenhouse gases, but predominantly opposite in sign and much more uncertain. The uncertainties in the representation of aerosol interactions in climate models makes it problematic to use model projections to guide energy policy. The objective of our program is to reduce the uncertainties in the aerosol radiative forcing in the two areas highlighted in the ASR Science and Program Plan. That is, (1) addressing the direct effect by correlating particle chemistry and morphology with particle optical properties (i.e. absorption, scattering, extinction), and (2) addressing the indirect effect by correlating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity with particle size, chemistry, and morphology. In this connection we are systematically studying particle formation, oxidation, and the effects of particle coating. The work is specifically focused on carbonaceous particles where the uncertainties in the climate relevant properties are the highest. The ongoing work consists of laboratory experiments and related instrument inter-comparison studies both coordinated with field and modeling studies, with the aim of providing reliable data to represent aerosol processes in climate models. The work is performed in the aerosol laboratory at Boston College. At the center of our laboratory setup are two main sources for the production of aerosol particles: (a) two well-characterized source of soot particles and (b) a flow reactor for controlled OH and/or O3 oxidation of relevant gas phase species to produce well-characterized SOA particles. After formation, the aerosol particles are subjected to physical and chemical processes that simulate aerosol growth and aging. A suite of instruments in our laboratory is used to characterize the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles before and after processing. The Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ToF-AMS) together with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measures particle mass, volume, density, composition (including black carbon content), dynamic shape factor, and fractal dimension. The–ToF-AMS was developed at ARI with Boston College participation. About 120 AMS instruments are now in service (including 5 built for DOE laboratories) performing field and laboratory studies world-wide. Other major instruments include a thermal denuder, two Differential Mobility Analyzers (DMA), a Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCN), a Thermal desorption Aerosol GC/MS (TAG) and the new Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS). Optical instrumentation required for the studies have been brought to our laboratory as part of ongoing and planned collaborative projects with colleagues from DOE, NOAA and university laboratories. Optical instruments that will be utilized include a Photoacoustic Spectrometer (PAS), a Cavity Ring Down Aerosol Extinction Spectrometer (CRD-AES), a Photo Thermal Interferometer (PTI), a new 7-wavelength Aethalometer and a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Extinction Monitor (CAPS). These instruments are providing aerosol absorption, extinction and scattering coefficients at a range of atmospherically relevant wavelengths. During the past two years our work has continued along the lines of our original proposal. We report on 12 completed and/or continuing projects conducted during the period 08/14 to 0814/2015. These projects are described in 17 manuscripts published in refereed journals.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-07-28

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Brown Carbon (BrC) Chromophores in Secondary Organic Aerosol Generated From Photo-Oxidation of Toluene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Peng; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-09-28

    Atmospheric Brown carbon (BrC) is a significant contributor to light absorption and climate forcing. However, little is known about a fundamental relationship between the chemical composition of BrC and its optical properties. In this work, light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated in the PNNL chamber from toluene photo-oxidation in the presence of NOx (Tol-SOA). Molecular structures of BrC components were examined using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) and liquid chromatography (LC) combined with UV/Vis spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The chemical composition of BrC chromophores and the light absorption properties of toluene SOA (Tol-SOA) depend strongly on the initial NOx concentration. Specifically, Tol-SOA generated under high-NOx conditions (defined here as initial NOx/toluene of 5/1) appears yellow and mass absorption coefficient of the bulk sample (MACbulk@365nm = 0.78 m2 g-1) is nearly 80 fold higher than that measured for the Tol-SOA sample generated under low-NOx conditions (NOx/toluene < 1/300). Fifteen compounds, most of which are nitrophenols, are identified as major BrC chromophores responsible for the enhanced light absorption of Tol-SOA material produced in the presence of NOx. The integrated absorbance of these fifteen chromophores accounts for 40-60% of the total light absorbance by Tol-SOA at wavelengths between 300 nm and 500 nm. The combination of tandem LC-UV/Vis-ESI/HRMS measurements provides an analytical platform for predictive understanding of light absorption properties by BrC and their relationship to the structure of individual chromophores. General trends in the UV/vis absorption by plausible isomers of the BrC chromophores were evaluated using theoretical chemistry calculations. The molecular-level understanding of BrC chemistry is helpful for better understanding the evolution and behavior of light absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere.

  7. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Qian, Y.; Rasch, P. J.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. -L.; Singh, B.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-01-07

    Black carbon (BC) particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source–receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fatemore » of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source–receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although local emissions only contribute about 10% to BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to local emission changes. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect (-0.3 W m-2) at the surface over the HTP. We also find strong seasonal and spatial variation with a peak value of 5 W m-2 in the spring over Northwest Plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat.« less

  8. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Qian, Y.; Rasch, P. J.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. -L.; Singh, B.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-06-08

    Black carbon (BC) particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source–receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source-tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate ofmore » BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation in the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source–receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on season and location in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer, when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in the Himalayas and central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to the northeast plateau in all seasons and southeast plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching the northwest plateau, especially in the summer. Although local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to local emission changes. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect (-0.3 W m-2) at the surface over the HTP. We also find strong seasonal and spatial variation with a peak value of 5 W m-2 in the spring over the northwest plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat.« less

  9. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC)particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source- receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although the HTP local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to changes in the local emissions. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect-0.3 W m-2)at the surface over the HTP, although the mean BC-in- snow forcing is likely overestimated. We find strong seasonal and sub -region variation with a peak value of 5W m-2 in the spring over Northwest Plateau. The annual mean dust-in-snow forcing is comparable to that of BC over the entire HTP but significantly larger than BC over the North east Plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat

  10. Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, C.; Liou, K.-N.; Takano, Y.; Zhang, R.; Levy Zamora, M.; Yang, P.; Li, Q.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-10-28

    A theoretical black carbon (BC) aging model is developed to account for three typical evolution stages, namely, freshly emitted aggregates, BC coated by soluble material, and BC particles undergoing further hygroscopic growth. The geometric-optics surface-wave (GOS) approach is employed to compute the BC single-scattering properties at each aging stage, which are subsequently compared with laboratory measurements. Theoretical calculations are consistent with measurements in extinction and absorption cross sections for fresh BC aggregates with different BC sizes (i.e., mobility diameters of 155, 245, and 320 nm), with differences of ≤ 25 %. The measured optical cross sections for BC coated bymore » sulfuric acid and for that undergoing further hygroscopic growth are generally captured (differences < 30 %) by theoretical calculations using a concentric core-shell structure, with an overestimate in extinction and absorption of the smallest BC size and an underestimate in scattering of the largest BC size. We find that the absorption and scattering cross sections of fresh BC aggregates vary by 20–40 and 50–65 %, respectively, due to the use of upper (1.95–0.79i) and lower (1.75–0.63i) bounds of BC refractive index, while the variations are < 20 % in absorption and < 50 % in scattering in the case of coated BC particles. Sensitivity analyses of the BC morphology show that the optical properties of fresh BC aggregates are more sensitive to fractal dimension than primary spherule size. The absorption and scattering cross sections of coated BC particles vary by more than a factor of 2 due to different coating structures. We find an increase of 20–250 % in absorption and a factor of 3–15 in scattering during aging, significantly depending on coating morphology and aging stages. This study suggests that an accurate estimate of BC radiative effects requires the incorporation of a dynamic BC aging process that accounts for realistic coating structures in climate models.« less

  11. Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, C.; Liou, K.-N.; Takano, Y.; Zhang, R.; Zamora, M. L.; Yang, P.; Li, Q.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-07-20

    A theoretical black carbon (BC) aging model is developed to account for three typical evolution stages, namely, freshly emitted aggregates, coated BC by soluble material, and BC particles undergoing further hygroscopic growth. The geometric-optics surface-wave (GOS) approach is employed to compute the BC single-scattering properties at each aging stage, which are subsequently compared with laboratory measurements. Theoretical calculations are consistent with measurements in extinction and absorption cross sections for fresh BC aggregates, but overestimate the scattering cross sections for BC mobility diameters of 155, 245, and 320 nm, because of uncertainties associated with theoretical calculations for small particles as wellmore » as laboratory scattering measurements. The measured optical cross sections for coated BC by sulfuric acid and for those undergoing further hygroscopic growth are captured by theoretical calculations using a concentric core-shell structure, with differences of less than 20 %. This suggests that the core-shell shape represents the realistic BC coating morphology reasonably well in this case, which is consistent with the observed strong structure compaction during aging. We find that the absorption and scattering properties of fresh BC aggregates vary by up to 60 % due to uncertainty in the BC refractive index, which, however, is a factor of two smaller in the case of coated BC particles. Sensitivity analyses on the BC morphology show that the optical properties of fresh BC aggregates are more sensitive to fractal dimension than primary spherule size. The absorption and scattering cross sections of coated BC particles vary by more than a factor of two due to different coating structures. We find an increase of 20–250 % in absorption and a factor of 3–15 in scattering during aging, significantly depending on coating morphology and aging stages. Applying the aging model to CalNex 2010 field measurements, we show that the resulting BC direct radiative forcing (DRF) first increases from 1.5 to 1.7 W m-2 and subsequently decreases to 1.0 W m-2 during the transport from the Los Angeles Basin to downwind regions, as a result of the competition between absorption enhancement due to coating and dilution of BC concentration. The BC DRF can vary by up to a factor of two due to differences in BC coating morphology. Thus, an accurate estimate of BC DRF requires the incorporation of a dynamic BC aging process that accounts for realistic morphology in climate models, particularly for the regional analysis with high atmospheric heterogeneity.« less

  12. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Arne; Bond, Tami C.; Lam, Nicholoas L.; Hultman, Nathan

    2013-04-15

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  13. Development of RAMS-CMAQ to Simulate Aerosol Optical Depth and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Its Application to East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Li-Li

    2009-11-16

    The air quality modeling system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) is developed to simulate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol direct forcing (DF). The aerosol-specific extinction, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor are parameterized based on Mie theory taking into account the aerosol size distribution, composition, refractive index, and water uptake of solution particles. A two-stream solar radiative model considers all gaseous molecular absorption, Rayleigh scattering, and aerosols and clouds. RAMSCMAQ is applied to simulate all major aerosol concentrations (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon, black carbon, fine soil, and sea salt) and AOD and DF over East Asia in 2005. To evaluate its performance, the simulated AOD values were compared with ground-based in situ measurements. The comparison shows that RAMSCMAQ performed well in most of the model domain and generally captured the observed variations. High AOD values (0.2−1.0) mainly appear in the Sichuan Basin as well as in central and southeastern China. The geographic distribution of DF generally follows the AOD distribution patterns, and the DF at the top-of-the-atmosphere is less than −25 and −20 W m−2 in clear-sky and all-sky over the Sichuan Basin. Both AOD and DF exhibit seasonal variations with lower values in July and higher ones in January. The DF could obviously be impacted by high cloud fractions.

  14. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

    1983-02-01

    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  15. FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-09-21

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

  16. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Fast, Jerome D.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-09-30

    Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we developed an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS), that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF), black carbon (BC) aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 m to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins) and BC mixing state (10 bins) for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module was implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials was about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement was estimated to be 10 20% over northern East Asia and 20 35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast was also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations: NPF increased CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles) over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increased CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles) over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also showed that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depended strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA processes under different meteorological conditions and emissions.

  17. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiewi; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong

    2011-11-14

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m-2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m-2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan

  18. The Two Faces of Aerosols

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    black carbon particles by as much as 50% and underestimate climate-cooling sulfate particles by as much as 40%. Scientists developed an enhanced modeling technique to...

  19. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-07-29

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  20. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-28

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  1. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-04-26

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  2. A Study of the Optical Properties of Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arienti, Marco; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Kopacz, Adrian M; Geier, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    The report focu ses on the modification of the optical properties of ice crystals due to atmospheric black car bon (BC) contamination : the objective is to advance the predictive capabilities of climate models through an improved understanding of the radiative properties of compound particles . The shape of the ice crystal (as commonly found in cirrus clouds and cont rails) , the volume fraction of the BC inclusion , and its location inside the crystal are the three factors examined in this study. In the multiscale description of this problem, where a small absorbing inclusion modifies the optical properties of a much la rger non - absorbing particle, state - of - the - art discretization techniques are combined to provide the best compromise of flexibility and accuracy over a broad range of sizes .

  3. Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shaw, William J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Schmid, Beat; Ferrare, R.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, Mikhail; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D.; Baidar, Sunil; Banta, Robert M.; Barnard, James C.; Beranek, Josef; Berg, Larry K.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Brewer, W. A.; Cahill, John F.; Cairns, Brian; Cappa, Christopher D.; Chand, Duli; China, Swarup; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Easter, Richard C.; Erickson, Matthew H.; Fast, Jerome D.; Floerchinger, Cody; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, Edward; Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Gilles, Mary K.; Gorkowski, K.; Gustafson, William I.; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Hair, John; Hardesty, Michael; Harworth, J. W.; Herndon, Scott C.; Hiranuma, Naruki; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, J. T.; Jeong, H.; Jobson, Bertram T.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kleinman, L. I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Knighton, B.; Kolesar, K. R.; Kuang, Chongai; Kubatova, A.; Langford, A. O.; Laskin, Alexander; Laulainen, Nels S.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Mei, F.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Nelson, Danny A.; Obland, Michael; Oetjen, Hilke; Onasch, Timothy B.; Ortega, Ivan; Ottaviani, M.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Radney, J. G.; Rogers, Ray; Sandberg, S. P.; Sedlacek, Art; Senff, Christoph; Senum, Gunar; Setyan, Ari; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Song, Chen; Springston, S. R.; Subramanian, R.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Wallace, Hoyt A.; Wang, J.; Weickmann, A. M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zhang, Qi

    2012-08-22

    Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites - one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area - were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and 'aged' urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, c) an overview of key observations and initial results from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and d) a roadmap of planned data analyses and focused modeling efforts that will facilitate the integration of new knowledge into improved representations of key aerosol processes in climate models.

  4. Century-long Record of Black Carbon in an Ice Core from the Eastern Pamirs: Estimated Contributions from Biomass Burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Kaspari, Susan D.; Gleixner, Gerd; Schwab, Valerie; Zhao, Huabiao; Wang, Hailong; Yao, Ping

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed refractory black carbon (rBC) in an ice core spanning 1875-2000 AD from Mt. Muztagh Ata, the Eastern Pamirs, using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Additionally a pre-existing levoglucosan record from the same ice core was used to differentiate rBC that originated from open fires, energy-related combustion of biomass, and fossil fuel combustion. Mean rBC concentrations increased four-fold since the mid-1970s and reached maximum values at the end of 1980s. The observed decrease of the rBC concentrations during the 1990s was likely driven by the economic recession of former USSR countries in Central Asia. Levoglucosan concentrations showed a similar temporal trend to rBC concentrations, exhibiting a large increase around 1980 AD followed by a decrease in the 1990s that was likely due to a decrease in energy-related biomass combustion. The time evolution of levoglucosan/rBC ratios indicated stronger emissions from open fires during the 1940s-1950s, while the increase in rBC during the 1980s-1990s was caused from an increase in energy-related combustion of biomass and fossil fuels.

  5. A Sensitivity Study on Modeling Black Carbon in Snow and its Radiative Forcing over the Arctic and Northern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Flanner, M. G.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2014-06-02

    Black carbon in snow (BCS) simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is evaluated against measurements over Northern China and the Arctic, and its sensitivity to atmospheric deposition and two parameters that affect post-depositional enrichment is explored. The BCS concentration is overestimated (underestimated) by a factor of two in Northern China (Arctic) in the default model, but agreement with observations is good over both regions in the simulation with improvements in BC transport and deposition. Sensitivity studies indicate that uncertainty in the melt-water scavenging efficiency (MSE) parameter substantially affects BCS and its radiative forcing (by a factor of 2-7) in the Arctic through post-depositional enrichment. The MSE parameter has a relatively small effect on the magnitude of BCS seasonal cycle but can alter its phase in Northern China. The impact of the snow aging scaling factor (SAF) on BCS, partly through the post-depositional enrichment effect, shows more complex latitudinal and seasonal dependence. Similar to MSE, SAF affects more significantly the magnitude (phase) of BCS season cycle over the Arctic (Northern China). While uncertainty associated with the representation of BC transport and deposition processes in CAM5 is more important than that associated with the two snow model parameters in Northern China, the two uncertainties have comparable effect in the Arctic.

  6. A New WRF-Chem Treatment for Studying Regional Scale Impacts of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in Parameterized Cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A new treatment of cloud-aerosol interactions within parameterized shallow and deep convection has been implemented in WRF-Chem that can be used to better understand the aerosol lifecycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model to represent cloud-aerosol interactions include treatment of the cloud dropletnumber mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. Thesechanges have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain-Fritsch cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Preliminary testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) as well as a high-resolution simulation that does not include parameterized convection. The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on the regional scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column integrated BC can be as large as -50% when cloud-aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +35% for sulfate in non-precipitating conditions due to the sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem version 3.2.1 are found to account for changes in the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud-drop residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to WRF-Chem version 3.5, and it is anticipated that they will be included in a future public release of WRF-Chem.

