Sample records for black carbon aerosols

  1. Climate Impacts of Atmospheric Sulfate and Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Song, Qingyuan; Menon, Surabi; Yu, Shaocai; Liu, Shaw C.; Shi, Guangyu; Leung, Lai R.; Luo, Yunfeng

    2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the global average surface temperature has increased by about 0.6°C during the last century (IPCC, 2001), some regions such as East Asia, Eastern North America, and Western Europe have cooled rather than warmed during the past decades (Jones, 1988; Qian and Giorgi, 2000). Coherent changes at the regional scale may reflect responses to different climate forcings that need to be understood in order to predict the future net climate response at the global and regional scales under different emission scenarios. Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in global climate change (IPCC 2001). They perturb the earth’s radiative budget directly by scattering and absorbing solar and long wave radiation, and indirectly by changing cloud reflectivity, lifetime, and precipitation efficiency via their role as cloud condensation nuclei. Because aerosols have much shorter lifetime (days to weeks) compared to most greenhouse gases, they tend to concentrate near their emission sources and distribute very unevenly both in time and space. This non-uniform distribution of aerosols, in conjunction with the greenhouse effect, may lead to differential net heating in some areas and net cooling in others (Penner et al. 1994). Sulfate aerosols come mainly from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from fossil fuel burning. Black carbon aerosols are directly emitted during incomplete combustion of biomass, coal, and diesel derived sources. Due to the different optical properties, sulfate and black carbon affect climate in different ways. Because of the massive emissions of sulfur and black carbon that accompany the rapid economic expansions in East Asia, understanding the effects of aerosols on climate is particularly important scientifically and politically in order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  2. A modeling study on the climate impacts of black carbon aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.

    The role of black carbon (BC) aerosols in climate change is important because of its strong capability in causing extinction of solar radiation. A three-dimensional interactive aerosol-climate model has been used to study ...

  3. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  4. The Effects of Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols in ChinaRegions on East Asia Monsoons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Bai [ORNL; Liu, Yu [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China; Sun, Jiaren [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Guangzhou, China

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we examine the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China on East Asia monsoons and its precipitation processes by using the CAM3.0 model. It is demonstrated that sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China both have the effects to weaken East Asia monsoons in both summer and winter seasons. However, they certainly differ from each other in affecting vertical structures of temperature and atmospheric circulations. Their differences are expected because of their distinct optical properties, i.e., scattering vs. absorbing. Even for a single type of aerosol, its effects on temperature structures and atmospheric circulations are largely season-dependent. Applications of T-test on our results indicate that forcing from black carbon aerosols over China is relatively weak and limited. It is also evident from our results that the effects of synthetic aerosols (sulfate and black carbon together) on monsoons are not simply a linear summation between these two types of aerosols. Instead, they are determined by their integrated optical properties. Synthetic aerosols to a large degree resemble effects of sulfate aerosols. This implies a likely scattering property for the integration of black carbon and sulfate aerosols in China.

  5. Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Salil [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Hack, James J [ORNL; Truesdale, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $\\textnormal W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $\\textnormal W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $\\textnormal W^{-1} \\textnormal m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $\\textnormal PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

  6. aerosol black carbon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however,...

  7. The sensitivity of tropical convective precipitation to the direct radiative forcings of black carbon aerosols emitted from major regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien

    Previous works have suggested that the direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) aerosols are able to force a significant change in tropical convective precipitation ranging from the Pacific and Indian Ocean to ...

  8. Optical Properties of Mixed Black Carbon, Inorganic and Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulson, S E

    2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the achievements of the project, which are divided into four areas: 1) Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols; 2) Development and of a polar nephelometer to measure aerosol optical properties and theoretical approaches to several optical analysis problems, 3) Studies on the accuracy of measurements of absorbing carbon by several methods, and 4) Environmental impacts of biodiesel.

  9. Will black carbon mitigation dampen aerosol indirect forcing?1 W.-T. Chen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nenes, Athanasios

    of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Ambient27 measurements indicate that freshly emitted BC, Pasadena, CA, USA11 *To whom correspondence should be addressed12 13 If mitigation of black carbon (BC17 of primary black carbon/organic carbon (BC/OC) mass and number emissions from fossil18 fuel

  10. Black carbon radiative heating effects on cloud microphysics and implications for the aerosol indirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nenes, Athanasios

    thought. 1. Introduction Black Carbon (BC) has important effects on climate, owing to its ability of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125, USA Abstract. This work examines the effect of black carbon (BC) radiative heating on cloud droplet formation. Changes in cloud droplet concentration and cloud albedo due

  11. Extraneous Carbon Assessments in Radiocarbon Measurements of Black Carbon in Environmental Matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppola, Alysha; Ziolkowski, L. A.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rived (black/elemental) carbon in soils and sediments usingbon measurements of black carbon in aerosols and oceanMWI, Noack AG. 2000. Black carbon in soils and sediments:

  12. Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols T. Novakov,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    climate and the hydrologic cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001a; Menon et al., 2002]. BC and sulfate aerosols that BC may have contributed to global temperature changes in the past century. This implies that the BC history needs to be represented realistically in climate change assessments. INDEX TERMS: 0305 Atmospheric

  13. Chemical Bonding and Structural Information of Black CarbonReference Materials and Individual Carbonaceous AtmosphericAerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Marten, Bryan D.; Gilles, Mary K.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratios and graphitic nature of a rangeof black carbon standard reference materials (BC SRMs), high molecularmass humic-like substances (HULIS) and atmospheric particles are examinedusing scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with nearedge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. UsingSTXM/NEXAFS, individual particles with diameter>100 nm are studied,thus the diversity of atmospheric particles collected during a variety offield missions is assessed. Applying a semi-quantitative peak fittingmethod to the NEXAFS spectra enables a comparison of BC SRMs and HULIS toparticles originating from anthropogenic combustion and biomass burns,thus allowing determination of the suitability of these materials forrepresenting atmospheric particles. Anthropogenic combustion and biomassburn particles can be distinguished from one another using both chemicalbonding and structural ordering information. While anthropogeniccombustion particles are characterized by a high proportion ofaromatic-C, the presence of benzoquinone and are highly structurallyordered, biomass burn particles exhibit lower structural ordering, asmaller proportion of aromatic-C and contain a much higher proportion ofoxygenated functional groups.

  14. Emissions of black carbon, organic, and inorganic aerosols from biomass burning in North America and Asia in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    assessment of the impact of aerosols emitted from boreal forest fires on the Arctic climate necessitates) in summer 2008 and in those transported from Asia (Siberia in Russia and Kazakhstan) in spring 2008. We the microphysical properties of clouds [Lubin and Vogelmann, 2006]. Deposition of BC onto snow and ice changes

  15. Direct climate effect of black carbon in China and its impact on dust storms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    Click Here for Full Article Direct climate effect of black carbon in China and its impact on dust aerosols in China, particularly black carbon (BC), is the primary reason for precipitation and temperature, W. Chen, and H. Liao (2010), Direct climate effect of black carbon in China and its impact on dust

  16. Correlations between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    instruments and photoelectric aerosol sensors in source-sampling of black carbon aerosol and particle-bound PAHsAirborne minerals and related aerosol particles: Effects on

  17. 6, 34193463, 2006 Black carbon or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous;ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page

  18. Present and potential future contributions of sulfate, black and organic carbon aerosols from China to global air quality, premature mortality and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    analysis indicates that increased effort to reduce greenhouse gases is essential to address climate change mortality and climate change has not been well quantified. Through both direct radiative effects, they have not considered the effect of aerosols on radiative forcing (RF) and climate change. Although

  19. Organic carbon and non-refractory aerosol over the remote1 Southeast Pacific: oceanic and combustion sources2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    1 Organic carbon and non-refractory aerosol over the remote1 Southeast Pacific: oceanic ratios between 0.25 and 0.40, and in some cases as high as 3.5. CO and12 black carbon (BC) measurements-salt particles30 from wave breaking and bubble bursting, as well as gas to particle conversion of vapors31

  20. Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . Abstract: Black carbon (BC) may play an important role in the global C...

  1. Morphology of PolyethyleneCarbon Black Composites G. BEAUCAGE,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    Morphology of Polyethylene­Carbon Black Composites G. BEAUCAGE,1 S. RANE,1 D. W. SCHAEFER,1 G. LONG-ray scattering (SAXS) study of a conductive grade of carbon black and carbon black­polymer composites(methyl methacrylate); carbon black; filler; composite; conductivity; percolation INTRODUCTION The morphology

  2. Black Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Black Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product? Simone Submitted on December 21, 2007 Reviewed April 1, 2008 Abstract Black carbon (BC) is a very oxidation, charcoal, and soot. Due to its high recalcitrance, black carbon might act as a long-term carbon sink

  3. 4, 34853533, 2004 Black carbon from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . Important climatic effects due to direct impacts on radiation can be expected (e.g. Schult et al., 1997 and Seinfeld, 2002; Jacobson, 2002). Additionally, indirect climatic effects due to impacts on cloud droplet Discussions Simulating the global atmospheric black carbon cycle: a revisit to the contribution of aircraft

  4. Formation of brown carbon via reactions of ammonia with secondary organic aerosols from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Formation of brown carbon via reactions of ammonia with secondary organic aerosols from biogenic t aerosols change color from white to brown in pres- ence of ammonia. occurs for a wide range of biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols.

  5. Coal water suspensions involving carbon black

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, D.P.; Thompson, D.G.

    1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a composition comprising: about 65 to 80% by weight of coal particulates with a particle size distribution within 10% of the value calculated in accordance with a Funk distribution which assumes a maximum coal particle size of about 300 microns and minimum coal particle size of about 0.5 microns; about 0.2 to 2% by weight, as based upon the total weight of dry coal, of carbon black having a primary carbon particle size in the range of about 200 to about 900 Angstroms which primary carbon particles are simultaneously bound together to form primary reticulated chains having lengths in the range of about 500 to 30,000 Angstroms; a carrier liquid comprising 20 to 35 wt % water; and from 0.2 to 2.0 wt % of a dispersant selected from the group consisting of ammonium naphthalene sulfonic acid, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and ammonium lignosulfonate.

  6. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

  7. atmospheric black carbon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 II. Black Carbon, Atmospheric Brown Clouds and Greenhouse Effect: Background CiteSeer Summary: satellite. The optical depth is a good index for...

  8. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  9. Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Tami C.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Fahey, D. W.; Forster, Piers; Berntsen, T.; DeAngelo, B. J.; Flanner, M. G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Karcher, B.; Koch, Dorothy; Kinne, Stefan; Kondo, Yutaka; Quinn, P. K.; Sarofim, Marcus; Schultz, Martin; Schulz, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Bellouin, N.; Guttikunda, S. K.; Hopke, P. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Kaiser, J. W.; Klimont, Z.; Lohmann, U.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Shindell, Drew; Storelvmo, Trude; Warren, Stephen G.; Zender, C. S.

    2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Black carbon aerosol plays a unique and important role in Earth’s climate system. Black carbon is a type of carbonaceous material with a unique combination of physical properties. Predominant sources are combustion related; namely, fossil fuels for transportation, solid fuels for industrial and residential uses, and open burning of biomass. Total global emissions of black carbon using bottom-up inventory methods are 7500 Gg yr-1 in the year 2000 with an uncertainty range of 2000 to 29000. This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption, influence on liquid, mixed-phase, and ice clouds, and deposition on snow and ice. These effects are calculated with models, but when possible, they are evaluated with both microphysical measurements and field observations. Global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon is too low in many models, and should be increased by about about 60%. After this scaling, the best estimate for the industrial-era (1750 to 2005) direct radiative forcing of black carbon is +0.43 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of (+0.17, +0.68) W m-2. Total direct forcing by all black carbon sources in the present day is estimated as +0.49 (+0.20, +0.76) W m-2. Direct radiative forcing alone does not capture important rapid adjustment mechanisms. A framework is described and used for quantifying climate forcings and their rapid responses and feedbacks. The best estimate of industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon through all forcing mechanisms is +0.77 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of +-0.06 to +1.53 W m-2. Thus, there is a 96% probability that black carbon emissions, independent of co-emitted species, have a positive forcing and warm the climate. With a value of +0.77 W m-2, black carbon is likely the second most important individual climate-forcing agent in the industrial era, following carbon dioxide. Sources that emit black carbon also emit other short- lived species that may either cool or warm climate. Climate forcings from co-emitted species are estimated and used in the framework described herein. When the principal effects of co- emissions, including cooling agents such as sulfur dioxide, are included in net forcing, energy-related sources (fossil-fuel and biofuel) have a net climate forcing of +0.004 (-0.62 to +0.57) W m-2 during the first year after emission. For a few of these sources, such as diesel engines and possibly residential biofuels, warming is strong enough that eliminating all emissions from these sources would reduce net climate forcing (i.e., produce cooling). When open burning emissions, which emit high levels of organic matter, are included in the total, the best estimate of net industrial-era climate forcing by all black- carbon-rich sources becomes slightly negative (-0.08 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of -1.23 to +0.81 W m-2). The uncertainties in net climate forcing from black-carbon-rich sources are substantial, largely due to lack of knowledge about cloud interactions with both black carbon and co-emitted organic carbon. In prioritizing potential black-carbon mitigation actions, non-science factors, such as technical feasibility, costs, policy design, and implementation feasibility play important roles. The major sources of black carbon are presently in different stages with regard to the feasibility for near-term mitigation. This assessment, by evaluating the large number and complexity of the associated physical and radiative processes in black-carbon climate forcing, sets a baseline from which to improve future climate forcing estimates.

  10. Black carbon in Arctic snow and its effect on surface albedo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Black carbon in Arctic snow and its effect on surface albedo Stephen Warren, University wavelengths: ice is nearly transparent. Absorptive impurities: Black carbon (soot) Brown carbon (organics broadband albedo: 83% 71% (2) by addition of black carbon (BC) (20 ppb): 0.5% for r = 100 µm 1.6% for r

  11. Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions Liquid Hydrogen) and tetroxide (24) Large amounts of nitrogen oxides. Kerosene Rockets 2 and black carbon (soot). Focus: New carbon in the stratosphere. The large amount of black carbon emitted by these engines is caused

  12. Does black carbon and humic materials in snow and ice Supervisor: Martin D. King

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    ) burner technology changes the and optics properties of black carbon change. As little as 10 ng of Black carbon in snowpack is a factor of two more effective than carbon dioxide in changing global air with different black carbon and humic loadings, modeling the optical properties of the snow/ice and measuring

  13. Proposed Studentship Does black carbon and humic materials in snow and ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    ) black carbon is increasing or (b) burner technology changes the and optics properties of black carbon carbon dioxide in changing global air temperatures.2 The successful candidate will set-up and conductProposed Studentship Does black carbon and humic materials in snow and ice decay? Supervisors: Dr

  14. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

  15. Size distributions of ionic aerosols measured at Waliguan Observatory: Implication for nitrate gas-to-particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    Size distributions of ionic aerosols measured at Waliguan Observatory: Implication for nitrate gas Plateau. Size-resolved ionic aerosols (NH4 + , Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ , SO4 2À , ClÀ , NO3 À CO3 2À , formate, acetate and oxalate), organic aerosols, black carbon and gaseous HNO3 and SO2 were measured

  16. Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Black Carbon During ACE-A. Hakami 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandu, Adrian

    in northeast China and Japan are increased. 1 #12;Introduction Black (or elemental) carbon (BC) is the mainAdjoint Inverse Modeling of Black Carbon During ACE- Asia A. Hakami 1 , D. K. Henze 1 , J. H model is used for inverse modeling of black carbon during ACE- Asia. We use the 4D-Var approach

  17. Size-resolved parameterization of primary organic carbon in fresh marine aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Michael S [ORNL; Keene, William C [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine aerosols produced by the bursting of artificially generated bubbles in natural seawater are highly enriched (2 to 3 orders of magnitude based on bulk composition) in marine-derived organic carbon (OC). Production of size-resolved particulate OC was parameterized based on a Langmuir kinetics-type association of OC to bubble plumes in seawater and resulting aerosol as constrained by measurements of aerosol produced from highly productive and oligotrophic seawater. This novel approach is the first to account for the influence of adsorption on the size-resolved association between marine aerosols and OC. Production fluxes were simulated globally with an eight aerosol-size-bin version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.5.07). Simulated number and inorganic sea-salt mass production fell within the range of published estimates based on observationally constrained parameterizations. Because the parameterization does not consider contributions from spume drops, the simulated global mass flux (1.5 x 10{sup 3} Tg y{sup -1}) is near the lower limit of published estimates. The simulated production of aerosol number (2.1 x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and OC (49 Tg C y{sup -1}) fall near the upper limits of published estimates and suggest that primary marine aerosols may have greater influences on the physiochemical evolution of the troposphere, radiative transfer and climate, and associated feedbacks on the surface ocean than suggested by previous model studies.

  18. amorphous carbon blacks: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon blacks First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 RESEARCH PAPER Amorphous dysprosium...

  19. Partial replacement of carbon fiber by carbon black in multifunctional cementmatrix composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    strain at failure, while the compressive strength is maintained. The increased workability due of carbon fiber to cement with carbon black decreases the compressive strength, strain at failure detection and structural vibration control [11­26]. In dam- age sensing, the composite is used as a damage

  20. 7, 71717233, 2007 Aerosol absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations radiative properties re- sults in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05 W m-2 and a positive

  1. Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Andreae, Tracey W.; taxo, Paulo Ar-; Maenhaut, Willy; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Novakov, T.; Chow, Judith C.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol samples were collected at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin as part of the project LBA-SMOCC-2002 (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate). Sampling was conducted during the late dry season, when the aerosol composition was dominated by biomass burning emissions, especially in the submicron fraction. A 13-stage Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) was used to collect particles with nominal aerodynamic diameters (D{sub p}) ranging from 0.03 to 0.10 m. Gravimetric analyses of the DLPI substrates and filters were performed to obtain aerosol mass concentrations. The concentrations of total, apparent elemental, and organic carbon (TC, EC{sub a}, and OC) were determined using thermal and thermal-optical analysis (TOA) methods. A light transmission method (LTM) was used to determine the concentration of equivalent black carbon (BC{sub e}) or the absorbing fraction at 880 nm for the size-resolved samples. During the dry period, due to the pervasive presence of fires in the region upwind of the sampling site, concentrations of fine aerosols (D{sub p} < 2.5 {mu}m: average 59.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}) were higher than coarse aerosols (D{sub p} > 2.5 {mu}m: 4.1 {mu}g m{sup -3}). Carbonaceous matter, estimated as the sum of the particulate organic matter (i.e., OC x 1.8) plus BC{sub e}, comprised more than 90% to the total aerosol mass. Concentrations of EC{sub a} (estimated by thermal analysis with a correction for charring) and BCe (estimated by LTM) averaged 5.2 {+-} 1.3 and 3.1 {+-} 0.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively. The determination of EC was improved by extracting water-soluble organic material from the samples, which reduced the average light absorption {angstrom} exponent of particles in the size range of 0.1 to 1.0 {mu}m from > 2.0 to approximately 1.2. The size-resolved BC{sub e} measured by the LTM showed a clear maximum between 0.4 and 0.6 m in diameter. The concentrations of OC and BC{sub e} varied diurnally during the dry period, and this variation is related to diurnal changes in boundary layer thickness and in fire frequency.

  2. The structure of the carbon black flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, W. Kermi

    1945-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BLACK FLAME A Dissertation By William Kermit Anderson THEHSR UCOF 120925 TNLKMDiserstsKa aony WHR1mo WdpvmlcyfEyS lnR1 R1WvpS 1nS nvfyARyfh vySS Rm R1y SyuyoWc nvfnunfHWcS Wvf fybWoRgyvRS l1m dmmbyoWRyf Rm gWpy R1nS lmop bmSSnAcy. xbydnWc R1Wvp...S Woy fHy Rm R1y PmccmlnvE gygAyoS mP R1y. SRWPP mP R1y TEondHcRHoWc Wvf tyd1WvndWc NmccyEy mP ayqWS. am eo. joyf D. :yvSyv Pmo Ryd1vndWc 1ycb Wvf Pmo vHgyomHS SHEEySRnmvS mP uWcHy. am eo. N. N. 9yfEyS Pmo PnvWvdnWc Wnf Wvf yqdych cyvR dmmbyo...

  3. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  4. Multi-Proxy Approach on Black Carbon Characterization and Combustion Products Source Discrimination in Environmental Media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuo, Li-Jung

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental applications of pyrogenic carbon, aka black carbon (BC), have been hampered due to the poor characterization and quantification of environmental BC. This dissertation was dedicated to the better characterization ...

  5. Size fractionation of black and organic particulate carbon from fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dod, R.L.; Mowrer, F.; Gundel, L.A.; Williamson, R.B.; Novakov, T.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission factors to total smoke particulates as well as organic and black carbon have been measured as a function of size for a set of building materials typical of those used in urban construction. Black carbon emissions (mass per fuel mass) were similar among the wood fuels studied, although the dominant form of combustion varied from flaming to smoldering. Black carbon was found predominantly in the finest size ranges (less than or equal to 0.20 ..mu..m). Polyurethane foam produced a greater emission of black carbon, and the particle size distribution of that carbon extended to much larger aerodynamic diameters than did those of the wood samples. For the fuels tested, total smoke particle emissions ranged from 0.3 to 2.3 percent of fuel mass; black carbon emissions were 0.03 to 0.3 percent of fuel mass.

  6. Effect of composite microstructure on electrical and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl acetate) composites with carbon black and clay. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miriyala, Sethu M.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    -based case, fully solvated polymer results in a random dispersion of carbon black. The segregated network composite also shows significant improvement in both electrical conductivity and storage modulus with low carbon black loading, while the solution...

  7. An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, Mian; De Luca, N.; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, Dorothy; Liu, Xiaohong; Mann, G. W.; Penner, Joyce E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Noije, T.; Yun, Yuxing; Zhang, Kai

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea-ice. Here, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea-ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004-2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng g?1 for an earlier Phase of AeroCom models (Phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng g?1 for a more recent Phase of AeroCom models (Phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g?1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model–measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90?N) atmospheric residence time for BC in Phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC deposition originates from extra-Arctic emissions, these results suggest that aerosol removal processes are a leading source of variation in model performance. The multi-model mean (full range) of Arctic radiative effect from BC in snow is 0.15 (0.07-0.25) W m?2 and 0.18 (0.06-0.28) W m?2 in Phase I and Phase II models, respectively. After correcting for model biases relative to observed BC concentrations in different regions of the Arctic, we obtain a multi-model mean Arctic radiative effect of 0.17 W m?2 for the combined AeroCom ensembles. Finally, there is a high correlation between modeled BC concentrations sampled over the observational sites and the Arctic as a whole, indicating that the field campaign provided a reasonable sample of the Arctic.

  8. Black carbon in the Gulf of Maine : new insights into inputs and cycling of combustion-derived organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores Cervantes, Déborah Xanat, 1978-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of black carbon (BC), the soot and char formed during incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, have increased over the last century and are estimated to be between 8 and 270 Tg BC/yr. BC may affect ...

  9. Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Bond, Tami C.

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous and sulfur aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to their impact on health and ecosystems. The magnitude of this influence has changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. An integrated picture of the changing climatic influence of black carbon, organic carbon and sulfate over the period 1850 through 2100, focusing on uncertainty, is presented using updated historical inventories and a coordinated set of emission projections. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing due to increases in greenhouse gas forcing and a global decrease in pollutant emissions. This outcome is even more certain under a successful implementation of a policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions as low-carbon energy technologies that do not emit appreciable aerosol or SO2 are deployed.

  10. Desert dust and anthropogenic aerosol interactions in the Community Climate System Model coupled-carbon-climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Rothenberg, D. [Cornell University; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Moore, Jefferson Keith [University of California, Irvine; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Jones, C. D. [Hadley Center, Devon, England

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupled-carbon-climate simulations are an essential tool for predicting the impact of human activity onto the climate and biogeochemistry. Here we incorporate prognostic desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into the CCSM3.1 coupled carbon-climate model and explore the resulting interactions with climate and biogeochemical dynamics through a series of transient anthropogenic simulations (20th and 21st centuries) and sensitivity studies. The inclusion of prognostic aerosols into this model has a small net global cooling effect on climate but does not significantly impact the globally averaged carbon cycle; we argue that this is likely to be because the CCSM3.1 model has a small climate feedback onto the carbon cycle. We propose a mechanism for including desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into a simple carbon-climate feedback analysis to explain the results of our and previous studies. Inclusion of aerosols has statistically significant impacts on regional climate and biogeochemistry, in particular through the effects on the ocean nitrogen cycle and primary productivity of altered iron inputs from desert dust deposition.

