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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Sensitivity of stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon to aerosol size and altitude of injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensitivity of stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon to aerosol size and altitude geoengineering with black carbon (BC) aerosols using a general circulation model with fixed sea surface involving sulfate aerosols, black carbon geoengineering likely carries too many risks to make it a viable

2

Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of fine black carbon (BC) particles, the principal light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol, have varied during the past century in response to changes of fossil-fuel utilization, technology developments, and emission controls. We estimate historical trends of fossil-fuel BC emissions in six regions that represent about two-thirds of present day emissions and extrapolate these to global emissions from 1875 onward. Qualitative features in these trends show rapid increase in the latter part of the 1800s, the leveling off in the first half of the 1900s, and the re-acceleration in the past 50 years as China and India developed. We find that historical changes of fuel utilization have caused large temporal change in aerosol absorption, and thus substantial change of aerosol single scatter albedo in some regions, which suggests that BC may have contributed to global temperature changes in the past century. This implies that the BC history needs to be represented realistically in climate change assessments.

Novakov, T.; Ramanathan, V.; Hansen, J.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Sato, M.; Sinton, J.E.; Sathaye, J.A.

2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

4

Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $\\textnormal W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $\\textnormal W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $\\textnormal W^{-1} \\textnormal m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $\\textnormal PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

Mahajan, Salil [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Hack, James J [ORNL; Truesdale, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

aerosol black carbon: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however,...

6

Optical Properties of Mixed Black Carbon, Inorganic and Secondary Organic Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summarizes the achievements of the project, which are divided into four areas: 1) Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols; 2) Development and of a polar nephelometer to measure aerosol optical properties and theoretical approaches to several optical analysis problems, 3) Studies on the accuracy of measurements of absorbing carbon by several methods, and 4) Environmental impacts of biodiesel.

Paulson, S E

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

Black carbon radiative heating effects on cloud microphysics and implications for the aerosol indirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thought. 1. Introduction Black Carbon (BC) has important effects on climate, owing to its ability of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125, USA Abstract. This work examines the effect of black carbon (BC) radiative heating on cloud droplet formation. Changes in cloud droplet concentration and cloud albedo due

Nenes, Athanasios

8

Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols T. Novakov,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hansen,3 T. W. Kirchstetter,1 M. Sato,3 J. E. Sinton,1 and J. A. Sathaye1 Received 26 September 2002, M. Sato, J. E. Sinton, and J. A. Sathaye, Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon

9

Extraneous Carbon Assessments in Radiocarbon Measurements of Black Carbon in Environmental Matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rived (black/elemental) carbon in soils and sediments usingbon measurements of black carbon in aerosols and oceanMWI, Noack AG. 2000. Black carbon in soils and sediments:

Coppola, Alysha; Ziolkowski, L. A.; Druffel, E. R. M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Chemical Bonding and Structural Information of Black CarbonReference Materials and Individual Carbonaceous AtmosphericAerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The carbon-to-oxygen ratios and graphitic nature of a rangeof black carbon standard reference materials (BC SRMs), high molecularmass humic-like substances (HULIS) and atmospheric particles are examinedusing scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with nearedge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. UsingSTXM/NEXAFS, individual particles with diameter>100 nm are studied,thus the diversity of atmospheric particles collected during a variety offield missions is assessed. Applying a semi-quantitative peak fittingmethod to the NEXAFS spectra enables a comparison of BC SRMs and HULIS toparticles originating from anthropogenic combustion and biomass burns,thus allowing determination of the suitability of these materials forrepresenting atmospheric particles. Anthropogenic combustion and biomassburn particles can be distinguished from one another using both chemicalbonding and structural ordering information. While anthropogeniccombustion particles are characterized by a high proportion ofaromatic-C, the presence of benzoquinone and are highly structurallyordered, biomass burn particles exhibit lower structural ordering, asmaller proportion of aromatic-C and contain a much higher proportion ofoxygenated functional groups.

Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Marten, Bryan D.; Gilles, Mary K.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

11

Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols on the Indian Monsoon GERALD A. MEEHL, JULIE M. ARBLASTER,* AND WILLIAM D. COLLINS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the ABC on longwave radiation are contributed primarily by natural aerosols and are not appreciable combine with naturally occurring dust loading over the Tibetan Plateau to ac- centuate the elevated heat radiation reaching the surface during the dry season, as noted in previous studies. The increased meridional

Meehl, Gerald A.

12

Emissions of black carbon, organic, and inorganic aerosols from biomass burning in North America and Asia in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

assessment of the impact of aerosols emitted from boreal forest fires on the Arctic climate necessitates) in summer 2008 and in those transported from Asia (Siberia in Russia and Kazakhstan) in spring 2008. We the microphysical properties of clouds [Lubin and Vogelmann, 2006]. Deposition of BC onto snow and ice changes

Jimenez, Jose-Luis

13

6, 34193463, 2006 Black carbon or  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous;ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

NSF GA-32589X I CHARACTERISTICS OF CARBON BLACK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for years. The amount of solar energy which can be absorbed by carbon black and transmitted to the air and the reduced solar radiation available inside the cloud. Such problems are to be expected when attempting particles in aerosol form spread artificially in the atmosphere to absorb solar radiation and hence

Gray, William

15

Black Carbons Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract globalinventory of black carbon emissions. Atmos. Environ. 1993,commonly studied form of carbon emissions. Black carbon (BC)

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Present and potential future contributions of sulfate, black and organic carbon aerosols from China to global air quality, premature mortality and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis indicates that increased effort to reduce greenhouse gases is essential to address climate change mortality and climate change has not been well quantified. Through both direct radiative effects, they have not considered the effect of aerosols on radiative forcing (RF) and climate change. Although

Mauzerall, Denise

17

ARM - Measurement - Black carbon concentration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAcid RainTheimagegovMeasurementsBlack carbon

18

Black Carbons Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOAA/ESRL. Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Annual Mean Data.H. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract globalanalysis of black carbon in soils. Global Biogeochem. Cycle.

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

The structure of the carbon black flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON BLACK FLAME A Dissertation By W1 111 ami Kermit Anderson THEHSR UCOF Approval as to style and content recommended Head of tiie Department of Chemistry A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural... and Mechanical College of. Texas in Parti ail Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON BLACK FLAME Major Subject: Chemistry AB William Hermit Anderson:\\ t * August 1945 THE STRUCTURE OF THE. CARBON...

Anderson, W. Kermi

1945-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Morphology of PolyethyleneCarbon Black Composites G. BEAUCAGE,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Morphology of Polyethylene­Carbon Black Composites G. BEAUCAGE,1 S. RANE,1 D. W. SCHAEFER,1 G. LONG-ray scattering (SAXS) study of a conductive grade of carbon black and carbon black­polymer composites(methyl methacrylate); carbon black; filler; composite; conductivity; percolation INTRODUCTION The morphology

Beaucage, Gregory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Coal water suspensions involving carbon black  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a composition comprising: about 65 to 80% by weight of coal particulates with a particle size distribution within 10% of the value calculated in accordance with a Funk distribution which assumes a maximum coal particle size of about 300 microns and minimum coal particle size of about 0.5 microns; about 0.2 to 2% by weight, as based upon the total weight of dry coal, of carbon black having a primary carbon particle size in the range of about 200 to about 900 Angstroms which primary carbon particles are simultaneously bound together to form primary reticulated chains having lengths in the range of about 500 to 30,000 Angstroms; a carrier liquid comprising 20 to 35 wt % water; and from 0.2 to 2.0 wt % of a dispersant selected from the group consisting of ammonium naphthalene sulfonic acid, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and ammonium lignosulfonate.

Malone, D.P.; Thompson, D.G.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

22

Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions Liquid Hydrogen. Note: Black carbon does not deplete ozone. What happens is the black carbon emissions from the rocket. Other black carbon emissions: The number one contributor to black carbon is burning biomass. Also

Toohey, Darin W.

23

Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and...

24

CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

25

Emerging Issues in Nanoparticle Aerosol Science and Technology Workshop report sponsored by: NSF, Southern California Particle Center and UCLA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

has responsibility for nuclear reactor safety which includes emissions of radioactive particles pollution sources, (2) industrial production of nanoparticle reinforcing fillers such as carbon black nanoparticle products by aerosol processes, (4) atmospheric dynamics of fractal-like nanoparticle aerosols (e

Jimenez, Jose-Luis

26

Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and known emission factors for black carbon (BC) from South Asia yields 0.7 Tg yr?1 (upper limit of about 1 Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325); KEYWORDS: Soot, black carbon, CO, emissions, India Citation of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions

Dickerson, Russell R.

27

The impact of biogenic carbon emissions on aerosol absorption inMexico City  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to determine the wavelength dependence of atmospheric aerosol absorption in the Mexico City area, the absorption angstrom exponents (AAEs) were calculated from aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths obtained with a seven-channel aethalometer during two field campaigns, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area study in April 2003 (MCMA 2003) and the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The AAEs varied from 0.76 to 1.56 in 2003 and from 0.54 to 1.52 in 2006. The AAE values determined in the afternoon were consistently higher than the corresponding morning values, suggesting the photochemical formation of absorbing secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the afternoon. The AAE values were compared to stable and radiocarbon isotopic measurements of aerosol samples collected at the same time to determine the sources of the aerosol carbon. The fraction of modern carbon (fM) in the aerosol samples, as determined from {sup 14}C analysis, showed that 70% of the carbonaceous aerosols in Mexico City were from modern sources, indicating a significant impact from biomass burning during both field campaigns. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of the aerosol samples illustrate the significant impact of Yucatan forest fires (C-3 plants) in 2003 and local grass fires (C-4 plants) at site T1 in 2006. A direct comparison of the fM values, stable carbon isotope ratios, and calculated aerosol AAEs suggested that the wavelength dependence of the aerosol absorption was controlled by the biogenically derived aerosol components.