  7. Automated Chemical Analysis of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Using X-ray Spectromicroscopy at the Carbon K-Edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Henn, Tobias R.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Marry K.

    2010-10-01

    We have developed an automated data analysis method for atmospheric particles using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). This method is applied to complex internally mixed submicron particles containing organic and inorganic material. Several algorithms were developed to exploit NEXAFS spectral features in the energy range from 278-320 eV for quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of elemental carbon, organic carbon, potassium, and non-carbonaceous elements in particles of mixed composition. This energy range encompasses the carbon K-edge and potassium L2 and L3 edges. STXM/NEXAFS maps of different chemical components were complemented with a subsequent analysis using elemental maps obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). We demonstrate application of the automated mapping algorithms for data analysis and the statistical classification of particles.

  8. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation Aerosols Cloud Properties microphysical optical and radiative properties Black carbon concentration Aerosols Atmospheric Carbon particulate microphysical and...

  9. Nanometer-scale chemical heterogeneities of black carbon materials and their impacts on PCB sorption properties: soft X-ray spectromicroscopy study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tae Hyun Yoon; Karim Benzerara; Sungwoo Ahn; Richard G. Luthy; Tolek Tyliszczak; Gordon E. Brown, Jr.

    2006-10-01

    Synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectromicroscopy was used to probe nanometer-scale chemical heterogeneities of black carbon (BC) materials, including anthracite coal, coke, and activated carbon (AC), and to study their impact on the partitioning of one type of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB-166: 2,3,4,4',5,6 hexachloro biphenyl) onto AC particles. Various carbon species (e.g., aromatic, ketonic/phenolic, and carboxylic functional groups) were found in all of the BC materials examined, and impurities (e.g., carbonate and potassium ions in anthracite coal) were identified in nanometer-scale regions of these samples. The show that these chemical heterogeneities in AC particles influence their sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). PCB-166 was found to accumulate preferentially on AC particles with the highest content of aromatic functionalities. These new findings from X-ray spectromicroscopy have the following implications for the role of BC materials in the environment: (1) the functional groups of BC materials vary on a 25-nanometer scale, and so does the abundance of the HOCs; (2) molecular-level characterization of HOC sorption preferences on AC will lead to an improved understanding of AC sorption properties for the remediation of HOCs in soils and sediments. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Menon, Surabi; Unger, Nadine; Koch, Dorothy; Francis, Jennifer; Garrett, Tim; Sednev, Igor; Shindell, Drew; Streets, David

    2007-11-26

    We investigate aerosol effects on climate for 1980, 1995 (meant to reflect present-day) and 2030 using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model coupled to an on-line aerosol source and transport model with interactive oxidant and aerosol chemistry. Aerosols simulated include sulfates, organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), sea-salt and dust and additionally, the amount of tropospheric ozone is calculated, allowing us to estimate both changes to air quality and climate for different time periods and emission amounts. We include both the direct aerosol effect and indirect aerosol effects for liquid-phase clouds. Future changes for the 2030 A1B scenario are examined, focusing on the Arctic and Asia, since changes are pronounced in these regions. Our results for the different time periods include both emission changes and physical climate changes. We find that the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) has a large impact on photochemical processing, decreasing ozone amount and ozone forcing, especially for the future (2030-1995). Ozone forcings increase from 0 to 0.12 Wm{sup -2} and the total aerosol forcing increases from -0.10 Wm{sup -2} to -0.94 Wm{sup -2} (AIE increases from -0.13 to -0.68 Wm{sup -2}) for 1995-1980 versus 2030-1995. Over the Arctic we find that compared to ozone and the direct aerosol effect, the AIE contributes the most to net radiative flux changes. The AIE, calculated for 1995-1980, is positive (1.0 Wm{sup -2}), but the magnitude decreases (-0.3Wm{sup -2}) considerably for the future scenario. Over Asia, we evaluate the role of biofuel and transportation-based emissions (for BC and OM) via a scenario (2030A) that includes a projected increase (factor of two) in biofuel and transport-based emissions for 2030 A1B over Asia. Projected changes from present-day due to the 2030A emissions versus 2030 A1B are a factor of 4 decrease in summertime precipitation in Asia. Our results are sensitive to emissions used. Uncertainty in present-day emissions suggest that future climate projections warrant particular scrutiny.

  11. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Study of Aerosol Sources and Processing at the GVAX Pantnagar Supersite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2014-07-28

    This project funded the participation of scientists from seven research groups, running more than thirty instruments, in the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 km southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo Winter IOP were, 1) what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area, and, 2) what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM? An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption. The following four key accomplishments have been identified so far: 1) Chemical, physical and optical characterization of PM from local and regional sources (Figures 2, 4, 5 and 6). 2) Measurement of urban increment in particulate matter and gases in London (Figure 3). 3) Measurement of optical properties and chemical composition of coatings on black carbon containing particles indicates absorption enhancement. 4) First deployment of chemical ionization instrument (MOVI-CI-TOFMS) to measure both particle-phase and gas-phase organic acids. (See final report from Joel Thornton, University of Washington, for details.) Analysis of the large dataset acquired in Detling is ongoing and will yield further key accomplishments. These measurements of urban and rural aerosol properties will contribute to improved modeling of regional aerosol emissions, and of atmospheric aging and removal. The measurement of absorption enhancement by coatings on black carbon will contribute to improved modeling of the direct radiative properties of PM.

  12. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio; Kumar, Sumit; Wright, Kendra; Kramer, Louisa; Mazzoleni, Lynn; Owen, Robert; Helmig, Detlev

    2014-12-09

    The scientific scope of the project was to exploit the unique location of the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) located in the summit caldera of the Pico Volcano in Pico Island in the Azores, for atmospheric studies. The observatory, located at 2225m a.s.l., typically samples free tropospheric aerosols laying above the marine low-level clouds and long-range transported from North America. The broad purpose of this research was to provide the scientific community with a better understanding of fundamental physical processes governing the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing and climate; with the ultimate goal of improving our abilities to understand past climate and to predict future changes through numerical models. The project was 'exploratory' in nature, with the plan to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying for the first time, an extensive aerosol research package at PMO. One of the primary activities was to test the deployment of these instruments at the site, to collect data during the 2012 summer season, and to further develop the infrastructure and the knowledge for performing novel research at PMO in follow-up longer-term aerosol-cloud studies. In the future, PMO could provide an elevated research outpost to support the renewed DOE effort in the Azores that was intensified in 2013 with the opening of the new sea-level ARM-DOE Eastern North Atlantic permanent facility at Graciosa Island. During the project period, extensive new data sets were collected for the planned 2012 season. Thanks to other synergistic activities and opportunities, data collection was then successfully extended to 2013 and 2014. Highlights of the scientific findings during this project include: a) biomass burning contribute significantly to the aerosol loading in the North Atlantic free troposphere; however, long-range transported black carbon concentrations decreased substantially in the last decade. b) Single black carbon particles – analyzed off-line at the electron microscope – were often very compacted, suggesting cloud processing and exhibiting different optical properties from fresh emissions. In addition, black carbon was found to be sometimes mixed with mineral dust, affecting its optical properties and potential forcing. c) Some aerosols collected at PMO acted as ice nuclei, potentially contributing to cirrus cloud formation during their transport in the upper free troposphere. Identified good ice nuclei were often mineral dust particles. d) The free tropospheric aerosols studied at PMO have relevance to low level marine clouds due, for example, to synoptic subsidence entraining free tropospheric aerosols into the marine boundary layer. This has potentially large consequences on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and compositions in the marine boundary layer; therefore, having an effect on the marine stratus clouds, with potentially important repercussions on the radiative forcing. The scientific products of this project currently include contributions to two papers published in the Nature Publishing group (Nature Communications and Scientific Reports), one paper under revision for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, one in review in Geophysical Research Letters and one recently submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion. In addition, four manuscripts are in advanced state of preparation. Finally, twenty-eight presentations were given at international conferences, workshops and seminars.

  13. A New Approach to Modeling Aerosol Effects on East Asian Climate: Parametric Uncertainties Associated with Emissions, Cloud Microphysics and their Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Huiping; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Minghuai; Yang, Ben; Liu, Xiaohong; Fu, Qiang

    2015-09-16

    In this study, we adopt a parametric sensitivity analysis framework that integrates the quasi-Monte Carlo parameter sampling approach and a surrogate model to examine aerosol effects on the East Asian Monsoon climate simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5). A total number of 256 CAM5 simulations are conducted to quantify the model responses to the uncertain parameters associated with cloud microphysics parameterizations and aerosol (e.g., sulfate, black carbon (BC), and dust) emission factors and their interactions. Results show that the interaction terms among parameters are important for quantifying the sensitivity of fields of interest, especially precipitation, to the parameters. The relative importance of cloud-microphysics parameters and emission factors (strength) depends on evaluation metrics or the model fields we focused on, and the presence of uncertainty in cloud microphysics imposes an additional challenge in quantifying the impact of aerosols on cloud and climate. Due to their different optical and microphysical properties and spatial distributions, sulfate, BC, and dust aerosols have very different impacts on East Asian Monsoon through aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions. The climatic effects of aerosol do not always have a monotonic response to the change of emission factors. The spatial patterns of both sign and magnitude of aerosol-induced changes in radiative fluxes, cloud, and precipitation could be different, depending on the aerosol types, when parameters are sampled in different ranges of values. We also identify the different cloud microphysical parameters that show the most significant impact on climatic effect induced by sulfate, BC and dust, respectively, in East Asia.

  14. Black Mountain Insulation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain Insulation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Mountain Insulation Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based manufacturer of sheeps wool insulation which...

  15. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer CPC : Condensation Particle Counter HTDMA : Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)...

  16. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-08-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  17. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  18. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; et al

    2015-08-28

    The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 ?m) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the sources of OA are distinctly different. The concentration ofmoresolid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC, measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for less

  19. Del Black

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Del Black Del Black dblack.jpg Del C. Black HPC Technician Operations Technology Group DCBlack@lbl.gov Phone: (510) 486-6821 Fax: (510) 486-4316 1 Cyclotron Road Mail Stop 943-256 Berkeley, CA 94720 Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:4

  20. Characterization of Ambient Aerosols in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 Campaign with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry. Results from the CENICA Supersite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salcedo, D.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Dzepina, K.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Zhang, Q.; Huffman, A. J.; DeCarlo, Peter; Jayne, J. T.; Mortimer, P.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kolb, C. E.; Johnson, Kirsten S.; Zuberi, Bilal M.; Marr, L.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.; Cardenas, B.; Bernabe, R.; Marquez, C.; Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, YuLong; Brune, W. H.; Lesher, R.; Shirley, T.; Jiminez, J. L.

    2006-03-24

    An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed at the CENICA Supersite, while another was deployed in the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field study (MCMA-2003) from March 29-May 4, 2003 to investigate particle concentrations, sources, and processes. This is the first of a series of papers reporting the AMS results from this campaign. The AMS provides real time information on mass concentration and composition of the non-refractory species in particulate matter less than 1 ?m (NR PM1) with high time and size resolution. For the first time, we report field results from a beam width probe, which was used to study the shape and mixing state of the particles and to quantify potential losses of irregular particles due to beam broadening inside the AMS. Data from this probe show that no significant amount of irregular particles was lost due to excessive beam broadening. A comparison of the CENICA and AML AMSs measurements is presented, being the first published intercomparison between two quadrupole AMSs. The speciation, and mass concentrations reported by the two AMSs compared well. In order to account for the refractory material in the aerosol, we also present measurements of Black Carbon (BC) using an aethalometer and an estimate of the aerosol soil component obtained from PIXE analysis of filters. Comparisons of (AMS + BC + soil) mass concentration with other collocated particle instruments (a LASAIR Optical Particle Counter, a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) and a DustTrack Aerosol Monitor) are also presented. The comparisons show that the (AMS + BC + soil) mass concentration during MCMC-2003 is a good approximation to the total PM??? mass concentration.

  1. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, Powell; Mausner, Leonard F.; Prach, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  2. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

    1987-11-17

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  3. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

    1985-04-29

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  4. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  5. Quantifying sources of black carbon in western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-11-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source–receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over northwestern USA and westernmore » Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  6. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Yun; Doherty, Sarah J.; Dang, Cheng; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Fu, Qiang

    2015-11-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA and West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.

  7. A 700 year sediment record of black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near the EMEP air monitoring station in Aspvreten, Sweden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marie Elmquist; Zdenek Zencak; Oerjan Gustafsson

    2007-10-15

    In view of poor constraints on historical combustion emissions, past environmental loadings of black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were reconstructed from dated lake sediment cores collected 70 km south of Stockholm, Sweden. Compared to several dramatic variations over the recent 150 years, the preindustrial loadings were steady within {+-}50% through the entire medieval with BC fluxes of 0.071 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} and PAH fluxes of 6 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. In the wood-burning dominated century leading up to the industrial revolution around 1850, increasing BC fluxes were leading PAH fluxes. BC fluxes reached their millennial-scale maximum around 1920, whereas PAH fluxes increased exponentially to its record maximum around 1960, 50-fold above preindustrial values. For 1920-1950, BC fluxes consistently decreased as PAH fluxes kept increasing. Coal and coke represented >50% of the Swedish energy market in the 1930s. Combined with sharply decreasing (1,7-)/(1,7{+-}2,6-dimethylphenanthrene), indicative of diminishing wood combustion, and decreasing methylphenanthrenes/phenanthrene, indicative of higher-temperature combustion (coal instead of wood), the sediment archive suggests that the relative BC/PAH emission factors thus are lower for coal than for wood combustion. For the first time, both BC and PAH fluxes decreased after 1960. This trend break is a testament to the positive effects of decreasing reliance on petroleum fuels and a number of legislative actions aimed at curbing emissions and by 1990, the loading of BC was back at preindustrial levels, whereas that of PAH were the lowest since the 1910s. However, for the most recent period (1990-2004) the BC and PAH fluxes are no longer decreasing. 55 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-05-04

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA andmore » West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  9. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol extinction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol extinction The removal of radiant energy from an incident beam by the process of aerosol absorption ...

  10. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol image

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol image Images of aerosols from which one can derive characteristics such...

  11. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Nephelometer PASS : Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer RL : Raman Lidar TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Field Campaign Instruments AMT : Aerosol Modeling...

  12. Aerosol Observing System Upgraded

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Aerosol Observing System Upgraded The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) at the SGP central facility recently received maintenance and was upgraded to improve its performance. The AOS measures the properties of the aerosol particles around it. Several AOS components were removed, repaired, and calibrated to operate within specifications. The system continuously gathers information about the way minute aerosol particles interact with solar radiation. A better understanding of these interactions

  13. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  14. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  15. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  16. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  17. Using an Explicit Emission Tagging Method in Global Modeling of Source-Receptor Relationships for Black Carbon in the Arctic: Variations, Sources and Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Singh, Balwinder; Zhang, Rudong; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Ghan, Steven J.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2014-11-27

    We introduce an explicit emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model to quantify source-region-resolved characteristics of black carbon (BC), focusing on the Arctic. Explicit tagging of BC source regions without perturbing the emissions makes it straightforward to establish source-receptor relationships and transport pathways, providing a physically consistent and computationally efficient approach to produce a detailed characterization of the destiny of regional BC emissions and the potential for mitigation actions. Our analysis shows that the contributions of major source regions to the global BC burden are not proportional to the respective emissions due to strong region-dependent removal rates and lifetimes, while the contributions to BC direct radiative forcing show a near-linear dependence on their respective contributions to the burden. Distant sources contribute to BC in remote regions mostly in the mid- and upper troposphere, having much less impact on lower-level concentrations (and deposition) than on burden. Arctic BC concentrations, deposition and source contributions all have strong seasonal variations. Eastern Asia contributes the most to the wintertime Arctic burden. Northern Europe emissions are more important to both surface concentration and deposition in winter than in summer. The largest contribution to Arctic BC in the summer is from Northern Asia. Although local emissions contribute less than 10% to the annual mean BC burden and deposition within the Arctic, the per-emission efficiency is much higher than for major non-Arctic sources. The interannual variability (1996-2005) due to meteorology is small in annual mean BC burden and radiative forcing but is significant in yearly seasonal means over the Arctic. When a slow aging treatment of BC is introduced, the increase of BC lifetime and burden is source-dependent. Global BC forcing-per-burden efficiency also increases primarily due to changes in BC vertical distributions. The relative contribution from major non-Arctic sources to the Arctic BC burden increases only slightly, although the contribution of Arctic local sources is reduced by a factor of 2 due to the slow aging treatment.