  11. Multifunctional Superhydrophobic Polymer/Carbon Nanocomposites: Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, or Carbon Black?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Multifunctional Superhydrophobic Polymer/Carbon Nanocomposites: Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, Switzerland *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Superhydrophobic surfaces resisting water penetration fabrication of highly electrically conductive, polymer-based superhydrophobic coatings, with impressive

  12. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

  13. Size and shape of crystallites and internal stresses in carbon blacks T. Ungara,*, J. Gubiczab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    is generally used as a filler in rubber production to modify the mechanical properties of the tire. Although sites present on the surface determine reinfor- cing properties of carbon black in rubber [7]. Energy

  14. Design of a bench-scale apparatus for processing carbon black derived from scrap tires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodrow, Philip Travis

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this work is to design a bench-scale apparatus, for laboratory applications, that will perform solid processing operations for carbon black obtained through the thermal catalytic depolymerization of scrap tires. These operations...

  15. Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2}) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal gelation. The broth results from mixing a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea solution with an acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solution. Carbon black, which is previously added to one or other of the components, must stay dispersed during gelation. The report provides a detailed description of characterization efforts and results, aimed at identification and testing carbon black and surfactant combinations that would produce stable dispersions, with carbon particle sizes below 1 {micro}m, in aqueous HMTA/urea and ADUN solutions. A battery of characterization methods was used to identify the properties affecting the water dispersability of carbon blacks, such as surface area, aggregate morphology, volatile content, and, most importantly, surface chemistry. The report introduces the basic principles for each physical or chemical method of carbon black characterization, lists the results obtained, and underlines cross-correlations between methods. Particular attention is given to a newly developed method for characterization of surface chemical groups on carbons in terms of their acid-base properties (pK{sub a} spectra) based on potentiometric titration. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic. In addition, background information on carbon black properties and the mechanism by which surfactants disperse carbon black in water is also provided. A list of main physical and chemical properties characterized, samples analyzed, and results obtained, as well as information on the desired trend or range of values generally associated with better dispersability, is provided in the Appendix. Special attention was given to characterization of several surface-modified carbon blacks produced by Cabot Corporation through proprietary diazonium salts chemistry. As demonstrated in the report, these advanced carbons offer many advantages over traditional dispersions. They disperse very easily, do not require intensive mechanical shearing or sonication, and the particle size of the dispersed carbon black aggregates is in the target range of 0.15-0.20 {micro}m. The dispersions in water and HMTA/urea solutions are stable for at least 30 days; in conditions of simulated broth, the dispersions are stable for at least 6 hours. It is proposed that the optimization of the carbon black dispersing process is possible by replacing traditional carbon blacks and surfactants with surface-modified carbon blacks having suitable chemical groups attached on their surface. It is recognized that the method advanced in this report for optimizing the carbon black dispersion process is based on a limited number of tests made in aqueous and simulated broth conditions. The findings were corroborated by a limited number of tests carried out with ADUN solutions by the Nuclear Science and Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). More work is necessary, however, to confirm the overall recommendation based on the findings discussed in this report: namely, that the use of surface-modified carbon blacks in the uranium-containing broth will not adversely impact the chemistry of the gelation process, and that high quality uranium oxicarbide (UCO) kernels will be produced after calcination.

  16. Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.

    2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate engineering with stratospheric aerosols, an idea inspired by large volcaniceruptions, could cool the Earth’s surface and thus alleviate some of the predicted dangerous impacts of anthropogenic climate change. However, the effectiveness of climate engineering to achieve a particular climate goal, and any associated side effects, depend on certain aerosol parameters and how the aerosols are deployed in the stratosphere. Through the examples of sulfate and black carbon aerosols, this paper examines "engineering" parameters-aerosol composition, aerosol size, and spatial and temporal variations in deployment-for stratospheric climate engineering. The effects of climate engineering are sensitive to these parameters, suggesting that a particle could be found ordesigned to achieve specific desired climate outcomes. This prospect opens the possibility for discussion of societal goals for climate engineering.

  17. Black carbon refractive index and morphology: a Laboratory study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    radiative properties derived from Mie theory and therefore limited to the assumption of spherical aerosol cake 2.6 Heavy fuel oil 1.5 Figure 2: Global sources by fuel types [7]. A wide range of fuel types

  18. Measurement Needs and Challenges for Absorbing Aerosol Black Carbon, Brown Carbon, Dust and Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Carmichael 2008) 1. BC mixing state. 2. BC vertical distributions. 3. Inventories. 4. Indirect effect mixing state. 2. BC vertical distributions. 3. Inventories. 4. Indirect effect. · Most information comes

  19. Stability of black carbon in soils across a climatic gradient Chih-Hsin Cheng,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    5 March 2008; published 4 June 2008. [1] The recalcitrant properties of black carbon (BC) grant carbon dioxide in soils [Lehmann et al., 2006; Lehmann, 2007a, 2007b]. [3] However, the notionStability of black carbon in soils across a climatic gradient Chih-Hsin Cheng,1,2 Johannes Lehmann

  20. Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Gyami

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon has a high carbon sequestration potential due to itsin soil can lead to sustainable carbon sequestration.process takes carbon sequestration from afforestation a step

  1. Long-term Black Carbon Dynamics in Cultivated Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Binh T.; Lehmann, Johannes C.; Kinyangi, James; Smernik, Ron; Riha, Susan J.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black carbon (BC) is a quantitatively important C pool in the global carbon cycle due to its relative recalcitrance against decay compared with other C pools. However, how rapidly BC is oxidized and in what way the molecular structure changes during decomposition over decadal time scales, is largely unknown. In the present study, the long-term dynamics in quality and quantity of BC were investigated in cultivated soil using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. BC particles, obtained from soil samples at 8 conversion ages stretching over 100 years and from a forest soil sample from Kenya, were manually picked under a light microscope for characterization and quantification. BC contents rapidly decreased from 12.7 to 3.8 mg C g?¹ soil during the first 30 years since conversion, after which they slowly decreased to a steady state at 3.51 mg C g ?¹soil. BC-derived C losses over 100 years were estimated at 6000 kg C ha?¹ to a depth of 0.1 m. The initial rapid changes in BC stocks resulted in a mean residence time of only around 8.3 years, which was likely a function of both decomposition as well as transport processes. The molecular properties of BC changed more rapidly on surfaces than in the interior of BC particles and more rapidly during the first 30 years than during the following 70 years. The Oc/C ratios (Oc is O bound to C) and carbonyl groups (C=O) increased over time by 133 and 192 %, respectively, indicating oxidation was an important degradation process controlling BC quality. Al, Si, polysaccharides, and to a lesser extent Fe were rapidly adsorbed on BC particle surfaces within the first few years after BC deposition to soil. The protection by physical and chemical stabilization was apparently sufficient to not only minimize decomposition below detection between 30 and 100 years after deposition, but also physical export by erosion and vertical transport below 0.1 m.

  2. Natural Oxidation of Black Carbon in Soils: Changes in Molecular...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    factors affect BC oxidation. Black C was collected from 11 historical charcoal blast furnace sites with a geographic distribution from Quebec, Canada, to Georgia, USA, and...

  3. Department of Earth Sciences www.rhul.ac.uk/earthsciences Page 1 of 1 Does black carbon and humic materials in snow and ice decay?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    the and optics properties of black carbon change. As little as 10 ng of Black carbon in 1 g of snow can cause 1 of two more effective than carbon dioxide in changing global air temperatures.2 The successful candidateDepartment of Earth Sciences www.rhul.ac.uk/earthsciences Page 1 of 1 Does black carbon and humic

  4. An Index-Based Approach to Assessing Recalcitrance and Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Engineered Black Carbons (Biochars)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E.; Herbert, Bruce

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R{sub 50}, for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R{sub 50} is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R{sub 50}, with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R{sub 50} and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R{sub 50} is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R{sub 50} {>=} 0.70), Class B (0.50 {<=} R{sub 50} < 0.70) or Class C (R{sub 50} < 0.50) recalcitrance/carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, while Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R{sub 50}, to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  5. Change in atmospheric mineral aerosols in response to climate: Last glacial period, preindustrial, modern, and doubled carbon dioxide climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    parameters on mineral aerosol mobilization, transport, andand L. Kiehl (2003), Mineral aerosol and cloud interactions,for paleoclimate, in Dust Aerosols, Loess Soils and Global

  6. Carbon black: A low cost colloidal additive for controlling gas-migration in cement slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calloni, G.; Moroni, N.; Miano, F.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of different additives on the permeability of cement slurries to formation gas has been studied with the aid of a gas flow apparatus. The performance of two commercial additives (polymer latex and silica fume) has been compared to that of a novel additive (carbon black) that has been developed in the authors laboratories with the aim of simplifying the cement slurry composition and reducing field operational costs. Data on the thickening time, fluid loss, rheology and compressive strength are also presented to provide a clear picture of the potential of carbon black as a substitute for silica fume and polymer latex in some field applications. Finally, the paper describes the results of a field application using carbon black as a gas-block additive in the cement slurry.

  7. Application of pyrolized carbon black from scrap tires in asphalt pavement design and construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, T.; Coree, B.J. [Indiana Department of Transportation, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Division of Research; Lovell, C.W. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    According to EPA reports (1991) of the over 242 million waste generated each year in the United State, 5% are exported, 6% recycled, 11% incinerated, and 78% are landfilled, stockpiled, or illegally dumped. A variety of uses for these tires are being studied. Among these is pyrolysis which produces 5 5% of oil, 25% of carbon black, 9% of steel, 5% of fiber and 6% of gas. Pyrolized carbon black contains 9 % of ash, 4% of sulfur, 12% of butadine copolymer and 75% of carbon black. The objective of this research is to investigate the viability of using PCB as an additive in hot mix asphalt. The use of PCB in asphalt pavement is expected not only to improve the performance of conventional asphalt, but also to provide a means for the mass disposal of waste fires.

  8. 1 Potential impacts of Asian carbon aerosols on future US warming 2 Haiyan Teng,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -ocean fully coupled 6 climate model to investigate possible remote impacts of 7 Asian carbonaceous aerosols effect of aerosols is included) over Asia induces 15 tropospheric heating anomalies that force large.4 C warming over the eastern 18 US during winter and over most of the US during summer. 19 Such remote

  9. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  10. Effect of Temperature on Carbon-Black Agglomeration in Hydrocarbon Liquid with Adsorbed Dispersant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    can agglomerate, increasing the viscosity of the oil and significantly diminishing its lubrication performance. The soot can also form a high-viscosity sludge which can also degrade lubricant effectivenessEffect of Temperature on Carbon-Black Agglomeration in Hydrocarbon Liquid with Adsorbed Dispersant

  11. End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzeion, Ben

    , Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; c Institute of MeteorologyEnd of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon Thomas H. Paintera,1 , Mark and Geophysics, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria; d Air Quality Research Center, University

  12. The Carbon balance of sorghum from anthesis to black layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stahl, Randal Scott

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of low light level. Y was calculated as g the slope of the line between the daily carbon balance parameters dS and dW measured on days 2 and 4, plotted as dW vs dS. iv Each plant was then harvested by organ and oven dried at 80 C for 36 h. The total... Ass imi lati on Chamber Chamber Constr ucti on Air Injection System CO Injection System Ch(mber C02 Concentration Chamber Lighting System Data Acquisition System Calculation of Hourly Carbon Exchange Rates Calculation of Integrated Carbon...

  13. Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, J. P.

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

  14. Effect of pyrolyzed carbon black on asphalt cement. Part 2. Asphalt binder. Final report, September 1993-May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Y.; Lovell, C.W.

    1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap tires derived from automobiles have become a large environmental problem in the United States. In the study, research is carried out to investigate the potential use of tire-derived pyrolyzed carbon black from scrap tires as an asphalt cement modifier. The asphlat cements used in the research were AC10 and AC20. Penetration and softening point tests were performed to obtain the consistency of the asphalt cements. The pyrolyzed carbon black, as provided by Wolf Industries, was combined with the asphalt cement in the following percentages: 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Penetration, softening point and ductility tests were performed to determine the temperature susceptibility of the modified binder as altered by the pyrolyzed carbon black. In order that the results are comparable to previous testing, commercial carbon black purchased from CABOT Industry was also used as a modifier in the tests. The same test procedures were applied to the asphalt cements modified by commercial carbon black. The test results contained in the report illustrate the viability of the pyrolyzed carbon black as an asphalt modifier. Recommendations are provided to facilitate further research on this particular project. A preliminary assessment of a test road using the pyrolyzed carbon is appended.

  15. Effect of composite microstructure on electrical and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl acetate) composites with carbon black and clay.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miriyala, Sethu M.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical and mechanical behavior of carbon black filled poly(vinyl acetate) latex-based and solution-based polymer composites was examined. A set of experiments were performed to distinguish composites with a segregated network (emulsion...

  16. Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During the MILAGRO Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Gouw, Joost A.; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Warneke, Carsten; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, Angela K.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, D. R.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Celada, A. T.; Huey, L. G.; Junkermann, W.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Salcido, A.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Sullivan, Amy; Tanner, David J.; Vargas-Ortiz, Leroy; Weber, R. J.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives). Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC), and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps not dissimilar from observations in the U.S.

  17. Light Absorption by Secondary Organic Aerosol from ?-Pinene: Effects of Oxidants, Seed Aerosol Acidity, and Relative Humidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Chen; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shilling, John E.; Arnott, W. Patrick

    2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that light absorption from dust and black carbon aerosols has a warming effect on climate while light scattering from sulfate, nitrate, and sea salt aerosols has a cooling effect. However, there are large uncertainties associated with light absorption and scattering by different types of organic aerosols, especially in the near-UV and UV spectral regions. In this paper, we present the results from a systematic laboratory study focused on measuring light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from ozonolysis or NO3 oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of neutral and acidic sulfate seed aerosols. Light absorption was monitored using photoacoustic spectrometers at four different wavelengths: 355, 405, 532 and 870 nm. Light absorption at 355 and 405 nm was observed by SOA generated from oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of acidic sulfate seed aerosols, under dry conditions. No absorption was observed when the relative humidity was elevated to greater than 27%, or in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols. The light-absorbing compounds are speculated to be aldol condensation oligomers with organosulfate and organic nitrate groups. The results of this study also indicate that organic nitrates from ?-pinene SOA formed in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols do not appear to absorb near-UV and UV radiation.

  18. Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

  19. Sensitivity of stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon to aerosol size and altitude of injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of large fires [Robock, 1988, 1991; Fromm et al., 2010] and simulations of nuclear winter [Turco et al heating [Ferraro et al., 2011]. In particular, as in nuclear winter simulations, one potential consequence

  20. Aerosol characterization study using multi-spectrum remote sensing measurement techniques.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen, Crystal Chanea; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Schmitt, Randal L.; Johnson, Mark S.; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Servantes, Brandon Lee

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique aerosol flow chamber coupled with a bistatic LIDAR system was implemented to measure the optical scattering cross sections and depolarization ratio of common atmospheric particulates. Each of seven particle types (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, black carbon and Arizona road dust) was aged by three anthropogenically relevant mechanisms: 1. Sulfuric acid deposition, 2. Toluene ozonolysis reactions, and 3. m-Xylene ozonolysis reactions. The results of pure particle scattering properties were compared with their aged equivalents. Results show that as most particles age under industrial plume conditions, their scattering cross sections are similar to pure black carbon, which has significant impacts to our understanding of aerosol impacts on climate. In addition, evidence emerges that suggest chloride-containing aerosols are chemically altered during the organic aging process. Here we present the direct measured scattering cross section and depolarization ratios for pure and aged atmospheric particulates.

  1. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NOAA Similar annual cycle for scattering, absorption, black carbon Decrease in black carbon and absorption due to decline of Soviet emissions? Quinn et al., TellusB, 2007....

  2. Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Measurements of Average Oxygen to Carbon Ratios in Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability of high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS) to measurements of the average oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) in organic aerosols was investigated. Solutions with known average O/C containing up to 10 standard compounds representative of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were analyzed and corresponding electrospray ionization efficiencies were quantified. The assumption of equal ionization efficiency commonly used in estimating O/C ratios of organic aerosols was found to be reasonably accurate. We found that the accuracy of the measured O/C ratios increases by averaging the values obtained from both (+) and (-) modes. A correlation was found between the ratio of the ionization efficiencies in the positive and negative ESI modes with the octanol-water partition constant, and more importantly, with the compound's O/C. To demonstrate the utility of this correlation for estimating average O/C values of unknown mixtures, we analyzed the ESI (+) and ESI (-) data for SOA produced by oxidation of limonene and isoprene and compared to online O/C measurements using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). This work demonstrates that the accuracy of the HR ESI-MS methods is comparable to that of the AMS, with the added benefit of molecular identification of the aerosol constituents.

  3. Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerosol is an important fraction of the fine particulate matter present in the atmosphere. This organic aerosol comes from a variety of sources; primary organic aerosol emitted directly from combustion process, and secondary aerosol formed in the atmosphere from condensable vapors. This secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can result from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In rural areas of the United States, organic aerosols can be a significant part of the aerosol load in the atmosphere. However, the extent to which gas-phase biogenic emissions contribute to this organic load is poorly understood. Such an understanding is crucial to properly apportion the effect of anthropogenic emissions in these rural areas that are sometimes dominated by biogenic sources. To help gain insight on the effect of biogenic emissions on particle concentrations in rural areas, we have been conducting a field measurement program at the University of California Blodgett Forest Research Facility. The field location includes has been used to acquire an extensive suite of measurements resulting in a rich data set, containing a combination of aerosol, organic, and nitrogenous species concentration and meteorological data with a long time record. The field location was established in 1997 by Allen Goldstein, a professor in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at the University of California at Berkeley to study interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The Goldstein group focuses on measurements of concentrations and whole ecosystem biosphere-atmosphere fluxes for volatile organic compounds (VOC's), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC's), ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy. Another important collaborator at the Blodgett field location is Ronald Cohen, a professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley. At the Blodgett field location, his group his group performs measurements of the concentrations of important gas phase nitrogen compounds. Experiments have been ongoing at the Blodgett field site since the fall of 2000, and have included portions of the summer and fall of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Analysis of both the gas and particle phase data from the year 2000 show that the particle loading at the site correlates with both biogenic precursors emitted in the forest and anthropogenic precursors advected to the site from Sacramento and the Central Valley of California. Thus the particles at the site are affected by biogenic processing of anthropogenic emissions. Size distribution measurements show that the aerosol at the site has a geometric median diameter of approximately 100 nm. On many days, in the early afternoon, growth of nuclei mode particles (<20 nm) is also observed. These growth events tend to occur on days with lower average temperatures, but are observed throughout the summer. Analysis of the size resolved data for these growth events, combined with typical measured terpene emissions, show that the particle mass measured in these nuclei mode particles could come from oxidation products of biogenic emissions, and can serve as a significant route for SOA partitioning into the particle phase. During periods of each year, the effect of emissions for forest fires can be detected at the Blodgett field location. During the summer of 2002 emissions from the Biscuit fire, a large fire located in Southwest Oregon, was detected in the aerosol data. The results show that increases in particle scattering can be directly related to increased black carbon concentration and an appearance of a larger mode in the aerosol size distribution. These results show that emissions from fires can have significant impact on visibility over large distances. The results also reinforce the view that forest fires can be a significant source of black carbon in the atmosphere, which has important climate and visibility. Continuing work with the 2002 data set, particularly the combination of the aerosol and gas phase data, will continue to provide important information o

  4. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    estimates of the quantity of biomass burning aerosol that isOpen biomass burning also produces large quantities ofbiomass and refuse; SA = secondary aerosols; O = Others. b In receptor modeling, quantity

  5. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aerosol size distribution, but the underlying size distribution of BC cores does not change except through coagulation.aerosol are determined by the atmospheric mixing of nascent particle size distributions from a variety of sources and any subsequent BC coagulation.

  6. Historical and future black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements and model simulations from 1850 to 2100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Historical and future black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements and model simulations from 1850 tends to enhance snow and ice melting due to the absorption caused by the increased BC deposition

  7. Improving snow albedo processes in WRF/SSiB regional climate model to assess impact of dust and black carbon in snow on surface energy balance and hydrology over western U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basin: 1. A 6 year record of energy balance, radiation, andorganic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850–carbon in snow on surface energy balance and hydrology over

  8. Simulating Black Carbon and Dust and their Radiative Forcing in Seasonal Snow: A Case Study over North China with Field Campaign Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chun; Hu, Zhiyuan; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Maoyi; Jin, Jiming; Flanner, M. G.; Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Yan, Huiping; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, D. G.

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A state-of-the-art regional model, WRF-Chem, is coupled with the SNICAR model that includes the sophisticated representation of snow metamorphism processes available for climate study. The coupled model is used to simulate the black carbon (BC) and dust concentrations and their radiative forcing in seasonal snow over North China in January-February of 2010, with extensive field measurements used to evaluate the model performance. In general, the model simulated spatial variability of BC and dust mass concentrations in the top snow layer (hereafter BCS and DSTS, respectively) are quantitatively or qualitatively consistent with observations. The model generally moderately underestimates BCS in the clean regions but significantly overestimates BCS in some polluted regions. Most model results fall into the uncertainty ranges of observations. The simulated BCS and DSTS are highest with >5000 ng g-1 and up to 5 mg g-1, respectively, over the source regions and reduce to <50 ng g-1 and <1 ?g g-1, respectively, in the remote regions. BCS and DSTS introduce similar magnitude of radiative warming (~10 W m-2) in snowpack, which is comparable to the magnitude of surface radiative cooling due to BC and dust in the atmosphere. This study represents the first effort in using a regional modeling framework to simulate BC and dust and their direct radiative forcing in snow. Although a variety of observational datasets have been used to attribute model biases, some uncertainties in the results remain, which highlights the need for more observations, particularly concurrent measurements of atmospheric and snow aerosols and the deposition fluxes of aerosols, in future campaigns.

  9. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Development for the Study of Atmospheric Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Paul

    2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Soot particles are generated by incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels. Through direct effects clear air aerosols containing black carbon (BC) such as soot aerosols, absorb incoming light heating the atmosphere, while most other aerosols scatter light and produce cooling. Even though BC represents only 1-2% of the total annual emissions of particulate mass to the atmosphere, it has been estimated that the direct radiative effect of BC is the second-most important contributor to global warming after absorption by CO2. Ongoing studies continue to underscore the climate forcing importance of black carbon. However, estimates of the radiative effects of black carbon on climate remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of particles containing black carbon. Quantitative measurement of BC is challenging because BC often occurs in highly non-spherical soot particles of complex morphology. Freshly emitted soot particles are typically fractal hydrophobic aggregates. The aggregates consist of black carbon spherules with diameters typically in the range of about 15-40 nm, and they are usually coated by adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced during combustion. Diesel-generated soot particles are often emitted with an organic coating composed primarily of lubricating oil and unburned fuel, as well as well as PAH compounds. Sulfuric acid has also been detected in diesel and aircraft-emitted soot particles. In the course of aging, these particle coatings may be substantially altered by chemical reactions and/or the deposition of other materials. Such processes transform the optical and CCN properties of the soot aerosols in ways that are not yet well understood. Our work over the past seven years consisted of laboratory research, instrument development and characterization, and field studies with the central focus of improving our understanding of the black carbon aerosol climate impacts. During the sixth year as well as during this seventh year (no-cost extension period) of our grant, we extended our studies to perform experiments on the controlled production and characterization of secondary organic aerosol.

  10. Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P.S.; Johnson, M.G.; Kleber, M.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ('biochar'). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. BET-N{sub 2} surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous, but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved, (ii) in amorphous chars the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed, (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases, and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. The molecular variations among the different char categories translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents.

  11. Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Dorothy; Menon, Surabi; Del Genio, Anthony; Ruedy, Reto; Alienov, Igor; Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol direct (DE), indirect (IE), and black carbon-snow albedo (BAE) effects on climate between 1890 and 1995 are compared using equilibrium aerosol-climate simulations in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. Pairs of control(1890)-perturbation(1995) with successive aerosol effects allow isolation of each effect. The experiments are conducted both with and without concurrent changes in greenhouse gases (GHG's). A new scheme allowing dependence of snow albedo on black carbon snow concentration is introduced. The fixed GHG experiments global surface air temperature (SAT) changed -0.2, -1.0 and +0.2 C from the DE, IE, and BAE. Ice and snow cover increased 1.0% from the IE and decreased 0.3% from the BAE. These changes were a factor of 4 larger in the Arctic. Global cloud cover increased by 0.5% from the IE. Net aerosol cooling effects are about half as large as the GHG warming, and their combined climate effects are smaller than the sum of their individual effects. Increasing GHG's did not affect the IE impact on cloud cover, however they decreased aerosol effects on SAT by 20% and on snow/ice cover by 50%; they also obscure the BAE on snow/ice cover. Arctic snow, ice, cloud, and shortwave forcing changes occur mostly during summer-fall, but SAT, sea level pressure, and long-wave forcing changes occur during winter. An explanation is that aerosols impact the cryosphere during the warm-season but the associated SAT effect is delayed until winter.