Marley, N; Gaffney, J; Tackett, M J; Sturchio, N; Hearty, L; Martinez, N; Hardy, K D; Machany-Rivera, A; Guilderson, T P; MacMillan, A; Steelman, K

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

28

Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon aerosol plays a unique and important role in Earths climate system. Black carbon is a type of carbonaceous material with a unique combination of physical properties. Predominant sources are combustion related; namely, fossil fuels for transportation, solid fuels for industrial and residential uses, and open burning of biomass. Total global emissions of black carbon using bottom-up inventory methods are 7500 Gg yr-1 in the year 2000 with an uncertainty range of 2000 to 29000. This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption, influence on liquid, mixed-phase, and ice clouds, and deposition on snow and ice. These effects are calculated with models, but when possible, they are evaluated with both microphysical measurements and field observations. Global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon is too low in many models, and should be increased by about about 60%. After this scaling, the best estimate for the industrial-era (1750 to 2005) direct radiative forcing of black carbon is +0.43 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of (+0.17, +0.68) W m-2. Total direct forcing by all black carbon sources in the present day is estimated as +0.49 (+0.20, +0.76) W m-2. Direct radiative forcing alone does not capture important rapid adjustment mechanisms. A framework is described and used for quantifying climate forcings and their rapid responses and feedbacks. The best estimate of industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon through all forcing mechanisms is +0.77 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of +-0.06 to +1.53 W m-2. Thus, there is a 96% probability that black carbon emissions, independent of co-emitted species, have a positive forcing and warm the climate. With a value of +0.77 W m-2, black carbon is likely the second most important individual climate-forcing agent in the industrial era, following carbon dioxide. Sources that emit black carbon also emit other short- lived species that may either cool or warm climate. Climate forcings from co-emitted species are estimated and used in the framework described herein. When the principal effects of co- emissions, including cooling agents such as sulfur dioxide, are included in net forcing, energy-related sources (fossil-fuel and biofuel) have a net climate forcing of +0.004 (-0.62 to +0.57) W m-2 during the first year after emission. For a few of these sources, such as diesel engines and possibly residential biofuels, warming is strong enough that eliminating all emissions from these sources would reduce net climate forcing (i.e., produce cooling). When open burning emissions, which emit high levels of organic matter, are included in the total, the best estimate of net industrial-era climate forcing by all black- carbon-rich sources becomes slightly negative (-0.08 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of -1.23 to +0.81 W m-2). The uncertainties in net climate forcing from black-carbon-rich sources are substantial, largely due to lack of knowledge about cloud interactions with both black carbon and co-emitted organic carbon. In prioritizing potential black-carbon mitigation actions, non-science factors, such as technical feasibility, costs, policy design, and implementation feasibility play important roles. The major sources of black carbon are presently in different stages with regard to the feasibility for near-term mitigation. This assessment, by evaluating the large number and complexity of the associated physical and radiative processes in black-carbon climate forcing, sets a baseline from which to improve future climate forcing estimates.

Bond, Tami C.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Fahey, D. W.; Forster, Piers; Berntsen, T.; DeAngelo, B. J.; Flanner, M. G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Karcher, B.; Koch, Dorothy; Kinne, Stefan; Kondo, Yutaka; Quinn, P. K.; Sarofim, Marcus; Schultz, Martin; Schulz, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Bellouin, N.; Guttikunda, S. K.; Hopke, P. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Kaiser, J. W.; Klimont, Z.; Lohmann, U.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Shindell, Drew; Storelvmo, Trude; Warren, Stephen G.; Zender, C. S.

2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

29

ENCAPSULATION EFFECTS ON CARBONACEOUS AEROSOL LIGHT ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENCAPSULATION EFFECTS ON CARBONACEOUS AEROSOL LIGHT ABSORPTION Arthur Sedlacek, Brookhaven National of aerosol absorption on direct radiative forcing is still an active area of research, in part, because. This poster presents data on black carbon (BC) light absorption measured by Photothermal Interferometry

30

Black Carbon A Review and Policy Recommendations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

School #12;Front Cover: Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh, provided courtesy;Joshua Apte, PhD Candidate, Energy Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley Christo Artusio, Research Division, California Air Resources Board Morgan DeFoort, PhD Candidate, Associate Director

Mauzerall, Denise

31

Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

32

Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

matter, BC from fossil/bio-fuel and biomass sources for thegm ?3 for BC from fossil/bio-fuel over India (4 ? to 40 ? Nemissions for 1990, fossil/bio-fuel BC decreases over Europe

Menon, Surabi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Infrared spectra of carbon monoxide adsorbed on palladium black  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors investigate the heterogeneous adsorption of carbon monoxide and the concurrent catalytic and sorptive properties of palladium black from the standpoint of a comprehensive analysis of the infrared spectra of the reaction pathways and their various products as well as the pressure dependence of the line behavior at various wavelengths.

Vozdvizhenskii, V.F.; Levintova, T.D.; Sokol'skii, D.V.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Black Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for different materials and combustion temperatures. It is less than 1% for thermally altered biomass at combusBlack Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product? Simone resistant product of incomplete combustion, and consists out of a range of combustion products such as char

Fischlin, Andreas

35

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Sensitivity of stratospheric geoengineering with black1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geoengineering with black1 carbon to aerosol size and altitude of injection2 Ben Kravitz, 1 Alan Robock, 2 Drew T KRAVITZ ET AL.: BC GEOENGINEERING SENSITIVITY Abstract. Simulations of stratospheric geoengineering GEOENGINEERING SENSITIVITY X - 3 studies involving sulfate aerosols, black carbon geoengineering likely carries16

Robock, Alan

36

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

37

Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol samples were collected at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin as part of the project LBA-SMOCC-2002 (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate). Sampling was conducted during the late dry season, when the aerosol composition was dominated by biomass burning emissions, especially in the submicron fraction. A 13-stage Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) was used to collect particles with nominal aerodynamic diameters (D{sub p}) ranging from 0.03 to 0.10 m. Gravimetric analyses of the DLPI substrates and filters were performed to obtain aerosol mass concentrations. The concentrations of total, apparent elemental, and organic carbon (TC, EC{sub a}, and OC) were determined using thermal and thermal-optical analysis (TOA) methods. A light transmission method (LTM) was used to determine the concentration of equivalent black carbon (BC{sub e}) or the absorbing fraction at 880 nm for the size-resolved samples. During the dry period, due to the pervasive presence of fires in the region upwind of the sampling site, concentrations of fine aerosols (D{sub p} < 2.5 {mu}m: average 59.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}) were higher than coarse aerosols (D{sub p} > 2.5 {mu}m: 4.1 {mu}g m{sup -3}). Carbonaceous matter, estimated as the sum of the particulate organic matter (i.e., OC x 1.8) plus BC{sub e}, comprised more than 90% to the total aerosol mass. Concentrations of EC{sub a} (estimated by thermal analysis with a correction for charring) and BCe (estimated by LTM) averaged 5.2 {+-} 1.3 and 3.1 {+-} 0.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively. The determination of EC was improved by extracting water-soluble organic material from the samples, which reduced the average light absorption {angstrom} exponent of particles in the size range of 0.1 to 1.0 {mu}m from > 2.0 to approximately 1.2. The size-resolved BC{sub e} measured by the LTM showed a clear maximum between 0.4 and 0.6 m in diameter. The concentrations of OC and BC{sub e} varied diurnally during the dry period, and this variation is related to diurnal changes in boundary layer thickness and in fire frequency.

Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Andreae, Tracey W.; taxo, Paulo Ar-; Maenhaut, Willy; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Novakov, T.; Chow, Judith C.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

38

Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Multi-Proxy Approach on Black Carbon Characterization and Combustion Products Source Discrimination in Environmental Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental applications of pyrogenic carbon, aka black carbon (BC), have been hampered due to the poor characterization and quantification of environmental BC. This dissertation was dedicated to the better characterization of environmental char...

Kuo, Li-Jung

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

40

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric black carbon Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 32 (1997) 401--407 Carbon blackhigh density polyethylene Summary: . The carbon black was then heated to 900 C in a nitrogen atmosphere and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks of California, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710 Abstract Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel

42

Black carbon in the Gulf of Maine : new insights into inputs and cycling of combustion-derived organic carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions of black carbon (BC), the soot and char formed during incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, have increased over the last century and are estimated to be between 8 and 270 Tg BC/yr. BC may affect ...

Flores Cervantes, Dborah Xanat, 1978-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous and sulfur aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to their impact on health and ecosystems. The magnitude of this influence has changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. An integrated picture of the changing climatic influence of black carbon, organic carbon and sulfate over the period 1850 through 2100, focusing on uncertainty, is presented using updated historical inventories and a coordinated set of emission projections. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing due to increases in greenhouse gas forcing and a global decrease in pollutant emissions. This outcome is even more certain under a successful implementation of a policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions as low-carbon energy technologies that do not emit appreciable aerosol or SO2 are deployed.

Smith, Steven J.; Bond, Tami C.

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

44

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United Wildland fires can be an important source of greenhouse gases as well as black carbon emissions that have of climate response to fire emissions compared to other emission sources of GHG, aerosols, and black carbon

45

Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

influence of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosolssplit Fossil fuel sources Bio fuel sources Open burningemissions from fossil-plus-bio-fuel and from open biomass

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

47

Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle, and Climate (AC4): Observational Constraints on Sources and Sinks of Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gas extraction can also inform future energy choices. In FY 2014, Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle anthropogenic-biogenic emission intense regions 3. Deposition processes controlling atmospheric concentrations of aerosols and greenhouse gases Projects that quantify sources and sinks via new measurements and/or modeling

48

Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2}) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal gelation. The broth results from mixing a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea solution with an acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solution. Carbon black, which is previously added to one or other of the components, must stay dispersed during gelation. The report provides a detailed description of characterization efforts and results, aimed at identification and testing carbon black and surfactant combinations that would produce stable dispersions, with carbon particle sizes below 1 {micro}m, in aqueous HMTA/urea and ADUN solutions. A battery of characterization methods was used to identify the properties affecting the water dispersability of carbon blacks, such as surface area, aggregate morphology, volatile content, and, most importantly, surface chemistry. The report introduces the basic principles for each physical or chemical method of carbon black characterization, lists the results obtained, and underlines cross-correlations between methods. Particular attention is given to a newly developed method for characterization of surface chemical groups on carbons in terms of their acid-base properties (pK{sub a} spectra) based on potentiometric titration. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic. In addition, background information on carbon black properties and the mechanism by which surfactants disperse carbon black in water is also provided. A list of main physical and chemical properties characterized, samples analyzed, and results obtained, as well as information on the desired trend or range of values generally associated with better dispersability, is provided in the Appendix. Special attention was given to characterization of several surface-modified carbon blacks produced by Cabot Corporation through proprietary diazonium salts chemistry. As demonstrated in the report, these advanced carbons offer many advantages over traditional dispersions. They disperse very easily, do not require intensive mechanical shearing or sonication, and the particle size of the dispersed carbon black aggregates is in the target range of 0.15-0.20 {micro}m. The dispersions in water and HMTA/urea solutions are stable for at least 30 days; in conditions of simulated broth, the dispersions are stable for at least 6 hours. It is proposed that the optimization of the carbon black dispersing process is possible by replacing traditional carbon blacks and surfactants with surface-modified carbon blacks having suitable chemical groups attached on their surface. It is recognized that the method advanced in this report for optimizing the carbon black dispersion process is based on a limited number of tests made in aqueous and simulated broth conditions. The findings were corroborated by a limited number of tests carried out with ADUN solutions by the Nuclear Science and Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). More work is necessary, however, to confirm the overall recommendation based on the findings discussed in this report: namely, that the use of surface-modified carbon blacks in the uranium-containing broth will not adversely impact the chemistry of the gelation process, and that high quality uranium oxicarbide (UCO) kernels will be produced after calcination.

Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Measurement Needs and Challenges for Absorbing Aerosol Black Carbon, Brown Carbon, Dust and Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Carmichael 2008) 1. BC mixing state. 2. BC vertical distributions. 3. Inventories. 4. Indirect effect mixing state. 2. BC vertical distributions. 3. Inventories. 4. Indirect effect. · Most information comes

50

Rapid Solar-thermal Dissociation of Natural Gas in an Aerosol Flow Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/or hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles could help to mitigate the energy supply and environmental problems black production. For solar-thermal processing, where carbon black is sold, fossil energy usageRapid Solar-thermal Dissociation of Natural Gas in an Aerosol Flow Reactor Jaimee Dahl a , Karen

51

Factors affecting the indoor concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols of outdoor origin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A field study was conducted in an unoccupied single story residence in Clovis, California to provide data to address issues important to assess the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin. Measurements of black and organic carbonaceous aerosols were performed using a variety of methods, resulting in both near real-time measurements as well as integrated filter based measurements. Comparisons of the different measurement methods show that it is crucial to account for gas phase adsorption artifacts when measuring organic carbon (OC). Measured concentrations affected by the emissions of organic compounds sorbed to indoor surfaces imply a higher degree of infiltration of outdoor organic carbon aerosols into the indoor environment for our unoccupied house. Analysis of the indoor and outdoor data for black carbon (BC) aerosols show that, on average, the indoor concentration of black carbon aerosols behaves in a similar manner to sulfate aerosols. In contrast, organic carbon aerosols are subject to chemical transformations indoors that, for our unoccupied home, resulted in lower indoor OC concentrations than would be expected by physical loss mechanisms alone. These results show that gas to particle partitioning of organic compounds, as well as gas to surface interactions within the residence, are an important process governing the indoor concentration to OC aerosols of outdoor origin.

Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Hering, Susanne V.; Brown, Nancy J.

2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

52

Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate engineering with stratospheric aerosols, an idea inspired by large volcaniceruptions, could cool the Earths surface and thus alleviate some of the predicted dangerous impacts of anthropogenic climate change. However, the effectiveness of climate engineering to achieve a particular climate goal, and any associated side effects, depend on certain aerosol parameters and how the aerosols are deployed in the stratosphere. Through the examples of sulfate and black carbon aerosols, this paper examines "engineering" parameters-aerosol composition, aerosol size, and spatial and temporal variations in deployment-for stratospheric climate engineering. The effects of climate engineering are sensitive to these parameters, suggesting that a particle could be found ordesigned to achieve specific desired climate outcomes. This prospect opens the possibility for discussion of societal goals for climate engineering.

Kravitz, Benjamin S.

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

53

Methane-related authigenic carbonates from the Black Sea: geochemical characterisation and relation to seeping fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane-related authigenic carbonates from the Black Sea: geochemical characterisation and relation of carbon derived from the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), the oxidation of organic matter and from sea water. Methane is the dominant component among other hydrocarbon gases in these sediments. Its

Mazzini, Adriano

54

Long-term Black Carbon Dynamics in Cultivated Soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon (BC) is a quantitatively important C pool in the global carbon cycle due to its relative recalcitrance against decay compared with other C pools. However, how rapidly BC is oxidized and in what way the molecular structure changes during decomposition over decadal time scales, is largely unknown. In the present study, the long-term dynamics in quality and quantity of BC were investigated in cultivated soil using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. BC particles, obtained from soil samples at 8 conversion ages stretching over 100 years and from a forest soil sample from Kenya, were manually picked under a light microscope for characterization and quantification. BC contents rapidly decreased from 12.7 to 3.8 mg C g? soil during the first 30 years since conversion, after which they slowly decreased to a steady state at 3.51 mg C g ?soil. BC-derived C losses over 100 years were estimated at 6000 kg C ha? to a depth of 0.1 m. The initial rapid changes in BC stocks resulted in a mean residence time of only around 8.3 years, which was likely a function of both decomposition as well as transport processes. The molecular properties of BC changed more rapidly on surfaces than in the interior of BC particles and more rapidly during the first 30 years than during the following 70 years. The Oc/C ratios (Oc is O bound to C) and carbonyl groups (C=O) increased over time by 133 and 192 %, respectively, indicating oxidation was an important degradation process controlling BC quality. Al, Si, polysaccharides, and to a lesser extent Fe were rapidly adsorbed on BC particle surfaces within the first few years after BC deposition to soil. The protection by physical and chemical stabilization was apparently sufficient to not only minimize decomposition below detection between 30 and 100 years after deposition, but also physical export by erosion and vertical transport below 0.1 m.

Nguyen, Binh T.; Lehmann, Johannes C.; Kinyangi, James; Smernik, Ron; Riha, Susan J.; Engelhard, Mark H.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Climate response and radiative forcing from mineral aerosols during the last glacial maximum, pre-industrial, current and doubled-carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate response and radiative forcing from mineral aerosols during the last glacial maximum, pre-industrial, current and doubled-carbon dioxide climates Natalie M. Mahowald,1,2 Masaru Yoshioka,1,2 William D. Collins July 2006; accepted 9 August 2006; published 27 October 2006. [1] Mineral aerosol impacts on climate

Mahowald, Natalie

56

Black Carbons Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords: soil carbon sequestration; carbon budget;of an energy efficient carbon sequestration mechanism, asin the later section on carbon sequestration. In atmospheric

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

An Index-Based Approach to Assessing Recalcitrance and Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Engineered Black Carbons (Biochars)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R{sub 50}, for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R{sub 50} is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R{sub 50}, with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R{sub 50} and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R{sub 50} is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R{sub 50} {>=} 0.70), Class B (0.50 {<=} R{sub 50} < 0.70) or Class C (R{sub 50} < 0.50) recalcitrance/carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, while Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R{sub 50}, to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

Harvey, Omar R.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E.; Herbert, Bruce

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

58

Application of pyrolized carbon black from scrap tires in asphalt pavement design and construction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to EPA reports (1991) of the over 242 million waste generated each year in the United State, 5% are exported, 6% recycled, 11% incinerated, and 78% are landfilled, stockpiled, or illegally dumped. A variety of uses for these tires are being studied. Among these is pyrolysis which produces 5 5% of oil, 25% of carbon black, 9% of steel, 5% of fiber and 6% of gas. Pyrolized carbon black contains 9 % of ash, 4% of sulfur, 12% of butadine copolymer and 75% of carbon black. The objective of this research is to investigate the viability of using PCB as an additive in hot mix asphalt. The use of PCB in asphalt pavement is expected not only to improve the performance of conventional asphalt, but also to provide a means for the mass disposal of waste fires.

Park, T.; Coree, B.J. [Indiana Department of Transportation, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Division of Research; Lovell, C.W. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Carbon black: A low cost colloidal additive for controlling gas-migration in cement slurries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of different additives on the permeability of cement slurries to formation gas has been studied with the aid of a gas flow apparatus. The performance of two commercial additives (polymer latex and silica fume) has been compared to that of a novel additive (carbon black) that has been developed in the authors laboratories with the aim of simplifying the cement slurry composition and reducing field operational costs. Data on the thickening time, fluid loss, rheology and compressive strength are also presented to provide a clear picture of the potential of carbon black as a substitute for silica fume and polymer latex in some field applications. Finally, the paper describes the results of a field application using carbon black as a gas-block additive in the cement slurry.

Calloni, G.; Moroni, N.; Miano, F.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Steam Production from Waste Stack Gases in a Carbon Black Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

superheated steam - G25 PSIG and 750 0 F. This steam is out into a steam header that serves Conoco plants in' t~e Lake Charles, Louisiana area. Combustion of the \\?taste gases to produce steam has t\\~O very important rewards -ener~y conservation.... This steam project has provided substantial ener~y conservation for the carbon black plant because the energy can be subtracted from the total ener~y used by the plant in determining the energy to produce carbon black. Oescription of the equipment used...

Istre, R. I.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Natural Oxidation of Black Carbon in Soils: Changes in Molecular...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon in Soils: Changes in Molecular Form and Surface Charge along a Climosequence. Abstract: The aim of this work was to investigate changes in molecular form and surface...

62

Effect of Carbon Black and Silica Fillers in Elastomer Blends Yimin Zhang, S. Ge, B. Tang, T. Koga, M. H. Rafailovich,*, J. C. Sokolov,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the effect of carbon black is offset by silica fillers. Introduction Fillers exist in a variety of systemsEffect of Carbon Black and Silica Fillers in Elastomer Blends Yimin Zhang, S. Ge, B. Tang, T. Koga January 30, 2001 ABSTRACT: The effects of carbon black and pyrogeneous silica fillers on the interfacial

63

Direct climate effect of black carbon in China and its impact on dust storms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.shtml, 22 March 2002). [3] Observations indicate that the total days of dust storm occurrence per yearClick Here for Full Article Direct climate effect of black carbon in China and its impact on dust and the surrounding areas critically impact weather, climate, and public health in China and neighboring Pacific Rim

Liou, K. N.