  18. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it is anticipated that they will be included in a future public release of WRF-Chem.

  19. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convectivemore » cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it is anticipated that they will be included in a future public release of WRF-Chem.« less

  20. ARM - Measurement - Total carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total carbon The total concentration of carbon in all its organic and non-organic forms. Categories Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  1. On modification of global warming by sulfate aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J.F.B.; Johns, T.C.

    1997-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that the response of climate to increasing greenhouse gases may be modified by accompanying increases in sulfate aerosols. In this study, the patterns of response in the surface climatology of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model forced by increases in carbon dioxide alone is compared with those obtained by increasing carbon dioxide and aerosol forcing. The simulations are run from early industrial times using the estimated historical forcing and continued to the end of the twenty-first century assuming a nonintervention emissions scenario for greenhouse gases and aerosols. The comparison is made for the period 2030-2050 when the aerosol forcing is a maximum. In winter, the cooling due to aerosols merely tends to reduce the response to carbon dioxide, whereas in summer, it weakens the monsoon circulations and reverses some of the changes in the hydrological cycle on increasing carbon dioxide. This response is in some respects similar to that found in simulations with changed orbital parameters, as between today and the middle Holocene. The hydrological response in the palaeosimulations is supported by palaeoclimatic reconstructions. The results of changes in aerosol concentrations of the magnetic projected in the scenarios would have a major effect on regional climate, especially over Europe and Southeast Asia. 74 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. ARM - AOS Aerosol Properties Plots

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ViewersAOS Aerosol Properties Plots XDC Data Viewers Aerosol Properties Plots SGP AMF NSA (BRW) AOS Aerosol Properties Plots These plots are designed to provide a quick look at the...

  3. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol composition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments PILS : Particle Into Liquid Sampler TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Field Campaign Instruments AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass...

  4. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Aerosol optical properties The optical properties of aerosols, including asymmetry factor, phase-function, single-scattering albedo, refractive index, and backscatter...

  5. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  6. Portable Aerosol Contaminant Extractor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Cable-Dunlap, Paula

    2005-11-15

    A compact, portable, aerosol contaminant extractor having ionization and collection sections through which ambient air may be drawn at a nominal rate so that aerosol particles ionized in the ionization section may be collected on charged plate in the collection section, the charged plate being readily removed for analyses of the particles collected thereon.

  7. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    2008-01-15

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  8. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-04-10

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic. Total PM2.5 agrees well with the measurements, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that duringmore » the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had undergone significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne lidar measurements. Model results show that the pollution event transported aerosols into the Arctic (> 66.6° N) for a 4-day period. During this 4-day period, biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~ 1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~ 4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface in anthropogenic plumes. The European plumes sampled during the POLARCAT-France campaign were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m−2, peaking at +3.3 W m−2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.« less

  9. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-04-10

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic. Total PM2.5 agrees well with the measurements, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that during the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had undergone significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne lidar measurements. Model results show that the pollution event transported aerosols into the Arctic (> 66.6° N) for a 4-day period. During this 4-day period, biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~ 1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~ 4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface in anthropogenic plumes. The European plumes sampled during the POLARCAT-France campaign were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m−2, peaking at +3.3 W m−2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.

  10. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  11. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  12. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  13. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  14. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol absorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    absorption ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol absorption The...

  16. Monodisperse aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  17. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... in albedo from black carbon (from fires) and from vegetation changes and scrub encroachment (Epstein et al. 1998). 2. There are episodic emissions of black carbon and aerosols ...

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) 2000.03.01 - 2007.10.31 Lead...

  19. Classification of Multiple Types of Organic Carbon Composition in Atmospheric Particles by Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilcoyne, Arthur L; Takahama, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Russell, L.M.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.

    2007-05-16

    A scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is used to measure organic functional group abundance and morphology of atmospheric aerosols. We present a summary of spectra, sizes, and shapes observed in 595 particles that were collected and analyzed between 2000 and 2006. These particles ranged between 0.1 and 12 mm and represent aerosols found in a large range of geographical areas, altitudes, and times. They include samples from seven different field campaigns: PELTI, ACE-ASIA, DYCOMS II, Princeton, MILAGRO (urban), MILAGRO (C-130), and INTEX-B. At least 14 different classes of organic particles show different types of spectroscopic signatures. Different particle types are found within the same region while the same particle types are also found in different geographical domains. Particles chemically resembling black carbon, humic-like aerosols, pine ultisol, and secondary or processed aerosol have been identified from functional group abundance and comparison of spectra with those published in the literature.

  20. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  1. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol effective radius

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol effective radius Aerosol effective radius is the ratio of the third and...

  2. Highly stable aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

    1981-11-03

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

  3. Highly stable aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFord, Henry S.; Clark, Mark L.

    1981-01-01

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly.

  4. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhao, Shuyu; Wu, Guangjian; Zhao, Huabiao; Joswiak, Daniel R.; Li, Jiule; Xie, Ying

    2015-02-02

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 19562006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC sourcereceptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia has the largest contribution to the present-day (19962005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.

  5. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhao, Shuyu; Wu, Guangjian; et al

    2015-02-02

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956–2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source–receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia hasmore » the largest contribution to the present-day (1996–2005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.« less

  6. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earths radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  7. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment In northeastern India, the fertile land around the Ganges River supports several hundred million people. This river, the largest in India, is fed by monsoon rains and runoff from the nearby Himalayan Mountains. Through an intergovernmental agreement with India, the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed its portable laboratory, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), to Nainital, India, in June 2011. During

  8. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkinmore » formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.« less

  9. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Precipitation Experiment a NOAA ship in the Pacific Ocean and on a DOE- sponsored plane over land and sea. These researchers will study: (1) water sources, evolution and structure of atmospheric rivers over the Pacific Ocean (2) long range transport of aerosols over the Pacific Ocean between Hawaii and the U.S. West Coast, and how aerosols interact with atmospheric rivers (3) the point where atmospheric rivers make landfall on the U.S. West Coast, especially how clouds form where

  10. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Wednesday, 17 February 2016 11:37 Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid ...

  11. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling Testbed AOD : Aerosol Optical Depth, derived from atmospheric extinction of solar irradiance AATS : Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer...

  12. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2010-12-15

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  13. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  14. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  15. ARM - Campaign Instrument - aerosol-tower-eml

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (AEROSOL-TOWER-EML) Instrument Categories Aerosols Campaigns Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Field Evaluation Download Data Southern Great Plains, 1994.04.01 - 1994.05.31...

  16. ARM - Evaluation Product - Organic Aerosol Component VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mass spectral matrix data collected by the aerosol chemical speciation monitor and multivariate analysis to obtain an estimate of the types of organic aerosols. Currently, time...

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - MASRAD - Aerosol Optical Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMASRAD - Aerosol Optical Properties Campaign Links AMF Point Reyes Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns MArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle...

  18. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and ...

  19. New Data for Aerosols Generated by Releases of Pressurized Powders and Solutions in Static Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MY Ballinger; SL Sutter; WH Hodgson

    1987-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted three sets of experiments to measure aerosols generated by pressurized releases. These aerosols are generated from releases of uranine pressurized with carbon dioxide, flashing sprays, and low-pressure depleted uranium dioxide powder releases. The purpose of these experiments was to supplement data from earlier experiments investigating the source term from pressurized releases. These experiments are part of a program to develop source-term estimation methods for analysis of accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  20. Impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions: AEROSOL SIZE REPRESENTATION

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Abdul-Razzak, H.

    2002-11-07

    We use a 1-D version of a climate-aerosol-chemistry model with both modal and sectional aerosol size representations to evaluate the impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions in shallow stratiform clouds observed during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment. Both the modal (with prognostic aerosol number and mass or prognostic aerosol number, surface area and mass, referred to as the Modal-NM and Modal-NSM) and the sectional approaches (with 12 and 36 sections) predict total number and mass for interstitial and activated particles that are generally within several percent of references from a high resolution 108-section approach. The modal approachmore » with prognostic aerosol mass but diagnostic number (referred to as the Modal-M) cannot accurately predict the total particle number and surface areas, with deviations from the references ranging from 7-161%. The particle size distributions are sensitive to size representations, with normalized absolute differences of up to 12% and 37% for the 36- and 12-section approaches, and 30%, 39%, and 179% for the Modal-NSM, Modal-NM, and Modal-M, respectively. For the Modal-NSM and Modal-NM, differences from the references are primarily due to the inherent assumptions and limitations of the modal approach. In particular, they cannot resolve the abrupt size transition between the interstitial and activated aerosol fractions. For the 12- and 36-section approaches, differences are largely due to limitations of the parameterized activation for non-log-normal size distributions, plus the coarse resolution for the 12-section case. Differences are larger both with higher aerosol (i.e., less complete activation) and higher SO2 concentrations (i.e., greater modification of the initial aerosol distribution).« less

  1. Black Pine Engineering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Pine Engineering is commercializing a disruptive technology in the turbomachinery industry. Using a patented woven composite construction, Black Pine Engineering can make turbomachines (turbines, compressors) that are cheaper and lighter than competing technologies. Using this technology, Black Pine Engineering will sell turbo-compressors which solve the problem of wasted steam in geothermal power plants.

  2. Predicting Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing over Mexico using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 g m -3 MADESORGAM Mexico City Gulf of Mexico Black Carbon Organic Matter * Since BC and OM treated as a scalars with no...

  3. ARM - Campaign Instrument - drum-aerosol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsdrum-aerosol Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Drum Aerosol Sampler (DRUM-AEROSOL) Instrument Categories Aerosols Campaigns Aerosol IOP [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2003.05.01 - 2003.05.31 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers for the list of all available measurements, including

  4. Two-Column Aerosol Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Column Aerosol Project Tiny particles in the sky known as "aerosols" come in many forms-dust, soot, and sea salt, for example. Depending on the type of aerosol, it can either absorb or reflect sunlight, which in turn can cause either a warming or cooling effect in the atmosphere. But to what extent? The answer to this question is critical for scientists trying to envision what Earth's climate could be like 10, 50, and even 100 years from now. To help find the answer, the Department of

  5. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venzie, J.

    2015-10-13

    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  6. AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

  7. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robock, Alan

    2015-03-30

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5–10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  8. Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sedlacek, Arthur; S, Satheesh; Springston, Stephen

    2013-11-06

    This measurement characterizes the types of BC emissions that result in near­surface BC­ containing particles in a region that is dominated by biomass and open pit/stove cooking. Specifically, examine three primary BC emission sources: (i) urban setting (e.g., fossil fuel emissions); and (ii) biomass burning. Source (i) are captured at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bangalore. Biomass emissions (ii) contains a series of 1­2 day measurement excursions to the rural area surrounding Bangalore.

  9. Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sedlacek, Arthur; S, Satheesh; Springston, Stephen

    2013-11-06

    This measurement characterizes the types of BC emissions that result in nearsurface BC containing particles in a region that is dominated by biomass and open pit/stove cooking. Specifically, examine three primary BC emission sources: (i) urban setting (e.g., fossil fuel emissions); and (ii) biomass burning. Source (i) are captured at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bangalore. Biomass emissions (ii) contains a series of 12 day measurement excursions to the rural area surrounding Bangalore.

  10. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol backscattered radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a ...

  11. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  12. ARM Aerosol Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report ARM STM 2008 Norfolk, VA Connor Flynn for B Schmid and AWG Members AWG Instruments * Raman Lidar - SGP * Micropulse Lidars - all sites * Aerosol Sampling - SGP, NSA, AMF - scattering, absorption, number, size distribution, hygroscopicity, CCN, composition (major ions). * In situ Aerosol Profile (Cessna) - scattering, absorption, number, hygroscopicity, * Radiometers: - MFRSR, NIMFR, RSS, Cimel, AERI, SWS AWG-related Field Campaigns * Recent Past: - MASRAD (Marine Stratus Radiation,

  13. BLACK HISTORY MONTH

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black History Month is an annual celebration of achievements by black Americans and a time for recognizing the central role of African Americans in U.S. history. The event grew out of “Negro History Week,” created by historian Carter G. Woodson and other prominent African Americans. Other countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, also devote a month to celebrating black history.

  14. Collaborative research. Study of aerosol sources and processing at the GVAX Pantnagar Supersite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsnop, Doug; Volkamer, Rainer

    2012-08-13

    The Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) investigated uncertainties in the aerosol direct effect in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes. The University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS and LED-CE-DOAS instruments were collocated with DOE’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) during the TCAP-1 campaign at Cape Cod, MA (1 July to 13 August 2012). We have performed atmospheric radiation closure studies to evaluate the use of a novel parameter, i.e., the Raman Scattering Probability (RSP). We have performed first measurements of RSP almucantar scans, and measure RSP in spectra of scattered solar photons at 350nm and 430nm. Radiative Transfer Modelling of RSP demonstrate that the RSP measurement is maximally sensitive to infer even extremely low aerosol optical depth (AOD < 0.01) reliably by DOAS at low solar relative azimuth angles. We further assess the role of elevated aerosol layers on near surface observations of oxygen collision complexes, O 2-O2. Elevated aerosol layers modify the near surface absorption of O2-O2 and RSP. The combination of RSP and O2-O2 holds largely unexplored potential to better constrain elevated aerosol layers and measure column aerosol optical properties such as aerosol effective radius, extinction, aerosol phase functions and refractive indices. The TCAP deployment also provides a time series of reactive trace gas vertical profiles, i.e., nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and glyoxal (C2H2O2), which are measured simultaneously with the aerosol optical properties by DOAS. NO2 is an important precursor for ozone (O3) that modifies oxidative capacity. Glyoxal modifies oxidative capacity and is a source for brown carbon by forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via multiphase reactions in aerosol and cloud water. We have performed field measurements of these gases during TCAP, and conducted laboratory experiments to quantify for the first time the Setschenow salting constant, KS, of glyoxal in sulfate aerosols. Knowledge about KS is prerequisite to predict how increasing sulfate concentrations since pre-industrial times have modified the formation of SOA from biogenic gases in atmospheric models.

  15. ARM - Black Forest News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Campaign Images Black Forest News ARM Mobile Facility Completes Field Campaign in Germany January 15, 2008 Microwave Radiometers Put to the Test in Germany September 15, 2007...

  16. ARM - Mobile Aerosol Observing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images ... 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, ... Optical Absorption Weather Transmitter (WXT-520) ...

  17. ARM: Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Aerosol Particle Sizer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Aerosol concentration; Aerosol particle size distribution; Hygroscopic growth; Particle number concentration; Particle size distribution Dataset ...

  18. AMF Deployment, Black Forest, Germany

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Germany Black Forest Deployment AMF Home Black Forest Home Data Plots and Baseline Instruments CERA COPS Data University of Hohenheim COPS Website COPS Update, April 2009...

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Aerosol IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Aerosol IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Stephen Schwartz For data sets, see below. Summary The Aerosol IOP was highlighted by the...

  20. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  1. 10-04-2010 CA-B-10-0154

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    develop a novel fieldable laser-induced incandescence sensor to measure black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) organic aerosols and their optical and chemical characteristics. ...

  2. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer HTDMA : Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem...

  3. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Wednesday, 17 February 2016 11:37 Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and their chemistry has large-scale impacts on climate, pollution, and health. Accurate predictions of these aerosol impacts require a robust microphysical understanding of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and time scales, including those

  4. Aerosol Remote Sealing System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Remote Sealing System Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryMark Modera and Francois Remi Carrie from Berkeley National Laboratory have developed a rapid, economical technique to seal duct and other enclosed systems by means of an internally injected aerosol. DescriptionBerkeley National Laboratory's aerosol compound seals holes in enclosed systems and is effective even after bends and junctions. A unique, in situ aerosol

  5. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2015-01-10

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC4889, and NGC1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.

  6. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A.; Reedy, Gerald T.; Kumar, Romesh

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  7. Composition of carbonaceous smoke particles from prescribed burning of a Canadian boreal forest: 1. Organic aerosol characterization by gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Laterza, C.; Newman, L.; Daum, P.; Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S.; Winstead, E.L.

    1995-06-01

    In this study we examine the molecular organic constituents (C8 to C40 lipid compounds) collected as smoke particles from a Canadian boreal forest prescribed burn. Of special interest are (1) the molecular identity of polar organic aerosols, and (2) the amount of polar organic matter relative to the total mass of aerosol particulate carbon. Organic extracts of smoke aerosol particles show complex distributions of the lipid compounds when analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The molecular constituents present as smoke aerosol are grouped into non-polar (hydrocarbons) and polar {minus}2 oxygen atoms) subtractions. The dominant chemical species found in the boreal forest smoke aerosol are unaltered resin compounds (C20 terpenes) which are abundant in unburned conifer wood, plus thermally altered wood lignins and other polar aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results show that smoke aerosols contain molecular tracers which are related to the biofuel consumed. These smoke tracers can be related structurally back to the consumed softwood and hardwood vegetation. In addition, combustion of boreal forest materials produces smoke aerosol particles that are both oxygen-rich and chemically complex, yielding a carbonaceous aerosol matrix that is enriched in polar substances. As a consequence, emissions of carbonaceous smoke particles from large-scale combustion of boreal forest land may have a disproportionate effect on regional atmospheric chemistry and on cloud microphysical processes.