  12. Sensitivity of Remote Aerosol Distributions to Representation of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in a Global Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Qian, Yun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun; Vinoj, V.

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Many global aerosol and climate models, including the widely used Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), have large biases in predicting aerosols in remote regions such as upper troposphere and high latitudes. In this study, we conduct CAM5 sensitivity simulations to understand the role of key processes associated with aerosol transformation and wet removal affecting the vertical and horizontal long-range transport of aerosols to the remote regions. Improvements are made to processes that are currently not well represented in CAM5, which are guided by surface and aircraft measurements together with results from a multi-scale aerosol-climate model (PNNL-MMF) that explicitly represents convection and aerosol-cloud interactions at cloud-resolving scales. We pay particular attention to black carbon (BC) due to its importance in the Earth system and the availability of measurements. We introduce into CAM5 a new unified scheme for convective transport and aerosol wet removal with explicit aerosol activation above convective cloud base. This new implementation reduces the excessive BC aloft to better simulate observed BC profiles that show decreasing mixing ratios in the mid- to upper-troposphere. After implementing this new unified convective scheme, we examine wet removal of submicron aerosols that occurs primarily through cloud processes. The wet removal depends strongly on the sub-grid scale liquid cloud fraction and the rate of conversion of liquid water to precipitation. These processes lead to very strong wet removal of BC and other aerosols over mid- to high latitudes during winter months. With our improvements, the Arctic BC burden has a10-fold (5-fold) increase in the winter (summer) months, resulting in a much better simulation of the BC seasonal cycle as well. Arctic sulphate and other aerosol species also increase but to a lesser extent. An explicit treatment of BC aging with slower aging assumptions produces an additional 30-fold (5-fold) increase in the Arctic winter (summer) BC burden. This BC aging treatment, however, has minimal effect on other under-predicted species. Interestingly, our modifications to CAM5 that aim at improving prediction of high-latitude and upper tropospheric aerosols also produce much better AOD and AAOD over various other regions globally when compared to multi-year AERONET retrievals. The improved aerosol distributions have impacts on other aspects of CAM5, improving the simulation of global mean liquid water path and cloud forcing.

  13. Aerosol Properties and Radiative Forcing over Kanpur during Severe Aerosol Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Sinha, P. R.; Vinoj, V.; Kosmopoulos, P. G.; Tripathi, S. N.; Misra, Amit; Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric aerosols over India exhibit large spatio-temporal fluctuation driven by the local monsoon system, emission rates and seasonally-changed air masses. The northern part of India is well-known for its high aerosol loading throughout the year due to anthropogenic emissions, dust influence and biomass burning. On certain circumstances and, under favorable weather conditions, the aerosol load can be severe, causing significant health concerns and climate implications. The present work analyzes the aerosol episode (AE) days and examines the modification in aerosol properties and radiative forcing during the period 2001-2010 based on Kanpur-AERONET sun photometer data. As AEs are considered the days having daily-mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) above the decadal mean + 1 STD (standard deviation); the threshold value is defined at 0.928. The results identify 277 out of 2095 days (13.2%) of AEs over Kanpur, which are most frequently observed during post-monsoon (78 cases, 18.6%) and monsoon (76, 14.7%) seasons due to biomass-burning episodes and dust influence, respectively. On the other hand, the AEs in winter and pre-monsoon are lower in both absolute and percentage values (65, 12.5% and 58, 9.1%, respectively). The modification in aerosol properties on the AE days is strongly related to season. Thus, in post-monsoon and winter the AEs are associated with enhanced presence of fine-mode aerosols and Black Carbon from anthropogenic pollution and any kind of burning, while in pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons they are mostly associated with transported dust. Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) calculated using SBDART shows much more surface (~-69 to -97 Wm-2) and Top of Atmosphere cooling (-20 to -30 Wm-2) as well as atmospheric heating (~43 to 71 Wm-2) during the AE days compared to seasonal means. These forcing values are mainly controlled by the higher AODs and the modified aerosol characteristics (Angstrom ?, SSA) during the AE days in each season and may cause severe climate implications over Ganges Basin with further consequences on atmospheric heating, cloud microphysics, monsoon rainfall and melting of Himalayan glaciers.

  14. Atmospheric Aerosols Aging Involving Organic Compounds and Impacts on Particle Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Chong

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through sandstorm.2 Examples of anthropogenic sources are vehicle exhaust, plant emission, and construction sites. Some aerosols may have both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. For example, soot aerosols, also known as black carbon, can be produced... with an initial size of 150 nm increases slightly faster than those of soot with the initial size of 80 or 100 nm. Table 1. Properties of Fresh Soot Particles. Dp, nm mp, 10 ?16 g Dve, nm Npp a 82.4 1.47 54.1 20 101 2.34 63.2 32 155 7.77 94.3 105 a...

  15. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Fast, Jerome D.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we developed an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS), that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF), black carbon (BC) aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 µm to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins) and BC mixing state (10 bins) for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module was implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials was about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement was estimated to be 10 – 20% over northern East Asia and 20 – 35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast was also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations: NPF increased CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles) over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increased CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles) over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also showed that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depended strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA processes under different meteorological conditions and emissions.

  16. FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

  17. Relating Aerosol Absorption due to Soot, Organic Carbon, and Dust to Emission Sources Determined from In-situ Chemical Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cazorla, Alberto; Bahadur, R.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cahill, John F.; Chand, Duli; Schmid, Beat; Ramanathan, V.; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating the aerosol contribution to the global or regional radiative forcing can take advantage of the relationship between the spectral aerosol optical properties and the size and chemical composition of aerosol. Long term global optical measurements from observational networks or satellites can be used in such studies, and using in-situ chemical mixing state measurements can help us to constrain the limitations of such an estimation. In this study, the Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) and the Scattering Ångström Exponent (SAE) are used to develop a new methodology for deducing chemical speciation based on wavelength dependence of the optical properties. In addition, in-situ optical properties and single particle chemical composition measured during three aircraft field campaigns are combined in order to validate the methodology for the estimation of aerosol composition using spectral optical properties. Results indicate a dominance of mixed types in the classification leading to an underestimation of the primary sources, however secondary sources are better classified. The distinction between carbonaceous aerosols from fossil fuel and biomass burning origins is not clear. On the other hand, the knowledge of the aerosol sources in California from chemical studies help to identify other misclassification such as the dust contribution.

  18. Nano-Structural Elucidation in Carbon Black Loaded NR Vulcanizate by 3D-TEM and In Situ WAXD Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda,Y.; Kato, A.; Shimanuki, J.; Kohjiya, S.; Tosaka, M.; Poompradub, S.; Toki, S.; Hsiao, B.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three dimensional (3D) visualization of nanometer structure of carbon black dispersion in rubbery matrix has successfully been studied and reported in this paper. Use of 3D-TEM, which is computerized tomography combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), enabled us to reconstruct 3D images of carbon black aggregates in natural rubber (NR) matrix. The TEM measurements were conducted by a bright-field method on thin samples without any electron staining. The sample was subject to uni-axial tilting (+65 degree to -65 degree with 2 degree increment) in the sample chamber, and 66 TEM images were taken on each sample. These TEM images were used for computerized tomography to reconstruct the 3D image. This technique is designated as 3D-TEM. The nano-structural features observed by 3D-TEM were in conformity with the electron-conductivity results, and the percolation behavior was recognized. These results were further supplemented by in situ wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), i.e., simultaneous WAXD and tensile measurements on the sample to observe the strain-induced crystallization in NR vulcanizate. Upon tensile elongation, the crystallization was clearly observed in WAXD in the presence of carbon black, and it contributed to the tensile properties. In order to understand the performances of filled NR vulcanizates, it surely is necessary to know the structural states of the mixed nano-filler and the crystallites produced upon elongation.

  19. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model aerosoland its role in regional air quality. Science, 311, 67-70.aerosol in Fresno, CA. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. , 56,

  20. Black carbon transport and deposition to the California mountain snow pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadley, Odelle L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    75 4.2.3 XRF (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy) analysis offluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). These additional aerosolCa, Al, and K using XRF (X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy).

  1. Climate response of the South Asian monsoon system to anthropogenic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Dilip; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The equilibrium climate response to the total effects (direct, indirect and semi-direct effects) of aerosols arising from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions on the South Asian summer monsoon system is studied using a coupled atmosphere-slab ocean model. Our results suggest that anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols generally induce a reduction in mean summer monsoon precipitation over most parts of the Indian subcontinent, strongest along the western coastline of the Indian peninsula and eastern Nepal region, but modest increases also occur over the north western part of the subcontinent. While most of the noted reduction in precipitation is triggered by increased emissions of aerosols from anthropogenic activities, modest increases in the north west are mostly associated with decreases in local emissions of aerosols from forest fire and grass fire sources. Anthropogenic aerosols from outside Asia also contribute to the overall reduction in precipitation but the dominant contribution comes from aerosol sources within Asia. Local emissions play a more important role in the total rainfall response to anthropogenic aerosol sources during the early monsoon period, whereas both local as well as remote emissions of aerosols play almost equally important roles during the later part of the monsoon period. While precipitation responses are primarily driven by local aerosol forcing, regional surface temperature changes over the region are strongly influenced by anthropogenic aerosols from sources further away (non-local changes). Changes in local anthropogenic organic and black carbon emissions by as much as a factor of two (preserving their ratio) produce the same basic signatures in the model's summer monsoon temperature and precipitation responses.

  2. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  3. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  6. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  7. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  8. Sea-salt aerosol response to climate change: Last Glacial Maximum, preindustrial, and doubled carbon dioxide climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    Sea-salt aerosol response to climate change: Last Glacial Maximum, preindustrial, and doubled Received 1 July 2005; revised 31 October 2005; accepted 17 November 2005; published 2 March 2006. [1] Sea-salt their response to changes in climate represents an important potential feedback on climate. Model results for sea-salt

  9. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the atmosphere from biomass burning, Climatic Change, 2,Chemistry and Physics Biomass burning contribution to black2011 Y. H. Mao et al. : Biomass burning contribution to

  10. Emission characteristics of black carbon in anthropogenic and biomass burning plumes over California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    radiative effects [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007]. The variability solar radiation and a negative forcing by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) [Conant et al., 2002; Nenes et al., 2002]. However, heating by BC aerosols can cause evaporation of cloud droplets semi

  11. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    these aerosol-cloud effects. The net effect on radiation iseffects on cloud cover [12] Atmospheric BC absorbs solar radiation,cloud albedo effect (i.e. , the first indirect or Twomey effect [Twomey, 1959]) refers to the change in radiation

  12. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  13. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering; Sensile Strength and Strain-Induced Crystallization in Carbon Black Filled Natural Rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toki,S.; Minouchi, N.; Sics, I.; Hsiao, B.; Kohjiya, S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tensile strength of rubber depends on a combination of contributions, in particular on the finite extensibility of chain segments between network points and on strain-induced crystallization. In order to achieve high tensile strength at high strain at break, we optimized the composition and processing parameters to gain high molecular flexibility by the cure conditions, to acquire high flexibility of sulfur bridges by the accelerator, and to increase the modulus level without losing rubber molecule flexibility by carbon black. As a result, our formula performed a tensile strength of 42.5 MPa at 25 C under ISO-37, as officially measured by the Society of Rubber Industry, Japan, in 2004.

  14. Use of pyrolyzed carbon black as an additive (part 3. Air-cooled furnace slag). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.H.; Lovell, C.W.; Salgado, R.

    1996-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap tires, generated at the rate of over 242 million each year in the United States, are recognized as one of the most significant environmental problems. Most of these scrap tires have been disposed of in landfills, stockpiles, and illegal dumps (EPA 1991). There is a need to find more useful, environmentally friendly applications for these tires. Extensive researches have been conducted in the past years on the utilization of the scrap tires. The use of scrap tires for asphalt pavement, which is complicated by the complex behavior of asphalt, has received major attention. This research aims to describe the performance of mixtures of asphalt using pyrolyzed carbon black as an additive.

  15. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Arne [Humboldt State Univ., MN (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lam, Nicholoas L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Hultman, Nathan [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  16. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  17. Online Supplement: Sea salt aerosol response to climate change: last glacial maximum, pre-industrial, and doubled-carbon dioxide climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    Online Supplement: Sea salt aerosol response to climate change: last glacial maximum, pre simulations in the current climate using the CCSM3 sea salt aerosols. We use the sea salt source deposition and wet deposition as loss mechanisms [Rasch et al., 2001]. The source of sea salt aerosols

  18. A New WRF-Chem Treatment for Studying Regional Scale Impacts of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in Parameterized Cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new treatment of cloud-aerosol interactions within parameterized shallow and deep convection has been implemented in WRF-Chem that can be used to better understand the aerosol lifecycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model to represent cloud-aerosol interactions include treatment of the cloud dropletnumber mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. Thesechanges have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain-Fritsch cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Preliminary testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) as well as a high-resolution simulation that does not include parameterized convection. The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on the regional scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column integrated BC can be as large as -50% when cloud-aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +35% for sulfate in non-precipitating conditions due to the sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem version 3.2.1 are found to account for changes in the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud-drop residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to WRF-Chem version 3.5, and it is anticipated that they will be included in a future public release of WRF-Chem.

  19. Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aerosols, or OA, containing nitrogen- containing organic compounds (NOC) and only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO). They uncovered a new method for investigating OA that may lead...

  20. Iron Speciation and Mixing in Single Aerosol Particles from the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    iron from atmospheric aerosol is an essential nutrient that can control oceanic productivity, thereby impacting the global carbon budget and climate. Particles collected on...

  1. Aerosols, Clouds, and Climate Change Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    in atmospheric carbon dioxide associated with fossil fuel combustion. Briefly the options are mitigation work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous

  2. Black carbon in marine sediments : quantification and implications for the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accardi-Dey, AmyMarie, 1976-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorption is a key factor in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Here, PAH sorption is proposed as the sum of two mechanisms: absorption into a biogenic, organic carbon (OC) ...

  3. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  6. Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shantz, Nicole C.; Gultepe, Ismail; Andrews, Elisabeth; Zelenyuk, Alla; Earle, Michael; MacDonald, A. M.; Liu, Peter S.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Airborne observations from four flights during the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) are used to examine some cloud-free optical, physical, and chemical properties of aerosol particles in the springtime Arctic troposphere. The number concentrations of particles larger than 0.12 ?m (Na>120), important for light extinction and cloud droplet formation, ranged from 15 to 2260 cm?3, with the higher Na>120 cases dominated by measurements from two flights of long-range transported biomass burning (BB) aerosols. The two other flights examined here document a relatively clean aerosol and an Arctic Haze aerosol impacted by larger particles largely composed of dust. For observations from the cleaner case and the BB cases, the particle light scattering coefficients at low relative humidity (RH<20%) increased nonlinearly with increasing Na>120, driven mostly by an increase in mean sizes of particles with increasing Na>120 (BB cases). For those three cases, particle light absorption coefficients also increased nonlinearly with increasing Na>120 and linearly with increasing submicron particle volume concentration. In addition to black carbon, brown carbon was estimated to have increased light absorption coefficients by 27% (450 nm wavelength) and 14% (550 nm) in the BB cases. For the case with strong dust influence, the absorption relative to submicron particle volume was small compared with the other cases. There was a slight gradient of Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) mean volume diameter (MVD) towards smaller sizes with increasing height, which suggests more scavenging of the more elevated particles, consistent with a typically longer lifetime of particles higher in the atmosphere. However, in approximately 10% of the cases, the MVD increased (>0.4 ?m) with increasing altitude, suggesting transport of larger fine particle mass (possibly coarse particle mass) at high levels over the Arctic. This may be because of transport of larger particles at higher elevations and relatively slow deposition to the surface.

  7. Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop - Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air Quality. Baer DR, BJ...

  8. Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Themes Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems...

  9. A Sensitivity Study on Modeling Black Carbon in Snow and its Radiative Forcing over the Arctic and Northern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Flanner, M. G.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Black carbon in snow (BCS) simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is evaluated against measurements over Northern China and the Arctic, and its sensitivity to atmospheric deposition and two parameters that affect post-depositional enrichment is explored. The BCS concentration is overestimated (underestimated) by a factor of two in Northern China (Arctic) in the default model, but agreement with observations is good over both regions in the simulation with improvements in BC transport and deposition. Sensitivity studies indicate that uncertainty in the melt-water scavenging efficiency (MSE) parameter substantially affects BCS and its radiative forcing (by a factor of 2-7) in the Arctic through post-depositional enrichment. The MSE parameter has a relatively small effect on the magnitude of BCS seasonal cycle but can alter its phase in Northern China. The impact of the snow aging scaling factor (SAF) on BCS, partly through the post-depositional enrichment effect, shows more complex latitudinal and seasonal dependence. Similar to MSE, SAF affects more significantly the magnitude (phase) of BCS season cycle over the Arctic (Northern China). While uncertainty associated with the representation of BC transport and deposition processes in CAM5 is more important than that associated with the two snow model parameters in Northern China, the two uncertainties have comparable effect in the Arctic.

  10. Aerosol Cans? -Aerosol cans use a pressurized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    WHAT TO DO WITH... Aerosol Cans? -Aerosol cans use a pressurized propellant to distribute the product. Propellants are often flammable and/or toxic. Therefore, never store aerosol cans near ignition aerosol cans must be disposed of as hazardous waste. PROPER SAFETY EQUIPMENT Safety Glasses - Proper eye

  11. 4/25/11 12:25 PMRedOrbit NEWS | Scientists Tracking Black Carbon In The Arctic Page 1 of 3http://www.redorbit.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=2033713

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rigor, Ignatius G.

    carbon, has on the rapidly changing Arctic climate. Although the Arctic is typically viewed as a vast an impact on the world's climate for years to come. Black carbon is produced by vehicle engines, aircraft back into the atmosphere," explained Bates. Scientists from The United States, Norway, Russia, Germany

  12. The importance of aerosol mixing state and size-resolved composition on CCN concentration and the variation of the importance with atmospheric aging of aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; Cubison, M. J.; Aiken, A. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Collins, D. R.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol microphysics, chemical composition, and CCN concentrations were measured at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City during Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) in March 2006. The aerosol size distribution and composition often showed strong diurnal variation associated with traffic emissions and aging of aerosols through coagulation and local photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. CCN concentrations (N{sub CCN}) are derived using Kohler theory from the measured aerosol size distribution and various simplified aerosol mixing state and chemical composition, and are compared to concurrent measurements at five supersaturations ranging from 0.11% to 0.35%. The influence of assumed mixing state on calculated N{sub CCN} is examined using both aerosols observed during MILAGRO and representative aerosol types. The results indicate that while ambient aerosols often consist of particles with a wide range of compositions at a given size, N{sub CCN} may be derived within {approx}20% assuming an internal mixture (i.e., particles at a given size are mixtures of all participating species, and have the identical composition) if great majority of particles has an overall {kappa} (hygroscopicity parameter) value greater than 0.1. For a non-hygroscopic particle with a diameter of 100 nm, a 3 nm coating of sulfate or nitrate is sufficient to increase its {kappa} from 0 to 0.1. The measurements during MILAGRO suggest that the mixing of non-hygroscopic primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC) particles with photochemically produced hygroscopic species and thereby the increase of their {kappa} to 0.1 take place in a few hours during daytime. This rapid process suggests that during daytime, a few tens of kilometers away for POA and BC sources, N{sub CCN} may be derived with sufficient accuracy by assuming an internal mixture, and using bulk chemical composition. The rapid mixing also indicates that, at least for very active photochemical environments such as Mexico City, a substantially shorter timescale during daytime for the conversion of hydrophobic POA and BC to hydrophilic particles than the 1-2 days used in some global models. The conversion time scale is substantially longer during night. Most POA and BC particles emitted during evening hours likely remain non-hygroscopic until efficiently internally mixed with secondary species in the next morning. The results also suggest that the assumed mixing state strongly impacts calculated N{sub CCN} only when POA and BC represent a large fraction of the total aerosol volume. One of the implications is that while physically unrealistic, external mixtures, which are used in many global models, may also sufficiently predict N{sub CCN} for aged aerosol, as the contribution of non-hygroscopic POA and BC to overall aerosol volume is often substantially reduced due to the condensation of secondary species.

  13. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Study of Aerosol Sources and Processing at the GVAX Pantnagar Supersite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsnop, Douglas R. [Principal Investigator

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This project funded the participation of scientists from seven research groups, running more than thirty instruments, in the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 km southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo Winter IOP were, 1) what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area, and, 2) what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM? An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption. The following four key accomplishments have been identified so far: 1) Chemical, physical and optical characterization of PM from local and regional sources (Figures 2, 4, 5 and 6). 2) Measurement of urban increment in particulate matter and gases in London (Figure 3). 3) Measurement of optical properties and chemical composition of coatings on black carbon containing particles indicates absorption enhancement. 4) First deployment of chemical ionization instrument (MOVI-CI-TOFMS) to measure both particle-phase and gas-phase organic acids. (See final report from Joel Thornton, University of Washington, for details.) Analysis of the large dataset acquired in Detling is ongoing and will yield further key accomplishments. These measurements of urban and rural aerosol properties will contribute to improved modeling of regional aerosol emissions, and of atmospheric aging and removal. The measurement of absorption enhancement by coatings on black carbon will contribute to improved modeling of the direct radiative properties of PM.

  14. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio [Michigan Technological University; Kumar, Sumit [Michigan Technological University; Wright, Kendra [Michigan Technological University; Kramer, Louisa [Michigan Technological University; Mazzoleni, Lynn [Michigan Technological University; Owen, Robert [Michigan Technological University; Helmig, Detlev [University of Colorado at Boulder

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The scientific scope of the project was to exploit the unique location of the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) located in the summit caldera of the Pico Volcano in Pico Island in the Azores, for atmospheric studies. The observatory, located at 2225m a.s.l., typically samples free tropospheric aerosols laying above the marine low-level clouds and long-range transported from North America. The broad purpose of this research was to provide the scientific community with a better understanding of fundamental physical processes governing the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing and climate; with the ultimate goal of improving our abilities to understand past climate and to predict future changes through numerical models. The project was 'exploratory' in nature, with the plan to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying for the first time, an extensive aerosol research package at PMO. One of the primary activities was to test the deployment of these instruments at the site, to collect data during the 2012 summer season, and to further develop the infrastructure and the knowledge for performing novel research at PMO in follow-up longer-term aerosol-cloud studies. In the future, PMO could provide an elevated research outpost to support the renewed DOE effort in the Azores that was intensified in 2013 with the opening of the new sea-level ARM-DOE Eastern North Atlantic permanent facility at Graciosa Island. During the project period, extensive new data sets were collected for the planned 2012 season. Thanks to other synergistic activities and opportunities, data collection was then successfully extended to 2013 and 2014. Highlights of the scientific findings during this project include: a) biomass burning contribute significantly to the aerosol loading in the North Atlantic free troposphere; however, long-range transported black carbon concentrations decreased substantially in the last decade. b) Single black carbon particles – analyzed off-line at the electron microscope – were often very compacted, suggesting cloud processing and exhibiting different optical properties from fresh emissions. In addition, black carbon was found to be sometimes mixed with mineral dust, affecting its optical properties and potential forcing. c) Some aerosols collected at PMO acted as ice nuclei, potentially contributing to cirrus cloud formation during their transport in the upper free troposphere. Identified good ice nuclei were often mineral dust particles. d) The free tropospheric aerosols studied at PMO have relevance to low level marine clouds due, for example, to synoptic subsidence entraining free tropospheric aerosols into the marine boundary layer. This has potentially large consequences on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and compositions in the marine boundary layer; therefore, having an effect on the marine stratus clouds, with potentially important repercussions on the radiative forcing. The scientific products of this project currently include contributions to two papers published in the Nature Publishing group (Nature Communications and Scientific Reports), one paper under revision for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, one in review in Geophysical Research Letters and one recently submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion. In addition, four manuscripts are in advanced state of preparation. Finally, twenty-eight presentations were given at international conferences, workshops and seminars.

  15. EMSL - Atmospheric Aerosol Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scienceatmospheric The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model...

  16. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 2: Analysis of the Biomass Burning Contribution and the Modern Carbon Fraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aiken, Allison; de Foy, B.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; DeCarlo, Peter; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Wehrli, M. N.; Szidat, S.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Noda, J.; Wacker, L.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Fortner, Edward; Wang, J. X.; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe L.; Arnott, W. P.; Molina, Luis; Sosa, G.; Querol, X.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning OA (BBOA) component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact index correlates well with the observed BBOA, CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is very small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100-150 ppt, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m-3 (two-thirds of its average concentration), which does not appear to be related to BB sources.