64

Effect of Temperature on Carbon-Black Agglomeration in Hydrocarbon Liquid with Adsorbed Dispersant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can agglomerate, increasing the viscosity of the oil and significantly diminishing its lubrication performance. The soot can also form a high-viscosity sludge which can also degrade lubricant effectivenessEffect of Temperature on Carbon-Black Agglomeration in Hydrocarbon Liquid with Adsorbed Dispersant

65

End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; c Institute of MeteorologyEnd of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon Thomas H. Paintera,1 , Mark and Geophysics, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria; d Air Quality Research Center, University

Marzeion, Ben

66

1 Potential impacts of Asian carbon aerosols on future US warming 2 Haiyan Teng,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ocean fully coupled 6 climate model to investigate possible remote impacts of 7 Asian carbonaceous aerosols effect of aerosols is included) over Asia induces 15 tropospheric heating anomalies that force large.4 C warming over the eastern 18 US during winter and over most of the US during summer. 19 Such remote

67

Design of a bench-scale apparatus for processing carbon black derived from scrap tires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(incineration) or as a filler for asphalt. Incineration has been employed in an attempt to harness the high calorific value of scrap tires. However, disposal via incineration may not maximize the potential economic recovery of energy and chemical materials... into liquid fuels and forms of solid carbon such as carbon black and activated carbon. Previous work in this area utilizes pyrolysis. ' There are several commercial, pilot, and bench-scale tire 2-4, 6-8 pyrolysis systems in use today. Many of these employ...

Woodrow, Philip Travis

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Chemical composition of the graphitic black carbon fraction in riverine and marine sediments at sub-micron scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a closed loop in the carbon cycle Chemical composition of the graphitic black carbon fraction in riverine and marine sediments at sub-micron scales using carbon X-ray spectromicroscopy Paul R. Haberstroh a,*, Jay A. Brandes b , Yves Ge´linas c

Long, Bernard

70

Oxidation of Black Carbon by Biotic and Abiotic Processes. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 The 2002Optics GroupPlanning Workshop Overview ofOverviewBlack

71

Long-term Black Carbon Dynamics in Cultivated Soil. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6,Local CorrelationsConditions. | EMSLterm Black

72

Black carbon refractive index and morphology: a Laboratory study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- bon: What is representa- tive? Fuel % share Grassland 21.2 Diesel 16.7 Tropical forest 12.4 Wood 7 carbon (see Table). We intend to include some bulk samples of bio- mass burning. Due to the wide range on mimic Diesel soot that can be produced under controlled conditions. 5 Experiential number density

Oxford, University of

73

Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

Schwarz, J. P.

74

Effect of pyrolyzed carbon black on asphalt cement. Part 2. Asphalt binder. Final report, September 1993-May 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scrap tires derived from automobiles have become a large environmental problem in the United States. In the study, research is carried out to investigate the potential use of tire-derived pyrolyzed carbon black from scrap tires as an asphalt cement modifier. The asphlat cements used in the research were AC10 and AC20. Penetration and softening point tests were performed to obtain the consistency of the asphalt cements. The pyrolyzed carbon black, as provided by Wolf Industries, was combined with the asphalt cement in the following percentages: 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Penetration, softening point and ductility tests were performed to determine the temperature susceptibility of the modified binder as altered by the pyrolyzed carbon black. In order that the results are comparable to previous testing, commercial carbon black purchased from CABOT Industry was also used as a modifier in the tests. The same test procedures were applied to the asphalt cements modified by commercial carbon black. The test results contained in the report illustrate the viability of the pyrolyzed carbon black as an asphalt modifier. Recommendations are provided to facilitate further research on this particular project. A preliminary assessment of a test road using the pyrolyzed carbon is appended.

Zeng, Y.; Lovell, C.W.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

75

Effect of composite microstructure on electrical and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl acetate) composites with carbon black and clay.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electrical and mechanical behavior of carbon black filled poly(vinyl acetate) latex-based and solution-based polymer composites was examined. A set of experiments were performed to distinguish composites with a segregated network (emulsion...

Miriyala, Sethu M.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

The Carbon balance of sorghum from anthesis to black layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measured Changes in Y and m The Integrated Carbon Balance Parameters dS, dW, and dSm as Functions of Biomass Page 87 96 Effects of Tissue Composi tion on Y g V CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES VI TA 101 117 122 125 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2. 1 2... over time. . . . 91 g A plot of the maintenance coefficient, m over time. . 93 Figure Page 4, 4 Plot of the total percent nitrogen in six plants across three growth stages. . . . . . . . 94 4. 5 Plots of dS and dW as functions of biomass, W. 4. 6...

Stahl, Randal Scott

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During the MILAGRO Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives). Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC), and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps not dissimilar from observations in the U.S.

de Gouw, Joost A.; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Warneke, Carsten; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, Angela K.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, D. R.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Celada, A. T.; Huey, L. G.; Junkermann, W.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Salcido, A.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Sullivan, Amy; Tanner, David J.; Vargas-Ortiz, Leroy; Weber, R. J.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

78

Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Light Absorption by Secondary Organic Aerosol from ?-Pinene: Effects of Oxidants, Seed Aerosol Acidity, and Relative Humidity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that light absorption from dust and black carbon aerosols has a warming effect on climate while light scattering from sulfate, nitrate, and sea salt aerosols has a cooling effect. However, there are large uncertainties associated with light absorption and scattering by different types of organic aerosols, especially in the near-UV and UV spectral regions. In this paper, we present the results from a systematic laboratory study focused on measuring light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from ozonolysis or NO3 oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of neutral and acidic sulfate seed aerosols. Light absorption was monitored using photoacoustic spectrometers at four different wavelengths: 355, 405, 532 and 870 nm. Light absorption at 355 and 405 nm was observed by SOA generated from oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of acidic sulfate seed aerosols, under dry conditions. No absorption was observed when the relative humidity was elevated to greater than 27%, or in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols. The light-absorbing compounds are speculated to be aldol condensation oligomers with organosulfate and organic nitrate groups. The results of this study also indicate that organic nitrates from ?-pinene SOA formed in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols do not appear to absorb near-UV and UV radiation.

Song, Chen; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shilling, John E.; Arnott, W. Patrick

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

80

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

2007-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Will black carbon mitigation dampen aerosol indirect forcing?1 W.-T. Chen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.J. Adams3 , A. Nenes4 , and J.H. Seinfeld5,* 2 1 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA3 2 Department carbonaceous sources (fossil fuel, domestic biofuel, and20 biomass burning) (termed HC). Radiative forcing

Nenes, Athanasios

83

Aerosol characterization study using multi-spectrum remote sensing measurement techniques.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A unique aerosol flow chamber coupled with a bistatic LIDAR system was implemented to measure the optical scattering cross sections and depolarization ratio of common atmospheric particulates. Each of seven particle types (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, black carbon and Arizona road dust) was aged by three anthropogenically relevant mechanisms: 1. Sulfuric acid deposition, 2. Toluene ozonolysis reactions, and 3. m-Xylene ozonolysis reactions. The results of pure particle scattering properties were compared with their aged equivalents. Results show that as most particles age under industrial plume conditions, their scattering cross sections are similar to pure black carbon, which has significant impacts to our understanding of aerosol impacts on climate. In addition, evidence emerges that suggest chloride-containing aerosols are chemically altered during the organic aging process. Here we present the direct measured scattering cross section and depolarization ratios for pure and aged atmospheric particulates.

Glen, Crystal Chanea; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Schmitt, Randal L.; Johnson, Mark S.; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Servantes, Brandon Lee

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

estimates of the quantity of biomass burning aerosol that isOpen biomass burning also produces large quantities ofbiomass and refuse; SA = secondary aerosols; O = Others. b In receptor modeling, quantity

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aerosol size distribution, but the underlying size distribution of BC cores does not change except through coagulation.aerosol are determined by the atmospheric mixing of nascent particle size distributions from a variety of sources and any subsequent BC coagulation.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Measurements of Average Oxygen to Carbon Ratios in Secondary Organic Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The applicability of high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS) to measurements of the average oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) in organic aerosols was investigated. Solutions with known average O/C containing up to 10 standard compounds representative of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were analyzed and corresponding electrospray ionization efficiencies were quantified. The assumption of equal ionization efficiency commonly used in estimating O/C ratios of organic aerosols was found to be reasonably accurate. We found that the accuracy of the measured O/C ratios increases by averaging the values obtained from both (+) and (-) modes. A correlation was found between the ratio of the ionization efficiencies in the positive and negative ESI modes with the octanol-water partition constant, and more importantly, with the compound's O/C. To demonstrate the utility of this correlation for estimating average O/C values of unknown mixtures, we analyzed the ESI (+) and ESI (-) data for SOA produced by oxidation of limonene and isoprene and compared to online O/C measurements using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). This work demonstrates that the accuracy of the HR ESI-MS methods is comparable to that of the AMS, with the added benefit of molecular identification of the aerosol constituents.