  8. AmeriFlux CA-Qfo Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Mature Black Spruce

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margolis, Hank A.

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Qfo Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Mature Black Spruce. Site Description - 49.69247° N / 74.34204° W, elevation of 387 mm, 90 - 100 yr old Black Spruce, Jack Pine, feather moss

  9. Final Report, The Influence of Organic-Aerosol Emissions and Aging on Regional and Global Aerosol Size Distributions and the CCN Number Budget

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, Neil M.

    2015-12-23

    We conducted laboratory experiments and analyzed data on aging of organic aerosol and analysis of field data on volatility and CCN activity. With supplemental ASR funding we participated in the FLAME-IV campaign in Missoula MT in the Fall of 2012, deploying a two-chamber photochemical aging system to enable experimental exploration of photochemical aging of biomass burning emissions. Results from that campaign will lead to numerous publications, including demonstration of photochemical production of Brown Carbon (BrC) from secondary organic aerosol associated with biomass burning emissions as well as extensive characterization of the effect of photochemical aging on the overall concentrations of biomass burning organic aerosol. Excluding publications arising from the FLAME-IV campaign, project research resulted in 8 papers: [11, 5, 3, 10, 12, 4, 8, 7], including on in Nature Geoscience addressing the role of organic compounds in nanoparticle growth [11

  10. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, Brett; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2011-11-23

    Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplanktonproduced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS{sup -}) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr{sup -1}, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS{sup -} (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr{sup -1}, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ngm{sup -3}, with values up to 400 ngm{sup -3} over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2), both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20 %) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2 %) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increases and decreases in the concentration of CCN over different parts of the ocean. The sign of the CCN change due to the addition of marine organics to seasalt aerosol is determined by the relative significance of the increase in mean modal diameter due to addition of mass, and the decrease in particle hygroscopicity due to compositional changes in marine aerosol. Based on emerging evidence for increased CCN concentration over biologically active surface ocean areas/periods, our study suggests that treatment of sea spray in global climate models (GCMs) as an internal mixture of marine organic aerosols and sea-salt will likely lead to an underestimation in CCN number concentration.

  11. ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011

  12. ARM Aerosol Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and MFRSR Measurements ARM STM 2008 Norfolk, VA Connor Flynn 1 , Annette Koontz 1 , Anne Jefferson 2 , Jim Barnard 1 , Sally McFarlane 1 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2 CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder Progress towards ARM DOE 2008 Performance Metric 3 & 4 * Produce and make available new continuous time series of aerosol total column depth, based on results from the AMF deployment in Niger, Africa. * Produce and make available new continuous time series of retrieved dust

  13. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Field Campaign Report The National

  14. The LANL Cloud-Aerosol Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The K-25 Story The K-25 Story Addthis Description The K-25 Story

    The LANL Cloud-Aerosol Model Reisner, Jon Los Alamos National Laboratory Category: Modeling Additional Authors: Dubey Manvendra, Chris Jeffery, Miroslaw Andrejczuk, and Dave Moulton A cloud-aerosol modeling framework is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that incorporates two unique aspects in its formulation. First, the model employs a nonlinear solver that requires cloud-aerosol parameterizations be smooth or

  15. Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May 28, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, (510) 495-2404 LosAngelesSmogv1.jpg Smog over downtown Los Angeles. Aerosols are microscopic particles-like dust, pollen and soot-that ubiquitously float around in our atmosphere. Despite their tiny stature, these particles can have a huge impact on human health, climate and the

  16. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  17. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  18. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  19. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the

  20. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and their chemistry has large-scale impacts on climate, pollution, and health. Accurate predictions of these aerosol impacts require a robust microphysical understanding of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and time scales, including those involving highly reactive free-radical molecules. However, detailed modeling is

  1. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and their chemistry has large-scale impacts on climate, pollution, and health. Accurate predictions of these aerosol impacts require a robust microphysical understanding of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and time scales, including those involving highly reactive free-radical molecules. However, detailed modeling is

  2. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and their chemistry has large-scale impacts on climate, pollution, and health. Accurate predictions of these aerosol impacts require a robust microphysical understanding of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and time scales, including those involving highly reactive free-radical molecules. However, detailed modeling is

  3. Aerosol Working Group Contributions Accomplishments for 2006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contributions Accomplishments for 2006 Aerosol IOP '03 Field Campaign Yields 18-Paper Special Issue of JGR The ARM Aerosol Intensive Operation Period (IOP) field campaign in 2003 has yielded an unprecedented eighteen peer-reviewed papers published in a special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research. These papers capture the state of the science in terms of measurement of the optical properties of ambient-state aerosols. This special issue includes results from successful

  4. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  5. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  6. Aspects of hairy black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  7. Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We further elucidated how aerosols change convective intensity, diabatic heating, and regional circulation under different environmental conditions and concluded that wind shear ...

  8. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    refine the computer models used to predict climate change. Tiny Specks with Large Effects Most people equate aerosols with hairspray and household cleaning products, but a...

  9. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while...

  10. ARM: Ultrahigh Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultrahigh Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Authors: Cynthia Salwen ; Derek Hageman ; Bill Behrens ; Scott Smith ; Janek Uin ; Janek Uin ; Cynthia Salwen ; Annette Koontz ; Annette ...

  11. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change. Tiny Specks with Large Effects Most people equate aerosols with hairspray and...

  12. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change. Tiny Specks with Large Effects Most people equate aerosols with hairspray and...

  13. Aerosol indirect effects - general circulation model intercomparison...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (a) and various cloud ... Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the ...

  14. ARM - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science objectives, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility will deploy the ARM Mobile Facility and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System on Cape...

  15. Lumens Placard (Black) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    File lumensplacard-black.eps More Documents & Publications Lumens Placard (Black) Lumens Placard (Green) Lumens Placard (Green)

  16. Identification of source contributions to visibility-reducing organic aerosols in the vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Hallock, K.A.; Leach, M.; Mason-Jones, M.; Mason-Jones, H.; Salmon, L.G.; Winner, D.A.; Cass, G.R.

    1993-06-01

    Sulfates and carbonaceous aerosols are the largest contributors to the fine particle burden in the atmosphere near Grand Canyon National Park. While the effects of sulfate particles on visibility at the Grand Canyon has been extensively studied, much less is known about the nature and origin of the carbonaceous aerosols that are present. This disparity in understanding arises from at least two causes: aerosol carbon data for the region are less plentiful and many of the sources that could contribute to that organic aerosol are both diverse and not well characterized. The objective of this present study is to examine the origin of the carbonaceous aerosol at Grand Canyon National Park during the summer season based on molecular tracer techniques applied to source and ambient samples collected specifically for this purpose.

  17. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  18. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  19. Black hole magnetospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathanail, Antonios; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2014-06-20

    We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Measurement of Aerosols, Radiation and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Southern Ocean Clouds Radiation Transport Aerosol Transport Experimental Study (SOCRATES) has been proposed to improve our understanding of clouds, aerosols, air-sea...

  1. Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that modeled natural aerosols, principally marine biogenic primary and secondary aerosol sources, explain more than half of the spatiotemporal variability in satellite-observed Nd. ...

  2. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction ...

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - Pajarito Aerosol Coupling to Ecosystems...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PJ) woodland site used for DOE sponsored ecosystem research to measure the aerosol life cycle of biogenic (secondary organic aerosol formation from sesquiterpenes) and smoke...

  4. Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data Title: Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous ...

  5. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) Citation ... Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) In this study ...

  6. Science Plan Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In spite of recent advances in the understanding of aerosol formation processes and the links between aerosol dynamics and biosphere-atmosphere-climate interactions, great ...

  7. Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In spite of recent advances in the understanding of aerosol formation processes and the links between aerosol dynamics and biosphere-atmosphere-climate interactions, great ...

  8. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-03-24

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    horizontal variabilities of aerosol, trace gases, cloud, drizzle, and atmospheric thermodynamics are critically needed for understanding and quantifying the budget of MBL aerosol,...

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Campaign Links CARES Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and...

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo-Acoustic Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Campaign Links ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)...

  12. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-06-12

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  13. ARM: Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei data Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei data Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; ...

  14. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity of Aerosols during GoAmazon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    microphysical properties of the aerosol." The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 201415) study seeks to understand how aerosol and cloud life cycles ...

  15. Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 Title: Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 Single-column model ...

  16. Discrimination between thin cirrus and and tropospheric aerosol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discrimination between thin cirrus and and tropospheric aerosol using multiple measurements from Darwin ARCS Mitchell, Ross CSIRO Category: Aerosols Thin cirrus cloud occurs...

  17. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  18. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keene, William C.; Long, Michael S.

    2013-05-20

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earth??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  19. Black Pine Circle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-03-31

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  20. Black Pine Circle Project

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-09-15

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  1. Hard, infrared black coating with very low outgassing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Behne, D M; Casserly, T; Boardman, W; Upadhyaya, D; Boinapally, K; Gupta, M; Cao, Y

    2008-06-02

    Infrared astronomical instruments require absorptive coatings on internal surfaces to trap scattered and stray photons. This is typically accomplished with any one of a number of black paints. Although inexpensive and simple to apply, paint has several disadvantages. Painted surfaces can be fragile, prone to shedding particles, and difficult to clean. Most importantly, the vacuum performance is poor. Recently a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was developed to apply thick (30 {micro}m) diamond-like carbon (DLC) based protective coatings to the interior of oil pipelines. These DLC coatings show much promise as an infrared black for an ultra high vacuum environment. The coatings are very robust with excellent cryogenic adhesion. Their total infrared reflectivity of < 10% at normal incidence approaches that of black paints. We measured outgas rates of <10{sup -12} Torr liter/sec cm{sup 2}, comparable to bare stainless steel.

  2. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey

    2012-12-12

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  3. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  4. Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAP) Final Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data from this measurement is used in radiative forcing calculations, atmospheric heating rates, and as a prediction of the amount of equivalent black carbon in atmospheric aerosol ...

  5. DubeyISDAC-ARM09.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anthropogenic sources of soot (industrial, biofuel, fires) Sources in northern Europe and ... AEROSOL FORCING Add Fossil + Biofuel to current Biomass Burning Black carbon ...

  6. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... emissions are oxidized in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants such as SO2, NOx, and black carbon, it has become increasingly apparent that secondary organic aerosol ...

  7. Long-term Measurements of Submicrometer Aerosol Chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parworth, Caroline; Fast, Jerome D.; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Timothy R.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Tilp, Alison; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. Over the period of 19 months (Nov. 20, 2010 – June 2012) highly time resolved (~30 min.) NR-PM1 data was recorded. Using this dataset the value-added product (VAP) of deriving organic aerosol components (OACOMP) is introduced. With this VAP, multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix can be performed on long term data to return organic aerosol (OA) factors that are associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. Three factors were obtained from this VAP including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when nitrate increased due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations showed little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increased and were mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were computed by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. From this model there is evidence to support that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.

  8. ARM - Evaluation Product - Aerosol Modeling Testbed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and satellite aerosol optical depth data is included to supplement and enhance the value of the CARES data. The software that is provided in AMT extracts model output from...

  9. Long-Term Measurements of Submicrometer Aerosol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1) including organic aerosol (OA), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), nitrate (NO 3 - ), ammonium (NH 4 + ), and chloride (Cl-). In this study,...

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAerosol Lidar Validation Experiment - ALIVE Campaign Links ALIVE Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below...

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - MASRAD: Marine Aerosol Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMASRAD: Marine Aerosol Properties Campaign Links AMF Point Reyes Website Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA....

  12. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Mazzola, Mauro; Lanconelli, Christian; Vitale, Vito; Stebel, Kerstin; Aaltonen, Veijo; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Rodriguez, Edith; Herber, Andreas B.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Xue, Yong; Mei, Linlu; Istomina, Larysa; Wagener, Richard; McArthur, Bruce; Sobolewski, Piotr S.; Kivi, Rigel; Courcoux, Yann; Larouche, Pierre; Broccardo, Stephen; Piketh, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of ngstrm's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winterspring and summerautumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i) a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winterspring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-lesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surfaceatmosphere system over polar regions.

  13. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  14. Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Indirect Effects in China In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to conduct a comprehensive investigation of regional aerosol impacts in China as part of a joint program with the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The joint program is under the "Climate Sciences" agreement established in 1987 between the DOE and China Ministry of

  15. Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, P.F.; Herceg, J.E.; Klocksieben, R.H.

    1984-04-11

    Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols having a wide particle size range at relatively low velocities may comprise a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, the chamber including: a plurality of vertically stacked, successive particle collection stages; each collection stage includes a separator plate and a channel guide mounted transverse to the separator plate, defining a labyrinthine flow path across the collection stage. An opening in each separator plate provides a path for the aerosols from one collection stage t

  16. Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2014-10-21

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

  17. A novel activated carbon for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Haijie; Liu, Enhui; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Zhengzheng; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yuhu; Wu, Zhilian; Xie, Hui

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel activated carbon was prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon has large surface area with microporous, and high heteroatom content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heteroatom-containing functional groups can improve the pseudo-capacitance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: A novel activated carbon has been prepared by simple carbonization and activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin which is synthesized by the condensation polymerization method. The morphology, thermal stability, surface area, elemental composition and surface chemical composition of samples have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Electrochemical properties have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol L{sup -1} potassium hydroxide. The activated carbon shows good capacitive behavior and the specific capacitance is up to 210 F g{sup -1}, which indicates that it may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  18. Impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Abdul-Razzak, H.

    2002-11-07

    In this study, we use a 1-D version of a climate-aerosol-chemistry model with both modal and sectional aerosol size representations to evaluate the impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions in shallow stratiform clouds observed during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment. Both the modal (with prognostic aerosol number and mass or prognostic aerosol number, surface area and mass, referred to as the Modal-NM and Modal-NSM) and the sectional approaches (with 12 and 36 sections) predict total number and mass for interstitial and activated particles that are generally within several percent of references from a high resolution 108-section approach.more » The modal approach with prognostic aerosol mass but diagnostic number (referred to as the Modal-M) cannot accurately predict the total particle number and surface areas, with deviations from the references ranging from 7-161%. The particle size distributions are sensitive to size representations, with normalized absolute differences of up to 12% and 37% for the 36- and 12-section approaches, and 30%, 39%, and 179% for the Modal-NSM, Modal-NM, and Modal-M, respectively. For the Modal-NSM and Modal-NM, differences from the references are primarily due to the inherent assumptions and limitations of the modal approach. In particular, they cannot resolve the abrupt size transition between the interstitial and activated aerosol fractions. For the 12- and 36-section approaches, differences are largely due to limitations of the parameterized activation for non-log-normal size distributions, plus the coarse resolution for the 12-section case. Differences are larger both with higher aerosol (i.e., less complete activation) and higher SO2 concentrations (i.e., greater modification of the initial aerosol distribution).« less

  19. The First Aerosol Indirect Effect: Beyond Twomey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Dunn, M.; Daum, P.

    2008-03-10

    The traditional first aerosol indirect effect or the Twomey effect involves several fundamental assumptions. Some of the assumptions (e.g., constant liquid water content) are explicitly stated in studies of the Twomey effect whereas others are only implicitly embedded in the quantitative formulation. This work focuses on examining the implicit assumptions. In particular, we will show that anthropogenic pollution not only increases aerosol loading and droplet concentrations but also alters the relative dispersions of both the aerosol and subsequent droplet size distributions. The indirect effects resulting from the two altered relative dispersions (aerosol dispersion effect and droplet dispersion effect) are likely opposite in sign and proportional in magnitude to the conventional Twomey effect. This result suggests that the outstanding problems of the Twomey effect (i.e., large uncertainty and overestimation reported in literature) may lie with violation of the constant spectral shapes of aerosol and droplet size distributions implicitly assumed in evaluation of the Twomey effect, and therefore, further progress in understanding and quantification of the first aerosol indirect effect demands moving beyond the traditional paradigm originally conceived by Twomey.

  20. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kula, Erhun, E-mail: erhun.kula@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey); Gunalay, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.gunalay@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Business Studies, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  1. Black Forest Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Forest Partners Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Forest Partners Place: San Francisco, California Zip: 94111 Product: San Francisco-based project developer focused on...

  2. BlackGold Biofuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BlackGold Biofuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: BlackGold Biofuels Place: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Zip: 19107 Product: Philadelphia-based developer of a waste...