  17. Aircraft Observations of Aerosol Composition and Ageing in New England and Mid-Atlantic States during the Summer 2002 New England Air Quality Study Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.; Wang, Jian; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Hubbe, John M.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2007-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol chemical composition, size distributions, and optical properties were measured during 17 aircraft flights in New England and Middle Atlantic States as part of the summer 2002 NEAQS field campaign. An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was operated with a measurement cycle of 30 s, about an order of magnitude faster than used for ground-based measurements. Noise levels within a single measurement period were sub ?g m-3. Volume data derived from the AMS were compared with volume measurements from a PCASP optical particle detector and an Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS); calculated light scattering was compared with measured values from an integrating nephelometer. The median ratio for AMS/SMPS volume was 1.25; the median ratio for AMS/nephelometer scattering was 1.18. Size spectra were compared for subsets of samples with different effective diameters (Deff). There is good agreement between the AMS, PCASP, and SMPS spectra for larger values of Deff but an unexplained over-prediction in the AMS for small values. A dependence of the AMS collection efficiency on aerosol acidity was quantified by a comparison between AMS and PCASP volumes in 2 high sulfate plumes. Average aerosol concentrations were 11 ?g m-3. The organic content was high in comparison to monitoring data from the IMPROVE network, varying from 70% in clean air to 40% in high concentration sulfate plumes. The ratio of organic aerosol to CO and light absorption acting were examined as a function of photochemical age. CO is a conservative tracer for urban emissions and light absorption is a surrogate for black carbon which is also conservative. Comparisons were made to surface ratios measured under conditions where there is little secondary organic aerosol (SOA). An increase in these ratios relative to surface values indicates that 70 - 80% of the organic aerosol in polluted air masses was secondary. Most of this SOA is rapidly formed within a few hours. At longer time scales there is a slow accumulation of organic aerosol and a slow increase in light absorption per unit mass of black carbon. Our results demonstrate the utility of the AMS as a rapid response instrument suitable for aircraft operations.

  18. Aerosol–climate interactions in the Norwegian Earth System Model – NorESM1-M

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkevag, A.; Iversen, T.; Seland, O.; Hoose, C.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Struthers, H.; Ekman, A. M.; Ghan, Steven J.; Griesfeller, Jan; Nilsson, E. D.; Schulz, M.

    2013-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to document and evaluate recent changes and updates to the module for aerosols and aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions in the atmospheric module CAM4-Oslo of the core version of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM), NorESM1-M. Particular attention is paid to the role of natural organics, sea salt, and mineral dust in determining the gross aerosol properties as well as the anthropogenic contribution to these properties and the associated direct and indirect radiative forcing. The aerosol module is extended from earlier versions that have been published, and includes life-cycling of sea salt, mineral dust, particulate sulphate, black carbon, and primary and secondary organics. The impacts of most of the numerous changes since previous versions are thoroughly explored by sensitivity experiments. The most important changes are: modified prognostic sea salt emissions; updated treatment of precipitation scavenging and gravitational settling; inclusion of biogenic primary organics and methane sulphonic acid (MSA) from oceans; almost doubled production of land-based biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA); and increased ratio of organic matter to organic carbon (OM/OC) for biomass burning aerosols from 1.4 to 2.6. Compared with in situ measurements and remotely sensed data, the new treatments of sea salt and dust aerosols give smaller biases in near-surface mass concentrations and aerosol optical depth than in the earlier model version. The model biases for mass concentrations are approximately unchanged for sulphate and BC. The enhanced levels of modeled OM yield improved overall statistics, even though OM is still underestimated in Europe and overestimated in North America. The global anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of the atmosphere has changed from a small positive value to ?0.08 W m?2 in CAM4-Oslo. The sensitivity tests suggest that this change can be attributed to the new treatment of biomass burning aerosols and gravitational settling. Although it has not been a goal in this study, the new DRF estimate is closer both to the median model estimate from the AeroCom intercomparison and the best estimate in IPCC AR4. Estimated DRF at the ground surface has increased by ca. 60%, to ?1.89 W m?2. We show that this can be explained by new emission data and omitted mixing of constituents between updrafts and downdrafts in convective clouds. The increased abundance of natural OM and the introduction of a cloud droplet spectral dispersion formulation are the most important contributions to a considerably decreased estimate of the indirect radiative forcing (IndRF). The IndRF is also found to be sensitive to assumptions about the coating of insoluble aerosols by sulphate and OM. The IndRF of ?1.2 W m?2, which is closer to the IPCC AR4 estimates than the previous estimate of ?1.9 W m?2, has thus been obtained without imposing unrealistic artificial lower bounds on cloud droplet number concentrations.

  19. Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosols using Semi-Continuous Thermal-Optical Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous aerosols are major components in air pollution as a result of energy consumption, thus measurement of them is important to waste management. Increasing interest has been drawn to the identification, measurement, analysis, and modeling of carbon aerosols in the past decade. This book chapter will provide a review of current state-of-art techniques to determine carbonaceous aerosols in relation to air pollution and waste management. The chapter will be composed of four parts. The introduction will discuss why carbon aerosols including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and total carbon (TC=EC+OC) are important to energy consumption, air pollution, waste management, and global climate change. Key definitions will be introduced. Relevant terminologies will be provided. The second part will be a review of the current state-of the art measurement techniques that are used to determine carbon aerosols. Both on-line and off-line methods will be described. Comparisons of different techniques that provide the same physical quantity will be provided based on recent literature findings. Differences among the physical parameters determined by various techniques will be discussed. The third part will focus on data analysis and products obtained from carbon aerosol measurements. In addition to EC, OC, and TC, primary organic carbon (POC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) are of interest to researchers to understand the source and sink of carbonaceous aerosols. Techniques used to determine POC and SOC, such as the EC tracer method and positive matrix factorization, will be described and their differences discussed. Examples will be provided showing field data comparison between the Sunset organic carbon and elemental carbon field analyzer and the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer, both of which are widely used for on-line aerosol measurements. The last part will report new trends and summarize future research needs in carbon aerosol measurement. Emerging problems will be identified and research priorities will be recommended.

  20. New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black; accepted 8 June 2004; published 30 July 2004. [1] The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy

  1. aerosol radiative effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    space-borne sensors use information from the ultraviolet (UV) to the visible and thermal infrared Christopher, Sundar A. 25 Black carbon radiative heating effects on cloud...

  2. Aerosol collection characteristics of ambient aerosol samplers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Carlos A

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are contained in Appendix C. Dichotomous Sam ler The basic principle of operation of the dichotomous, Figure 9, is that aerosol particles are passed through an acceleration nozzle where the particle velocity is increased to a speed V. at the nozzle exit... AEROSOL COLLECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF AMBIENT AEROSOL SAMPLERS A Thesis by CARLOS A. ORTIZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978...

  3. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  4. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, Powell (New Bern, NC); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Prach, Thomas F. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  5. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

    1985-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  6. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

    1987-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  7. Local and regional components of aerosol in a heavily trafficked street canyon in central London derived from PMF and cluster analysis of single particle ATOFMS spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giorio, Chiara; Tapparo, Andrea; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C.S.; Esser-Gietl, Johanna; Healy, Robert M; Harrison, Roy Michael

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    components (i.e., lubricating oils, fresh elemental carbon, organonitrogen and aromatic compounds), secondary aerosol locally produced (i.e., nitrate, oxidized organic aerosol and oxidized organonitrogen compounds), urban background together with regional...

  8. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using EMEP measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic, showing a good agreement, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that during the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne LIDAR measurements. Evaluating the regional impacts in the Arctic of this event in terms of aerosol vertical structure, we find that during the 4 day presence of these aerosols in the lower European Arctic (< 75° N), biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface. The European plumes sampled during POLARCAT-France were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in Northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top of atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m?², peaking at +3.3 W m?² at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.

  9. Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

    2014-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30?g/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22°N and 95 to 107°E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

  10. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  11. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  12. Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi and Yan Feng Climate Research Section Environmental Science Division Argonne National Laboratory #12;Outline Atmospheric Aerosols and gas phase heterogeneous reactions Regional Scales and Atmospheric Aerosols Regional Scale Aerosols: Ganges Valley Aerosol

  13. Aerosol source term in high pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel has been identified as an important element of a severe reactor accident. Copious aerosol production is observed when thermitically generated melts pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to 1.3 to 17 MPa are ejected into an air atmosphere. Aerosol particle size distributions measured in the tests have modes of about 0.5, 5, and > 10 ..mu..m. Mechanisms leading to formation of these multimodal size distributions are suggested. This aerosol is a potentially important fission product source term that has not been considered in previous severe accident analyses.

  14. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  15. A 4-D Climatology (1979-2009) of the Monthly Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Depth Distribution over the Mediterranean Region from a Comparative Evaluation and Blending of Remote Sensing and Model Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabat, P.; Somot, S.; Mallet, M.; Chiapello, I.; Morcrette, J. -J.; Solmon, F.; Szopa, S.; Dulac, F.; Collins, W.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lee, Y. H.; Naik, Vaishali; Nagashima, T.; Shindell, Drew; Skeie, R. B.

    2013-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multiyear database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, seasalt, sulfate, black and organic carbon). We use 9 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS (2 products), TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical datasets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, TOMS (onboard NIMBUS7 and Earth- Probe) and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997), the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, the multi-model mean coming from the ACCMIP exercise, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level- 2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA) has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatiotemporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer), and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer). The comparison also shows limitations of certain datasets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products). Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data, but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences of vertical distribution between dust aerosols showing a large vertical spread, and other continental and marine aerosols which are confined in the boundary layer. From this compilation, we propose a 4-D blended product from model and satellite data, consisting in monthly time series of 3-D aerosol distribution at a 50 km horizontal resolution over the Euro-Mediterranean marine and continental region for the 2003–2009 period. The product is based on the total AOD from AQUA/MODIS, apportioned into sulfates, black and organic carbon from the MACC reanalysis, and into dust and sea-salt aerosols from RegCM-4 simulations, which are distributed vertically based on CALIOP climatology.We extend the 2003–2009 reconstruction to the past up to 1979 using the 2003–2009 average and applying the decreasing trend in sulfate aerosols from LMDz-OR-INCA, whose AOD trends over Europe and the Mediterranean are median among the ACCMIP models. Finally optical properties of the different aerosol types in this region are proposed from Mie calculations so that this reconstruction can be included in regional climate models for aerosol radiative forcing and aerosolclimate studies.

  16. Black Shales Adina Paytan, Stanford University, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    Tales of Black Shales Adina Paytan, Stanford University, USA Several times during the middle of the Cretaceous period, between 125 and 80 million years ago, organic-carbon-rich black shales were deposited over large areas of the ocean floor. These black shales provide valuable information about past climates

  17. Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Timothy Onasch

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex ‘real-world’ aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

  18. Ganges valley aerosol experiment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K. (Environmental Science Division); (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

  19. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  20. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic. Total PM2.5 agrees well with the measurements, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that duringmore »the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had undergone significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne lidar measurements. Model results show that the pollution event transported aerosols into the Arctic (> 66.6° N) for a 4-day period. During this 4-day period, biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~ 1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~ 4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface in anthropogenic plumes. The European plumes sampled during the POLARCAT-France campaign were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m?2, peaking at +3.3 W m?2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.« less

  1. 7, 55535593, 2007 Nitrate aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 5553­5593, 2007 Nitrate aerosols today and in 2030 S. E. Bauer et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Nitrate aerosols today and in 2030: importance relative to other aerosol species and tropospheric, 5553­5593, 2007 Nitrate aerosols today and in 2030 S. E. Bauer et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  2. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  3. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  4. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    metals added from these aerosols to the bioassay incubationsreleased to seawater from the aerosol filters after Author4605 CHEMISTRY Atmospheric aerosol deposition CHEMISTRY

  5. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P.M. Forster (2004), The semi-direct aerosol effect: Impactof absorbing aerosols on marine stratocumulus. Q. J .2005), Global anthropogenic aerosol direct forcing derived

  6. The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai; Easter, Richard C.; Tilmes, S.; Fast, Jerome D.; Liu, Xiaohong; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Current climate models generally under-predict the surface concentration of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic due to the uncertainties associated with emissions, transport, and removal. This bias is also present in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.1 (CAM5). In this study, we investigate the uncertainty of Arctic BC due to transport processes simulated by CAM5 by configuring the model to run in an “offline mode” in which the large-scale circulations are prescribed. We compare the simulated BC transport when the offline model is driven by the meteorology predicted by the standard free-running CAM5 with simulations where the meteorology is constrained to agree with reanalysis products. Some circulation biases are apparent: the free-running CAM5 produces about 50% less transient eddy transport of BC than the reanalysis-driven simulations, which may be attributed to the coarse model resolution insufficient to represent eddies. Our analysis shows that the free-running CAM5 reasonably captures the essence of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), but some discernable differences in the spatial pattern of the AO between the free-running CAM5 and the reanalysis-driven simulations result in significantly different AO modulation of BC transport over Northeast Asia and Eastern Europe. Nevertheless, we find that the overall climatological circulation patterns simulated by the free-running CAM5 generally resembles those from the reanalysis products, and BC transport is very similar in both simulation sets. Therefore, the simulated circulation features regulating the long-range BC transport is unlikely the most important cause of the large under-prediction of surface BC concentration in the Arctic.

  7. Nanomaterials from Aerosols Aerosols are suspensions of liquid or solid particles in a gas. Aerosol particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    1 Nanomaterials from Aerosols Aerosols are suspensions of liquid or solid particles in a gas. Aerosol particles can range in size from molecular-scale to hundreds of microns with a typical example be synthesized by aerosol routes where precursor species are dispersed either in a vapor or in micron

  8. Where Are Aerosol-Cloud Albedo Effects? Muelmenstaedt et al., 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    particles. Wave Breaking ! Bubble Bursting Observed Aerosol Effects on Marine Cloud Nucleation with particles? #12;2/11/14 2 "Dissolved" Organic Matter is Measured in Filtered Seawater as Organic Carbon (OC) P. Verdugo, 2011 Par$culate Organic Carbon Dissolved Organic Carbon POC

  9. Aerosols and their influence on radiation partitioning and savanna productivity in northern Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Beringer, J.; Tapper, N. J.; Long, Charles N.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the effect of aerosols and clouds on the Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) of savannas in northern Australia using aerosol optical depth, clouds and radiation data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin and carbon flux data measured from eddy covariance techniques from a site at Howard Springs, 35km southeast of Darwin. Generally we found that the concentration of aerosols in this region was relatively low than observed at other sites, therefore the proportion of diffuse radiation reaching the earths surface was only ~ 30%. As a result, we observed only a modest change in carbon uptake under aerosol laden skies and there was no significant difference for dry season Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) between clear sky, aerosols or thin clouds. On the other hand thick clouds in the wet season produce much more diffuse radiation than aerosols or thin clouds and therefore the initial canopy quantum efficiency was seen to increase 45 and 2.5 times more than under thin clouds and aerosols respectively. The normalized carbon uptake under thick clouds is 57% and 50% higher than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively even though the total irradiance received under thick clouds was reduced 59% and 50% than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively. However, reduction in total irradiance decreases the mean absolute carbon uptake as much as 22% under heavy cloud cover compared to thin clouds or aerosols. Thus, any increase in aerosol concentration or cloud cover that can enhance the diffuse component may have large impacts on productivity in this region.

  10. Modal aerosol dynamics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitby, E.R.; McMurry, P.H.; Shankar, U.; Binkowski, F.S.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also reviewed. Described in detail is a computationally efficient numerical technique for simulating aerosol behavior in systems undergoing simultaneous heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer in and between the gas and condensed phases. The technique belongs to a general class of models known as modal aerosol dynamics (MAD) models. These models solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of the particle size distribution function. Computational efficiency is achieved by representing the complete aerosol population as a sum of additive overlapping populations (modes), and solving for the time rate of change of integral moments of each mode. Applications of MAD models for simulating aerosol dynamics in continuous stirred tank aerosol reactors and flow aerosol reactors are provided. For the application to flow aerosol reactors, the discussion is developed in terms of considerations for merging a MAD model with the SIMPLER routine described by Patankar (1980). Considerations for incorporating a MAD model into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Particulate Model are also described. Numerical and analytical techniques for evaluating the size-space integrals of the modal dynamics equations (MDEs) are described. For multimodal logonormal distributions, an analytical expression for the coagulation integrals of the MDEs, applicable for all size regimes, is derived, and is within 20% of accurate numerical evaluation of the same moment coagulation integrals. A computationally efficient integration technique, based on Gauss-Hermite numerical integration, is also derived.

  11. activated carbon application: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    black and flexible graphite. C 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers 1. Introduction Carbon materials (including composite Chung, Deborah D.L. 36 Active Carbon and Oxygen Shell Burning...

  12. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include sig- nificant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic

  13. Aerosol Sampler Operations Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    -1123 Laboratory FAX (916) 752-4107 Standard Operating Procedures Technical Information Document TI 201A #12;TI 201.................................................................................................................................................. 3 1.0 Weekly Maintenance ProceduresIMPROVE Aerosol Sampler Operations Manual February 10, 1997 Air Quality Group Crocker Nuclear

  14. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center)

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The identity and ambient mass concentrations of radiatively important carbonaceous aerosols were measured for a boreal forest prescribed burn conducted in northern Ontario, CAN in August 1989. Nonsize-segregated airborne particles were collected for smoldering-fire and full-fire conditions using a helicopter sampling platform. Total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Smoke plume mass concentrations of the OC and EC particles were greatest for full-fire conditions and had ranges of 1.560 to 2.160 mg/m{sup {minus}1} (OC) and 0.120 to 0.160 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (EC) with OC:EC ratios of 10 to 18, respectively. Smoldering fire conditions showed smoke plume OC and EC levels of 0.570--1.030 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (OC) and 0.006--0.050 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (EC) and much higher ratios of OC:EC (21 to 95). These aerosol data indicate the formation of EC particles is greatest during full-fire combustion of boreal forest material relative to smoldering combustion. However, EC particles comprise a minor fraction of the particulate carbon smoke aerosols for both full-fire and smoldering conditions; the major component of carbonaceous smoke aerosols emitted during the prescribed burn is OC. Overall, the OC and EC in-plume smoke aerosol data show nonuniform production of these particles during various stages of the prescribed burn, and major differences in the type of carbonaceous aerosol that is generated (OC versus EC).

  15. Boreal forests, aerosols and the impacts on clouds and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spracklen, Dominick

    of energy, momentum, water, carbon dioxide and other trace gas and aerosol species (figure 1). Through due to the absorption of the Sun's heat by the dark forest canopy. However, these studies ignored shown in figure 2) have a dark canopy (with low albedo) that obscures the snow-covered ground (with high

  16. ARM - Measurement - Black carbon concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhenimage

  17. Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. K. Townsend

    1997-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lecture notes for a 'Part III' course 'Black Holes' given in DAMTP, Cambridge. The course covers some of the developments in Black Hole physics of the 1960s and 1970s.

  18. Role of ammonia chemistry and coarse mode aerosols in global climatological inorganic aerosol distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Chao; Zender, Charles S; Bian, Huisheng; Metzger, Swen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    times of tropospheric aerosols inferred from a global three-sional simulation of 210Pb aerosols. Journal of Geophysicalof sulfate and nitrate aerosol. Atmospheric Environ- ment

  19. Climate implications of carbonaceous aerosols: An aerosol microphysical study using the GISS/MATRIX climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Susanne E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and R. Ruedy, Matrix (multiconfiguration aerosol tracker ofmixing state): An aerosol microphysical module for globalAn investigative review, Aerosol Sci. Technol. , Vol. 40,

  20. Air pollution studies in terms of PM2.5, PM2.5-10, PM10, lead and black carbon in urban areas of Antananarivo - Madagascar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasoazanany, E O; Ravoson, H N; Andriambololona, Raoelina; Randriamanivo, L V; Ramaherison, H; Ahmed, H; Harinoely, M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric aerosols or particulate matters are chemically complex and dynamic mixtures of solid and liquid particles. Sources of particulate matters include both natural and anthropogenic processes. The present work consists in determining the concentrations of existing elements in the aerosols collected in Andravoahangy and in Ambodin'Isotry in Antananarivo city (Madagascar). The size distribution of these elements and their main sources are also studied. The Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer is used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results show that the concentrations of the airborne particulate matters PM2.5-10 are higher than those of PM2.5. The identified elements in the aerosol samples are Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb. The average concentrations of these elements are also higher in the coarse particles than in the fine particles. The calculation of the enrichment factors by Mason's model shows that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb are of anthropogenic origins. The...

  1. A New Aerosol Flow System for Photochemical and Thermal Studies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Flow System for Photochemical and Thermal Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols. A New Aerosol Flow System for Photochemical and Thermal Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols....

  2. 6, 11791198, 2006 Aerosols closing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 1179­1198, 2006 Aerosols closing open Benard cells D. Rosenfeld et al. Title Page Abstract of precipitation by aerosols D. Rosenfeld1 , Y. J. Kaufman2 , and I. Koren3 1 Institute of Earth Sciences­1198, 2006 Aerosols closing open Benard cells D. Rosenfeld et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  3. 8, 14571503, 2008 The aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 1457­1503, 2008 The aerosol distribution in Europe V. Matthias Title Page Abstract Discussions The aerosol distribution in Europe derived with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model.matthias@gkss.de) 1457 #12;ACPD 8, 1457­1503, 2008 The aerosol distribution in Europe V. Matthias Title Page Abstract

  4. 5, 79658026, 2005 Simulating aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    composition, number concentration, and size distribution of the global submicrometer aerosol. The present, coagulation, condensation, nucleation of sulfuric acid vapor, aerosol chemistry, cloud processing, and sizeACPD 5, 7965­8026, 2005 Simulating aerosol microphysics with ECHAM/MADE A. Lauer et al. Title Page

  5. VARIATION OF AEROSOL OPTICAL PROPERTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    radiative forcing due to the aerosol, W m-2 FT is the solar constant, W m-2 Ac is the fractional cloud cover;APPROACH TO MODELING AEROSOL RADIATIVE EFFECTS Transport Chemistry Microphysics Removal ModelEmissions Size-distributed Composition Optical Properties Radiative Effects Optics Model Radiation Transfer Model #12;CLASSES OF AEROSOL

  6. Aerosol engineering: design and stability of aerosol reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratsinis, S.E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical study of the performance of aerosol reactors is presented. The goals of this study are (1) to identify the appropriate reactor types (batch, CSTR, and tubular) for production of aerosol with specific properties (for example, uniform size particles, high aerosol surface area, etc.) and (2) to investigate the effect of various process parameters on product aerosol characteristics and on the stability of operation of aerosol reactors. In all the reactors considered, the aerosol dynamics were detemined by chemical reaction, nucleation, and aerosol growth in the free molecule regime in the absence of coagulation at isothermal conditions. Formulation of the aerosol dynamics in terms of moments of the aerosol size distribution facilitated the numerical solution of the resulting systems of ordinary or partial differential equations. The stability characteristics of a continuous stirred tank aerosol reactor (CSTAR) were investigated since experimental data in the literature indicate that under certain conditions this reactor exhibits oscillatory behavior with respect to product aerosol concentration and size distribution.

  7. Highly stable aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

    1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

  8. Aerosol collection characteristics of ambient aerosol samplers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Carlos A

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . These samplers have an effic1ency approach1ng 100 percent for particles for which the gravitational and 1nertial forces are small (less than approximately 5 um); however, for larger-sized part1cles the efficiency is quite variable and depends not only upon.... According to Agarwal, representative samples can be collected by an aerosol instrument without meeting the Davies criter1a. Raynor ( 7), with the aid of a wind tunnel, observed the effects of environmental and physical parameters on the entrance effic1...

  9. Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________

  10. Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) The residue method for the detection of aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) The residue method for the detection of aerosols from space reflection and absorption Surface Rayleigh atmosphere #12;TOA Multiple scattering Multiple scattering Aerosol layer satellite Surface reflection and absorption Surface Rayleigh atmosphere Rayleigh atmophere Aerosol

  11. Electrostatics and radioactive aerosol behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, C.F.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive aerosols differ from their nonradioactive counterparts by their ability to charge themselves by emitting charged particles during the radioactive decay process. Evidence that electrostatics, including this charging process, can affect the transport of the aerosols was summarized previously. Charge distributions and the mean charge for a monodisperse radioactive aerosol have been considered in detail. The principal results of theory to calculate charge distributions on a aerosol with a size distribution, changes to Brownian coagulation rates for an aerosol in a reactor containment, and possible changes to aerosol deposition resulting from the charging will be presented. The main purpose of the work has been to improve calculations of aerosol behavior in reactor containments, but behavior in less ionizing environments will be affected more strongly, and some problems remain to be solved in performing reliable calculations.