Bateman, Adam P.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

87

Historical and future black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements and model simulations from 1850 to 2100  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Historical and future black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements and model simulations from 1850 tends to enhance snow and ice melting due to the absorption caused by the increased BC deposition

88

Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic aerosol is an important fraction of the fine particulate matter present in the atmosphere. This organic aerosol comes from a variety of sources; primary organic aerosol emitted directly from combustion process, and secondary aerosol formed in the atmosphere from condensable vapors. This secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can result from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In rural areas of the United States, organic aerosols can be a significant part of the aerosol load in the atmosphere. However, the extent to which gas-phase biogenic emissions contribute to this organic load is poorly understood. Such an understanding is crucial to properly apportion the effect of anthropogenic emissions in these rural areas that are sometimes dominated by biogenic sources. To help gain insight on the effect of biogenic emissions on particle concentrations in rural areas, we have been conducting a field measurement program at the University of California Blodgett Forest Research Facility. The field location includes has been used to acquire an extensive suite of measurements resulting in a rich data set, containing a combination of aerosol, organic, and nitrogenous species concentration and meteorological data with a long time record. The field location was established in 1997 by Allen Goldstein, a professor in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at the University of California at Berkeley to study interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The Goldstein group focuses on measurements of concentrations and whole ecosystem biosphere-atmosphere fluxes for volatile organic compounds (VOC's), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC's), ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy. Another important collaborator at the Blodgett field location is Ronald Cohen, a professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley. At the Blodgett field location, his group his group performs measurements of the concentrations of important gas phase nitrogen compounds. Experiments have been ongoing at the Blodgett field site since the fall of 2000, and have included portions of the summer and fall of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Analysis of both the gas and particle phase data from the year 2000 show that the particle loading at the site correlates with both biogenic precursors emitted in the forest and anthropogenic precursors advected to the site from Sacramento and the Central Valley of California. Thus the particles at the site are affected by biogenic processing of anthropogenic emissions. Size distribution measurements show that the aerosol at the site has a geometric median diameter of approximately 100 nm. On many days, in the early afternoon, growth of nuclei mode particles (<20 nm) is also observed. These growth events tend to occur on days with lower average temperatures, but are observed throughout the summer. Analysis of the size resolved data for these growth events, combined with typical measured terpene emissions, show that the particle mass measured in these nuclei mode particles could come from oxidation products of biogenic emissions, and can serve as a significant route for SOA partitioning into the particle phase. During periods of each year, the effect of emissions for forest fires can be detected at the Blodgett field location. During the summer of 2002 emissions from the Biscuit fire, a large fire located in Southwest Oregon, was detected in the aerosol data. The results show that increases in particle scattering can be directly related to increased black carbon concentration and an appearance of a larger mode in the aerosol size distribution. These results show that emissions from fires can have significant impact on visibility over large distances. The results also reinforce the view that forest fires can be a significant source of black carbon in the atmosphere, which has important climate and visibility. Continuing work with the 2002 data set, particularly the combination of the aerosol and gas phase data, will continue to provide important information o

Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ('biochar'). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. BET-N{sub 2} surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous, but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved, (ii) in amorphous chars the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed, (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases, and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. The molecular variations among the different char categories translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents.

Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P.S.; Johnson, M.G.; Kleber, M.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Enhancement of green luminescence of ZnO powders by annealing with carbon black  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the characterization of nanocrystalline ZnO powders synthesized by a precipitation method and annealed with carbon black. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transformed Infrared (FT-IR) results revealed that the synthesized ZnO powder has the wurtzite structure with absorbed CO{sub 3}{sup -} species on the surface of the ZnO particles. Singly ionized oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}{sup +}) and CO{sub 3}{sup -} species were also perceived from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis. The intensity of the EPR signals of CO{sub 3}{sup -} species increased as the amount of carbon increased whereas that of V{sub O}{sup +} did not vary significantly. A green emission at 528 nm for the powders annealed with carbon was observed and a good correlation between the intensity of green emission and the intensity of EPR signals of CO{sub 3}{sup -} was obtained Experimental results suggest that the formation of the free carriers has significant effect on the intensity of the green emission. The mechanism responsible for the green emission enhancement based on the relevance of the observations is discussed.

Hu Yi [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: huyi@ttu.edu.tw; Chen, H.-J. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

91

Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Development for the Study of Atmospheric Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soot particles are generated by incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels. Through direct effects clear air aerosols containing black carbon (BC) such as soot aerosols, absorb incoming light heating the atmosphere, while most other aerosols scatter light and produce cooling. Even though BC represents only 1-2% of the total annual emissions of particulate mass to the atmosphere, it has been estimated that the direct radiative effect of BC is the second-most important contributor to global warming after absorption by CO2. Ongoing studies continue to underscore the climate forcing importance of black carbon. However, estimates of the radiative effects of black carbon on climate remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of particles containing black carbon. Quantitative measurement of BC is challenging because BC often occurs in highly non-spherical soot particles of complex morphology. Freshly emitted soot particles are typically fractal hydrophobic aggregates. The aggregates consist of black carbon spherules with diameters typically in the range of about 15-40 nm, and they are usually coated by adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced during combustion. Diesel-generated soot particles are often emitted with an organic coating composed primarily of lubricating oil and unburned fuel, as well as well as PAH compounds. Sulfuric acid has also been detected in diesel and aircraft-emitted soot particles. In the course of aging, these particle coatings may be substantially altered by chemical reactions and/or the deposition of other materials. Such processes transform the optical and CCN properties of the soot aerosols in ways that are not yet well understood. Our work over the past seven years consisted of laboratory research, instrument development and characterization, and field studies with the central focus of improving our understanding of the black carbon aerosol climate impacts. During the sixth year as well as during this seventh year (no-cost extension period) of our grant, we extended our studies to perform experiments on the controlled production and characterization of secondary organic aerosol.

Davidovits, Paul

2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

92

Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the past four decades: An empirical analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use data from a unique 40-year record of 150 urban and rural stations in the ''Black Smoke and SO2 Network'' in Great Britain to infer information about sources of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The data show a rapid decline of ambient atmospheric BC between 1962 and the early 1990s that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly fixed emission factors. This provides empirical confirmation of the existence and large impact of a time-dependent ''technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amounts in Great Britain comparable to those in western and central Europe, with diesel engines being the principal present source. From comparison of BC and SO2 data we infer that current BC emission inventories understate true emissions in the U.K. by about a factor of two. The results imply that there is the potential for improved technology to achieve large reduction of global ambient BC. There is a need for comparable monitoring of BC in other countries.

Novakov, T.; Hansen, J.E.

2004-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

93

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol direct (DE), indirect (IE), and black carbon-snow albedo (BAE) effects on climate between 1890 and 1995 are compared using equilibrium aerosol-climate simulations in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. Pairs of control(1890)-perturbation(1995) with successive aerosol effects allow isolation of each effect. The experiments are conducted both with and without concurrent changes in greenhouse gases (GHG's). A new scheme allowing dependence of snow albedo on black carbon snow concentration is introduced. The fixed GHG experiments global surface air temperature (SAT) changed -0.2, -1.0 and +0.2 C from the DE, IE, and BAE. Ice and snow cover increased 1.0% from the IE and decreased 0.3% from the BAE. These changes were a factor of 4 larger in the Arctic. Global cloud cover increased by 0.5% from the IE. Net aerosol cooling effects are about half as large as the GHG warming, and their combined climate effects are smaller than the sum of their individual effects. Increasing GHG's did not affect the IE impact on cloud cover, however they decreased aerosol effects on SAT by 20% and on snow/ice cover by 50%; they also obscure the BAE on snow/ice cover. Arctic snow, ice, cloud, and shortwave forcing changes occur mostly during summer-fall, but SAT, sea level pressure, and long-wave forcing changes occur during winter. An explanation is that aerosols impact the cryosphere during the warm-season but the associated SAT effect is delayed until winter.

Koch, Dorothy; Menon, Surabi; Del Genio, Anthony; Ruedy, Reto; Alienov, Igor; Schmidt, Gavin A.

2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

94

Black carbon transport and deposition to the California mountain snow pack  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

affects the radiation budget over the Pacific Ocean and thusocean. Further implications of the transported BC and other Asian aerosol to regional radiation

Hadley, Odelle L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Sensitivity of Remote Aerosol Distributions to Representation of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in a Global Climate Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many global aerosol and climate models, including the widely used Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), have large biases in predicting aerosols in remote regions such as upper troposphere and high latitudes. In this study, we conduct CAM5 sensitivity simulations to understand the role of key processes associated with aerosol transformation and wet removal affecting the vertical and horizontal long-range transport of aerosols to the remote regions. Improvements are made to processes that are currently not well represented in CAM5, which are guided by surface and aircraft measurements together with results from a multi-scale aerosol-climate model (PNNL-MMF) that explicitly represents convection and aerosol-cloud interactions at cloud-resolving scales. We pay particular attention to black carbon (BC) due to its importance in the Earth system and the availability of measurements. We introduce into CAM5 a new unified scheme for convective transport and aerosol wet removal with explicit aerosol activation above convective cloud base. This new implementation reduces the excessive BC aloft to better simulate observed BC profiles that show decreasing mixing ratios in the mid- to upper-troposphere. After implementing this new unified convective scheme, we examine wet removal of submicron aerosols that occurs primarily through cloud processes. The wet removal depends strongly on the sub-grid scale liquid cloud fraction and the rate of conversion of liquid water to precipitation. These processes lead to very strong wet removal of BC and other aerosols over mid- to high latitudes during winter months. With our improvements, the Arctic BC burden has a10-fold (5-fold) increase in the winter (summer) months, resulting in a much better simulation of the BC seasonal cycle as well. Arctic sulphate and other aerosol species also increase but to a lesser extent. An explicit treatment of BC aging with slower aging assumptions produces an additional 30-fold (5-fold) increase in the Arctic winter (summer) BC burden. This BC aging treatment, however, has minimal effect on other under-predicted species. Interestingly, our modifications to CAM5 that aim at improving prediction of high-latitude and upper tropospheric aerosols also produce much better AOD and AAOD over various other regions globally when compared to multi-year AERONET retrievals. The improved aerosol distributions have impacts on other aspects of CAM5, improving the simulation of global mean liquid water path and cloud forcing.

Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Qian, Yun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun; Vinoj, V.

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

96

Atmospheric Aerosols Aging Involving Organic Compounds and Impacts on Particle Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

through sandstorm.2 Examples of anthropogenic sources are vehicle exhaust, plant emission, and construction sites. Some aerosols may have both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. For example, soot aerosols, also known as black carbon, can be produced... with an initial size of 150 nm increases slightly faster than those of soot with the initial size of 80 or 100 nm. Table 1. Properties of Fresh Soot Particles. Dp, nm mp, 10 ?16 g Dve, nm Npp a 82.4 1.47 54.1 20 101 2.34 63.2 32 155 7.77 94.3 105 a...

Qiu, Chong

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

aerosols | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosols aerosols Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a candidate material for...

98

Hydrotreatment of petroleum vaccum residue with NiMo supported on carbon black of hollow nano-particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogenation with NiMo catalyst on the carbon black of hollow sphere was very active to decrease asphaltene(hexane insoluble:HI) from 10% to 1% in the VR under the conditions of 340{degrees}C, 4h, and 10 MPa of H2. Non-protonated-aromatic carbons of remaining HI were converted to protonated carbons with increase of naphthenic carbons observed by {sup 13}C-NMR. Metallic compounds principally contained in HI were also converted to be hexane soluble(HS). It revealed that some of the metal containing compounds trapped in the asphaltene micelle are liberated from the micelle through the catalytic hydrogenation under mild conditions. The present catalyst was found much more active for the hydrogenative conversion of asphaltene and metallic compounds as well as the demetallation than the conventional demetallation catalysts, suggesting that NiMo/KB catalyst is highly dispersed to interact more intimately with asphaltene molecules.