  3. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  4. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  5. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  6. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  7. Black optic display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

  8. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  9. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  10. The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in northern and southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, John F.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Seinfeld, John H.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2012-11-21

    Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influence their climate impacts through optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that were internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in southern and northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most predominant in each region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more accurate predictions of the climate impacts of aerosol in California.

  11. Aerosol beam-focus laser-induced plasma spectrometer device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting elements in an aerosol includes an aerosol beam focuser for concentrating aerosol into an aerosol beam; a laser for directing a laser beam into the aerosol beam to form a plasma; a detection device that detects a wavelength of a light emission caused by the formation of the plasma. The detection device can be a spectrometer having at least one grating and a gated intensified charge-coupled device. The apparatus may also include a processor that correlates the wavelength of the light emission caused by the formation of the plasma with an identity of an element that corresponds to the wavelength. Furthermore, the apparatus can also include an aerosol generator for forming an aerosol beam from bulk materials. A method for detecting elements in an aerosol is also disclosed.

  12. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.; Orsini, Douglas

    2006-04-18

    An apparatus for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution is provided. The apparatus includes an enhanced particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and an enhanced collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical means. Methods for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles are also provided, the method including exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; and flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  13. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution are provided. The apparatus includes a modified particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and a collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical methods. The method provided for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles includes exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  14. Biogenic Aerosols„Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final Campaign Summary T Petj ... DOESC-ARM-15-051 Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final Campaign ...

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerial...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerial Campaign ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We...

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Field Evaluation of Real-time Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2013.04.15, Scott, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Winter ...

  17. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects 1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A

  18. Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Forcing through Deep Convection (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection Aerosol indirect effects, i.e., the interactions of aerosols with clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN), constitute the largest

  19. Direct Aerosol Forcing: Calculation from Observables and Sensitivities to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inputs (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Direct Aerosol Forcing: Calculation from Observables and Sensitivities to Inputs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct Aerosol Forcing: Calculation from Observables and Sensitivities to Inputs Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty

  20. Pajarito Aerosol Couplings to Ecosystems (PACE) Field Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Pajarito Aerosol Couplings to Ecosystems (PACE) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pajarito Aerosol Couplings to Ecosystems (PACE) Field Campaign Report Laboratory (LANL) worked on the Pajarito Aerosol Couplings to Ecosystems (PACE) intensive operational period (IOP). PACE's primary goal was to demonstrate routine Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) field operations and improve instrumental and operational performance.

  1. Indirect and semi-direct aerosol campaign: The impact of Arctic aerosols on clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ghan, Steven; Verlinde, Johannes; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Menqistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Dan; et al

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska, was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). ISDAC's primary aim was to examine the effects of aerosols, including those generated by Asian wildfires, on clouds that contain both liquid and ice. ISDAC utilized the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pro- gram's permanent observational facilities at Barrow and specially deployed instruments measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation, and radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties and collected data using an unprecedented 41more » stateof- the-art cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 h on 12 different days. Aerosol compositions, including fresh and processed sea salt, biomassburning particles, organics, and sulfates mixed with organics, varied between flights. Observations in a dense arctic haze on 19 April and above, within, and below the single-layer stratocumulus on 8 and 26 April are enabling a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect arctic clouds. Inhomogeneities in reflectivity, a close coupling of upward and downward Doppler motion, and a nearly constant ice profile in the single-layer stratocumulus suggests that vertical mixing is responsible for its longevity observed during ISDAC. Data acquired in cirrus on flights between Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska, are improving the understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Furthermore, ISDAC data will improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and determine the extent to which surface measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation, and radiative heating.« less

  2. Composite catalysts supported on modified carbon substrates and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.; Subramanian, Nalini; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.

    2009-11-17

    A method of producing a composite carbon catalyst is generally disclosed. The method includes oxidizing a carbon precursor (e.g., carbon black). Optionally, nitrogen functional groups can be added to the oxidized carbon precursor. Then, the oxidized carbon precursor is refluxed with a non-platinum transitional metal precursor in a solution. Finally, the solution is pyrolyzed at a temperature of at least about 500.degree. C.

  3. Aerosol can puncture device test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leist, K.J.

    1994-10-01

    This test report documents the evaluation of an aerosol can puncture device to replace a system currently identified for use in the WRAP-1 facility. The new system is based upon a commercially available puncture device, as recommended by WHC Fire Protection. With modifications found necessary through the testing program, the Aerosol Can Puncture Device was found able to puncture and drain aerosol cans without incident. Modifications include the addition of a secondary collection bottle and the modification of the can puncture needle. In the course of testing, a variety of absorbents were tested to determine their performance in immobilizing drained fluids. The visibility of the puncture with Non-Destructive Examination techniques were also reviewed.

  4. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  5. Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Patrick F. (Downers Grove, IL); Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL); Klocksieben, Robert H. (Park Forest, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols having a wide particle size range at relatively low velocities may comprise a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, the chamber including: a plurality of vertically stacked, successive particle collection stages; each collection stage includes a separator plate and a channel guide mounted transverse to the separator plate, defining a labyrinthine flow path across the collection stage. An opening in each separator plate provides a path for the aerosols from one collection stage to the next. Mounted within each collection stage are one or more particle collection frames.

  6. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parworth, Caroline; Tilp, Alison; Fast, Jerome; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Tim; Sivaraman, Chitra; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. NR-PM1 data was recorded at ~30 min intervals over a period of 19 months between November 2010 and June 2012. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on the measured organic mass spectral matrix using a rolling window technique to derive factors associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. The rolling window approach also allows us to capture the dynamic variations of the chemical properties in the organic aerosol (OA) factors over time. Three OA factors were obtained including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when ammonium nitrate increases due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations have little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increase and are mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were obtained by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the 2011 U.S. National Emissions Inventory to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. The combined spatial distribution of isoprene emissions and air mass trajectories suggest that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.

  7. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Parworth, Caroline; Tilp, Alison; Fast, Jerome; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Tim; Sivaraman, Chitra; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. NR-PM1 data was recorded at ~30 min intervals over a period of 19 months between November 2010 and June 2012. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on the measured organic mass spectral matrix using a rolling window technique to derive factors associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. The rolling window approach also allows us to capture the dynamic variations ofmore » the chemical properties in the organic aerosol (OA) factors over time. Three OA factors were obtained including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when ammonium nitrate increases due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations have little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increase and are mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were obtained by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the 2011 U.S. National Emissions Inventory to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. The combined spatial distribution of isoprene emissions and air mass trajectories suggest that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.« less

  8. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth; Berge, Nicole D.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage).

  9. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Mazzola, Mauro; Lanconelli, Christian; Vitale, Vito; Stebel, Kerstin; Aaltonen, Veijo; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Rodriguez, Edith; Herber, Andreas B.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Xue, Yong; Mei, Linlu; Istomina, Larysa; Wagener, Richard; McArthur, Bruce; Sobolewski, Piotr S.; Kivi, Rigel; Courcoux, Yann; Larouche, Pierre; Broccardo, Stephen; Piketh, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness τ(λ) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent α were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of τ(0.50 μm) and α and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of α versus τ(0.50 μm) showed: (i) a considerable increase in τ(0.50 μm) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in α; and (ii) a marked increase in τ(0.50 μm) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas α decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of τ(λ) and α at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of τ(λ) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.

  10. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Wehrli, Christoph; et al

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness τ(λ) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent α were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of τ(0.50 μm) and α and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of α versus τ(0.50 μm) showed: (i)more » a considerable increase in τ(0.50 μm) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in α; and (ii) a marked increase in τ(0.50 μm) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas α decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of τ(λ) and α at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of τ(λ) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.« less

  11. DOE Science Showcase - Carbon Capture research in DOE Databases | OSTI,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information DOE Science Showcase - Carbon Capture research in DOE Databases Information Bridge : Natural materials for carbon capture. ... Realistic costs of carbon capture ... Technology and international climate policy Energy Citations Database : What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions ... Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest ...

  12. Review: engineering particles using the aerosol-through-plasma method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Luhrs, Claudia C; Richard, Monique

    2009-01-01

    For decades, plasma processing of materials on the nanoscale has been an underlying enabling technology for many 'planar' technologies, particularly virtually every aspect of modern electronics from integrated-circuit fabrication with nanoscale elements to the newest generation of photovoltaics. However, it is only recent developments that suggest that plasma processing can be used to make 'particulate' structures of value in fields, including catalysis, drug delivery, imaging, higher energy density batteries, and other forms of energy storage. In this paper, the development of the science and technology of one class of plasma production of particulates, namely, aerosol-through-plasma (A-T-P), is reviewed. Various plasma systems, particularly RF and microwave, have been used to create nanoparticles of metals and ceramics, as well as supported metal catalysts. Gradually, the complexity of the nanoparticles, and concomitantly their potential value, has increased. First, unique two-layer particles were generated. These were postprocessed to create unique three-layer nanoscale particles. Also, the technique has been successfully employed to make other high-value materials, including carbon nanotubes, unsupported graphene, and spherical boron nitride. Some interesting plasma science has also emerged from efforts to characterize and map aerosol-containing plasmas. For example, it is clear that even a very low concentration of particles dramatically changes plasma characteristics. Some have also argued that the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium approach is inappropriate to these systems. Instead, it has been suggested that charged- and neutral-species models must be independently developed and allowed to 'interact' only in generation terms.

  13. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1999-01-01

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  14. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  15. Black Warrior, Nevada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    or Black Warrior Spring coordinates Black Warrior is a property in Washoe County and Churchill County, Nevada that is south and east of Black Warrior Peak. References Nevada...

  16. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, Greg; Ghan, Steven J.; Verlinde, J.; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Mengistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fan, Jiwen; Flynn, Connor J.; Gultepe, Ismail; Hubbe, John M.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander; Lawson, Paul; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter S.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lubin, Dan; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Macdonald, A. M.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zelenyuk, Alla; Bae, Kenny; Freer, Matthew; Glen, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) sponsored by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and Atmospheric Science Programs. The primary aim of ISDAC was to examine indirect effects of aerosols on clouds that contain both liquid and ice water. The experiment utilized the ARM permanent observational facilities at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) in Barrow. These include a cloud radar, a polarized micropulse lidar, and an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer as well as instruments specially deployed for ISDAC measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation and spectral shortwave radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties during ISDAC, collecting data using an unprecedented 42 cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 hours on 12 different days. Data were obtained above, below and within single-layer stratus on 8 April and 26 April 2008. These data enable a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect the microphysical and radiative properties of arctic clouds influenced by different surface conditions. Observations acquired on a heavily polluted day, 19 April 2008, are enhancing this understanding. Data acquired in cirrus on transit flights between Fairbanks and Barrow are improving our understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Ultimately the ISDAC data will be used to improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and to determine the extent to which long-term surface-based measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation and radiative heating in the Arctic.

  17. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia D. D. Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington M. Clayton Science Applications International Corporation National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia B. S. Schmid and J. Redemann BAER/NASA Ames Research Institute Moffett Field, California D.

  18. Laser-induced light emission from carbon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osswald, S.; Behler, K.; Gogotsi, Y.

    2008-10-01

    Strong absorption of light in a broad wavelength range and poor thermal conductance between particles of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, onions, nanodiamond, and carbon black, lead to strong thermal emission (blackbody radiation) upon laser excitation, even at a very low (milliwatts) power. The lasers commonly used during Raman spectroscopy characterization of carbon can cause sample heating to very high temperatures. While conventional thermometry is difficult in the case of nanomaterials, Raman spectral features, such as the G band of graphitic carbon and thermal emission spectra were used to estimate the temperature during light emission that led to extensive graphitization and evaporation of carbon nanomaterials, indicating local temperatures exceeding 3500 deg. C.

  19. Radiological/biological/aerosol removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haslam, Jeffery J

    2015-03-17

    An air filter replacement system for existing buildings, vehicles, arenas, and other enclosed airspaces includes a replacement air filter for replacing a standard air filter. The replacement air filter has dimensions and air flow specifications that allow it to replace the standard air filter. The replacement air filter includes a filter material that removes radiological or biological or aerosol particles.

  20. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relative Content of Black Carbon in Submicron Aerosol as a Sign of the Effect of Forest Fire Smokes V.S. Kozlov, M.V. Panchenko, and E.P. Yausheva Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction Biomass burning occurs often in regions containing vast forest tracts and peat-bogs. These processes are accompanied by the emission of aerosol particles and crystal carbon (black carbon [BC], soot). BC is the predominant source of solar absorption in atmospheric aerosol, which impacts

  1. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Fact Sheet Research Team Members Key Contacts Carbon Storage Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key component of the U.S. carbon management portfolio. Numerous studies have shown that CCS can account for up to 55 percent of the emissions reductions needed to stabilize and ultimately reduce atmospheric concentrations of CO2. NETL's Carbon Storage Program is readying CCS technologies for widespread commercial deployment by 2020. The program's goals are: By 2015, develop technologies

  2. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-07-15

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to be less difficult than one could think of it.

  3. Charged rotating dilaton black strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Farhangkhah, N.

    2005-02-15

    In this paper we, first, present a class of charged rotating solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with zero and Liouville-type potentials. We find that these solutions can present a black hole/string with two regular horizons, an extreme black hole or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and show that they satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Second, we obtain the (n+1)-dimensional rotating solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential. We find that these solutions can present black branes, naked singularities or spacetimes with cosmological horizon if one chooses the parameters of the solutions correctly. Again, we find that the thermodynamic quantities of these solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.

  4. Quantum Criticality and Black Holes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sachdev, Subir [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2009-09-01

    I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.

  5. ARM: AOS: Aethalometer, measures Black Carbon (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 ...

  6. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Samset, B. H. ; Myhre, G. ; Herber, Andreas ; Kondo, Yutaka ; Li, Shao-Meng ; Moteki, N. ; Koike, Makoto ; Oshima, N. ; Schwarz, Joshua P. ; Balkanski, Y. ; Bauer, S. ; ...

  7. Arctic Black Carbon Loading and Profile Field Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Geophysical Research Letters 33(2): L02503, doi: 10.10292005GL024960. Koch, D, M Schulz, S Kinne, C McNaughton, JR Spackman, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, T Berntsen, TC Bond, O Boucher, ...

  8. The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the AO between the free-running CAM5 and the reanalysis-driven simulations result in significantly different AO modulation of BC transport over Northeast Asia and Eastern Europe. ...

  9. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance ...

  10. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine PM fractions (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) PM fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. ...

  11. Aerosol, Cloud, and Climate: From Observation to Model (457th Brookhaven Lecture)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian [Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department

    2010-09-01

    In the last 100 years, the Earth has warmed by about 1ºF, glaciers and sea ice have been melting more quickly than previously, especially during the past decade, and the level of the sea has risen about 6-8 inches worldwide. Scientists have long been investigating this phenomenon of ?global warming,? which is believed to be at least partly due to the increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air from burning fossil fuels. Funded by DOE, teams of researchers from BNL and other national labs have been gathering data in the U.S. and internationally to build computer models of climate and weather to help in understanding general patterns, causes, and perhaps, solutions. Among many findings, researchers observed that atmospheric aerosols, minute particles in the atmosphere, can significantly affect global energy balance and climate. Directly, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight. Indirectly, increased aerosol concentration can lead to smaller cloud droplets, changing clouds in ways that tend to cool global climate and potentially mask overall warming from man-made CO2.

  12. Aerosol, Cloud, and Climate: From Observation to Model (457th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian

    2010-05-12

    In the last 100 years, the Earth has warmed by about 1F, glaciers and sea ice have been melting more quickly than previously, especially during the past decade, and the level of the sea has risen about 6-8 inches worldwide. Scientists have long been investigating this phenomenon of global warming, which is believed to be at least partly due to the increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air from burning fossil fuels. Funded by DOE, teams of researchers from BNL and other national labs have been gathering data in the U.S. and internationally to build computer models of climate and weather to help in understanding general patterns, causes, and perhaps, solutions. Among many findings, researchers observed that atmospheric aerosols, minute particles in the atmosphere, can significantly affect global energy balance and climate. Directly, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight. Indirectly, increased aerosol concentration can lead to smaller cloud droplets, changing clouds in ways that tend to cool global climate and potentially mask overall warming from man-made CO2.

  13. Formation and aging of secondary organic aerosol from toluene: changes in chemical composition, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Paciga, A. L.; Cerully, K. M.; Nenes, A.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-07-24

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is transformed after its initial formation, but this chemical aging of SOA is poorly understood. Experiments were conducted in the Carnegie Mellon environmental chamber to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photo-oxidation of toluene and other small aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of NOx under different oxidizing conditions. The effects of the oxidizing condition on organic aerosol (OA) composition, mass yield, volatility, and hygroscopicity were explored. Higher exposure to the hydroxyl radical resulted in different OA composition, average carbon oxidation state (OSc), and mass yield. The OA oxidation state generally increased duringmore » photo-oxidation, and the final OA OSc ranged from -0.29 to 0.16 in the performed experiments. The volatility of OA formed in these different experiments varied by as much as a factor of 30, demonstrating that the OA formed under different oxidizing conditions can have a significantly different saturation concentration. There was no clear correlation between hygroscopicity and oxidation state for this relatively hygroscopic SOA.« less

  14. Black Silicon Etching - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Black Silicon Etching Award-winning, efficient, and inexpensive ... Black Silicon Etching has been proven to be 16.8% efficient for single-crystalline silicon ...