  12. aerosols and climate : uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contributes to creating a level playing field. (BC emissions tradeble like CO2 emissions?) OUTLINE #12;size. policy measures, is even more uncertain (emissions & their chemical fingerprint are uncertain (not just aerosol emissions, not just climate impacts) OUTLINE #12;- Standardization doesn't reduce

  13. Supplementary information for: Insights into the secondary fraction of the organic aerosol in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Contemporary Carbon PCF : Primary Fossil Carbon PM : Particulate Matter POA : Primary Organic Aerosol POC 293 306 163 147 129 73 relativeintensity[%] 219 277 321 117 147129 73 0 100 200 300 400 m/z relativeintensity[%] 219 277 321 117 147 129 73 m/z 0 100 200 300 400 relativeintensity[%] selected fragment: m

  14. 3-D Nano-Structured Carbon/Tin Composite Anodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    uniform dispersion of Sn in the carbon matrix 20 10 * Carbon matrix displays 10-15 nm graphene 0 1 2 3 4 >4 domains and regions typical of carbon blacks P article S ize (nm )...

  15. 6, 43414373, 2006 Cloud-borne aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Discussions Impact of cloud-borne aerosol representation on aerosol direct and indirect effects S. J. Ghan of aerosols employ a variety of rep- resentations of such cloud-borne particles. Here we use a global aerosol- ulated aerosol, cloud and radiation fields to various approximations to the representa- tion of cloud

  16. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhao, Shuyu; Wu, Guangjian; et al

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956–2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source–receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia hasmore »the largest contribution to the present-day (1996–2005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.« less

  17. Carbonaceous Aerosols Recorded in a Southeastern Tibetan Glacier: Analysis of Temporal Variations and Model Estimates of Sources and Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhao, Shuyu; Wu, Guangjian; Zhao, Huabiao; Joswiak, Daniel R.; Li, Jiule; Xie, Ying

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956-2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of OC/BC ratio with higher values in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source-receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia is a primary contributor during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and on an annual basis (74%), followed by East Asia (14% and 21%, respectively). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia as the primary contributor. Moreover, the increasing trend of OC/BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC/OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting, influencing the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that the role of OC deserves more attention because of its non-negligible light absorption and the more rapid increase than BC

  18. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  19. Estimating the Radiative Forcing of Carbonaceous Aerosols over California based on Satellite and Ground Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yangyang; Bahadur, R.; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous aerosols have the potential to impact climate both through directly absorbing incoming solar radiation, and by indirectly affecting the cloud layer. To quantify this impact recent modeling studies have made great efforts to simulate both the spatial and temporal distribution of carbonaceous aerosols and their associated radiative forcing. This study makes the first observationally constrained assessment of the direct radiative forcing of carbonaceous aerosols at a regional scale over California. By exploiting multiple observations (including ground sites and satellites), we constructed the distribution of aerosol optical depths and aerosol absorption optical depths over California for a ten-year period (2000-2010). The total solar absorption was then partitioned into contributions from elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and dust aerosols using a newly developed scheme. Aerosol absorption optical depth due to carbonaceous aerosols (EC and OC) at 440 nm is 50%-200% larger than natural dust, with EC contributing the bulk (70%-90%). Observationally constrained EC absorption agrees reasonably well with estimates from regional transport models, but the model underestimates the OC AAOD by at least 50%. We estimate that the TOA warming from carbonaceous aerosols is 0.7 W/m2 and the TOA forcing due to OC is close to zero. The atmospheric heating of carbonaceous aerosols is 2.2-2.9 W/m2, of which EC contributed about 80-90%. The atmospheric heating due to OC is estimated to be 0.1 to 0.4 W/m2, larger than model simulations. The surface brightening due to EC reduction over the last two decades is estimated to be 1.5-3.5 W/m2.

  20. Aerosol Retrieval Using Remote-sensed Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yueqing

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 Aerosols Impacts on HumanBayesian Approach for Aerosol Retrieval Using MISR Data 2.1for Including a Richer Variety of Aerosol Compositions . 2.5

  1. Optical Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hwajin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paulson, S. E. ; Chung, A. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2007 , 41,Y. G. ; Daum, P. H. J. Aerosol Sci 2008 , 39, 974-986. (32)Accurate Monitoring of Terrestrial Aerosols and Total Solar

  2. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  3. Aerosol source term in high-pressure-melt ejection. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel has been identified as an important element of a severe reactor accident. Copious aerosol production is observed when thermitically generated melts pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to 1.3 to 17 MPa are ejected into an air atmosphere. Aerosol particle size distributions measured in the tests have modes of about 0.5, 5, and > 10..mu..m. Mechanisms leading to formation of these multimodal size distributions are suggested. This aerosol is a potentially important fission product source term which has not been considered in previous severe accident analyses.

  4. Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Formation and Growth. Abstract: Airborne particles play a critical role in air quality, human health effects, visibility and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA)...

  5. Sunlight Changes Aerosols in Clouds | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sunlight Changes Aerosols in Clouds Sunlight Changes Aerosols in Clouds Released: October 20, 2011 Scientists show how sunlight alters optical, chemical properties of atmospheric...

  6. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Chemical...

  7. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Spectro-Microscopic Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosol Aging in Central California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Rodel, Tobias; Kelly, Stephen T.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Carroll, Gregory; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous aerosols are responsible for large uncertainties in climate models, degraded visibility, and adverse health effects. The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was designed to study carbonaceous aerosols in the natural environment of Central Valley, California, and learn more about their atmospheric formation and aging. This paper presents results from spectro-microscopic measurements of carbonaceous particles collected during CARES at the time of pollution accumulation event (June 27-29, 2010), when in situ measurements indicated an increase in the organic carbon content of aerosols as the Sacramento urban plume aged. Computer controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) were used to probe the chemical composition and morphology of individual particles. It was found that the mass of organic carbon on individual particles increased through condensation of secondary organic aerosol. STXM/NEXAFS indicated that the number fraction of homogenous organic particles lacking inorganic inclusions (greater than ~50 nm diameter) increased with plume age as did the organic mass per particle. Comparison of the CARES spectro-microscopic data set with a similar dataset obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign showed that individual particles in Mexico City contained twice as much carbon as those sampled during CARES. The number fraction of soot particles at the Mexico City urban site (30%) was larger than at the CARES urban site (10%) and the most aged samples from CARES contained less carbon-carbon double bonds. Differences between carbonaceous particles in Mexico City and California result from different sources, photochemical conditions, gas phase reactants, and secondary organic aerosol precursors. The detailed results provided by these spectro-microscopic measurements will allow for a comprehensive evaluation of aerosol process models used in climate research.

  9. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  10. 6, 75197562, 2006 Simulating aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , particle number concentration and aerosol size-distribution. The model takes into account sulfate (SO4. This model system enables explicit simulations of the particle number concentration and size-distribution of aerosol dynamical processes (nucleation, condensation, coagulation) is evaluated by comparison

  11. 7, 37193761, 2007 Aerosol indirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    effects and is defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation be- tween present when either a statistical cloud cover scheme or a different aerosol emission inventory are employed. 1ACPD 7, 3719­3761, 2007 Aerosol indirect effects in ECHAM5-HAM U. Lohmann et al. Title Page

  12. 4, 75617614, 2004 Indirect aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . While the cloud albedo enhance- ment (Twomey effect) of warm clouds received most attention so far, they can15 scatter, absorb and emit thermal radiation. Thirdly aerosol particles act as cloud con properties influenced by20 aerosols (e.g. semi-direct effect, suppression of convection). Clouds themselves

  13. 7, 1268712714, 2007 Aerosols' influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in the polluted cloud is due to a more efficient collection process. 1 Introduction10 The effect of aerosol). Numerous studies have addressed the effect of aerosol on marine stratocumulus clouds, due to their key role in the global radiative energy. Marine stratocumuli, bounded by strong marine boundary layer inversion, have

  14. Aerosol Science and Technology, 42:115, 2008 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 42:1­15, 2008 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research of a Fast-Response Aerosol Size Spectrometer Jason S. Olfert and Jian Wang Atmospheric Science Department by the mixing of the aerosol in the inlet of the instrument, which `smears' the detected aerosol over a range

  15. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  16. The Nearby Supernova Factory Ozone + Aerosol + Rayleigh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rayleigh + Aerosol Extinction monitor filter Auxiliary Camera CCD Spectrograph picko ff mirror Umbra

  17. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koh, Christine J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    + ][Dca ? ]. Figure 2. Aerosol particle size distribution ofhypergolic ionic liquid aerosols Christine J. Koh † , Chen-ionization of evaporated IL aerosols Isolated ion pairs of a

  18. Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols. |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols. Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols. Abstract: Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere...

  19. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

  20. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 2: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

  1. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 1: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

  2. aerosol particles collected: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Saller 2002-05-07 6 Nanomaterials from Aerosols Aerosols are suspensions of liquid or solid particles in a gas. Aerosol particles Materials Science Websites Summary: being clouds...

  3. Role of ammonia chemistry and coarse mode aerosols in global climatological inorganic aerosol distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    1 Role of ammonia chemistry and coarse mode aerosols in global climatological inorganic aerosol distributions Chao Luo1 , Charles S. Zender1 , Huisheng Bian2 , Swen Metzger3 Abstract We use an inorganic aerosol thermodynamic equilibrium model

  4. Development of the Captive Aerosol Growth and Evolution Chamber System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonietti, Carlos G

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    that are alternated between the two using 3-way valves. There are two Teflon ports for gases and a stainless steel port for aerosol injection and withdrawal. The walls of the room are covered with UV-reflective aluminum panels. A 54 kW air conditioning system... W black lights. The walls of the room are covered with reflective aluminum panels. During operation the inlet and outlet flow rates are matched. The University of California at Riverside environmental chamber consists of two ~90 m3 Teflon bags...

  5. AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

  6. 8, 68456901, 2008 Aerosol optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance, Germany 2 Helmholtz Center Munich, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute

  7. Aerosol penetration through transport lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dileep, V.R.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to predict aerosol penetration thrush shrouded probes and transition fitting('s. Experimnents were carried Out to validate the code. The experiments were carried out for different flow rates for a particle size of IO lam aerodynamic diameter (AD...

  8. 6, 55435583, 2006 Aerosol nucleation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and cloud cover via the second indirect aerosol effect that would explain observed variations in global cloud cover. We esti- mate that the variation in radiative forcing resulting from a response of clouds

  9. EAS/CEE 6795 Atmospheric Aerosols Fall 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    EAS/CEE 6795 Atmospheric Aerosols Fall 2011 Mon Wed Fri ­ 11 concepts of aerosol physics with applications to atmospheric aerosols. Text Book: Hinds, Aerosol Technology: Properties, behavior and measurement of airborne particles

  10. Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Theory · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Reality · Biomass burning and desert dust observations from GOME and SCIAMACHY · Conclusions and Outlook #12; · Absorbing Aerosol

  11. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Lawrence W. (Los Alamos, NM); Soderholm, Sidney C. (Pittsford, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  12. AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHWARTZ, S.E.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

  13. Surface Reductive Capacity of Carbon Nanomaterials after Various Heating and Aging Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chunghoon

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    , commercially available carbon black, carbon nanotubes, standard reference materials, fullerenes, graphenes and acetylene soot generated in the lab were used. The carbon nanomaterials were subjected to heating at various temperatures in various atmospheres up...

  14. Effects of anthropogenic activities on the molecular composition of urban organic aerosols: an ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kourtchev, I.; O'Connor, I. P.; Giorio, C.; Fuller, S.; Kristenen, K.; Maenhaut, W.; Wenger, J. C.; Sodeau, J. R.; Glasius, M.; Kalberer, M.

    2014-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). Various sources contribute 56 to formation of PM and include anthropogenic sources such as use of diesel and petrol, 57 burning of fossil fuel and biomass. Biogenic sources include VOCs emitted by vegetation. 58 Urban... 279405). 417 418 References 419 Birch, M.E., Cary, R.A., 1996. Elemental carbon-based method for monitoring occupational 420 exposure to particulate diesel exhaust. Aerosol Science and Technology 25, 221–241. 421 Cecinato, A., Di Palo, V., Pomata, D...

  15. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem. Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The identity and ambient mass concentrations of radiatively important carbonaceous aerosols were measured for a boreal forest prescribed burn conducted in northern Ontario, CAN in August 1989. Nonsize-segregated airborne particles were collected for smoldering-fire and full-fire conditions using a helicopter sampling platform. Total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Smoke plume mass concentrations of the OC and EC particles were greatest for full-fire conditions and had ranges of 1.560 to 2.160 mg/m{sup {minus}1} (OC) and 0.120 to 0.160 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (EC) with OC:EC ratios of 10 to 18, respectively. Smoldering fire conditions showed smoke plume OC and EC levels of 0.570--1.030 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (OC) and 0.006--0.050 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (EC) and much higher ratios of OC:EC (21 to 95). These aerosol data indicate the formation of EC particles is greatest during full-fire combustion of boreal forest material relative to smoldering combustion. However, EC particles comprise a minor fraction of the particulate carbon smoke aerosols for both full-fire and smoldering conditions; the major component of carbonaceous smoke aerosols emitted during the prescribed burn is OC. Overall, the OC and EC in-plume smoke aerosol data show nonuniform production of these particles during various stages of the prescribed burn, and major differences in the type of carbonaceous aerosol that is generated (OC versus EC).

  16. Photoacoustic optical properties at UV, VIS, and near IR wavelengths for laboratory generated and winter time ambient urban aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gyawali, Madhu S.; Arnott, W. Patrick; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Song, Chen; Moosmuller, H.; Liu, Li; Mishchenko, M.; Chen, L-W A.; Green, M.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.

    2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA) measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet wavelength (i.e., 355 nm) and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA's acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009 and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols) and relatively clean (aged aerosols) conditions. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m, respectively) and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}). The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion) days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from traffic emissions and residential wood burning. The analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA), Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA), and Angstrom exponent of scattering (AES) for clean and polluted days provides evidences that the aerosol aging and coating process is suppressed by strong temperature inversion under cloudy conditions. In general, measured UV absorption coefficients were found to be much larger for biomass burning aerosol than for typical ambient aerosols.

  17. Aerosol Science and Technology, 43:641652, 2009 Copyright American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 43:641­652, 2009 Copyright © American Association for Aerosol is the irreversibility of the hygroscopic growth fac- tor of aerosol particles. The instrument uses the hysteresis for ideal instrument performance in application to a test aerosol of fully deliquesce- able particles

  18. Aerosol Science and Technology, 43:799807, 2009 Copyright American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 43:799­807, 2009 Copyright © American Association for Aerosol and Efflorescence of Potassium Salts Relevant to Biomass-Burning Aerosol Particles Evelyn J. Freney,1 Scot T. Martin mate- rial into the atmosphere. Such aerosol particles affect the climate in part because

  19. Aerosol Science and Technology, 47:9398, 2013 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jiaxing

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 47:93­98, 2013 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol of Pt-Nanoparticles-Laden Graphene Crumples by Aerosol Spray Pyrolysis and Evaluation of aqueous chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and graphene oxide (GO) sheets via aerosol spray pyrol- ysis (ASP

  20. Simulating aerosols using a chemical transport model with assimilation of satellite aerosol retrievals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    Simulating aerosols using a chemical transport model with assimilation of satellite aerosol for simulating aerosols has been developed using a chemical transport model together with an assimilation of satellite aerosol retrievals. The methodology and model components are described in this paper

  1. Aerosol Science and Technology, 46:12391245, 2012 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 46:1239­1245, 2012 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol of Surfactants in Nanoparticles Produced by an Electrospray Aerosol Generator Amanda C. MacMillan,1 John B, USA Electrospray aerosol generators (EAGs) disperse conducting solutions into air, promptly neutralize

  2. Aerosol Science and Technology, 41:10891101, 2007 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 41:1089­1101, 2007 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Interferometric Aerosol Absorption Spectrometry Arthur Sedlacek and Jeonghoon Lee Brookhaven National Laboratory, Atmospheric Sciences, Upton, New York, USA Aerosol light absorption still remains a difficult quantity to mea

  3. Aerosol Science and Technology, 40:97106, 2006 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 40:97­106, 2006 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol the aerosol particles, namely by vaporizing and condensing granular sodium chloride and by electrospraying materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Aerosol Science and Tech

  4. Aerosol Science and Technology, 46:937949, 2012 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 46:937­949, 2012 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol Distributions following Condensational Growth in Continuous Flow Aerosol Reactors as Derived from Residence Time Distributions: Theoretical Development and Application to Secondary Organic Aerosol Mikinori Kuwata and Scot T

  5. Aerosol Science and Technology, 44:11401145, 2010 Copyright American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jiaxing

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 44:1140­1145, 2010 Copyright © American Association for Aerosol-Assembly of Nanoparticles in Evaporating Aerosol Droplets: Preparation of Nanoporous Pt/TiO2 Composite Particles Hee Dong, USA Nanoporous Pt/TiO2 micro-particles were synthesized via an aerosol assisted co-assembly (AACA

  6. Single particle characterization, source apportionment, and aging effects of ambient aerosols in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, Laura Grace

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    detection efficiencies of aerosol time of flight masscomposition of ambient aerosol particles. Environmentalsize dependent response of aerosol counters, Atmospheric

  7. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  8. Optimization of aerosol penetration through transport lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong Luque, Fermin Samuel

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    function of Reynolds number for the aerosol transport system of Strom. Tube diameter = 15. 9 mm. 69 Figure Page 16. Comparison of model, experiments and Strom's data for aerosol penetration through the transport system of Strom. Tube diameter = 15. 9... mm, AED = 8 nm. 70 17. Comparison of model and experiments for aerosol penetration through the transport system of Strom. Tube diameter = 15. 9 mm, AED = 10 pm. . 71 18. Comparison of model, experiments and Strom's data for aerosol penetration...

  9. 6, 42134249, 2006 Organic aerosols in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 4213­4249, 2006 Organic aerosols in the Northeastern Pacific K. K. Crahan et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Organics in the Northeastern Pacific and their impacts on aerosol Organic aerosols in the Northeastern Pacific K. K. Crahan et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  10. 8, 7194, 2008 Sea salt aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 71­94, 2008 Sea salt aerosol refractive indices R. Irshad et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Laboratory measurements of the optical properties of sea salt aerosol R. Irshad 1 , R. G. Grainger salt aerosol refractive indices R. Irshad et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  11. 4, 20552088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni et al and Physics Discussions Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni1 , P.bonasoni@isac.cnr.it) 2055 #12;ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni

  12. ATI TDA 5A aerosol generator evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilles, D.A.

    1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil based aerosol ``Smoke`` commonly used for testing the efficiency and penetration of High Efficiency Particulate Air filters (HEPA) and HEPA systems can produce flammability hazards that may not have been previously considered. A combustion incident involving an aerosol generator has caused an investigation into the hazards of the aerosol used to test HEPA systems at Hanford.

  13. 6, 93519388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS satellite data and global 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al. Title

  14. 5, 50075038, 2005 Aerosol effect on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Physics Discussions Aerosol effect on the distribution of solar radiation over the clear-sky global oceansACPD 5, 5007­5038, 2005 Aerosol effect on solar radiation from MODIS L. A. Remer and Y. J. Kaufman the reflected sunlight by the aerosol over global oceans in cloud free conditions. The MODIS high spatial

  15. CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon Composites(T300 & SWB): Crush Resistance, Bend StrengthCARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

  16. Origins and accumulation of organic matter in expanded Albian to Santonian black shale sequences on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Origins and accumulation of organic matter in expanded Albian to Santonian black shale sequences laminated, Cenoma- nian­Santonian black shale sequences contain between 2% and 15% organic carbon about the depositional conditions leading to the black shale accumulations. The low d13 Corg values

  17. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  18. RHIC | Black Holes?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black Holes at RHIC? Further discussion by Physicist Dmitri Kharzeev on why RHIC cannot produce a real gravitational black hole Black holes are among the most mysterious objects in...

  19. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive and Polyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive and Polyvinylidenematerials, conductive additives and a polymer binder tohighly conductive carbon additives to improve the particle

  20. black-bean-salad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Date: Mon, 22 Nov 93 13:06:59 PST From: Jane Colman BLACK BEAN SALAD 3 cups dried black beans, soaked and cooked 3-4 ears ...

  1. Review of models applicable to accident aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity.

  2. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, Brett; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplanktonproduced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS{sup -}) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr{sup -1}, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS{sup -} (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr{sup -1}, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ngm{sup -3}, with values up to 400 ngm{sup -3} over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2), both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20 %) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2 %) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increases and decreases in the concentration of CCN over different parts of the ocean. The sign of the CCN change due to the addition of marine organics to seasalt aerosol is determined by the relative significance of the increase in mean modal diameter due to addition of mass, and the decrease in particle hygroscopicity due to compositional changes in marine aerosol. Based on emerging evidence for increased CCN concentration over biologically active surface ocean areas/periods, our study suggests that treatment of sea spray in global climate models (GCMs) as an internal mixture of marine organic aerosols and sea-salt will likely lead to an underestimation in CCN number concentration.

  3. Retrievals of Carbon Dioxide from GOSAT: Validation, model comparison and approach development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Retrievals of Carbon Dioxide from GOSAT: Validation, model comparison and approach development properties of aerosol and cirrus particles. 3. Model Comparison Retrievals of XCO2 were performed on cloud and compared to the CarbonTracker model. The retrieval averaging kernels were applied to Carbon

  4. Detection of UV-absorbing aerosols using GOME and SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Detection of UV-absorbing aerosols using GOME and SCIAMACHY Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline · The Absorbing Aerosol Index: some theory · Detection of biomass burning aerosols and desert dust. -no clouds -no scattering aerosols Absorbing Aerosol Index AAI Algorithm LUT #12;GOME & SCIAMACHY

  5. DO AEROSOLS CHANGE CLOUD COVER AND AFFECT CLIMATE?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter Schwartz, 1996, modified from;AEROSOL INFLUENCES ON CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE #12;DMS #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN Light scattering by aerosols decreases absorption of solar radiation. #12;AEROSOLS

  6. Identification of source contributions to visibility-reducing organic aerosols in the vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Hallock, K.A.; Leach, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Mason-Jones, M.; Mason-Jones, H.; Salmon, L.G.; Winner, D.A.; Cass, G.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Science

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfates and carbonaceous aerosols are the largest contributors to the fine particle burden in the atmosphere near Grand Canyon National Park. While the effects of sulfate particles on visibility at the Grand Canyon has been extensively studied, much less is known about the nature and origin of the carbonaceous aerosols that are present. This disparity in understanding arises from at least two causes: aerosol carbon data for the region are less plentiful and many of the sources that could contribute to that organic aerosol are both diverse and not well characterized. The objective of this present study is to examine the origin of the carbonaceous aerosol at Grand Canyon National Park during the summer season based on molecular tracer techniques applied to source and ambient samples collected specifically for this purpose.

  7. Pt/CARBON XEROGEL CATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS Nathalie JOBa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pt/CARBON XEROGEL CATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS Nathalie JOBa , Frédéric MAILLARDb , Jean, France ABSTRACT Carbon xerogels have been used to replace carbon black as catalyst support at the cathode in this electrode. Carbon xerogels are very clean nanostructured carbons with well-defined pore texture, which

  8. Mass spectrometric approaches for chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols: critical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Mass spectrometric approaches for chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols: critical. Atmospheric aerosols have profound effects on the environment through several physicochemical processes on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Understanding aerosol atmospheric chemistry and its environmental

  9. Intercomparison of 14C Analysis of Carbonaceous Aerosols: Exercise 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis of carbonaceous aerosols: recent developments.Source apportionment of aerosols by 14 C measurements inAnalysis of Carbonaceous Aerosols Table 2a 14 C(TC) results

  10. Enhanced photolysis in aerosols: evidence for important surface effects.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nissenson, Paul; Knox, Christopher J H; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J; Phillips, Leon F; Dabdub, Donald

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    irradiated for 30 s in the aerosol phase, (b) Mo(CO) 6 in 1-irradiation for both aerosols and the bulk-liquid solution.Enhanced photolysis in aerosols: evidence for important

  11. Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites M I Mishchenko1 instruments suitable for aerosol remote sensing and give examples of aerosol retrievals obtained forcing directly by absorbing and reflecting sunlight, thereby cooling or heating the atmosphere

  12. A sea-state based source function for size and composition resolved marine aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Michael S [ORNL; Keene, William C [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parameterization for the size- and composition-resolved production fluxes of nascent marine aerosol was developed from prior experimental observations and extrapolated to ambient conditions based on estimates of air entrainment by the breaking of wind-driven ocean waves. Production of particulate organic carbon (OC{sub aer}) was parameterized based on Langmuir equilibrium-type association of organic matter to bubble plumes in seawater and resulting aerosol as constrained by measurements of aerosol produced from productive and oligotrophic seawater. This novel approach is the first to parameterize size- and composition-resolved aerosol production based on explicit evaluation of wind-driven air entrainment/detrainment fluxes and chlorophyll-a as a proxy for surfactants in surface seawater. Production fluxes were simulated globally with an eight aerosol-size-bin version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.5.07). Simulated production fluxes fell within the range of published estimates based on observationally constrained parameterizations. Because the parameterization does not consider contributions from spume drops, the simulated global mass flux (1.5 x 10{sup 3} Tg y{sup -1}) is near the lower end of published estimates. The simulated production of aerosol number (1.4 x 10{sup 6} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and OC{sub aer} (29 Tg C y{sup -1}) fall near the upper end of published estimates and suggest that primary marine aerosols may have greater influences on the physicochemical evolution of the troposphere, radiative transfer and climate, and associated feedbacks on the surface ocean than suggested by previous model studies.