Yamashita, N.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Organic carbon and non-refractory aerosol over the remote1 Southeast Pacific: oceanic and combustion sources2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-salt particles30 from wave breaking and bubble bursting, as well as gas to particle conversion of vapors31/SO4 ratio of 0.19.22 23 1 Introduction24 Aerosols play an important role in the radiative balance

Wood, Robert

100

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model aerosoland its role in regional air quality. Science, 311, 67-70.aerosol in Fresno, CA. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. , 56,

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Black carbon transport and deposition to the California mountain snow pack  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

75 4.2.3 XRF (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy) analysis offluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). These additional aerosolCa, Al, and K using XRF (X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy).

Hadley, Odelle L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

Koch, D

2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

103

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

106

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

107

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

108

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

109

Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the atmosphere from biomass burning, Climatic Change, 2,Chemistry and Physics Biomass burning contribution to black2011 Y. H. Mao et al. : Biomass burning contribution to

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

EVOLUTION OF BLACK CARBON MIXING-STATE IN AN URBAN-BIOGENIC ENVIRONMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), the Department of Energy Gulfstream-1 (DOE G-1) and the incandescent signal peak from the BC core (BC; mass equivalent diameter = 60 - 650 nm). For nascent soot that must first "boil" off before the BC core can incandesce. It is this time ­ to vaporize the coating

111

Emission characteristics of black carbon in anthropogenic and biomass burning plumes over California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiative effects [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007]. The variability solar radiation and a negative forcing by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) [Conant et al., 2002; Nenes et al., 2002]. However, heating by BC aerosols can cause evaporation of cloud droplets semi

Jimenez, Jose-Luis

112

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

113

Use of pyrolyzed carbon black as an additive (part 3. Air-cooled furnace slag). Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scrap tires, generated at the rate of over 242 million each year in the United States, are recognized as one of the most significant environmental problems. Most of these scrap tires have been disposed of in landfills, stockpiles, and illegal dumps (EPA 1991). There is a need to find more useful, environmentally friendly applications for these tires. Extensive researches have been conducted in the past years on the utilization of the scrap tires. The use of scrap tires for asphalt pavement, which is complicated by the complex behavior of asphalt, has received major attention. This research aims to describe the performance of mixtures of asphalt using pyrolyzed carbon black as an additive.

Lee, K.H.; Lovell, C.W.; Salgado, R.

1996-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

Jacobson, Arne [Humboldt State Univ., MN (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lam, Nicholoas L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Hultman, Nathan [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Desert dust and anthropogenic aerosol interactions in the Community Climate System Model coupled-carbon-climate model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

marine carbon uptake, Biogeosciences, 6, 16031613, doi:10.5194/bg- 6-1603-2009, 2009. www.biogeosciences.net/

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous carbon blacks Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

at Urbana-Champaign Collection: Materials Science ; Chemistry 7 Complex structure of carbon nanotubes and their implications for formation mechanism Summary: phenomena and the...

118

EMSL - aerosols  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosols en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsmagnesium-behavior-and-structural-defects-m...

119

Black carbon in marine sediments : quantification and implications for the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sorption is a key factor in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Here, PAH sorption is proposed as the sum of two mechanisms: absorption into a biogenic, organic carbon (OC) ...

Accardi-Dey, AmyMarie, 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

122

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

123

Iron Speciation and Mixing in Single Aerosol Particles from the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

iron from atmospheric aerosol is an essential nutrient that can control oceanic productivity, thereby impacting the global carbon budget and climate. Particles collected on...

124

Aerosols, Clouds, and Climate Change Stephen E. Schwartz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in atmospheric carbon dioxide associated with fossil fuel combustion. Briefly the options are mitigation work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous

Schwartz, Stephen E.

125

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Airborne observations from four flights during the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) are used to examine some cloud-free optical, physical, and chemical properties of aerosol particles in the springtime Arctic troposphere. The number concentrations of particles larger than 0.12 ?m (Na>120), important for light extinction and cloud droplet formation, ranged from 15 to 2260 cm?3, with the higher Na>120 cases dominated by measurements from two flights of long-range transported biomass burning (BB) aerosols. The two other flights examined here document a relatively clean aerosol and an Arctic Haze aerosol impacted by larger particles largely composed of dust. For observations from the cleaner case and the BB cases, the particle light scattering coefficients at low relative humidity (RH<20%) increased nonlinearly with increasing Na>120, driven mostly by an increase in mean sizes of particles with increasing Na>120 (BB cases). For those three cases, particle light absorption coefficients also increased nonlinearly with increasing Na>120 and linearly with increasing submicron particle volume concentration. In addition to black carbon, brown carbon was estimated to have increased light absorption coefficients by 27% (450 nm wavelength) and 14% (550 nm) in the BB cases. For the case with strong dust influence, the absorption relative to submicron particle volume was small compared with the other cases. There was a slight gradient of Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) mean volume diameter (MVD) towards smaller sizes with increasing height, which suggests more scavenging of the more elevated particles, consistent with a typically longer lifetime of particles higher in the atmosphere. However, in approximately 10% of the cases, the MVD increased (>0.4 ?m) with increasing altitude, suggesting transport of larger fine particle mass (possibly coarse particle mass) at high levels over the Arctic. This may be because of transport of larger particles at higher elevations and relatively slow deposition to the surface.

Shantz, Nicole C.; Gultepe, Ismail; Andrews, Elisabeth; Zelenyuk, Alla; Earle, Michael; MacDonald, A. M.; Liu, Peter S.; Leaitch, W. R.

2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

126

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Themes Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems...

127

A Sensitivity Study on Modeling Black Carbon in Snow and its Radiative Forcing over the Arctic and Northern China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon in snow (BCS) simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is evaluated against measurements over Northern China and the Arctic, and its sensitivity to atmospheric deposition and two parameters that affect post-depositional enrichment is explored. The BCS concentration is overestimated (underestimated) by a factor of two in Northern China (Arctic) in the default model, but agreement with observations is good over both regions in the simulation with improvements in BC transport and deposition. Sensitivity studies indicate that uncertainty in the melt-water scavenging efficiency (MSE) parameter substantially affects BCS and its radiative forcing (by a factor of 2-7) in the Arctic through post-depositional enrichment. The MSE parameter has a relatively small effect on the magnitude of BCS seasonal cycle but can alter its phase in Northern China. The impact of the snow aging scaling factor (SAF) on BCS, partly through the post-depositional enrichment effect, shows more complex latitudinal and seasonal dependence. Similar to MSE, SAF affects more significantly the magnitude (phase) of BCS season cycle over the Arctic (Northern China). While uncertainty associated with the representation of BC transport and deposition processes in CAM5 is more important than that associated with the two snow model parameters in Northern China, the two uncertainties have comparable effect in the Arctic.

Qian, Yun; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Flanner, M. G.; Rasch, Philip J.

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

128

4/25/11 12:25 PMRedOrbit NEWS | Scientists Tracking Black Carbon In The Arctic Page 1 of 3http://www.redorbit.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=2033713  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon, has on the rapidly changing Arctic climate. Although the Arctic is typically viewed as a vast an impact on the world's climate for years to come. Black carbon is produced by vehicle engines, aircraft back into the atmosphere," explained Bates. Scientists from The United States, Norway, Russia, Germany

Rigor, Ignatius G.

129

The importance of aerosol mixing state and size-resolved composition on CCN concentration and the variation of the importance with atmospheric aging of aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol microphysics, chemical composition, and CCN concentrations were measured at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City during Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) in March 2006. The aerosol size distribution and composition often showed strong diurnal variation associated with traffic emissions and aging of aerosols through coagulation and local photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. CCN concentrations (N{sub CCN}) are derived using Kohler theory from the measured aerosol size distribution and various simplified aerosol mixing state and chemical composition, and are compared to concurrent measurements at five supersaturations ranging from 0.11% to 0.35%. The influence of assumed mixing state on calculated N{sub CCN} is examined using both aerosols observed during MILAGRO and representative aerosol types. The results indicate that while ambient aerosols often consist of particles with a wide range of compositions at a given size, N{sub CCN} may be derived within {approx}20% assuming an internal mixture (i.e., particles at a given size are mixtures of all participating species, and have the identical composition) if great majority of particles has an overall {kappa} (hygroscopicity parameter) value greater than 0.1. For a non-hygroscopic particle with a diameter of 100 nm, a 3 nm coating of sulfate or nitrate is sufficient to increase its {kappa} from 0 to 0.1. The measurements during MILAGRO suggest that the mixing of non-hygroscopic primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC) particles with photochemically produced hygroscopic species and thereby the increase of their {kappa} to 0.1 take place in a few hours during daytime. This rapid process suggests that during daytime, a few tens of kilometers away for POA and BC sources, N{sub CCN} may be derived with sufficient accuracy by assuming an internal mixture, and using bulk chemical composition. The rapid mixing also indicates that, at least for very active photochemical environments such as Mexico City, a substantially shorter timescale during daytime for the conversion of hydrophobic POA and BC to hydrophilic particles than the 1-2 days used in some global models. The conversion time scale is substantially longer during night. Most POA and BC particles emitted during evening hours likely remain non-hygroscopic until efficiently internally mixed with secondary species in the next morning. The results also suggest that the assumed mixing state strongly impacts calculated N{sub CCN} only when POA and BC represent a large fraction of the total aerosol volume. One of the implications is that while physically unrealistic, external mixtures, which are used in many global models, may also sufficiently predict N{sub CCN} for aged aerosol, as the contribution of non-hygroscopic POA and BC to overall aerosol volume is often substantially reduced due to the condensation of secondary species.