  15. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-10-06

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of coded apertures. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  16. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  17. Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Alexandrov, Mikhail

    2008-01-15

    The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

  18. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Chen, Da-Ren

    2007-05-08

    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  19. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  20. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign (ISDAC) The Influence of Arctic Aerosol on Clouds PIs: Steve Ghan, Greg McFarquhar, Hans Verlinde ARM AVP: Beat Schmid, Greg McFarquhar, John Hubbe, Debbie Ronfeld In situ measurements: Sarah Brooks, Don Collins, Dan Cziczo, Manvendra Dubey, Greg Kok, Alexei Korolev, Alex Laskin, Paul Lawson, Peter Liu, Claudio Mazzoleni, Ann-Marie McDonald, Greg McFarquhar, Walter Strapp, Alla Zelenyuk Retrievals: Connor Flynn, Dan Lubin, Mengistu Wolde, David Mitchell, Matthew Shupe, David Turner

  1. Importance of Iron Mineralogy to Aerosol Solubility: Potential Effects of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Source on Ocean Photosynthesis Importance of Iron Mineralogy to Aerosol Solubility: Potential Effects of Aerosol Source on Ocean Photosynthesis figure 1 Figure 1. Dust storm blowing glacial dusts from the Copper River Basin of southeast Alaska into the North Pacific Ocean, which depends on this and other external iron sources to support its biological communities. (Image: NASA MODIS satellite image, Nov. 1, 2006. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=7094) Iron is one of

  2. Microphysical Effects Determine Macrophysical Response for Aerosol Impacts

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on Deep Convective Clouds (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Microphysical Effects Determine Macrophysical Response for Aerosol Impacts on Deep Convective Clouds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microphysical Effects Determine Macrophysical Response for Aerosol Impacts on Deep Convective Clouds Deep convective clouds (DCCs) play a crucial role in the general circulation and energy and hydrological cycle of our climate system. Anthropogenic and natural aerosol particles can

  3. Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cloud Albedo (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean Cloud Albedo Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean Cloud Albedo Small particles called aerosols act as nucleation sites for cloud drop formation, affecting clouds and cloud properties - ultimately influencing the cloud dynamics, lifetime, water path and areal extent that determine the

  4. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Program Document) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Program Document: ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign Report The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign contributes to CalWater 2015, a multi-agency

  5. Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report (Program

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Document) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Program Document: Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report We determined the morphological, chemical, and thermal properties of aerosol particles generated by biomass burning during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) campaign during the wildland fire season in the Pacific Northwest from

  6. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: The SGP Aerosol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Best-Estimate Value-Added Procedure and Its Impact on the BBHRP Project The SGP Aerosol Best-Estimate Value-Added Procedure and Its Impact on the BBHRP Project Turner, David Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Sivaraman, Chitra Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mlawer, Eli Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. The objective of the Aerosol Best-Estimate (ABE) Value-Added Procedure (VAP) is to provide estimates of aerosol

  7. Aerosol Simulations by LLNL IMPACT and Comparisons with Field Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulations by LLNL IMPACT and Comparisons with Field Measurements C. C. Chuang, D. Bergman, J. Dignon, and P. Connell Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California Introduction The first step needed to assess aerosol climate effects is to provide the global concentrations and vertical profiles of different aerosol components. These distributions cannot be easily obtained from satellite retrievals or field measurements but are key to estimating the magnitude of aerosol forcing. A

  8. Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Description

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Evaluation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Description and Evaluation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Description and Evaluation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 A modal aerosol module (MAM) has been developed for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), the

  9. Automated Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles Automated Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles This presentation was delivered during a Building America webinar on October 14, 2011, by the Building Industry Research Alliance team member Mark Modera. PDF icon bira_webinar_10_14_11.pdf More Documents & Publications Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Apartment Compartmentalization with an Aerosol-Based Sealing Process Building America

  10. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.; Li, Siwei

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ≤ 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively. Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.

  11. Study of in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, W.J.R.; Chang, S.M.; Adikesavalu, R. )

    1992-06-01

    Sulfur removal efficiency of in-duct spray drying is limited by sorbent content and surface properties of the sorbent-water aerosol. It was the purpose of this study to improve the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying by injecting condensation aerosol instead of conventional dispersion aerosol. The program was composed of three phases. In Phase I, a novel pulsed fluid bed feeder was developed and was used to feed hydrated lime for subsequent experiments. A small condensation aerosol generator was then built, which produces a lime-water condensation aerosol by condensing steam on lime particles. The results show that novel lime-water aerosols less than 10 microns were generated. The central task in Phase II was to simulate experimentally in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosols and compare the results with those using dispersion aerosols reported in the literature. A small entrained-flow reactor was constructed to simulate an in-duct spray dryer. The condensation aerosol was then introduced to the reactor at various approach to saturation temperature, calcium/sulfur stoichiometry and sulfur dioxide concentration for desulfurization study. The results show that we have improved the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying to 90 percent or above. Thus we have met and exceeded the stated project goal of 70 percent sulfur removal. A comprehensive computer code was employed to calculate sulfur removal efficiency in Phase III.

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Images Wiki 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Sedlacek 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Springston 2010 ASR Fall Meeting: Sedlacek News, June 14, 2011: Next-generation Aerosol-sampling Stations ...

  13. Overview of the COPS Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics (ACM) Subgroup...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COPS Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics (ACM) Subgroup Activities Dave Turner Space Science ... (ACM) - Chairs: Susanne Crewell, Dave Turner, Stephen Mobbs ACM Scientific Questions * ...

  14. Preliminary Results of in-situ Measurements of Aerosol Optical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Aerosol Optical and Water Uptake Properties from the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger Jefferson, Anne NOAA CMDL Ogren, John NOAACMDL Category: Field Campaigns The second...

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Winter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on atmospheric particulate matter. The effect of aerosol properties such as size, morphology and composition on cloud droplet formation has been studied theoretically as well as...

  16. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition, the response of low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols is a major source of uncertainty, which thwarts accurate prediction of future ...

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Azores: Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaigns Azores: Above-Cloud Radiation Budget near Graciosa Island 2010.04.15, Miller, AMF Azores: Extension to Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary...

  18. Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Science ... Current convective cloud parameterizations contain uncertainties resulting in part from ...

  19. Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    about a project that uses existing aerosol duct sealing technology to seal the entire building enclosure in order to achieve greater airtightness and energy and cost savings. ...

  20. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... clouds, was seen to be of higher importance in regulating aerosol indirect effects ... DOE Contract Number: SC0007396 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Leeds ...

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relevant to DOE's goals in understanding the impact of clouds and aerosols on climate change. TWST contributes significantly to the body of data used for extracting cloud...

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - 2004 NEAX (Northeast Aerosol Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Final Data Hubbe Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe Order Data Kleinman Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Order Data Wang Differential Mobility Analyzer...

  3. Method of Preparing Super-Concentrated Jets From Dense Aerosol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Method of Preparing Super-Concentrated Jets From Dense Aerosol Suspensions ----- Inventor(s): Michael J. Hay, Ernest J. Valeo, and Nathaniel J. Fisch This is improvement in...

  4. Determination of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter at Barrow. Sivaraman, Chitra Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific...

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Surface Meteorological Sounding Campaign Links ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) 2010.06.02, Zaveri, AAF...

  6. Light Absorption of Primary Organic Aerosol Paper Named ACS Editors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption of Primary Organic Aerosol Paper Named ACS Editors' Choice For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights...

  7. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. ...

  8. BAECC Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The main research goal was to understand the role of biogenic aerosols in cloud formation. ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES ...

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - Cirrus Clouds and Aerosol Properties Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lead Scientist : Shadrian Strong For data sets, see below. Abstract Through the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Characterization of Cirrus and Aerosol Properties (CCAP) ...

  10. Parameterizing the Mixing State of Complex Submicron Aerosols...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DA Knopf, MK Gilles, and RC Moffet. 2015. "Chemical imaging of ambient aerosol particles: Observational constraints on mixing state parameterization." Journal of Geophysical...

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of representative organic aerosols within the boundary layer. By combining a SMPS and a dual column CCN counter, the size-resolved CCN concentrations were measured. This allowed...

  12. Airborne aerosol in situ measurements during TCAP: A closure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of both non-absorbing and absorbing aerosol at ambient conditions from aircraft data. ... particles, and thus obtaining improved ambient size spectra derived from Optical ...

  13. Clouds, Aerosols and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Framework, extend to investigation of aerosol-cloud interactions in models - Ensemble Kalman Filter (DART) Satellite activities with CAP-MBL Minnis: CAP-MBL subset MBL depth,...

  14. Close encounters of three black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O.; Zlochower, Yosef

    2008-05-15

    We present the first fully relativistic long-term numerical evolutions of three equal-mass black holes in a system consisting of a third black hole in a close orbit about a black-hole binary. These close-three-black-hole systems have very different merger dynamics from black-hole binaries; displaying complex trajectories, a redistribution of energy that can impart substantial kicks to one of the holes, distinctive waveforms, and suppression of the emitted gravitational radiation. In one configuration the binary is quickly disrupted and the individual holes follow complicated trajectories and merge with the third hole in rapid succession, while in another, the binary completes a half-orbit before the initial merger of one of the members with the third black hole, and the resulting two-black-hole system forms a highly elliptical, well separated binary that shows no significant inspiral for (at least) the first t{approx}1000M of evolution.

  15. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  16. Complexity, action, and black holes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-04-18

    In an earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" we conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the `Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  17. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Young, D. E.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Zhou, S.; Zhang, X.; Cappa, C. D.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-15

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in California experiences persistent air quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physico-chemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air quality models. moreAerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and an Ionicon Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) as part of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) campaign. The average submicron aerosol (PM1) concentration was 31.0 ?g m?3 and the total mass was dominated by organic aerosols (OA, 55 %), followed by ammonium nitrate (35 %). High PM pollution events were commonly associated with elevated OA concentrations, mostly from primary sources. Organic aerosols had average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O / C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H / C), and nitrogen-to-carbon (N / C) ratios of 0.42, 1.70, and 0.017, respectively. Six distinct sources of organic aerosol were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA; O / C = 0.09) associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 28 % of total OA; O / C = 0.19) associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OAs (BBOA1; 13 % of total OA; O / C = 0.33 and BBOA2; 20 % of total OA; O / C = 0.60) most likely associated with residential space heating from wood combustion, and semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA; 16 % of total OA; O / C = 0.63) and low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA; 24 % of total OA; O / C = 0.90) formed via chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Large differences in aerosol chemistry at Fresno were observed between the current campaign (winter 2013) and a~previous wintertime campaign (winter 2010), most notably that PM1 concentrations were nearly three times higher in 2013 than in 2010. These variations were attributed to differences in the meteorological conditions, which influenced primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation. In particular, COA and BBOA concentrations were greater in 2013 than 2010, where colder temperatures in 2013 likely resulted in increased biomass burning activities. The influence from a nighttime formed residual layer that mixed down in the morning was found to be much more intense in 2013 than 2010, leading to sharp increases in ground-level concentrations of secondary aerosol species including nitrate, sulfate, and OOA, in the morning between 08:00 to 12:00 PST. This is an indication that nighttime chemistry might also be higher in 2013. As solar radiation was stronger in 2013 the higher nitrate and OOA concentrations in 2013 could also be partly due to greater photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. The greater solar radiation and larger range in temperature in 2013 also likely led to both SV-OOA and LV-OOA being observed in 2013 whereas only a single OOA factor was identified in 2010.less

  18. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  19. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  20. Preparation of supported electrocatalyst comprising multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Gang; Zelenay, Piotr

    2013-08-27

    A process for preparing a durable non-precious metal oxygen reduction electrocatalyst involves heat treatment of a ball-milled mixture of polyaniline and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the presence of a Fe species. The catalyst is more durable than catalysts that use carbon black supports. Performance degradation was minimal or absent after 500 hours of operation at constant cell voltage of 0.40 V.

  1. Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs The RAPTOR system is a network of small robotic observatories that scan the skies for optical anomalies such as flashes emanating from a star in its death throes as it collapses and becomes a black hole. November 21, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory astrophysicist Tom Vestrand poses with a telescope array that is part of the RAPTOR (RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response) system. RAPTOR is an intelligent

  2. Boson shells harboring charged black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike

    2010-11-15

    We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.

  3. Multi-clad black display panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.; Biscardi, Cyrus; Brewster, Calvin

    2002-01-01

    A multi-clad black display panel, and a method of making a multi-clad black display panel, are disclosed, wherein a plurality of waveguides, each of which includes a light-transmissive core placed between an opposing pair of transparent cladding layers and a black layer disposed between transparent cladding layers, are stacked together and sawed at an angle to produce a wedge-shaped optical panel having an inlet face and an outlet face.

  4. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  5. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  6. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  7. Chemical distribution in high-solids paint overspray aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Arcy, J.B.; Chan, T.L. )

    1990-03-01

    The chemical composition of high-solids basecoat paint overspray aerosols was determined as a function of particle size. Detailed information on the chemical composition of the overspray aerosols is important in health hazard evaluation since the composition and distribution within the airborne particles may differ significantly from the bulk paint material. This study was conducted in a typical down-draft paint booth equipped with air-atomized spray painting equipment. A fixed paint target was used to simulate typical overspray generation conditions and the aerosols were collected isokinetically with a seven-stage cascade impactor for size-fractionated analysis. The overspray aerosol from six paints consisted of organic paint binders with varying amounts of inorganic species as pigments or luster enhancers. These overspray aerosols had mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) ranging from 2.9 to 9.7 microns. The size-fractionated paint samples collected on the impaction stages were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry on a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDXRS) to identify the metallic elements. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the mass distribution of aluminum and iron as indicators of nonuniform distribution. Three of the aerosols containing aluminum were found to have bimodal distributions with most aluminum distributions having cumulative MMADs larger than the total aerosol. Iron in the aerosols was bimodal for three of the paints with all samples having an overall iron MMAD less than or equal to the overspray aerosol MMAD. Analysis using ultraviolet spectrometry revealed that the organic compounds present in the size-fractionated particulate samples consisted of a single, polydispersed mode with an MMAD similar to that of the total overspray aerosol.

  8. Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture Fact Sheet Research Team Members Key Contacts Carbon Capture Research & Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power generation is a critical component of realistic strategies for arresting the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but capturing substantial amounts of CO2 using current technology would result in a prohibitive rise in the cost of producing energy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory, in collaboration with researchers from regional

  9. Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Capture Carbon capture involves the separation of CO2 from coal-based power plant flue gas or syngas. Commercially available first-generation CO2 capture technologies are currently being used in various industrial applications. However, in their current state of development, these technologies are not ready for implementation on coal-based power plants because they have not been demonstrated at appropriate scale, require approximately one-third of the plant's steam and power to operate,

  10. National Conference of Black Mayors, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The cooperative agreement enhances the National Conference of Black Mayors, Inc., members' capacity for energy and environmental planning through computer-based technology, Internet access, and a...

  11. Black Coral Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coral Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Coral Capital Address: 55 Union Street, 3rd Floor Place: Boston, Massachusetts Zip: 02108 Region: Greater Boston Area Product:...

  12. Black Hills Energy (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heater: 450 Refrigerator: 30unit Freezer: 30unit Dishwasher: 30unit Television: 25unit CFLLED Bulbs: In-store rebates Summary Black Hills Energy (BHE) offers...

  13. Strengthening Our Partnerships with Historically Black Colleges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis Strengthening Our Partnerships with Historically Black Colleges and Universities Secretary Chu Secretary Chu Former Secretary of Energy Last February, President Obama ...

  14. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the worlds first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STARs spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  15. CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul

    2014-06-02

    What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

  16. CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul

    2014-03-28

    What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

  17. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

  18. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.3, Simulative corrosion of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1 and Task 1.2. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors were tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. The best performing materials in the cup testing were fused cast materials. However, 2 castables appear to outperforming any of the previously tested materials and may perform better than the fused cast materials in operation. The basis of the high performance of these materials is the low open porosity and permeability to black liquor smelt.

  19. Extraordinary vacuum black string solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2008-01-15

    In addition to the boosted static solution there are two other classes of stationary stringlike solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation in (4+1) dimensions. Each class is characterized by three parameters of mass, tension, and momentum flow along the fifth coordinate. We analyze the metric properties of one of the two classes, which was previously assumed to be naked singular, and show that the solution spectrum contains black string and wormhole in addition to the known naked singularity as the momentum flow to mass ratio increases. Interestingly, there does not exist new zero momentum solution in these cases.