  13. Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sedlacek, Arthur; S, Satheesh; Springston, Stephen

    This measurement characterizes the types of BC emissions that result in near­surface BC­ containing particles in a region that is dominated by biomass and open pit/stove cooking. Specifically, examine three primary BC emission sources: (i) urban setting (e.g., fossil fuel emissions); and (ii) biomass burning. Source (i) are captured at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bangalore. Biomass emissions (ii) contains a series of 1­2 day measurement excursions to the rural area surrounding Bangalore.

  14. The structure of the carbon black flame 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, W. Kermi

    1945-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wbyo. a1y dWoAmv AcWdp PcWgy nS bomfHdyf AB AHovnvE W QyR mP EWS nSSHnvE Pomg W cWuW Rnb nv W oySRondRy6f SHbbcB mP Wno. a1y EWS AHovS lnR1 vm boy6gnqRHoy mP Wno Wvf R1y PcWgy AmHvfWonyS Woy fyRyognvyf AB R1y bmnvRS WR l1nd1 nvRyofnPPHSnmv mP EWS Wvf... RygbyoWRHoy gyWSHoygyvRS AHR. EnuyS vm nvPmogWRnmv WS Rm R1y SmHody mP R1y fWRW HSyf * mo R1y6 gyR1mf AB l1nd1 R1yB lyoy mARWnvyf. aygbyoWRHoyS oWvEnvE Pomg 0'wJN. Rm U'wwJN. lyoy oydmofyf. Iv EyvyoWc, nR gWB Ay SRWRyf R1WR R1mHE1 R1y inRh yo...

  15. Controls on black carbon storage in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czimczik, Claudia I; Masiello, Caroline A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    matter upon sorp- tion to goethite and kaolinite, Chem.organic matter fractions to goethite (alpha-FeOOH): Effectreactive with minerals like goethite [Kaiser, 2003; Kaiser

  16. Molecular Characterization of Organic Aerosols Using Nanospray...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in OA, which is important for understanding chemical aging phenomena. Citation: Roach PJ, J Laskin, and A Laskin.2010."Molecular Characterization of Organic Aerosols Using...

  17. Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May 28, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper Contact: Linda Vu,...

  18. Photolytic processing of secondary organic aerosols dissolved...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    processing of secondary organic aerosols dissolved in cloud droplets. Abstract: The effect of UV irradiation on the molecular composition of aqueous extracts of secondary...

  19. Quantifying aerosol direct radiative effect with Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer observations: Top-of-atmosphere albedo change by aerosols based on land surface types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang; Li, Qinbin; Kahn, Ralph A; Randerson, James T; Diner, David J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coincident MISR and MODIS aerosol optical depths over land2003), Estimates of the spectral aerosol single scatteringalbedo and aerosol radiative effects during SAFARI 2000, J.

  20. Synergy between Secondary Organic Aerosols and Long Range Transport...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between Secondary Organic Aerosols and Long Range Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Synergy between Secondary Organic Aerosols and Long Range Transport of Polycyclic...

  1. acid aerosol exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nenes, Athanasios 8 Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia Geosciences Websites Summary: Neutralization of soil aerosol and...

  2. Spectro-Microscopic Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosol Aging...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Carbonaceous Aerosol Aging in Central California. Abstract: Carbonaceous aerosols are responsible for large uncertainties in climate models, degraded visibility, and...

  3. Measurements of submicron aerosols in Houston, Texas during the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of submicron aerosols in Houston, Texas during the 2009 SHARP field campaign. Measurements of submicron aerosols in Houston, Texas during the 2009 SHARP field campaign. Abstract:...

  4. Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles This webinar was presented by research team Building...

  5. The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol concentration in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol concentration in arctic mixed-phase stratus clouds during ISDAC and M-PACE. The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol...

  6. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

  7. aerosols iii morphologic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Websites Summary: of aerosols. Keywords: metal waste recycling; aerosols; fire hazard; explosion hazard. 1. OVERVIEW ProductsRisks generated by the treatment of...

  8. Molecular Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application of High Resolution Mass...

  9. Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by...

  10. ambient aerosol concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 4 Ambient aerosol sampling using the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer...

  11. ambient ultrafine aerosols: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 4 Ambient aerosol sampling using the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer...

  12. aerosol flow reactor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APPROACH TO SPACEBORN HYPERSPECTRAL OPTICAL FLOW ESTIMATION ON DUST AEROSOLS Fabian E, Canada ABSTRACT The significant role dust aerosols play in the earth's climate sys- tem and...

  13. aerosol formation durint: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XI, Universit de 86 8, 68456901, 2008 Aerosol optical Physics Websites Summary: of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy...

  14. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  15. aerosol ratio program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    contribute a major portion of atmospheric aerosol mass loading 5. The estimated global annual Liou, K. N. 2 Studying Clouds and Aerosols with Lidar Depolarization Ratio and...

  16. aerosol optical thickness: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however,...

  17. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  18. aerosol samples collected: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    elements analysis of aerosol samples from some CiteSeer Summary: Aerosols deposits on filters from ten Romanian towns with different kinds and levels of industrial development...

  19. aerosol particles emitted: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aerosols scatter and absorb solar, estimates of the impact of aerosols on visibility, the solar radiation balance, and crop production is presented. 1. INTRODUCTION The attenuation...

  20. aerosol size classification: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2006 Aerosol size Physics Websites Summary: ACPD 6, 10493-10522, 2006 Aerosol size distribution source identification T. W. Chan and M Esc Printer-friendly Version...

  1. aerosolized pentamidine effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

  2. aerosol monitoring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

  3. aerosols radioactifs artificiels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

  4. aerosolized polymerized type: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

  5. aerosol concentration enrichment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

  6. aerosol direct radiative: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

  7. aerosol biokinetics concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

  8. aerosol particle analysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: data analysis algorithm is presented. Our earlier algorithm assumed a monomodal aerosol size distribution, while the new algorithm allows us to partition the aerosol...

  9. aerosol radiative forcing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

  10. aerosol research study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in atmospheric thermal structure, burning, bio-sources changes? 12;Aerosol microphysics: size distribution, mixing state, morphology, shape 9 Aerosol Science and Technology,...

  11. aerosol chemical composition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

  12. Ice-condenser aerosol tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Eschbach, E.J.; Winegardner, W.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an experimental investigation of aerosol particle transport and capture using a full-scale height and reduced-scale cross section test facility based on the design of the ice compartment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice-condenser containment system. Results of 38 tests included thermal-hydraulic as well as aerosol particle data. Particle retention in the test section was greatly influenced by thermal-hydraulic and aerosol test parameters. Test-average decontamination factor (DF) ranged between 1.0 and 36 (retentions between {approximately}0 and 97.2%). The measured test-average particle retentions for tests without and with ice and steam ranged between DF = 1.0 and 2.2 and DF = 2.4 and 36, respectively. In order to apparent importance, parameters that caused particle retention in the test section in the presence of ice were steam mole fraction (SMF), noncondensible gas flow rate (residence time), particle solubility, and inlet particle size. Ice-basket section noncondensible flows greater than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in stable thermal stratification whereas flows less than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in thermal behavior termed meandering with frequent temperature crossovers between flow channels. 10 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keene, William C. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia; Long, Michael S. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryâ??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earthâ??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  14. Combustion of biomass as a global carbon sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, Rowena

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This note is intended to highlight the important role of black carbon produced from biomass burning in the global carbon cycle, and encourage further research in this area. Consideration of the fundamental physical chemistry of cellulose thermal decomposition suggests that suppression of biomass burning or biasing burning practices to produce soot-free flames must inevitably transfer more carbon to the atmosphere. A simple order-of-magnitude quantitative analysis indicates that black carbon may be a significant carbon reservoir that persists over geological time scales.

  15. Heterogeneous Chemistry: Understanding Aerosol/Oxidant Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce E. Penner

    2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Global radiative forcing of nitrate and ammonium aerosols has mostly been estimated from aerosol concentrations calculated at thermodynamic equilibrium or using approximate treatments for their uptake by aerosols. In this study, a more accurate hybrid dynamical approach (DYN) was used to simulate the uptake of nitrate and ammonium by aerosols and the interaction with tropospheric reactive nitrogen chemistry in a three-dimensional global aerosol and chemistry model, IMPACT, which also treats sulfate, sea salt and mineral dust aerosol. 43% of the global annual average nitrate aerosol burden, 0.16 TgN, and 92% of the global annual average ammonium aerosol burden, 0.29 TgN, exist in the fine mode (D<1.25 {micro}m) that scatters most efficiently. Results from an equilibrium calculation differ significantly from those of DYN since the fraction of fine-mode nitrate to total nitrate (gas plus aerosol) is 9.8%, compared to 13% in DYN. Our results suggest that the estimates of aerosol forcing from equilibrium concentrations will be underestimated. We also show that two common approaches used to treat nitrate and ammonium in aerosol in global models, including the first-order gas-to-particle approximation based on uptake coefficients (UPTAKE) and a hybrid method that combines the former with an equilibrium model (HYB), significantly overpredict the nitrate uptake by aerosols especially that by coarse particles, resulting in total nitrate aerosol burdens higher than that in DYN by +106% and +47%, respectively. Thus, nitrate aerosol in the coarse mode calculated by HYB is 0.18 Tg N, a factor of 2 more than that in DYN (0.086 Tg N). Excessive formation of the coarse-mode nitrate in HYB leads to near surface nitrate concentrations in the fine mode lower than that in DYN by up to 50% over continents. In addition, near-surface HNO{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentrations are underpredicted by HYB by up to 90% and 5%, respectively. UPTAKE overpredicts the NO{sub x} burden by 56% and near-surface NO{sub x} concentrations by a factor of 2-5. These results suggest the importance of using the more accurate hybrid dynamical method in the estimates of both aerosol forcing and tropospheric ozone chemistry.

  16. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  17. R. Jaff, et al.: Closing a major gap in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olver, Peter

    and source of black carbon aerosol over Taklimakan Desert, LI Juan et al, Science China - Chemistry, 53 (2010, 13 #12;Monday, May 6, 13 #12;HAMMES ET AL.: BLACK CARBON QUANTIFICATION RING TRIAL HAMMES ET AL.: BLACK CARBON QUANTIFICATION RING TRIAL Monday, May 6, 13 #12;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_carbon

  18. Aged black carbon identified in marine dissolved organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziolkowski, Lori A; Druffel, Ellen R.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pool in the northeast Pacific Ocean, Deep Sea Res. , Part I,?445‰ in the deep NE Pacific Ocean (Table S1). The Suwanneein the northeast Pacific Ocean. If the BC in the Amazon

  19. Stimuli-Tailored Dispersion State of Aqueous Carbon Nanotube Suspensions and Solid Polymer Nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etika, Krishna

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    -controlled dispersion of carbon nanotubes could have a variety of applications in nanoelectronics, sensing, and drug and gene delivery systems. Furthermore, this dissertation also contains a published study focused on controlling the dispersion state of carbon black (CB...

  20. Aerosol Condensational Growth in Cloud Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geng, Jun

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A code for the quasi-stationary solution of the coupled heat and mass transport equations for aerosols in a finite volume was developed. Both mass and heat are conserved effectively in the volume, which results in a competitive aerosol condensation...

  1. 6, 32653319, 2006 Study aerosol with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 3265­3319, 2006 Study aerosol with two emission inventories and time factors A. de Meij et in Europe to two different emission inventories and temporal distribution of emissions A. de Meij 1 , M Study aerosol with two emission inventories and time factors A. de Meij et al. Title Page Abstract

  2. 5, 75777611, 2005 A look at aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 5, 7577­7611, 2005 A look at aerosol formation using data mining techniques S. Hyv and Physics Discussions A look at aerosol formation using data mining techniques S. Hyv¨onen1 , H. Junninen2 Korkeakoski, Finland 4 Department of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, P.O. Box 27, FIN

  3. 2, 12871315, 2002 Aerosol sources and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in climate variability and climate change studies (IPCC, 2001). Radiative forcing of natural and their contribution to the chemical composition of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during summertime J aerosol sources in the Eastern Mediterranean5 Basin could be investigated at this location since the site

  4. 6, 1217912197, 2006 Aerosol formation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    troposphere and lower stratosphere. The model implements a first order scheme for resolving the aerosol size distribution within its geometric size10 sections, which efficiently suppresses numerical diffusion. We operate removes freshly nucleated particles by coagulation. The observation of high ultrafine aerosol

  5. Black Pine Engineering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Pine Engineering is commercializing a disruptive technology in the turbomachinery industry. Using a patented woven composite construction, Black Pine Engineering can make turbomachines (turbines, compressors) that are cheaper and lighter than competing technologies. Using this technology, Black Pine Engineering will sell turbo-compressors which solve the problem of wasted steam in geothermal power plants.

  6. Black Bean Burrito Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    under running water to remove sodium. 2. Heat beans, corn and salsa together. 3. Spread 1/8 salsaBlack Bean Burrito Ingredients: 15 ounces black beans, canned, drained and rinsed 10 ounces corn cheddar cheese, low-fat, shredded 8 whole wheat flour tortillas Directions 1. Drain and rinse black beans

  7. ARM - AOS Aerosol Properties Plots

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OF CONTRACTOperations AMF2ViewersAOS Aerosol

  8. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fertilization on carbon sequestration in the Southern Ocean.production, and carbon sequestration (4–7). In areas whereproductivity and carbon sequestration and thus influence

  9. Aerosol Releases from the ICPP July 2005 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Releases from the ICPP July 2005 FINAL REPORT AEROSOL RELEASES FROM THE IDAHO CHEMICAL, Inc. July 2005 #12;Aerosol Releases from the ICPP July 2005 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction ......................................... 5-1 5.1 Beta-minus Iodine Aerosol Formation Mechanism

  10. Exploring matrix effects on photochemistry of organic aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Exploring matrix effects on photochemistry of organic aerosols Hanna Lignella,b,1 , Mallory L of photochemical processes in organic aerosols will depend on both relative humidity and temperature and thus and impacts. aerosol aging | particle viscosity | organic photochemistry Aqueous droplets and aerosol

  11. Variability of building environmental assessment tools on evaluating carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, S. Thomas, E-mail: tstng@hkucc.hku.hk; Chen Yuan, E-mail: chenyuan4@gmail.com; Wong, James M.W., E-mail: jmwwong@hku.hk

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With an increasing importance of sustainability in construction, more and more clients and designers employ building environmental assessment (BEA) tools to evaluate the environmental friendliness of their building facilities, and one important aspect of evaluation in the BEA models is the assessment of carbon emissions. However, in the absence of any agreed framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking, the results generated by the BEA tools might vary significantly which could lead to confusion or misinterpretation on the carbon performance of a building. This study thus aims to unveil the properties of and the standard imposed by the current BEA models on evaluating the life cycle carbon emissions. The analyses cover the (i) weighting of energy efficiency and emission levels among various environmental performance indicators; (ii) building life cycle stages in which carbon is taken into consideration; (iii) objectiveness of assessment; (iv) baseline set for carbon assessment; (v) mechanism for benchmarking the emission level; and (v) limitations of the carbon assessment approaches. Results indicate that the current BEA schemes focus primarily on operational carbon instead of the emissions generated throughout the entire building life cycle. Besides, the baseline and benchmark for carbon evaluation vary significantly among the BEA tools based on the analytical results of a hypothetical building. The findings point to the needs for a more transparent framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking in BEA modeling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon emission evaluation in building environmental assessment schemes are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulative carbon emission is modeled for building environmental assessment schemes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon assessments focus primarily on operational stage instead of entire lifecycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baseline and benchmark of carbon assessment vary greatly among BEA schemes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more transparent and comprehensive framework for carbon assessment is required.

  12. Global impact of smoke aerosols from landscape fires on climate and the Hadley circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of biomass burn- ing aerosol on the monsoon circulationA. , and Rudich, Y. : Aerosol invigoration and restructuring2011. Albrecht, B. A. : Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and

  13. Characterization of the Molecular Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosols using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sellon, Rachel Elizabeth

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene, Proc.biogenic secondary organic aerosol, J. Phys. Chem. A, 112(in secondary organic aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol. , 41(

  14. Chapter 3: Evaluating the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Surabi

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud susceptibility and the first aerosol indirect forcing:Sensitivity to BC and aerosol concentrations. J. Geophys.of cloud droplet and aerosols number concentrations:

  15. Real time in situ detection of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol. J. Phys. Chem. A 2008,H. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from reactionsec- ondary organic aerosol yields. Atmospheric Chemistry

  16. Composition, sources, and formation of secondary organic aerosols from urban emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shang; Liu, Shang

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    organonitrate functional groups in aerosol particles200 5.1v aerosol Chapter 3 Meteorological conditions during theSecondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources

  17. Particles, Aerosols, and Their Transport in Built Environment Particles, aerosols, or collectively called particulate matters (PM) are ubiquitous indoor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Editorial Particles, Aerosols, and Their Transport in Built Environment Particles, aerosols or aerosols and their transport in built environment. The first five papers in this special issue addressed influences ozone removal and the secondary organic aerosols generation. The study from Zuraimi et al

  18. Sources and Formation of OrganicSources and Formation of Organic Aerosols in our AtmosphereAerosols in our Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    Sources and Formation of OrganicSources and Formation of Organic Aerosols in our AtmosphereAerosols Department of Chemical Engineering University of Patras, Greece #12;Sources of Organic AerosolSources of Organic Aerosol Primary Secondary Anthropogenic ·Gasoline ·Diesel ·Biomass burning ·Meat Cooking Biogenic

  19. Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME the resulting time series, we use tropospheric NO2 data as a reference in the regions dominated by biomass sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

  20. The behavior of constant rate aerosol reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedlander, S.K.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerosol reactor is a gaseous system in which fine particles are formed by chemical reaction in either a batch or flow process. The particle sizes of interest range from less than 10 angstrom (molecular clusters) to 10 ..mu..m. Such reactors may be operated to study the aerosol formation process, as in a smog reactor, or to generate a product such as a pigment or a catalytic aerosol. Aerosol reactors can be characterized by three temporal or spatial zones or regions of operation for batch and flow reactors, respectively. In zone I, chemical reaction results in the formation of condensable molecular products which nucleate and form very high concentrations of small particles. The number density depends on the concentration of preexisting aerosol. Zone II is a transition region in which the aerosol number concentration levels off as a result of hetergeneous condensation by the stable aerosol. In zone III coagulation becomes sufficiently rapid to reduce the particle number concentration. There may be a zone IV in which agglomerates form.

  1. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  2. A shrouded probe aerosol sampling cyclone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, Stewart Craig

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AED at three different flow rates. The results would then be interpolated to give the needed flow rate value. The collection efficiency of the cyclone was characterized by the approach of generating liquid aerosols containing an analytical tracer... was neutralized by passing the aerosol flow through a chamber which contained a 10 mCi krypton 85 line source. Aerosol size produced by this apparatus depends on the concentration of the non-volatile solute, the size of the orifice, and the frequency applied...

  3. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  4. Aerosol flow reactor production of superconducting ceramic powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodas, T. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Engler, E.; Lee, V.; Parkin, L.S. (Research Div., Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (US))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential applications and basic studies of superconducting ceramics require the reproducible production of chemically homogeneous, ultrapure powders with controlled particle size distributions. Previous work has mainly examined the use of liquid and solid phase methods for superconducting powder production. In this work, it is shown that carbon-free, submicron powders based on the Y-Ba-Cu-O, La-Sr-Cu-O, Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O systems can be produced in a gaseous flow system by reacting aerosol particles containing the nitrate salts of the appropriate metals in flowing oxygen at temperatures of 900 - 1100C. It is also demonstrated that composite Cu/YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/ wires can be fabricated by thermophoretic deposition of the particles onto the inner surface of a Cu tube hby sintering/annealing.

  5. Aerosol Best Estimate Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flynn, C; Turner, D; Koontz, A; Chand, D; Sivaraman, C

    2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Aerosol Best Estimate (AEROSOLBE) value-added product (VAP) is to provide vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo, asymmetry parameter, and Angstroem exponents for the atmospheric column above the Central Facility at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. We expect that AEROSOLBE will provide nearly continuous estimates of aerosol optical properties under a range of conditions (clear, broken clouds, overcast clouds, etc.). The primary requirement of this VAP was to provide an aerosol data set as continuous as possible in both time and height for the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP in order to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Even though BBHRP has been completed, AEROSOLBE results are very valuable for environmental, atmospheric, and climate research.

  6. 5, 90399063, 2005 Arctic aerosol effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Radiation Measurement (ARM) data, we find surface cloud radiative forcing (SCRF) is -22 W/m 2 for shortwave. If aerosols are taken into account, the SCRF has been increased during winter while15 negative SCRF has been

  7. Long Range Hydration Effects in Electrolytic Free Suspended Black Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Sentenac; J. J. Benattar

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The force law within free suspended black films made of negatively charged Aerosol-OT (AOT) with added LiCl or CsCl is studied accurately using X-ray reflectivity (ca. 1{\\AA}). We find an electrolyte concentration threshold above which a substantial additional repulsion is detected in the LiCl films, up to distances of 100 {\\AA}. We interpret this phenomenon as an augmentation of the Debye screening length, due to the local screening of the condensed hydrophilic counterions by the primary hydration shell.

  8. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds . Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds . Abstract:...

  9. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, C.; Wagener, R.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Lupi, A.; Ritter, C.; Smirnov, A.; O Neill, N. T.; Stone, R. S.; Holben, B. N.; Nyeki, S.; Wehrli, C.; Stohl, A.; Mazzola, M.; Lanconelli, C.; Vitale, V.; Stebel, K.; Aaltonen, V.; de Leeuw, G.; Rodriguez, E.; Herber, A. B.; Radionov, V. F.; Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Sakerin, S. M.; Kabanov, D. M.; Xue, Y.; Mei, L.; Istomina, L.; Wagener, R.; McArthur, B.; Sobolewski, P. S.; Kivi, R.; Courcoux, Y.; Larouche, P.; Broccardo, S.; Piketh, S. J.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i) a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.

  10. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, C.; Wagener, R.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Lupi, A.; Ritter, C.; Smirnov, A.; O Neill, N. T.; Stone, R. S.; Holben, B. N.; Nyeki, S.; et al

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i)more »a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.« less

  11. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  12. Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, P.F.; Herceg, J.E.; Klocksieben, R.H.

    1984-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols having a wide particle size range at relatively low velocities may comprise a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, the chamber including: a plurality of vertically stacked, successive particle collection stages; each collection stage includes a separator plate and a channel guide mounted transverse to the separator plate, defining a labyrinthine flow path across the collection stage. An opening in each separator plate provides a path for the aerosols from one collection stage t

  13. Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

  14. Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekala, Malla R.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOPMENT OF A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1993 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OP A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Approved as to style and content by: A. R. McFarland (Chair of Committee) N. K. Anand (Mer toer) (', & C. B...

  15. Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekala, Malla R.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    microns), inhalation accidents occurring during maintenance operations can be expected to result in long term retention of 20% to 30% of the inhaled aerosol. Thind"' performed experiments over a span of one year to observe the consistency...DEVELOPMENT OF A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August...

  16. BLACK HISTORY MONTH

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black History Month is an annual celebration of achievements by black Americans and a time for recognizing the central role of African Americans in U.S. history. The event grew out of “Negro History Week,” created by historian Carter G. Woodson and other prominent African Americans. Other countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, also devote a month to celebrating black history.

  17. Transboundary Secondary Organic Aerosol in Western Japan: An Observed Limitation of the f44 Oxidation Indicator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irei, Satoshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takao; Arakaki, Tekemitsu; Sato, Kei; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Bandow, Hiroshi; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To obtain evidence for secondary organic aerosol formation during the long range transport of air masses over the East China Sea, we conducted field measurements in March 2012 at the Fukue atmospheric monitoring station, Nagasaki, in western Japan. The relative abundance of m/z 44 in fine organic aerosol mass spectra (f44) was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor. The stable carbon isotope ratio (d13C) of low volatile water soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) in the daily filter samples of total suspended particulate matter was also analyzed using an elemental analyzer coupled with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Additionally, in situ measurements of NOx and NOy were performed using NOx and NOy analyzers. The measurements showed that, unlike the systematic trends observed in a previous field study, a scatter plot for d13C of LV-WSOC versus f44 indicated a random variation. Comparison of f44 with the photochemical age estimated by the NOx to NOy ratio revealed that the f44 values distri...