Wang, J.; Cubison, M. J.; Aiken, A. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Collins, D. R.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Study of Aerosol Sources and Processing at the GVAX Pantnagar Supersite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project funded the participation of scientists from seven research groups, running more than thirty instruments, in the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 km southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo Winter IOP were, 1) what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area, and, 2) what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM? An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption. The following four key accomplishments have been identified so far: 1) Chemical, physical and optical characterization of PM from local and regional sources (Figures 2, 4, 5 and 6). 2) Measurement of urban increment in particulate matter and gases in London (Figure 3). 3) Measurement of optical properties and chemical composition of coatings on black carbon containing particles indicates absorption enhancement. 4) First deployment of chemical ionization instrument (MOVI-CI-TOFMS) to measure both particle-phase and gas-phase organic acids. (See final report from Joel Thornton, University of Washington, for details.) Analysis of the large dataset acquired in Detling is ongoing and will yield further key accomplishments. These measurements of urban and rural aerosol properties will contribute to improved modeling of regional aerosol emissions, and of atmospheric aging and removal. The measurement of absorption enhancement by coatings on black carbon will contribute to improved modeling of the direct radiative properties of PM.

Worsnop, Douglas R. [Principal Investigator

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

131

The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scientific scope of the project was to exploit the unique location of the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) located in the summit caldera of the Pico Volcano in Pico Island in the Azores, for atmospheric studies. The observatory, located at 2225m a.s.l., typically samples free tropospheric aerosols laying above the marine low-level clouds and long-range transported from North America. The broad purpose of this research was to provide the scientific community with a better understanding of fundamental physical processes governing the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing and climate; with the ultimate goal of improving our abilities to understand past climate and to predict future changes through numerical models. The project was 'exploratory' in nature, with the plan to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying for the first time, an extensive aerosol research package at PMO. One of the primary activities was to test the deployment of these instruments at the site, to collect data during the 2012 summer season, and to further develop the infrastructure and the knowledge for performing novel research at PMO in follow-up longer-term aerosol-cloud studies. In the future, PMO could provide an elevated research outpost to support the renewed DOE effort in the Azores that was intensified in 2013 with the opening of the new sea-level ARM-DOE Eastern North Atlantic permanent facility at Graciosa Island. During the project period, extensive new data sets were collected for the planned 2012 season. Thanks to other synergistic activities and opportunities, data collection was then successfully extended to 2013 and 2014. Highlights of the scientific findings during this project include: a) biomass burning contribute significantly to the aerosol loading in the North Atlantic free troposphere; however, long-range transported black carbon concentrations decreased substantially in the last decade. b) Single black carbon particles analyzed off-line at the electron microscope were often very compacted, suggesting cloud processing and exhibiting different optical properties from fresh emissions. In addition, black carbon was found to be sometimes mixed with mineral dust, affecting its optical properties and potential forcing. c) Some aerosols collected at PMO acted as ice nuclei, potentially contributing to cirrus cloud formation during their transport in the upper free troposphere. Identified good ice nuclei were often mineral dust particles. d) The free tropospheric aerosols studied at PMO have relevance to low level marine clouds due, for example, to synoptic subsidence entraining free tropospheric aerosols into the marine boundary layer. This has potentially large consequences on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and compositions in the marine boundary layer; therefore, having an effect on the marine stratus clouds, with potentially important repercussions on the radiative forcing. The scientific products of this project currently include contributions to two papers published in the Nature Publishing group (Nature Communications and Scientific Reports), one paper under revision for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, one in review in Geophysical Research Letters and one recently submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion. In addition, four manuscripts are in advanced state of preparation. Finally, twenty-eight presentations were given at international conferences, workshops and seminars.

Mazzoleni, Claudio [Michigan Technological University; Kumar, Sumit [Michigan Technological University; Wright, Kendra [Michigan Technological University; Kramer, Louisa [Michigan Technological University; Mazzoleni, Lynn [Michigan Technological University; Owen, Robert [Michigan Technological University; Helmig, Detlev [University of Colorado at Boulder

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

132

Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 2: Analysis of the Biomass Burning Contribution and the Modern Carbon Fraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning OA (BBOA) component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact index correlates well with the observed BBOA, CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is very small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100-150 ppt, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m-3 (two-thirds of its average concentration), which does not appear to be related to BB sources.

Aiken, Allison; de Foy, B.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; DeCarlo, Peter; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Wehrli, M. N.; Szidat, S.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Noda, J.; Wacker, L.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Fortner, Edward; Wang, J. X.; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe L.; Arnott, W. P.; Molina, Luis; Sosa, G.; Querol, X.; Jimenez, J. L.

2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

133

Variability of Aerosol Optical Properties from Long-term  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%) controlled measurements: sp ­ Aerosol total light scattering coefficient at 450, 550, and 700 nm wavelengths automated generation and review of quality control plots · Weekly editing of data by station scientist]. Indirect Forcing Direct Forcing Carbon Dioxide Forcing Total Forcing Importance of Aerosols #12;Direct

Delene, David J.

134

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black; accepted 8 June 2004; published 30 July 2004. [1] The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy

Dickerson, Russell R.

135

aerosol radiative effects: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

space-borne sensors use information from the ultraviolet (UV) to the visible and thermal infrared Christopher, Sundar A. 25 Black carbon radiative heating effects on cloud...

136

Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

1987-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

137

Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

1985-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

138

Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

Richards, Powell (New Bern, NC); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Prach, Thomas F. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Improved solid aerosol generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

140

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Incorporation of Aerosol Optical Properties into Climate Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precipitation and, with no flux adjustment, correctly does not produce a double ITCZ #12;Modeled vs. Measured Sea Ice Area Antarctic Model (at 4 x 5 degree resolution) predicts stable sea ice area Data from NASA that of BC from FF+BF soot #12;Black Carbon in Snow and Sea Ice #12;Black Carbon Absorption in Clouds #12

143

Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30?g/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22N and 95 to 107E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

2014-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

144

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

145

Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

146

Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex real-world aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

Dr. Timothy Onasch

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

147

A 700 year sediment record of black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near the EMEP air monitoring station in Aspvreten, Sweden  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In view of poor constraints on historical combustion emissions, past environmental loadings of black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were reconstructed from dated lake sediment cores collected 70 km south of Stockholm, Sweden. Compared to several dramatic variations over the recent 150 years, the preindustrial loadings were steady within {+-}50% through the entire medieval with BC fluxes of 0.071 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} and PAH fluxes of 6 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. In the wood-burning dominated century leading up to the industrial revolution around 1850, increasing BC fluxes were leading PAH fluxes. BC fluxes reached their millennial-scale maximum around 1920, whereas PAH fluxes increased exponentially to its record maximum around 1960, 50-fold above preindustrial values. For 1920-1950, BC fluxes consistently decreased as PAH fluxes kept increasing. Coal and coke represented >50% of the Swedish energy market in the 1930s. Combined with sharply decreasing (1,7-)/(1,7{+-}2,6-dimethylphenanthrene), indicative of diminishing wood combustion, and decreasing methylphenanthrenes/phenanthrene, indicative of higher-temperature combustion (coal instead of wood), the sediment archive suggests that the relative BC/PAH emission factors thus are lower for coal than for wood combustion. For the first time, both BC and PAH fluxes decreased after 1960. This trend break is a testament to the positive effects of decreasing reliance on petroleum fuels and a number of legislative actions aimed at curbing emissions and by 1990, the loading of BC was back at preindustrial levels, whereas that of PAH were the lowest since the 1910s. However, for the most recent period (1990-2004) the BC and PAH fluxes are no longer decreasing. 55 refs., 3 figs.

Marie Elmquist; Zdenek Zencak; Oerjan Gustafsson [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Applied Environmental Science

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

149

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

150

Organic Aerosols in the Earth's J O O S T D E G O U W *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and indirectly through their role as cloud-condensation nuclei. A large fraction (50%) of the submicron aerosol(primaryorganicaerosolorPOA) are distinguished from secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the atmosphere from gas-phase precursors. Both POA scales of minutes: particle-into-liquid sampling combined with total organic carbon analysis for measure

Jimenez, Jose-Luis

151

Modal aerosol dynamics modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also reviewed. Described in detail is a computationally efficient numerical technique for simulating aerosol behavior in systems undergoing simultaneous heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer in and between the gas and condensed phases. The technique belongs to a general class of models known as modal aerosol dynamics (MAD) models. These models solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of the particle size distribution function. Computational efficiency is achieved by representing the complete aerosol population as a sum of additive overlapping populations (modes), and solving for the time rate of change of integral moments of each mode. Applications of MAD models for simulating aerosol dynamics in continuous stirred tank aerosol reactors and flow aerosol reactors are provided. For the application to flow aerosol reactors, the discussion is developed in terms of considerations for merging a MAD model with the SIMPLER routine described by Patankar (1980). Considerations for incorporating a MAD model into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Particulate Model are also described. Numerical and analytical techniques for evaluating the size-space integrals of the modal dynamics equations (MDEs) are described. For multimodal logonormal distributions, an analytical expression for the coagulation integrals of the MDEs, applicable for all size regimes, is derived, and is within 20% of accurate numerical evaluation of the same moment coagulation integrals. A computationally efficient integration technique, based on Gauss-Hermite numerical integration, is also derived.

Whitby, E.R.; McMurry, P.H.; Shankar, U.; Binkowski, F.S.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Aerosol Cans? -Aerosol cans use a pressurized  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? - The waste generated in the processing of images/photos contains silver. Silver is a toxic heavy metal the product. Propellants are often flammable and/or toxic. Therefore, never store aerosol cans near ignition of this pamphlet. -Carefully transfer the old paint thinner from the one gallon closable can to the 30 gallon metal

Jia, Songtao

153

Aerosol Sampler Operations Manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-1123 Laboratory FAX (916) 752-4107 Standard Operating Procedures Technical Information Document TI 201A #12;TI 201.................................................................................................................................................. 3 1.0 Weekly Maintenance ProceduresIMPROVE Aerosol Sampler Operations Manual February 10, 1997 Air Quality Group Crocker Nuclear

Fischer, Emily V.

154

Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lecture notes for a 'Part III' course 'Black Holes' given in DAMTP, Cambridge. The course covers some of the developments in Black Hole physics of the 1960s and 1970s.