  20. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  1. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  2. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  3. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  4. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  5. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  6. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  7. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  8. AmeriFlux US-Prr Poker Flat Research Range Black Spruce Forest

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Suzuki, Rikie [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Prr Poker Flat Research Range Black Spruce Forest. Site Description - This site is located in a blackspruce forest within the property of the Poker Flat Research Range, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Time-lapse image of the canopy is measured at the same time to relate flux data to satellite images.

  9. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2014-09-09

    Marine organic aerosols (MOA) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Model predictions were also in goodmore » agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOA observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOA have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having > 10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly-emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.« less

  10. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-03-17

    Marine-sourced organic aerosols (MOAs) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem (Global Earth Observing System Chemistry) model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Modelmore » predictions were also in good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOAs observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOAs have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having >10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.« less

  11. Fire aerosol experiment and comparisons with computer code predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.; White, B.W.; Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H.; Corkran, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, in cooperation with New Mexico State University, has carried on a series of tests to provide experimental data on fire-generated aerosol transport. These data will be used to verify the aerosol transport capabilities of the FIRAC computer code. FIRAC was developed by Los Alamos for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It is intended to be used by safety analysts to evaluate the effects of hypothetical fires on nuclear plants. One of the most significant aspects of this analysis deals with smoke and radioactive material movement throughout the plant. The tests have been carried out using an industrial furnace that can generate gas temperatures to 300/degree/C. To date, we have used quartz aerosol with a median diameter of about 10 ..mu..m as the fire aerosol simulant. We also plan to use fire-generated aerosols of polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The test variables include two nominal gas flow rates (150 and 300 ft/sup 3//min) and three nominal gas temperatures (ambient, 150/degree/C, and 300/degree/C). The test results are presented in the form of plots of aerosol deposition vs length of duct. In addition, the mass of aerosol caught in a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter during the tests is reported. The tests are simulated with the FIRAC code, and the results are compared with the experimental data. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. GCM parameterization of radiative forcing by Pinatubo aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacis, A.A.; Mishchenko, M.I.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the question of whether the general circulation model (GCM) parameterization of volcanic aerosol forcing can be adequately described in terms of just two physical aerosol parameters: (1) the aerosol column optical thickness and (2) the effective radius of the aerosol size distribution. Data recorded from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines in June 1991 was analyzed to attempt to answer this question. The spatial distribution of the particle size showed considerable variability and was found to increase steadily following the eruption. The time evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol particle size distribution as derived from satellite data differed significantly, particularly in the early phases of the eruption, from that assumed in the initial GCM simulation of the Pinatubo eruption. A bimodal distribution was used to examine the possibility that the actual size distribution of the volcanic aerosol was multimodal. However, results suggested that in most cases the aerosol size distribution was essentially monomodal in nature. Results from the radiative model used in the calculations are also presented. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

    1995-06-27

    A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

  14. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer; Grohse, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

  15. Reprocessing of used tires into activated carbon and other products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, H.; Serio, M.A.; Wojtowicz, M.A.; Bassilakis, R.; Solomon, P.R.

    1995-09-01

    Landfilling used tires which are generated each year in the US is increasingly becoming an unacceptable solution. A better approach, from an environmental and economic standpoint, is to thermally reprocess the tires into valuable products such as activated carbon, other solid carbon forms (carbon black, graphite, and carbon fibers), and liquid fuels. In this study, high surface area activated carbons (> 800 m{sup 2}/g solid product) were produced in relatively high yields by pyrolysis of tires at up to 900 C, followed by activation in CO{sub 2} at the same temperature. The surface areas of these materials are comparable with those of commercial activated carbons. The efficiency of the activation process (gain in specific surface area/loss in mass) was greatest (up to 138 m{sup 2}/g original tire) when large pieces of tire material were used ({approximately} 170 mg). Oxygen pretreatment of tires was found to enhance both the yield and the surface area of the carbon product. High-pressure treatment of tires at low temperatures (< 400 C) is an alternative approach if the recovery of carbon black or fuel oils is the primary objective.

  16. Characterization of Aerosols Containing Zn, Pb, and Cl from an Industrial Region of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Desyaterik, Yury; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Marry K.; Wang, Yan A.; Shutthanandan, V.; Molina, Luisa T.; Abraham, Rodrigo G.; Johnson, Kirsten S.; Mugica, Violeta; Molina, Mario J.; Laskin, Alexander; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2008-10-01

    During the March, 2006 MILAGRO campaign, measurements in the Northern Mexico City Metropolitan Area revealed the frequent appearance of particles with a characteristically high content of internally mixed Zn, Pb, Cl, and P. A comprehensive study of the chemical and physical properties of these particles was performed using a complementary combination of aerosol measurement techniques. Individual particles were analyzed using Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) and Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDX). Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of bulk aerosol samples provided time-resolved mass concentrations of individual elements. The PIXE measurements indicated that Zn is more strongly correlated with Cl than with any other element and that Zn concentrations are higher than other non-ferrous transition metals. The Zn- and Pb - containing particles have both spherical and non-spherical morphologies. Many metal rich particles had needle-like structures and were found to be composed of ZnO and/or Zn(NO3)2?6H2O as indicated by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The Zn and Pb rich particles were primarily in the submicron size range and internally mixed with elemental carbon. The unique chemical associations most closely match signatures acquired for garbage incineration. This unique combination of complementary analytical techniques has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of Zn- and Pb- containing particles in a complex urban environment, highlighting unique characteristics that give powerful insight into their origin.

  17. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  18. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  19. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development were divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  20. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  1. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  2. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  3. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  4. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  5. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  6. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory

  7. Method of Producing Ultra-heavy Homogeneous Aerosol of Sub-micron Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ernest J. Valeo and Nathaniel J. Fisch | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Method of Producing Ultra-heavy Homogeneous Aerosol of Sub-micron Particles Ernest J. Valeo and Nathaniel J. Fisch This invention forms a heavy homogeneous aerosol by agitating sub-micron particles throughacoustic forces and then releasing the aerosol into a low-pressure reservoir. Through this method, the aerosol particulates comprise the dominant mass of the aerosol to produce plasma of the requisite homogeneity,

  8. Carbon particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  9. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  10. Cuttings Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  11. Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes The High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory has released ...

  12. Black Branes in Flux Compactifications (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Black Branes in Flux Compactifications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Black Branes in Flux Compactifications Authors: Torroba, Gonzalo ; Wang, Huajia Publication Date: ...

  13. Carbon microtubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14

    A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

  14. Aerosol mass spectrometry systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fergenson, David P.; Gard, Eric E.

    2013-08-20

    A system according to one embodiment includes a particle accelerator that directs a succession of polydisperse aerosol particles along a predetermined particle path; multiple tracking lasers for generating beams of light across the particle path; an optical detector positioned adjacent the particle path for detecting impingement of the beams of light on individual particles; a desorption laser for generating a beam of desorbing light across the particle path about coaxial with a beam of light produced by one of the tracking lasers; and a controller, responsive to detection of a signal produced by the optical detector, that controls the desorption laser to generate the beam of desorbing light. Additional systems and methods are also disclosed.

  15. Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Carbon Sector Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCarbon&oldid271960...

  16. Liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles: Imaging at the Nanometer Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Lundt, Nils; You, Yuan; Bertram, Allan K.; Leone, Stephen R.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2015-04-21

    Atmospheric aerosols can undergo phase transitions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) while responding to changes in the ambient relative humidity (RH). Here, we report results of chemical imaging experiments using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to investigate the LLPS of micron sized particles undergoing a full hydration-dehydration cycle. Internally mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and either: limonene secondary organic carbon (LSOC), a, 4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneaceticacid (HMMA), or polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) were studied. Events of LLPS with apparent core-shell particle morphology were observed for all samples with both techniques. Chemical imaging with STXM showed that both LSOC/AS and HMMA/AS particles were never homogeneously mixed for all measured RHs above the deliquescence point and that the majority of the organic component was located in the shell. The shell composition was estimated as 65:35 organic: inorganic in LSOC/AS and as 50:50 organic: inorganic for HMMA/AS. PEG-400/AS particles showed fully homogeneous mixtures at high RH and phase separated below 89-92% RH with an estimated 50:50% organic to inorganic mix in the shell. These two chemical imaging techniques are well suited for in-situ analysis of the hygroscopic behavior, phase separation, and surface composition of collected ambient aerosol particles.

  17. Multiday production of condensing organic aerosol mass in urban and forest outflow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Camredon, M.; Valorso, R.

    2015-01-16

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for multiple days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional atmosphere. The SOA mass increase in the forest outflow is more modest (~50%) and of shorter duration (1–2 days). The multiday production in the urban outflow stems from continuing oxidation of gas-phase precursors which persist in equilibrium with the particle phase, and can be attributed to multigenerational reaction productsmore » of both aromatics and alkanes, especially those with relatively low carbon numbers (C4–15). In particular we find large contributions from substituted maleic anhydrides and multi-substituted peroxide-bicyclic alkenes. The results show that the predicted production is a robust feature of our model even under changing atmospheric conditions and different vapor pressure schemes, and contradict the notion that SOA undergoes little mass production beyond a short initial formation period. The results imply that anthropogenic aerosol precursors could influence the chemical and radiative characteristics of the atmosphere over an extremely wide region, and that SOA measurements near precursor sources may routinely underestimate this influence.« less

  18. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

  19. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions.in Winter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARF in the shortwave range is determined by the difference between the net fluxes of the solar radiation, calculated with and without the aerosol component of the atmosphere. The...

  20. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2013-12-01

    In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:

  1. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  2. ARM - PI Product - Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband...

  3. Field Trial of an Aerosol-Based Enclosure Sealing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, Curtis; Springer, David

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results from several demonstrations of a new method for sealing building envelope air leaks using an aerosol sealing process developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at UC Davis. The process involves pressurizing a building while applying an aerosol sealant to the interior. As air escapes through leaks in the building envelope, the aerosol particles are transported to the leaks where they collect and form a seal that blocks the leak. Standard blower door technology is used to facilitate the building pressurization, which allows the installer to track the sealing progress during the installation and automatically verify the final building tightness. Each aerosol envelope sealing installation was performed after drywall was installed and taped, and the process did not appear to interrupt the construction schedule or interfere with other trades working in the homes. The labor needed to physically seal bulk air leaks in typical construction will not be replaced by this technology.

  4. Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in October 2004, we will be able to contrast the arctic aerosol and cloud properties ... it can largely rely on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis. ...

  5. Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric; Riot, Vincent; Coffee, Keith; Woods, Bruce; Tobias, Herbert; Birch, Jim; Weisgraber, Todd

    2008-04-22

    A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) 2015.01.14 - 2015.02.12 Lead...

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - MArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle (MASRAD) IOP Campaign Links Science Plan AMF Point Reyes Website AMF Point Reyes Data Plots ARM Data Discovery Browse Data...

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerial Observations 2015.01.14...

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS) 2007.06.04 - 2007.06.25 Lead...

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Campaign Links BAECC Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2014.06.15, Scott, AMF...

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Airborne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Airborne HSRL and RSP Measurements 2012.07.01 -...

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at...

  13. Microsoft Word - Aerosol Working Group_Norfolk 2008.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactions Under Varying Meteorological Conditions: Southern Great Plains Vs. Pt. Reyes 15:52 0:13 Jefferson AOS mentor report 16:05 0:13 Kassianov Retrieval of Aerosol...

  14. A Physically Based Framework for Modelling the Organic Fractionation of Sea Spray Aerosol from Bubble Film Langmuir Equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Ogunro, O.; Frossard, Amanda; Russell, Lynn M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Elliott, S.

    2014-12-19

    The presence of a large fraction of organic matter in primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) can strongly affect its cloud condensation nuclei activity and interactions with marine clouds. Global climate models require new parameterizations of the SSA composition in order to improve the representation of these processes. Existing proposals for such a parameterization use remotely-sensed chlorophyll-a concentrations as a proxy for the biogenic contribution to the aerosol. However, both observations and theoretical considerations suggest that existing relationships with chlorophyll-a, derived from observations at only a few locations, may not be representative for all ocean regions. We introduce a novel framework for parameterizing the fractionation of marine organic matter into SSA based on a competitive Langmuir adsorption equilibrium at bubble surfaces. Marine organic matter is partitioned into classes with differing molecular weights, surface excesses, and Langmuir adsorption parameters. The classes include a lipid-like mixture associated with labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a polysaccharide-like mixture associated primarily with semi-labile DOC, a protein-like mixture with concentrations intermediate between lipids and polysaccharides, a processed mixture associated with recalcitrant surface DOC, and a deep abyssal humic-like mixture. Box model calculations have been performed for several cases of organic adsorption to illustrate the underlying concepts. We then apply the framework to output from a global marine biogeochemistry model, by partitioning total dissolved organic carbon into several classes of macromolecule. Each class is represented by model compounds with physical and chemical properties based on existing laboratory data. This allows us to globally map the predicted organic mass fraction of the nascent submicron sea spray aerosol. Predicted relationships between chlorophyll-\\textit{a} and organic fraction are similar to existing empirical parameterizations, but can vary between biologically productive and non-productive regions, and seasonally within a given region. Major uncertainties include the bubble film thickness at bursting and the variability of organic surfactant activity in the ocean, which is poorly constrained. In addition, marine colloids and cooperative adsorption of polysaccharides may make important contributions to the aerosol, but are not included here. This organic fractionation framework is an initial step towards a closer linking of ocean biogeochemistry and aerosol chemical composition in Earth system models. Future work should focus on improving constraints on model parameters through new laboratory experiments or through empirical fitting to observed relationships in the real ocean and atmosphere, as well as on atmospheric implications of the variable composition of organic matter in sea spray.

  15. Ldrd-2015-00076 -- Validation Study Of The SRNL Vacuum Aerosol Contaminant Extractor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegfried, M.

    2015-10-14

    SRNL recently developed a prototype device for the IAEA to prepare particulate samples collected on swipes for laboratory analysis. The Vacuum Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (VacACE) utilizes electrostatic precipitation in lieu of the impaction or ultrasonic solvent extraction methods presently employed by the IAEA to place particles of interest on carbon planchets for investigation. The project was funded by the Intentional Safeguards Projects Office (ISPO) with scope for device design and fabrication, but no scope for validation or testing. Without documented validation of the tool, sample processing and subsequent analysis fidelity cannot be assured. The goal of this project was to determine collection efficacy in a rigorous fashion, demonstrate proof of concept with standardized particulates, and produce a validated VacACE sampling protocol.

  16. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report (Program

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Document) | SciTech Connect Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient

  17. Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Journal Article: Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights Authors: Shinozuka Y. ; Wagener R. ; Johnson, R. R. ; Flynn, C. J. ; Russell, P. B. ; Schmid, B. ; Redemann, J. ; Dunagan, S. E. ; Kluzek, C. D. ; Hubbe, J. M. ; Segal-Rosenheimer, M. ; Livingston, J. M. ; Eck, T. F. ; Gregory, L. ; Chand, D. ; Berg, L. K. ; Rogers, R. R. ; Ferrare, R. A. ; Hair, J. W. ;

  18. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, J; Zhang, Q; Tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

    2013-08-23

    Significantly improved returns in their aerosol chemistry data can be achieved via the development of a value-added product (VAP) of deriving OA components, called Organic Aerosol Components (OACOMP). OACOMP is primarily based on multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix. The key outputs of OACOMP are the concentration time series and the mass spectra of OA factors that are associated with distinct sources, formation and evolution processes, and physicochemical properties.