  18. aerosol properties in-canopy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei, water accommodation coefficient, organic of aerosol size distribution, chemical composition and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration...

  19. Dynamics of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean A. Hayward

    2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping horizon which manifests temporally as separate horizons.

  20. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  1. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  2. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  3. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  4. Aerosols in Central California: Unexpectedly Large Contribution of Coarse Mode to Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Barnard, James C.

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The majority of previous studies dealing with effect of coarse-mode aerosols on the radiation budget have focused primary on polluted regions with substantial aerosol loadings. We reexamine this effect for a relatively "pristine" area using a unique 1-month dataset collected during recent Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES). We demonstrate that the coarse-mode (supermicron) particles can contribute substantially (more than 50%) and frequently (up to 85% of time) to the total volume. In contrast to the conventional expectations that the radiative impact of coarse-mode aerosols should be small for "pristine" regions, we find that the neglecting of the large particles may lead to significant overestimation (up to 45%) of direct aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of atmosphere despite of very small aerosol optical depth (about 0.05 at 0.5 ). Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of the coarse-mode aerosols on the pristine radiative properties over land and the need for more explicit inclusion of the coarse-mode aerosols in climate-related observational and model studies.

  5. AEROSOL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHARACTERIZATION AT THE ARM SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS (SGP) SITE USING AN AEROSOL CHEMICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AEROSOL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHARACTERIZATION AT THE ARM SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS (SGP) SITE USING AN AEROSOL CHEMICAL SPECIATION MONITOR Yin-Nan Lee1 , Fan Mei1 , Stephanie DeJong1 , Anne Jefferson2 1 Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY 2 CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

  6. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  7. Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive allsky direct 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers

  8. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kula, Erhun, E-mail: erhun.kula@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey); Gunalay, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.gunalay@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Business Studies, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  9. [5] Suh JS, Jeong KS, Lee JS, Han IT. Study of the field-screening effect of highly ordered carbon nanotube arrays. Appl Phys Lett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    molecular weight polymer. The interfacial strength between carbon fillers and epoxy resin varies for improving and/or optimizing the manufacturing process of epoxy­matrix composites. Epoxy resin filled with various carbons (carbon fiber, carbon nanofiber and carbon black) was studied. The epoxy resin system

  10. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  11. A novel activated carbon for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Haijie [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Liu, Enhui, E-mail: liuenhui99@sina.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Xiang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Zhengzheng; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yuhu; Wu, Zhilian; Xie, Hui [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel activated carbon was prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon has large surface area with microporous, and high heteroatom content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heteroatom-containing functional groups can improve the pseudo-capacitance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: A novel activated carbon has been prepared by simple carbonization and activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin which is synthesized by the condensation polymerization method. The morphology, thermal stability, surface area, elemental composition and surface chemical composition of samples have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Electrochemical properties have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol L{sup -1} potassium hydroxide. The activated carbon shows good capacitive behavior and the specific capacitance is up to 210 F g{sup -1}, which indicates that it may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  12. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  13. Rotating Hairy Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kleihaus; J. Kunz

    2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct stationary black holes in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, which carry angular momentum and electric charge. Possessing non-trivial non-abelian magnetic fields outside their regular event horizon, they represent non-perturbative rotating hairy black holes.

  14. margrets-black-beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COM (Robert L. Simmons) Black Beans (Margret Simmons) 2 lbs. dry black beans soaked 8 hrs/overnight 1 qt. veggie stock soaking water plus enough ... 10 garlic cloves finely chopped 1/2 cup cooking sherry 1 tsp. allspice (ground) 1 lemon ...

  15. Results and code predictions for ABCOVE (aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation) aerosol code validation: Test AB6 with two aerosol species. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilliard, R K; McCormack, J C; Muhlestein, L D

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program for aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) has been developed in accordance with the LMFBR Safety Program Plan. The ABCOVE program is a cooperative effort between the USDOE, the USNRC, and their contractor organizations currently involved in aerosol code development, testing or application. The second large-scale test in the ABCOVE program, AB6, was performed in the 850-m/sup 3/ CSTF vessel with a two-species test aerosol. The test conditions simulated the release of a fission product aerosol, NaI, in the presence of a sodium spray fire. Five organizations made pretest predictions of aerosol behavior using seven computer codes. Three of the codes (QUICKM, MAEROS and CONTAIN) were discrete, multiple species codes, while four (HAA-3, HAA-4, HAARM-3 and SOFIA) were log-normal codes which assume uniform coagglomeration of different aerosol species. Detailed test results are presented and compared with the code predictions for seven key aerosol behavior parameters.

  16. In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Alan Sinquefield

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

  17. Aerosol beam-focus laser-induced plasma spectrometer device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for detecting elements in an aerosol includes an aerosol beam focuser for concentrating aerosol into an aerosol beam; a laser for directing a laser beam into the aerosol beam to form a plasma; a detection device that detects a wavelength of a light emission caused by the formation of the plasma. The detection device can be a spectrometer having at least one grating and a gated intensified charge-coupled device. The apparatus may also include a processor that correlates the wavelength of the light emission caused by the formation of the plasma with an identity of an element that corresponds to the wavelength. Furthermore, the apparatus can also include an aerosol generator for forming an aerosol beam from bulk materials. A method for detecting elements in an aerosol is also disclosed.

  18. iDirector with Alex Laskin: Atmospheric aerosols | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alex Laskin: Atmospheric aerosols iDirector with Alex Laskin: Atmospheric aerosols Released: September 03, 2014 iDirector with Alex Laskin iDirector interview with EMSL scientist...

  19. Application of computational fluid dynamics to aerosol sampling and concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Shishan

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An understanding of gas-liquid two-phase interactions, aerosol particle deposition, and heat transfer is needed. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is becoming a powerful tool to predict aerosol behavior for related design work. In this study...

  20. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yin-Nan E. (East Setauket, NY); Weber, Rodney J. (Atlanta, GA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution are provided. The apparatus includes a modified particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and a collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical methods. The method provided for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles includes exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  1. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.; Orsini, Douglas

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution is provided. The apparatus includes an enhanced particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and an enhanced collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical means. Methods for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles are also provided, the method including exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; and flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  2. aerosol deposition method: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and remotely sensed aerosol observations. William D. Collins; Phillip J. Rasch; Brian E. Eaton; Boris V. Khattatov; Jean-francois Lamarque; C. Zender 2001-01-01 43 Ambient aerosol...

  3. The seasonality of aerosol properties in Big Bend National Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Christopher Lee

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ), to characterize the seasonal variability of the Big Bend regions aerosol optical properties. Mass extinction efficiencies and relative humidity scattering enhancement factors were calculated for both externally and internally mixed aerosol populations for all size...

  4. Development of the Captive Aerosol Growth and Evolution Chamber System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonietti, Carlos G

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Captive Aerosol Growth and Evolution (CAGE) Chamber System is an tool designed to study the evolution of aerosols under conditions identical or similar to those of the surrounding environment. Our motivation was to quantify the sensitivity...

  5. aerosol particle penetration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the subsequent aerosol penetration performance through these tubes were conducted for a aerosol particle size range of 5 nm to 20 nm and a flow rate range of 28 Lmin to 169.9...

  6. Accounting for forest carbon pool dynamics in product carbon footprints: Challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, Joshua P., E-mail: jpnewell@umich.edu [School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Vos, Robert O., E-mail: vos@usc.edu [Spatial Sciences Institute, University of Southern California (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Modification and loss of forests due to natural and anthropogenic disturbance contribute an estimated 20% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. Although forest carbon pool modeling rarely suggests a 'carbon neutral' flux profile, the life cycle assessment community and associated product carbon footprint protocols have struggled to account for the GHG emissions associated with forestry, specifically, and land use generally. Principally, this is due to underdeveloped linkages between life cycle inventory (LCI) modeling for wood and forest carbon modeling for a full range of forest types and harvest practices, as well as a lack of transparency in globalized forest supply chains. In this paper, through a comparative study of U.S. and Chinese coated freesheet paper, we develop the initial foundations for a methodology that rescales IPCC methods from the national to the product level, with reference to the approaches in three international product carbon footprint protocols. Due to differences in geographic origin of the wood fiber, the results for two scenarios are highly divergent. This suggests that both wood LCI models and the protocols need further development to capture the range of spatial and temporal dimensions for supply chains (and the associated land use change and modification) for specific product systems. The paper concludes by outlining opportunities to measure and reduce uncertainty in accounting for net emissions of biogenic carbon from forestland, where timber is harvested for consumer products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Typical life cycle assessment practice for consumer products often excludes significant land use change emissions when estimating carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article provides a methodology to rescale IPCC guidelines for product-level carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle inventories and product carbon footprint protocols need more comprehensive land use-related accounting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interdisciplinary collaboration linking the LCA and forest carbon modeling communities is necessary.

  7. Facies and Reservoir Characterization of the Permian White Rim Sandstone, Black Box Dolomite, and Black Dragon Member of the Triassic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seamons, Kent E.

    of Geological Sciences, BYU Master of Science Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2, and Black Dragon Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation for CO2 Storage and Sequestration at Woodside Formation, for CO2 Sequestration at Woodside Field, East-central Utah Walter Harston Department

  8. Observations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production and Soot Aging under Atmospheric Conditions Using a Novel Environmental Aerosol Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glen, Crystal

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of the processes leading to SOA production under ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations as well as the impact these aerosol types have on climate is poorly understood. Although the majority of atmospheric aerosols scatter radiation either directly...

  9. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    aerosols can potentially result in an increase in acid deposition. [4] Acid rain has been studiedSulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols Ben Kravitz,1 Alan limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2

  10. Volume 8 No.1 -Summer 2011 Science & Aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ying

    Volume 8 No.1 - Summer 2011 1 Science & Aerosols How advances in spectroscopy may change climate clues to galaxy formation 04Science & Aerosols How advances in spectroscopy may change climate science. No university buildings were injured in the making of this photo! #12;Volume 8 No.1 - Summer 2011 5 &aerosols

  11. SUNLIGHT TRANSMISSION THROUGH DESERT DUST AND MARINE AEROSOLS: DIFFUSE LIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUNLIGHT TRANSMISSION THROUGH DESERT DUST AND MARINE AEROSOLS: DIFFUSE LIGHT CORRECTIONS TO SUN transmission through desert dust and marine aerosols: Diffuse light corrections to Sun photometry 2004; published 27 April 2004. [1] Desert dust and marine aerosols are receiving increased scientific

  12. Composite catalysts supported on modified carbon substrates and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N. (Columbia, SC); Subramanian, Nalini (Kennesaw, GA); Colon-Mercado, Hector R. (Columbia, SC)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a composite carbon catalyst is generally disclosed. The method includes oxidizing a carbon precursor (e.g., carbon black). Optionally, nitrogen functional groups can be added to the oxidized carbon precursor. Then, the oxidized carbon precursor is refluxed with a non-platinum transitional metal precursor in a solution. Finally, the solution is pyrolyzed at a temperature of at least about 500.degree. C.

  13. Supporting Information Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S1 Supporting Information Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black Xiaoyuan Zhang 1 , Xue Xia 2 , Ivan Ivanov 1 , Xia Huang 2 , Bruce E. Logan *1 1, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R.China *Corresponding Author: Phone: (1

  14. Can aerosols be trapped in open flows?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafael D. Vilela; Adilson E. Motter

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The fate of aerosols in open flows is relevant in a variety of physical contexts. Previous results are consistent with the assumption that such finite-size particles always escape in open chaotic advection. Here we show that a different behavior is possible. We analyze the dynamics of aerosols both in the absence and presence of gravitational effects, and both when the dynamics of the fluid particles is hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic. Permanent trapping of aerosols much heavier than the advecting fluid is shown to occur in all these cases. This phenomenon is determined by the occurrence of multiple vortices in the flow and is predicted to happen for realistic particle-fluid density ratios.

  15. Phase transformation and growth of hygroscopic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, I.N.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ambient aerosols play an important role in many atmospheric processes affecting air quality, visibility degradation, and climatic changes as well. Both natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the formation of ambient aerosols, which are composed mostly of sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides in either pure or mixed forms. These inorganic salt aerosols are hygroscopic by nature and exhibit the properties of deliquescence and efflorescence in humid air. For pure inorganic salt particles with diameter larger than 0.1 micron, the phase transformation from a solid particle to a saline droplet occurs only when the relative humidity in the surrounding atmosphere reaches a certain critical level corresponding to the water activity of the saturated solution. The droplet size or mass in equilibrium with relative humidity can be calculated in a straightforward manner from thermodynamic considerations. For aqueous droplets 0.1 micron or smaller, the surface curvature effect on vapor pressure becomes important and the Kelvin equation must be used.

  16. CADS:Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffat, Harry K.

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual describes a library for aerosol kinetics and transport, called CADS (Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator), which employs a section-based approach for describing the particle size distributions. CADS is based upon Cantera, a set of C++ libraries and applications that handles gas phase species transport and reactions. The method uses a discontinuous Galerkin formulation to represent the particle distributions within each section and to solve for changes to the aerosol particle distributions due to condensation, coagulation, and nucleation processes. CADS conserves particles, elements, and total enthalpy up to numerical round-off error, in all of its formulations. Both 0-D time dependent and 1-D steady state applications (an opposing-flow flame application) have been developed with CADS, with the initial emphasis on developing fundamental mechanisms for soot formation within fires. This report also describes the 0-D application, TDcads, which models a time-dependent perfectly stirred reactor.

  17. On Noncommutative Black Holes Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faizal, Mir; Ulhoa, S C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we will analyze noncommutative deformation of the Schwarzschild black holes and Kerr black holes. We will perform our analysis by relating the commutative and the noncommutative metrics using an Moyal product. We will also analyze the thermodynamics of these noncommutative black hole solutions. We will explicitly derive expression for the corrected entropy and temperature of these black hole solutions.

  18. Microscopic Characterization of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particle Aging in the Outflow from Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, R. C.; Henn, T. R.; Tivanski, A. V.; Hopkins, R. J.; Desyaterik, Y.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Tyliszczak, T.; Fast, J.; Barnard, J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Cliff, S.S.; Perry, K. D.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign conducted in Mexico City Metropolitan Area during spring 2006. The physical and chemical transformations of particles aged in the outflow from Mexico City were investigated for the transport event of 22 March 2006. A detailed chemical analysis of individual particles was performed using a combination of complementary microscopy and micro-spectroscopy techniques. The applied techniques included scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (CCSEM/EDX). As the aerosol plume evolves from the city center, the organic mass per particle increases and the fraction of carbon-carbon double bonds (associated with elemental carbon) decreases. Organic functional groups enhanced with particle age include: carboxylic acids, alkyl groups, and oxygen bonded alkyl groups. At the city center (T0) the most prevalent aerosol type contained inorganic species (composed of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and potassium) coated with organic material. At the T1 and T2 sites, located northeast of T0 (~;;29 km and ~;;65 km, respectively), the fraction of homogenously mixed organic particles increased in both size and number. These observations illustrate the evolution of the physical mixing state and organic bonding in individual particles in a photochemically active environment.

  19. A study of the direct and indirect effects of aerosols using global satellite data sets of aerosol and cloud parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    regions consistent with the global mean statistics. However, the effective cloud particle radius showedA study of the direct and indirect effects of aerosols using global satellite data sets of aerosol between aerosol and cloud parameters derived from satellite remote sensing for evaluating the radiative

  20. Review: engineering particles using the aerosol-through-plasma method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luhrs, Claudia C [UNM; Richard, Monique [TEMA

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For decades, plasma processing of materials on the nanoscale has been an underlying enabling technology for many 'planar' technologies, particularly virtually every aspect of modern electronics from integrated-circuit fabrication with nanoscale elements to the newest generation of photovoltaics. However, it is only recent developments that suggest that plasma processing can be used to make 'particulate' structures of value in fields, including catalysis, drug delivery, imaging, higher energy density batteries, and other forms of energy storage. In this paper, the development of the science and technology of one class of plasma production of particulates, namely, aerosol-through-plasma (A-T-P), is reviewed. Various plasma systems, particularly RF and microwave, have been used to create nanoparticles of metals and ceramics, as well as supported metal catalysts. Gradually, the complexity of the nanoparticles, and concomitantly their potential value, has increased. First, unique two-layer particles were generated. These were postprocessed to create unique three-layer nanoscale particles. Also, the technique has been successfully employed to make other high-value materials, including carbon nanotubes, unsupported graphene, and spherical boron nitride. Some interesting plasma science has also emerged from efforts to characterize and map aerosol-containing plasmas. For example, it is clear that even a very low concentration of particles dramatically changes plasma characteristics. Some have also argued that the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium approach is inappropriate to these systems. Instead, it has been suggested that charged- and neutral-species models must be independently developed and allowed to 'interact' only in generation terms.

  1. Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Patrick F. (Downers Grove, IL); Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL); Klocksieben, Robert H. (Park Forest, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols having a wide particle size range at relatively low velocities may comprise a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, the chamber including: a plurality of vertically stacked, successive particle collection stages; each collection stage includes a separator plate and a channel guide mounted transverse to the separator plate, defining a labyrinthine flow path across the collection stage. An opening in each separator plate provides a path for the aerosols from one collection stage to the next. Mounted within each collection stage are one or more particle collection frames.

  2. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  3. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  4. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  5. Optical Sensing of Ecosystem Carbon Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Solar Induced Fluorescence (peaks at 690 and 735 nm) #12;GEP = ! fAPAR PARin Where: GEP is the gross and absorbed carbon - In existing models ! is assigned a maximum value based on cover type and downregulated Calibration panel AMSPEC FUSION #12;SK-Old Aspen Seasonality: NDVI, EVI, GEP Data from T. Hilker, T.A. Black

  6. Preparation of highly loaded Pt/carbon xerogel catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells by the Strong Electrostatic Adsorption method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regalbuto, John R.

    and composition, such as carbon xerogels and aerogels, constitute an interesting alternative to carbon blacks [4, the samples were filtered, dried and reduced. In order to increase the Pt weight percentage, up to three

  7. Phnomnes de pizoconductivit dans les composites polymre-noir de carbone. Application aux capteurs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    régulation du trafic routier est envisagé. Abstract. - The electrical conductivity of some carbon black-polymer347 Phénomènes de piézoconductivité dans les composites polymère-noir de carbone. Application aux) Résumé. - Certains composites polymère-noir de carbone ont une conductivité qui varie beaucoup avec les

  8. Fuel moisture influences on fire-altered carbon in masticated fuels: An experimental study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ] Biomass burning is a significant contributor to atmospheric carbon emissions but may also provide mastication (mechanical forest thinning) and fire convert biomass to black carbon is essential moisture and its role in dictating both the quantity and quality of the carbon produced in masticated fuel

  9. Charging Black Saturn?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenda Chng; Robert Mann; Eugen Radu; Cristian Stelea

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordstrom solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we could find present either a conical singularity or a naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  10. Organic aerosol components observed in Northern Hemispheric datasets from Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    In this study we compile and present results from the factor analysis of 43 Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) datasets (27 of the datasets are reanalyzed in this work). The components from all sites, when taken together, ...

  11. Pretest aerosol code comparisons for LWR aerosol containment tests LA1 and LA2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.L.; Wilson, J.H.; Arwood, P.C.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Light-Water-Reactor (LWR) Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) are being performed in Richland, Washington, at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) under the leadership of an international project board and the Electric Power Research Institute. These tests have two objectives: (1) to investigate, at large scale, the inherent aerosol retention behavior in LWR containments under simulated severe accident conditions, and (2) to provide an experimental data base for validating aerosol behavior and thermal-hydraulic computer codes. Aerosol computer-code comparison activities are being coordinated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For each of the six LACE tests, ''pretest'' calculations (for code-to-code comparisons) and ''posttest'' calculations (for code-to-test data comparisons) are being performed. The overall goals of the comparison effort are (1) to provide code users with experience in applying their codes to LWR accident-sequence conditions and (2) to evaluate and improve the code models.

  12. Aerosol Science and Technology, 44:329338, 2010 Copyright American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    for Photochemical and Thermal Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols Michael J. Ezell,1 Stanley N. Johnson,1 Yong Yu,2 V of the UCI Physical Sciences Machine Shop; and J¨org Meyer of the UCI Chemistry Department Glassblow- ing

  13. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Chen; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Thornton, Joel A.; Madronich, Sasha; Ortega, John V.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Laskin, Alexander; Maughan, A. D.

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Semi-empirical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models typically assume a well-mixed organic aerosol phase even in the presence of hydrophobic primary organic aerosols (POA). This assumption significantly enhances the modeled SOA yields as additional organic mass is made available to absorb greater amounts of oxidized secondary organic gases than otherwise. We investigate the applicability of this critical assumption by measuring SOA yields from ozonolysis of ?-pinene (a major biogenic SOA precursor) in a smog chamber in the absence and in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and lubricating oil seed aerosol. These particles serve as surrogates for urban hydrophobic POA. The results show that these POA did not enhance the SOA yields. If these results are found to apply to other biogenic SOA precursors, then the semi-empirical models used in many global models would predict significantly less biogenic SOA mass and display reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic POA emissions than previously thought.

  14. Status of the ORNL Aerosol Release and Transport Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor (LWR) accident sequences and released into containment is being studied. Recent activities in the ORNL Aerosol Release and Transport Project include studies of (1) the thermal hydraulic conditions existing during Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) aerosol tests in steam-air environments, (2) the thermal output and aerosol mass generation rates for plasma torch aerosol generators, and (3) the influence of humidity on the shape of agglomerated aerosols of various materials. A new Aerosol-Moisture Interaction Test (AMIT) facility was prepared at the NSPP site to accommodate the aerosol shape studies; several tests with Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosol have been conducted. In addition to the above activities a special study was conducted to determine the suitability of the technique of aerosol production by plasma torch under the operating conditions of future tests of the LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. 3 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Direct measurements of marine aerosols to examine the influence of biological activity, anthropogenic emissions, and secondary processing on particle chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaston, Cassandra Jayne

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for fog processing of individual aerosol particles, Atmos.of marine secondary organic aerosol from biogenic amines,Pacific and their impacts on aerosol hygroscopicity in the

  16. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between in-situ, real-time aerosol photoemis- sion intensityconcentration in combustion aerosols, Water, Air, Soilin-use commercial aircraft, Aerosol Sci. Tech. , 39(8), 799–

  17. Do Black Holes Exist?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Moffat

    1993-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of information loss in black hole formation and the associated violations of basic laws of physics, such as conservation of energy, causality and unitarity, are avoided in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory, if the NGT charge of a black hole and its mass satisfy an inequality that does not violate any known experimental data and allows the existence of white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  18. Helical superconducting black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristomenis Donos; Jerome P. Gauntlett

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct novel static, asymptotically $AdS_5$ black hole solutions with Bianchi VII$_0$ symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, non-isotropic dual ground states with emergent scaling symmetry.

  19. Examination of the Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols on Southeast Texas Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benoit, Mark David

    2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    condensation nuclei CPC Cloud condensation nuclei counter e-PTFE Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene HR-ToF-AMS High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer HTDMA Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer GHG Greenhouse Gas..., but their remains a gap in research of the aging process of sea salt aerosols, their impact on a polluted environment, and their role in heterogeneous reactions of gas phase species. The evolution of sea salt aerosols in the atmosphere results from interactions...

  20. A new aerosol collector for quasi on-line analysis of particulate organic matter: the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) and first applications with a GC/MS-FID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hohaus, T.

    In many environments organic matter significantly contributes to the composition of atmospheric aerosol particles influencing its properties. Detailed chemical characterization of ambient aerosols is critical in order to ...

  1. Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

  2. Results from simulated upper-plenum aerosol transport and aerosol resuspension experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.L.; Pattison, W.L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent calculational results published as part of the Battelle-Columbus BMI-2104 source term study indicate that, for some LWR accident sequences, aerosol deposition in the reactor primary coolant system (PCS) can lead to significant reductions in the radionuclide source term. Aerosol transport and deposition in the PCS have been calculated in this study using the TRAP-MELT 2 computer code, which was developed at Battelle-Columbus; the status of validation of the TRAP-MELT 2 code has been described in an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) report. The objective of the ORNL TRAP-MELT Validation Project, which is sponsored by the Fuel Systems Behavior Research Branch of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is to conduct simulated reactor-vessel upper-plenum aerosol deposition and transport tests. The results from these tests will be used in the ongoing effort to validate TRAP-MELT 2. The TRAP-MELT Validation Project includes two experimental subtasks. In the Aerosol Transport Tests, aerosol transport in a vertical pipe is being studied; this geometry was chosen to simulate aerosol deposition and transport in the reactor-vessel upper-plenum. To date, four experiments have been performed; the results from these tests are presented in this paper. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Calibration of the On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) with ammonium chloride and sodium chloride aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Lucero, D.A.; Romero, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pentecost, G. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) is a light attenuation device designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG&G Idaho. Its purpose is to provide an on-line indication of aerosol concentration in the PHEBUS-FP tests. It does this by measuring the attenuation of a light beam across a tube through which an aerosol is flowing. The OLAM does not inherently give an absolute response and must be calibrated. A calibration has been performed at Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) Sandia Aerosol Research Laboratory (SARL) and the results are described here. Ammonium chloride and sodium chloride calibration aerosols are used for the calibration and the data for the sodium chloride aerosol is well described by a model presented in this report. Detectable instrument response is seen over a range of 0.1 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas to 10 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas.