  19. Observed Aerosol Radiative Forcings: Comparison for Natural and Anthropogenic Sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Radiative Forcings: Comparison for Natural and Anthropogenic Sources A. M. Vogelmann Center for Atmospheric Sciences and Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California San Diego, California Introduction The modeling of radiative forcing, and aerosol radiative forcing in particular, is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting climate change (Hansen et al. 1998). Addressing this uncertainty first requires an accurate

  20. Understanding the Effect of Aerosol Properties on Cloud Droplet Formation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    during TCAP Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Understanding the Effect of Aerosol Properties on Cloud Droplet Formation during TCAP Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Understanding the Effect of Aerosol Properties on Cloud Droplet Formation during TCAP Field Campaign Report The formation of clouds is an essential element in understanding the Earth's radiative budget. Liquid water clouds

  1. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Science Plan (Program

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Document) | SciTech Connect ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Science Plan The western U.S. receives precipitation predominantly during the cold season when storms approach from the Pacific Ocean. The snowpack that accumulates during winter storms provides about 70-90% of water supply for the region. Understanding and modeling the fundamental processes that govern the

  2. Comprehensive Mapping and Characteristic Regimes of Aerosol Effects on the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Formation and Evolution of Pyro-Convective Clouds (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Comprehensive Mapping and Characteristic Regimes of Aerosol Effects on the Formation and Evolution of Pyro-Convective Clouds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comprehensive Mapping and Characteristic Regimes of Aerosol Effects on the Formation and Evolution of Pyro-Convective Clouds A recent parcel model study (Reutter et al., 2009) showed three deterministic regimes of initial cloud droplet

  3. Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Climate and Clouds. Cloud Optical Depth

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (COD) Sensor Three-Waveband Spectrally-Agile Technique (TWST) Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Climate and Clouds. Cloud Optical Depth (COD) Sensor Three-Waveband Spectrally-Agile Technique (TWST) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Climate and Clouds. Cloud Optical Depth (COD) Sensor Three-Waveband Spectrally-Agile Technique (TWST) Field Campaign Report This report describes

  4. Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Field Campaign Report (Program Document) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Program Document: Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment Field Campaign Report The snowfall measurement campaign took place during deployment of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research

  5. Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (HI-SCALE) Science Plan (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Science Plan Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the Southern Great Plains and over many regions of the world, particularly during the

  6. ARM AOS Processing Status and Aerosol Intensive Properties VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS Processing Status and Aerosol Intensive Properties VAP A. S. Koontz and C. J. Flynn Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington J. A. Ogren, E. Andrews, and P. J. Sheridan National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado Abstract The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Observing System (AOS) has been operating at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility since 1996. In response to the cross-cutting broad- band heating rate profile value

  7. Atmospheric Science Program Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) General Description 'Cumulus humilis' is the scientific term used to describe the small fair weather clouds that dot the summer skies over Oklahoma. During the month of June, scientists sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program will use aircraft and ground based instruments to obtain information about the physical and chemical properties of these clouds and the small airborne particles - called aerosols -

  8. Thermodynamic Characterization of Mexico City Aerosol during MILAGRO 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountoukis, C.; Nenes, A.; Sullivan, A.; Weber, R.; VanReken, T.; Fischer, M.; Matias, E.; Moya, M.; Farmer, D.; Cohen, R.C.

    2008-12-05

    Fast measurements of aerosol and gas-phase constituents coupled with the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic equilibrium model are used to study the partitioning of semivolatile inorganic species and phase state of Mexico City aerosol sampled at the T1 site during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign. Overall, predicted semivolatile partitioning agrees well with measurements. PM{sub 2.5} is insensitive to changes in ammonia but is to acidic semivolatile species. For particle sizes up to 1 {micro}m diameter, semi-volatile partitioning requires 30-60 min to equilibrate; longer time is typically required during the night and early morning hours. When the aerosol sulfate-to-nitrate molar ratio is less than unity, predictions improve substantially if the aerosol is assumed to follow the deliquescent phase diagram. Treating crustal species as 'equivalent sodium' (rather than explicitly) in the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations introduces important biases in predicted aerosol water uptake, nitrate and ammonium; neglecting crustals further increases errors dramatically. This suggests that explicitly considering crustals in the thermodynamic calculations is required to accurately predict the partitioning and phase state of aerosols.

  9. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2004-04-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of September 2003 through February 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include chemical fractionation of the organic fraction to quantify the ratio of organic mass to organic carbon (OM/OC). The average OM/OC ratio for the 31 samples analyzed so far is 1.89, ranging between 1.62 and 2.53, which is consistent with expectations for an atmospherically processed regional aerosol. Analysis of the single particle data reveals that a on a particles in Pittsburgh consist of complex mixture of primary and secondary components. Approximately 79% of all particles measured with the instrument containing some form of carbon, with Carbonaceous Ammonium Nitrate (54.43%) being the dominant particle class. PMCAMx predictions were compared with data from more than 50 sites of the STN network located throughout the Eastern United States for the July 2001 period. OC and sulfate concentrations predicted by PMCAMx are within {+-}30% of the observed concentration at most of these sites. Spherical Aluminum Silicate particle concentrations (SAS) were used to estimate the contribution of primary coal emissions to fine particle levels at the central monitoring site. Primary emissions from coal combustion contribute on average 0.44 {+-} 0.3 {micro}g/m{sup 3} to PM{sub 2.5} at the site or 1.4 {+-} 1.3% of the total PM{sub 2.5} mass. Chemical mass balance analysis was performed to apportion the primary organic aerosol. About 70% of the primary OC emissions are from vehicular sources, with the gasoline contribution being on average three times greater than the diesel emissions in the summer.

  10. Early black hole signals at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Ben; Bleicher, Marcus; Stoecker, Horst

    2007-10-26

    The production of mini black holes due to large extra dimensions is a speculative but possible scenario. We survey estimates for di-jet suppression, and multi-mono-jet emission due to black hole production. We further look for a possible sub-scenario which is the formation of a stable or meta-stable black hole remnant (BHR). We show that the beauty of such objects is, that they are relatively easy to observe, even in the early phase of LHC running.

  11. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 912 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 612 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile emissions; and dust. The extended AMF deployment will enable measurements under different regimes of the climate and aerosol abundancein the wet monsoon period with low aerosol loading; in the dry, hot summer with aerosols dispersed throughout the atmospheric column; and in the cool, dry winter with aerosols confined mostly to the boundary later and mid-troposphere. Each regime, in addition, has its own distinct radiative and atmospheric dynamic drivers. The aircraft operational phase will assist in characterizing the aerosols at times when they have been observed to be at the highest concentrations. A number of agencies in India will collaborate with the proposed field study and provide support in terms of planning, aircraft measurements, and surface sites. The high concentration of aerosols in the upper Ganges Valley, together with hypotheses involving several possible mechanisms with direct impacts on the hydrologic cycle of the region, gives us a unique opportunity to generate data sets that will be useful both in understanding the processes at work and in providing answers regarding the effects of aerosols on climate in a region where the perturbation is the highest.

  12. Department of Energy Research Opportunities for Historically Black Colleges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Universities | Department of Energy Department of Energy Research Opportunities for Historically Black Colleges and Universities Department of Energy Research Opportunities for Historically Black Colleges and Universities Information about the Department's laboratories, funding opportunities, partnerships with Historically Black Colleges and Universities, WDTS Program Mission. PDF icon Department of Energy Research Opportunities for Historically Black Colleges and Universities More

  13. New understanding and quantification of the regime dependence of aerosol-cloud interaction for studying aerosol indirect effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Jingyi; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Minghua; Peng, Yiran

    2016-02-28

    In this study, aerosol indirect effects suffer from large uncertainty in climate models and among observations. This study focuses on two plausible factors: regime dependence of aerosol-cloud interactions and the effect of cloud droplet spectral shape. We show, using a new parcel model, that combined consideration of droplet number concentration (Nc) and relative dispersion (ε, ratio of standard deviation to mean radius of the cloud droplet size distribution) better characterizes the regime dependence of aerosol-cloud interactions than considering Nc alone. Given updraft velocity (w), ε increases with increasing aerosol number concentration (Na) in the aerosol-limited regime, peaks in the transitionalmore » regime, and decreases with further increasing Na in the updraft-limited regime. This new finding further reconciles contrasting observations in literature and reinforces the compensating role of dispersion effect. The nonmonotonic behavior of ε further quantifies the relationship between the transitional Na and w that separates the aerosol- and updraft-limited regimes.« less

  14. Aerosol specification in single-column CAM5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P.

    2014-11-17

    The ability to run a global climate model in single-column mode is very useful for testing model improvements because single-column models (SCMs) are inexpensive to run and easy to interpret. A major breakthrough in Version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is the inclusion of prognostic aerosol. Unfortunately, this improvement was not coordinated with the SCM version of CAM5 and as a result CAM5-SCM initializes aerosols to zero. In this study we explore the impact of running CAM5-SCM with aerosol initialized to zero (hereafter named Default) and test three potential fixes. The first fix is to use CAM5's prescribedmore » aerosol capability, which specifies aerosols at monthly climatological values. The second method is to prescribe aerosols at observed values. The third approach is to fix droplet and ice crystal numbers at prescribed values. We test our fixes in four different cloud regimes to ensure representativeness: subtropical drizzling stratocumulus (based on the DYCOMS RF02 case study), mixed-phase Arctic stratocumulus (using the MPACE-B case study), tropical shallow convection (using the RICO case study), and summertime mid-latitude continental convection (using the ARM95 case study). Stratiform cloud cases (DYCOMS RF02 and MPACE-B) were found to have a strong dependence on aerosol concentration, while convective cases (RICO and ARM95) were relatively insensitive to aerosol specification. This is perhaps expected because convective schemes in CAM5 do not currently use aerosol information. Adequate liquid water content in the MPACE-B case was only maintained when ice crystal number concentration was specified because the Meyers et al. (1992) deposition/condensation ice nucleation scheme used by CAM5 greatly overpredicts ice nucleation rates, causing clouds to rapidly glaciate. Surprisingly, predicted droplet concentrations for the ARM95 region in both SCM and global runs were around 25 cm−3, which is much lower than observed. This finding suggests that CAM5 has problems capturing aerosol effects in this climate regime.« less

  15. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-10-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program, performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, had significant inputs from, and is strongly supported and coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and the U.K., as part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC.

  16. Black Emerald Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Emerald Group Address: 4 Park Place Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SW1A 1LP Product: Investment banking firm specializing in...

  17. black out | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dc(266) Contributor 31 October, 2014 - 10:58 What do you know about the grid? black out brown out bulk power system electricity grid future grid grid history security Smart Grid...

  18. Spectral line broadening in magnetized black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.; Tzounis, Christos E-mail: ashoom@ualberta.ca

    2014-07-01

    We consider weakly magnetized non-rotating black holes. In the presence of a regular magnetic field the motion of charged particles in the vicinity of a black hole is modified. As a result, the position of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) becomes closer to the horizon. When the Lorentz force is repulsive (directed from the black hole) the ISCO radius can reach the gravitational radius. In the process of accretion charged particles (ions) of the accreting matter can be accumulated near their ISCO, while neutral particles fall down to the black hole after they reach 6M radius. The sharp spectral line Fe α, emitted by iron ions at such orbits, is broadened when the emission is registered by a distant observer. In this paper we study this broadening effect and discuss how one can extract information concerning the strength of the magnetic field from the observed spectrum.

  19. Black Pine Engineering Wins Clean Energy Trust Clean Energy Challenge |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Black Pine Engineering Wins Clean Energy Trust Clean Energy Challenge Black Pine Engineering Wins Clean Energy Trust Clean Energy Challenge April 11, 2014 - 11:20am Addthis Black Pine Engineering's pilot compressor in California. The team won the Clean Energy Trust Clean Energy Challenge, securing its spot as a regional finalist in the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition. | Photo courtesy of Black Pine Engineering Black Pine Engineering's pilot compressor in

  20. The compressibility of cubic white, orthorhombic black and rhombohedral

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    black phosphorus (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: The compressibility of cubic white, orthorhombic black and rhombohedral black phosphorus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The compressibility of cubic white, orthorhombic black and rhombohedral black phosphorus The effect of pressure on the crystal structure of white phosphorus has been studied up to 22.4 GPa. The {alpha} phase was found to transform into the {alpha}' phase at 0.87 {+-} 0.04 GPa with a volume

  1. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  2. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  3. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-07-12

    The CARES field campaign is motivated by the scientific issues described in the CARES Science Plan. The primary objectives of this field campaign are to investigate the evolution and aging of carbonaceous aerosols and their climate-affecting properties in the urban plume of Sacramento, California, a mid-size, mid-latitude city that is located upwind of a biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission region. Our basic observational strategy is to make comprehensive gas, aerosol, and meteorological measurements upwind, within, and downwind of the urban area with the DOE G-1 aircraft and at strategically located ground sites so as to study the evolution of urban aerosols as they age and mix with biogenic SOA precursors. The NASA B-200 aircraft, equipped with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), digital camera, and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), will be flown in coordination with the G-1 to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties, and to provide the vertical context for the G-1 and ground in situ measurements.

  4. Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; Hengartner, Nicholas; Higdon, Dave; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2016-02-20

    Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosolmore » effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.« less

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL 2011.06.01, Sedlacek, OSC Comments? We would...

  6. Long-term impacts of aerosols on the vertical development of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Long-term impacts of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and precipitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Long-term impacts of aerosols on ...

  7. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument ...

  8. T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PROBLEM: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. PLATFORM: * BlackBerry Enterprise Server Express version...

  9. THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  10. Rotating black hole thermodynamics with a particle probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon

    2011-10-15

    The thermodynamics of Myers-Perry black holes in general dimensions are studied using a particle probe. When undergoing particle absorption, the changes of the entropy and irreducible mass are shown to be dependent on the particle radial momentum. The black hole thermodynamic behaviors are dependent on dimensionality for specific rotations. For a 4-dimensional Kerr black hole, its black hole properties are maintained for any particle absorption. 5-dimensional black holes can avoid a naked ring singularity by absorbing a particle in specific momenta ranges. Black holes over 6 dimensions become ultraspinning black holes through a specific form of particle absorption. The microscopical changes are interpreted in limited cases of Myers-Perry black holes using Kerr/CFT correspondence. We systematically describe the black hole properties changed by particle absorption in all dimensions.

  11. The dependence of cloud particle size and precipitation probability on non-aerosol-loading related variables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explaining and reducing the uncertainties in the first aerosol i Explaining and reducing the uncertainties in the first aerosol indirect effect ndirect effect Hongfei Shao and Guosheng Liu Meteorology Department, Florida State University INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Anthropogenic aerosols enhance cloud reflectance of solar radiation by increasing the cloud droplet number concentrations. This so-called first Aerosol Indirect Effect (AIE) has a potentially large cooling tendency on our planet.

  12. "Lidar Investigations of Aerosol, Cloud, and Boundary Layer Properties

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Over the ARM ACRF Sites" (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: "Lidar Investigations of Aerosol, Cloud, and Boundary Layer Properties Over the ARM ACRF Sites" Citation Details In-Document Search Title: "Lidar Investigations of Aerosol, Cloud, and Boundary Layer Properties Over the ARM ACRF Sites" Project goals; Characterize the aerosol and ice vertical distributions over the ARM NSA site, and in particular to discriminate between elevated aerosol

  13. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity of Aerosols during GoAmazon 2014/15

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity of Aerosols during GoAmazon 2014/15 Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity of Aerosols during GoAmazon 2014/15 Field Campaign Report Aerosol indirect effects, which represent the impact of aerosols on climate through influencing the properties of clouds, remain one of the main uncertainties in climate predictions (Stocker et al. 2013).

  14. Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    April 2008 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) April 2008 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) April 2008 The ARM Climate Research Facility's (ACRF) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP) will deploy an intensive cloud and aerosol observing system to the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale for a five week Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol

  15. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan (Program Document) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) field campaign will provide a detailed set of observations with which to (1) perform radiative and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure studies, (2) evaluate a new retrieval algorithm for aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the presence of clouds using passive remote sensing, (3) extend a

  16. Aerosols and Clouds: In Cahoots to Change Climate

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry

    2014-06-02

    Key knowledge gaps persist despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. The Two-Column Aerosol Project, or TCAP, was designed to provide a detailed set of observations to tackle this area of unknowns. Led by PNNL atmospheric scientist Larry Berg, ARM's Climate Research Facility was deployed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts for the 12-month duration of TCAP, which came to a close in June 2013. "We are developing new tools to look at particle chemistry, like our mass spectrometer used in TCAP that can tell us the individual chemical composition of an aerosol," said Berg. "Then, we'll run our models and compare it with the data that we have to make sure we're getting correct answers and make sure our climate models are reflecting the best information."

  17. Aerosols and Clouds: In Cahoots to Change Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry

    2014-03-29

    Key knowledge gaps persist despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. The Two-Column Aerosol Project, or TCAP, was designed to provide a detailed set of observations to tackle this area of unknowns. Led by PNNL atmospheric scientist Larry Berg, ARM's Climate Research Facility was deployed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts for the 12-month duration of TCAP, which came to a close in June 2013. "We are developing new tools to look at particle chemistry, like our mass spectrometer used in TCAP that can tell us the individual chemical composition of an aerosol," said Berg. "Then, we'll run our models and compare it with the data that we have to make sure we're getting correct answers and make sure our climate models are reflecting the best information."

  18. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate-particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-03-06

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water-solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water-solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate-particles exposed to OH andmore » O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH/O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~0.1, indicating that chemically-aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally-mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient amount of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide-range of solubilities.« less

  19. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-09-14

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low-soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate particles exposed tomore » OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH and O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~ 0.1, indicating that chemically aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH-exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient number of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and is not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide range of solubilities.« less

  20. Carbon Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Capital Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: Manages a carbon fund specialised in forestry projects References: Carbon...