  4. Aerosol, Cloud, and Climate: From Observation to Model (457th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian (Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department) [Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department

    2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last 100 years, the Earth has warmed by about 1ºF, glaciers and sea ice have been melting more quickly than previously, especially during the past decade, and the level of the sea has risen about 6-8 inches worldwide. Scientists have long been investigating this phenomenon of “global warming,” which is believed to be at least partly due to the increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air from burning fossil fuels. Funded by DOE, teams of researchers from BNL and other national labs have been gathering data in the U.S. and internationally to build computer models of climate and weather to help in understanding general patterns, causes, and perhaps, solutions. Among many findings, researchers observed that atmospheric aerosols, minute particles in the atmosphere, can significantly affect global energy balance and climate. Directly, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight. Indirectly, increased aerosol concentration can lead to smaller cloud droplets, changing clouds in ways that tend to cool global climate and potentially mask overall warming from man-made CO2.

  5. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Environmental Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaspar, Daniel J.; Cliff, John B.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric particles influence many aspects of climate, air quality and human health. Understanding the composition, chemistry and behavior of atmospheric aerosols is a key remaining challenge in improving climate models. Furthermore, particles may be traced back to a particular source based on composition, stable isotope ratios, or the presence of particular surface chemistries. Finally, the characterization of atmospheric particles in the workplace plays an important role in understanding the potential for exposure and environmental and human health effects to engineered and natural nanoscale particles. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a useful tool in determining any of several aspects of the structure, composition and chemistry of these particles. Often used in conjunction with other surface analysis and electron microscopy methods, SIMS has been used to determine or confirm reactions on and in particles, the presence of particular organic species on the surface of atmospheric aerosols and several other interesting and relevant findings. Various versions of SIMS instruments – dynamic SIMS, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry or TOF-SIMS, nanoSIMS – have been used to determine specific aspects of aerosol structure and chemistry. This article describes the strengths of each type of SIMS instrument in the characterization of aerosols, along with guidance on sample preparation, specific characterization specific to the particular information sought in the analysis. Examples and guidance are given for each type of SIMS analysis.

  6. Group Report: Connections between Aerosol Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    14 Group Report: Connections between Aerosol Properties and Forcing of Climate S.E. XMWRZ, Rapporteur F.ARNOLD,J.-p.BLANCHET,PA. DURKEE, D.J.HOFMANN,W.A. HOPPEL, M.D. KING, A.A. LACE, T. NAKAJIMA

  7. Uncertainties and Frontiers in Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Transport Power Industry Biomass burning Residential Human activity Perspective Aerosol Sources (rather than, Mixing, Chemistry, Climate) Climate Effects Resource: AeroCom, an international model intercomparison of fossil fuel (coal, oil, diesel, gasoline), domestic wood burning, forest fires #12;Natural sources

  8. 8, 32273285, 2008 Aerosol DRE in Po

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in turn reducing cloud cover by heating the lower atmosphere (the semi-direct effect, Hansen et al., 1997 Chemistry and Physics Discussions Aerosol direct radiative effect in the Po Valley region derived from direct radiative effect (ADRE) affecting the Po Valley and the adjacent North Adriatic Sea is studied

  9. Group Report: Connections between Aerosol Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    increases absorption of solar radiation in clouds. The net effect is expected to be enhancement of shortwave effect and causes surface warming. Absorption of solar or thermal radiation within the atmospheric column after cloud evaporation. 3. Indirect effects ofaerosols on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry. Aerosol

  10. The impact of detailed urbanscale processing on the composition, distribution, and radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    forcing of anthropogenic aerosols Jason Blake Cohen,1,2 Ronald G. Prinn,1 and Chien Wang1 Received 11 model to simulate the effects of cities around the world on aerosol chemistry, physics, and radiative values of total aerosol surface concentration, the total aerosol column abundance, the aerosol optical

  11. Aerosolcloudprecipitation interactions. Part 1. The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    Aerosol­cloud­precipitation interactions. Part 1. The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols M Available online 13 March 2008 Keywords: aerosol precipitation CCN emissions clouds Atmospheric aerosol the chemical composition of aerosols, their microphysical properties, and the factors that enable them to act

  12. Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

  13. Recent activities in the Aerosol Generation and Transport Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    General statements may be made on the behavior of single-component and multi-component aerosols in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant vessel. The removal processes for U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ + Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosols are enhanced in a steam-air atmosphere. Steam-air seems to have little effect on removal of concrete aerosol from the vessel atmosphere. A steam-air environment causes a change in aerosol shape from chain-agglomerate to basically spherical for U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ + Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosol; for concrete the change in aerosol shape is from chain-agglomerate to partially spherical. The mass ratio of the individual components of a multi-component aerosol seems to have an observable influence on the resultant behavior of these aerosols in steam. The enhanced rate of removal of the U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and the mixed U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ + Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosols from the atmosphere of the NSPP vessel by steam-air is probably caused by the change in aerosol shape and the condensation of steam on the aerosol surfaces combining to increase the effect of gravitational settling. The apparent lack of an effect by steam-air on the removal rate of concrete aerosol could result from a differing physical/chemical response of the surfaces of this aerosol to condensing steam.

  14. Black hole accretion discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. outbursting black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We then turn to the role of advection in accretion flow onto black holes illustrating its action and importance with a toy model describing both ADAFs and slim discs. We conclude with a presentation of the general-relativistic formalism describing accretion discs in the Kerr space-time.

  15. Black Bean Orange Salad Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    beans in a colander under running water to remove sodium. Allow to drain. 2. Cut the ends offBlack Bean Orange Salad Ingredients: 15 ounces black beans, canned, drained and rinsed 1/4 red

  16. Gasification of black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for treating a concentrated aqueous black liquor carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt comprising: (a) providing a gasifier vessel maintained at a pressure of from about 1 to 50 atmospheres and containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom within a sump equipped with an overflow discharge; (b) introducing into the top of the drying zone the concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds; (c) evaporating water from the concentrated aqueous black liquor in the drying zone by direct contact of the aqueous black liquor with the hot gas rising from the gasification zone to produce dried black liquor solids; (d) introducing a first portion of an oxygen-containing gas into the gas space in the gasification zone located below the drying zone immediately above the molten salt pool to partially oxidize and gasify a fraction of the carbonaceous material in the dried black liquor solids falling through the zone to form a hot combustible gas; (e) introducing a second portion of the oxygen-containing gas beneath the surface of the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of essentially all carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool; (f) withdrawing the cooled combustible gas having a higher heating value of at least about 90 Btu/scf (dry basis) from an upper portion of the drying zone; and (g) withdrawing from the overflow discharge in the molten salt reduction zone a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide.

  17. Real-time detection of ambient aerosols using photothermal interferometry: Folded Jamin interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Real-time detection of ambient aerosols using photothermal interferometry: Folded Jamin of instrumentation that can directly measure ambient aerosol absorption through photothermal interferometry. The hallmark of this approach is its ability to directly measure aerosol absorption without interference from

  18. The impact of meteorological conditions and variation in chemical composition of aerosols on regional cloud formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creamean, Jessie Marie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MISSION A Global 3D View of Aerosols and Clouds, Bulletin ofJ.H. Seinfeld, Secondary aerosol formation from atmosphericJ.H. Seinfeld, Secondary aerosol formation from atmospheric

  19. Local Environmental Pollution Strongly Influences Culturable Bacterial Aerosols at an Urban Aquatic Superfund Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uriarte, Maria

    Local Environmental Pollution Strongly Influences Culturable Bacterial Aerosols at an Urban Aquatic Information ABSTRACT: In polluted environments, when microbial aerosols originate locally, species composition of the aerosols should reflect the polluted source. To test the connection between local environmental pollution

  20. FOSSIL ENERGY, CO2, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND THE AEROSOL PROBLEM Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    been masked by the aerosol cooling forcing. Allowable future CO2 emissions so as not to commit of the greenhouse gas forcing due to cooling forcing by tropospheric aerosols; as aerosols, unlike CO2, are short

  1. Modeling the Direct and Indirect Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols on Tropical Cyclones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Keun-Hee

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    precipitation even in the weakest hurricane. When comparing the model performance between aerosol indirect and direct effect by ensemble experiments, the adjustment time of the circulation due to modification of the aerosol radiative forcing by aerosol layers...

  2. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quaas, Johannes

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as cloud contamination or 3D radiation effects (Loebeffect relationship behind the aerosol – cloud/radiationradiation resulting in the “aerosol direct effect”. Hy- drophilic aerosols can serve as cloud

  3. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quaas, Johannes

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as cloud contamination or 3D radiation effects (Loebeffect relationship behind the aerosol – cloud/radiationradiation resulting in the “aerosol direct effect”. Hy- drophilic aerosols can serve as cloud

  4. MELCOR aerosol transport module modification for NSSR-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, B.J.; Hagrman, D.L.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes modifications of the MELCOR computer code aerosol transport module that will increase the accuracy of calculations for safety analysis of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The modifications generalize aerosol deposition models to consider gases other than air, add specialized models for aerosol deposition during high speed gas flows in ducts, and add models for resuspension of aerosols that are entrained in coolants when these coolants flash. Particular attention has been paid to the adhesion of aerosol particles once they are transported to duct walls. The results of calculations with the modified models have been successfully compared to data from Light Water Reactor Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) conducted by an international consortium at Hanford, Washington.

  5. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  6. Thermodynamical instability of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Kiselev

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to Hawking radiation of black hole with a given spacetime structure, we consider a competitive transition due to a heat transfer from a hotter inner horizon to a colder outer horizon of Kerr black hole, that results in a stable thermodynamical state of extremal black hole. In this process, by supposing an emission of gravitational quanta, we calculate the mass of extremal black hole in the final state of transition.

  7. Towards noncommutative quantum black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Dominguez, J. C.; Obregon, O.; Sabido, M.; Ramirez, C. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, P.O. Box E-143, 37150 Leon Gto. (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, P.O. Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.

  8. Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Alexandrov, Mikhail

    The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

  9. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Da-Ren (Creve Coeur, MO)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  10. Recovery Boiler Modeling: An Improved Char Burning Model Including Sulfate Reduction and Carbon Removal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grace, T. M.; Wag, K. J.; Horton, R. R.; Frederick, W. J.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an improved model of char burning during black liquor combustion that is capable of predicting net rates of sulfate reduction to sulfide as well as carbon burnup rates. Enhancements include a proper ...

  11. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10.1029/2010JG001390, 2010 Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxesdioxide fluxes of black spruce ecosystems in eastern Northof a stand?replacing fire on ecosystem CO 2 exchange of a

  12. Towards an understanding of the carbon isotopic changes across the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Alison Margaret

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of bulk carbon, biomarker and compound specific isotopic analyses were used in order to investigate the changes which accompanied the deposition of black shales during the upper tenuicostatum and lower ...

  13. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by aerosol agglomerates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hsingyi.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculation of scattering and absorption by smoke aerosols is required in many applications, including characterization of atmospheric aerosols, prediction of climatic impact of smoke, evaluation of smoke effectiveness in obscuration, calculation of heat transfer from flames, and evaluation of various scenarios of nuclear winter. In this dissertation two procedures were developed to accurately make these calculations utilizing realistic models of smoke agglomerates including oriented chains and fractal geometries. First the Iterative Extended Boundary Condition Method (IEBCM) was utilized to calculate the electromagnetic (EM) scattering and absorption of elongated aerosol particles. The computation efficiency and capability of IEBCM were improved by implementing the sectioning and the segmentation procedures. The sectioning procedure resulted in improving the computational efficiency and the segmentation method made it possible to make calculations for particles with aspect ratios as high as 250. The other procedure employed the Volume Integral Equation Formulation (VIEF) to compute the EM scattering and absorption by agglomerates of complex geometries. The validity of the procedure was checked first by comparing the obtained results with those obtained from the Mie solution for a spherical object and with the IEBCM for nonspherical objects. The comparison between results showed excellent agreement and hence validated the accuracy of the VIEF. The VIEF solution was then used to make calculations for five types of fractal agglomerates of smoke aerosol particles with fractal dimensions in the range from 1.7 to 1.9. The results obtained were compared with those based on the fractal theory recently published by Berry and Percival, and some differences were observed.

  14. aerosols influencing atmospheric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and other anthropogenic influences have substantially altered the composition and size-distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles over the last century. This, in turn,...

  15. aerodyne aerosol mass: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    independent measurements of fine particle volume or particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) ion chromatography measurements for 3 field campaigns with different dominant aerosol...

  16. aerosol particle concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry based technique University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Real-...

  17. aerosol particle charger: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction The Universal Serial Bus (USB) port Allen, Jont 9 New approaches for the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry...

  18. aerosol mass spectrometer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004. The concentration of a species Zhang, Qi 8 Development of a thermal desorption chemical ionization mobility mass spectrometer for the speciation of ultrafine aerosols. Open...

  19. aerosol particles generated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry based technique University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Real-...

  20. aerosol retrieval validation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    off the coast of Chile and Peru, where aerosol-cloud interactions are important to the energy balance (15), and limitations in current observing and modeling capabilities...

  1. aerosol detection equipment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daniel, Rosenfeld 464 Mixtures of pollution, dust, sea salt, and volcanic aerosol during ACE-Asia: Radiative properties Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites...

  2. The Time Evolution of Aerosol Size Distribution Over the Mexico...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Over the Mexico City Plateau. The Time Evolution of Aerosol Size Distribution Over the Mexico City Plateau. Abstract: As part of the MILAGRO field campaign, the...

  3. aerosol mass spectrometry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    analysis of aerosol organic nitrates with electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry MIT - DSpace Summary: Four hydroxynitrates (R(OH)R'ONO2) representative of...

  4. aerosol assisted chemical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 5 Simulating Aerosols Using a Chemical Transport Model with Assimilation of...

  5. aerosol particle formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1. Introduction 2 Current models tend to under-predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA Weber, Rodney 3 Modeling particle formation during low-pressure silane oxidation: Detailed...

  6. aerosol characterization system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 4 Desert dust aerosol age characterized by massage tracking of tracers...

  7. ambient fine aerosols: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 4 Chemical characterization of the ambient organic aerosol soluble in water:...

  8. aerosol chemical characteristion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 5 Simulating Aerosols Using a Chemical Transport Model with Assimilation of...

  9. aerosol characterization experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 8 Desert dust aerosol age characterized by massage tracking of tracers...

  10. aerosol generation characterization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 5 Desert dust aerosol age characterized by massage tracking of tracers...

  11. aerosol monitor development: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paris May 2003John Matthews Monitoring the Aerosol Phase Function University of New Mexico 12;AstroParticles & Atmosphere, Paris May 2003John Matthews 12;AstroParticles &...

  12. aerosol characteristic researching: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as they have significant impacts both on localregional air pollution and global climate. Recent for Aerosol and Cloud Chemistry, Aerodyne Research, Incorporated, Billerica,...

  13. aerosol challenge model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    climate change is important because of its strong capability in causing extinction of solar radiation. A three-dimensional interactive aerosol-climate model has been used to...

  14. aircraft exhaust aerosol: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Window Location on a King Air 200 Aircraft:aerosol.atmos.und.edu) Objective A Raytheon Beechcraft King Air 200 aircraft has been used to obtain Condensation Particle...

  15. Behavior of aerosols in a steam-air environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Longest, A.W.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor (LWR) accident sequences and released into containment is being studied in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) which is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program plan for the NSPP aerosol project provides for the study of the behavior, within containment, of simulated LWR accident aerosols emanating from fuel, reactor core structural materials, and from concrete-molten core materials interactions. The aerodynamic behavior of each of these aerosols was studied individually to establish its characteristics; current experiments involve mixtures of these aerosols to establish their interaction and collective behavior within containment. Tests have been conducted with U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ aerosols, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosols, and concrete aerosols in an environment of either dry air (relative humidity (RH) less than 20%) or steam-air (relative humidity (RH) approximately 100%) with aerosol mass concentration being the primary experimental variable.

  16. Influence of moisture on the behavior of aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.E.; Longest, A.W.; Tobias, M.L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor (LWR) accident sequences and released into containment has been studied in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It has been observed that in a saturated steam-air environment a change occurs in the shape of aerosol agglomerates of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ aerosol, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosol, and mixed U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosol from branched-chain to spherical, and that the rate of reduction in the airborne aerosol mass concentration is increased relative to the rate observed in a dry atmosphere. The effect of a steam-air environment on the behavior of concrete aerosol is different. The shape of the agglomerated concrete aerosol is intermediate between branched-chain and spherical and the effect on the rate of reduction in airborne mass concentration appears to be slight. In a related project the shape of an agglomerated Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosol was observed to change from branched-chain to spherical at, or near, 100% relative humidity.

  17. LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program and initial test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhlestein, L.D.; Hilliard, R.K.; Bloom, G.R.; McCormack, J.D.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of the test program are to demonstrate, at large-scale, inherent radioactive aerosol retention behavior for postulated high consequence LWR accident situations, and to provide a data base to be used for aerosol behavior and thermal hydraulic computer code validation. The LACE program is being performed in two phases. The first phase is scoping studies of aerosol retention for a containment by pass sequence (Event V). The second phase considers three accident situations where significant inherent aerosol retention could considerably reduce the calculated consequences of the postulated accidents.

  18. Aerosol behavior experiments on light water reactor primary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahn, F.J.; Collen, J.; Wright, A.L.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of three experimental programs relevant to the behavior of aerosols in the primary systems of light water reactors (LWRs) are presented. These are the Large-Scale Aerosol Transport Test programs performed at the Marviken test facility in Sweden, parts of the LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) performed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, and the TRAP-MELT validation project performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The Marviken experiments focused on the behavior of aerosols released from fuel and structural materials in a damaged core. Data on the transport of these aerosols and their physical characteristics were obtained in five experiments that simulated LWR primary systems. The LACE program data include results from the containment bypass accident tests, which focused on aerosol transport in pipes. The TRAP-MELT validation project data include results from two types of experiments: (a) aerosol transport tests to investigate aerosol wall plateout in a vertical pipe geometry and (b) aerosol resuspension tests to provide a data base from which analytical models can be developed. Typical results from these programs are presented and discussed.

  19. alkali sulfate aerosol: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical transport model and comparison with observations integrals over the aerosol size distribution when only the lower-order moments of the distribution are known...

  20. aerosol main physical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mass light-scattering efficiencies were calculated from both an averaged aerosol size distribution and from distributions modified to reflect the effects of cloud. These...

  1. aerosol monitors including: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical ... Ridley, David Andrew 33...

  2. aerosols nanometriques application: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mass light-scattering efficiencies were calculated from both an averaged aerosol size distribution and from distributions modified to reflect the effects of cloud. These...

  3. aerosols teresa application: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mass light-scattering efficiencies were calculated from both an averaged aerosol size distribution and from distributions modified to reflect the effects of cloud. These...

  4. aerosol cfd model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of aerosol dynamics in the atmosphere. The approach taken represents the particle size distribution as the superposition of three lognormal subdistributions, called modes....

  5. analysis od aerosol: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    closely. The retrieval produces a tighter fit to the RSS data. Climatologies Aerosol size distribution climatology used in GISS GCM does not agree with observations Liu et...

  6. aerosol bolus dispersion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a significant scientific risk. Even the optimal altitude of injection and aerosol size distribution are poorly known. Past attention focused on guns and airplanes as means...

  7. aerosol particles originating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of aerosol dynamics in the atmosphere. The approach taken represents the particle size distribution as the superposition of three lognormal subdistributions, called modes....

  8. acidic sulfate aerosols: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical transport model and comparison with observations integrals over the aerosol size distribution when only the lower-order moments of the distribution are known...

  9. aerosol spray method: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weber, Rodney 24 Use of in situ cloud condensation nuclei, extinction, and aerosol size distribution measurements to test a method for retrieving cloud Environmental...

  10. aerosol infection model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of aerosol dynamics in the atmosphere. The approach taken represents the particle size distribution as the superposition of three lognormal subdistributions, called modes....

  11. atmospheric aerosol emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gases, and sulfate aerosols are predicted to raise global temperatures via the "greenhouse effect" (IPCC, 1996), growing emissions of SO2Interactions Among Emissions, Atmospheric...

  12. atmospheric aerosols basic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of atmospheric aerosol. Aplin, KL 2012-01-01 13 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1....

  13. Atmospheric pressure flow reactor / aerosol mass spectrometer studies of tropospheric aerosol nucleat and growth kinetics. Final report, June, 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program was to determine the mechanisms and rates of growth and transformation and growth processes that control secondary aerosol particles in both the clear and polluted troposphere. The experimental plan coupled an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to provide simultaneous measurement of condensed and particle phases. The first task investigated the kinetics of tropospheric particle growth and transformation by measuring vapor accretion to particles (uptake coefficients, including mass accommodation coefficients and heterogeneous reaction rate coefficients). Other work initiated investigation of aerosol nucleation processes by monitoring the appearance of submicron particles with the AMS as a function of precursor gas concentrations. Three projects were investigated during the program: (1) Ozonolysis of oleic acid aerosols as model of chemical reactivity of secondary organic aerosol; (2) Activation of soot particles by measurement deliquescence in the presence of sulfuric acid and water vapor; (3) Controlled nucleation and growth of sulfuric acid aerosols.

  14. SciTech Connect: Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol code validation - Test AB5 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol code...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol load study Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions... reserved. Keywords: India; Aerosol loading; Aerosol forcing; MODIS; TOMS; Remote sensing 1. Introduction... heating effect on the earth surface and in turn...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol robotic network Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ), AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization, Remote Sens... Period examining aerosol properties and radiative ... Source: Brookhaven...

  17. aerosol source-receptor relationships: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

  18. Characterization of ambient aerosol composition and formation mechanisms and development of quantification methodologies utilizing ATOFMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xueying

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cloud coverage as a consequence of aerosol heating effect after absorbing solar radiation.effects of aerosols can cause cooling since clouds reflect the incoming solar radiation

  19. Clustering of Aerosols in Atmospheric Turbulent Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Elperin; N. Kleeorin; M. A. Liberman; V. L'vov; I. Rogachevskii

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanism of formation of small-scale inhomogeneities in spatial distributions of aerosols and droplets associated with clustering instability in the atmospheric turbulent flow is discussed. The particle clustering is a consequence of a spontaneous breakdown of their homogeneous space distribution due to the clustering instability, and is caused by a combined effect of the particle inertia and a finite correlation time of the turbulent velocity field. In this paper a theoretical approach proposed in Phys. Rev. E 66, 036302 (2002) is further developed and applied to investigate the mechanisms of formation of small-scale aerosol inhomogeneities in the atmospheric turbulent flow. The theory of the particle clustering instability is extended to the case when the particle Stokes time is larger than the Kolmogorov time scale, but is much smaller than the correlation time at the integral scale of turbulence. We determined the criterion of the clustering instability for the Stokes number larger than 1. We discussed applications of the analyzed effects to the dynamics of aerosols and droplets in the atmospheric turbulent flow.

  20. TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOL PROGRAM, PROGRAM PLAN, MARCH 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHWARTZ,S.E.; LUNN,P.

    2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of Tropospheric Aerosol Program (TAP) will be to develop the fundamental scientific understanding required to construct tools for simulating the life cycle of tropospheric aerosols--the processes controlling their mass loading, composition, and microphysical properties, all as a function of time, location, and altitude. The TAP approach to achieving this goal will be by conducting closely linked field, modeling, laboratory, and theoretical studies focused on the processes controlling formation, growth, transport, and deposition of tropospheric aerosols. This understanding will be represented in models suitable for describing these processes on a variety of geographical scales; evaluation of these models will be a key component of TAP field activities. In carrying out these tasks TAP will work closely with other programs in DOE and in other Federal and state agencies, and with the private sector. A forum to directly work with our counterparts in industry to ensure that the results of this research are translated into products that are useful to that community will be provided by NARSTO (formerly the North American Research Strategy on Tropospheric Ozone), a public/private partnership, whose membership spans government, the utilities, industry, and university researchers in Mexico, the US, and Canada.