P. K. Townsend

1997-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

155

A Generic Approach to Coat Carbon Nanotubes With Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Generic Approach to Coat Carbon Nanotubes With Nanoparticles for Potential Energy Applications vari- ous nanoparticles onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Charged and nonagglomerated aerosol unique hybrid nanostructures at- tractive for various energy applications. DOI: 10

Chen, Junhong

156

Classification of Multiple Types of Organic Carbon Composition in Atmospheric Particles by Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is used to measure organic functional group abundance and morphology of atmospheric aerosols. We present a summary of spectra, sizes, and shapes observed in 595 particles that were collected and analyzed between 2000 and 2006. These particles ranged between 0.1 and 12 mm and represent aerosols found in a large range of geographical areas, altitudes, and times. They include samples from seven different field campaigns: PELTI, ACE-ASIA, DYCOMS II, Princeton, MILAGRO (urban), MILAGRO (C-130), and INTEX-B. At least 14 different classes of organic particles show different types of spectroscopic signatures. Different particle types are found within the same region while the same particle types are also found in different geographical domains. Particles chemically resembling black carbon, humic-like aerosols, pine ultisol, and secondary or processed aerosol have been identified from functional group abundance and comparison of spectra with those published in the literature.

Kilcoyne, Arthur L; Takahama, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Russell, L.M.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.

2007-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

157

Boreal forests, aerosols and the impacts on clouds and climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of energy, momentum, water, carbon dioxide and other trace gas and aerosol species (figure 1). Through due to the absorption of the Sun's heat by the dark forest canopy. However, these studies ignored shown in figure 2) have a dark canopy (with low albedo) that obscures the snow-covered ground (with high

Spracklen, Dominick

158

5, 79658026, 2005 Simulating aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

composition, number concentration, and size distribution of the global submicrometer aerosol. The present, coagulation, condensation, nucleation of sulfuric acid vapor, aerosol chemistry, cloud processing, and sizeACPD 5, 7965­8026, 2005 Simulating aerosol microphysics with ECHAM/MADE A. Lauer et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Aerosol engineering: design and stability of aerosol reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical study of the performance of aerosol reactors is presented. The goals of this study are (1) to identify the appropriate reactor types (batch, CSTR, and tubular) for production of aerosol with specific properties (for example, uniform size particles, high aerosol surface area, etc.) and (2) to investigate the effect of various process parameters on product aerosol characteristics and on the stability of operation of aerosol reactors. In all the reactors considered, the aerosol dynamics were detemined by chemical reaction, nucleation, and aerosol growth in the free molecule regime in the absence of coagulation at isothermal conditions. Formulation of the aerosol dynamics in terms of moments of the aerosol size distribution facilitated the numerical solution of the resulting systems of ordinary or partial differential equations. The stability characteristics of a continuous stirred tank aerosol reactor (CSTAR) were investigated since experimental data in the literature indicate that under certain conditions this reactor exhibits oscillatory behavior with respect to product aerosol concentration and size distribution.

Pratsinis, S.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Highly stable aerosol generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

E-Print Network 3.0 - affects marine carbon Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the organic carbon content of marine aerosols... . Potential impact of ocean ecosystem changes due to global warming on marine341 ... Source: Russell, Lynn - Scripps...

162

Electrostatics and radioactive aerosol behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive aerosols differ from their nonradioactive counterparts by their ability to charge themselves by emitting charged particles during the radioactive decay process. Evidence that electrostatics, including this charging process, can affect the transport of the aerosols was summarized previously. Charge distributions and the mean charge for a monodisperse radioactive aerosol have been considered in detail. The principal results of theory to calculate charge distributions on a aerosol with a size distribution, changes to Brownian coagulation rates for an aerosol in a reactor containment, and possible changes to aerosol deposition resulting from the charging will be presented. The main purpose of the work has been to improve calculations of aerosol behavior in reactor containments, but behavior in less ionizing environments will be affected more strongly, and some problems remain to be solved in performing reliable calculations.

Clement, C.F.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

aerosols and climate : uncertainties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contributes to creating a level playing field. (BC emissions tradeble like CO2 emissions?) OUTLINE #12;size. policy measures, is even more uncertain (emissions & their chemical fingerprint are uncertain (not just aerosol emissions, not just climate impacts) OUTLINE #12;- Standardization doesn't reduce

164

Aerosol Science and Technology, 47:9398, 2013 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the specific surface area of the composite also increased from 122 to 146 m2 /g. Also, the intensity of the GR higher performance on methanol oxidation than a commercial 20 wt% Pt/carbon black catalyst. 1 Research Project of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources funded by the Ministry

Huang, Jiaxing

165

4/25/11 12:32 PMThe Canadian Press: Scientists searching for 'soot-print' in the Arctic; black carbon coating seen as causing melt Page 1 of 2http://www.google.com/hostednews/canadianpress/article/ALeqM5gpZC2HL9mLKe_nwaOPhaSQPdnuUg?docId=6621785  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or black carbon, is produced by auto and truck engines, aircraft emissions, burning forests and the use scientists from Norway, Russia, Germany, Italy and China. They are working from Svalbard, Norway, a group the northern tip of Norway and the North Pole. Once used for whaling, the islands are now home to seals

Rigor, Ignatius G.

166

Atmospheric aerosol light scattering and surface wetness influence the diurnal pattern of net ecosystem exchange in a semi-arid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and can enhance terrestrial carbon sequestration (Gu et al., 1999, 2002, 2003; Roderick et al., 2001 observational evidence of a link between routine aerosol variability, diffuse radiation and carbon sequestration.g. Baldocchi, 1997). Relation- ships using these variables have been used to model carbon exchange between

Cohen, Ronald C.

167

Supporting Information for Impact of Chlorine Emissions from Sea-Salt Aerosol on Coastal Urban Ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIOXIDE H2O2 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE NH3 AMMONIA NIT AEROSOL NITRATE SO2 SULFUR DIOXIDE SO3 SULFUR TRIOXIDE OSD extensions* NO NITRIC OXIDE NO2 NITROGEN DIOXIDE O3 OZONE HONO NITROUS ACID HNO3 NITRIC ACID HNO4 PERNITRIC ACID N2O5 NITROGEN PENTOXIDE NO3 NITRATE RADICAL HO2 HYDROPEROXY RADICAL CO CARBON MONOXIDE CO2 CARBON

Dabdub, Donald

168

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

169

In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Experimental study of nuclear workplace aerosol samplers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LITERATURE REVIEW Aerosol Losses in an Inlet . Aerosol Losses in a Transport System Aerosol Losses in CAMs Critical Flow Venturi 8 13 15 16 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE 18 CAM Evaluation Consideration FAS Evaluation Consideration Test Protocol Mixing... Chamber Setup High Speed Aerosol Wind Tunnel Setup Low Speed Aerosol Wind Tunnel Setup Critical Flow Venturi 18 19 21 22 24 25 27 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Page 28 Aerosol Penetration through Transport Systems and CAM Areal Uniformity Deposits...

Parulian, Antony

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

171

Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Chemical...

172

Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aerosol Formation and Growth. Abstract: Airborne particles play a critical role in air quality, human health effects, visibility and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA)...

173

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Spectro-Microscopic Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosol Aging in Central California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous aerosols are responsible for large uncertainties in climate models, degraded visibility, and adverse health effects. The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was designed to study carbonaceous aerosols in the natural environment of Central Valley, California, and learn more about their atmospheric formation and aging. This paper presents results from spectro-microscopic measurements of carbonaceous particles collected during CARES at the time of pollution accumulation event (June 27-29, 2010), when in situ measurements indicated an increase in the organic carbon content of aerosols as the Sacramento urban plume aged. Computer controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) were used to probe the chemical composition and morphology of individual particles. It was found that the mass of organic carbon on individual particles increased through condensation of secondary organic aerosol. STXM/NEXAFS indicated that the number fraction of homogenous organic particles lacking inorganic inclusions (greater than ~50 nm diameter) increased with plume age as did the organic mass per particle. Comparison of the CARES spectro-microscopic data set with a similar dataset obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign showed that individual particles in Mexico City contained twice as much carbon as those sampled during CARES. The number fraction of soot particles at the Mexico City urban site (30%) was larger than at the CARES urban site (10%) and the most aged samples from CARES contained less carbon-carbon double bonds. Differences between carbonaceous particles in Mexico City and California result from different sources, photochemical conditions, gas phase reactants, and secondary organic aerosol precursors. The detailed results provided by these spectro-microscopic measurements will allow for a comprehensive evaluation of aerosol process models used in climate research.

Moffet, Ryan C.; Rodel, Tobias; Kelly, Stephen T.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Carroll, Gregory; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

176

6, 75197562, 2006 Simulating aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, particle number concentration and aerosol size-distribution. The model takes into account sulfate (SO4. This model system enables explicit simulations of the particle number concentration and size-distribution of aerosol dynamical processes (nucleation, condensation, coagulation) is evaluated by comparison

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Semi-Continuous Measurements of Aerosol Chemical Composition During the Summer 2002 Yosemite National Park Special Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Semi-continuous measurements of fine particle composition were made over a period of several weeks in summer 2002 in Yosemite National Park, California. These included measurement of aerosol ionic composition (by PILS- Particle-Into-Liquid System) and aerosol carbon (by dual wavelength aethalometer and an R&P particulate carbon monitor). The data reveal that aerosol composition at the site is highly :variable in time, with a strong diurnal cycle. Interestingly, however, different diurnal cycles were sometimes observed for different chemical constituents of the particles. Organic carbon was observed to dominate fine particle mass, with some periods apparently associated with influx of smoke from wildfires in the western U.S. Measurements of fine particle carbon isotopes revealed the fraction of carbon from biogenic sources to range from approximately 73 to 95%. The ionic fraction of the aerosol was usually dominated by ammoniated sulfate. During most periods, PM{sub 2.5} nitrate was found primarily in sea salt particles from which chloride had been displaced. Strong variations in the extent of ammonia neutralization of sulfate were also observed. The ability to observe rapid changes in aerosol composition using these semi-continuous aerosol composition measurements is helpful for understanding the dynamic chemical composition of fine particles responsible for regional haze.

Collette, J; Lee, T; Heath, J; Carrico, C; Herckes, P; Engling, G; McMeeking, G; Kreidenweis, S; Day, D; Malm, W; Cahill, T

2003-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

178

The Nearby Supernova Factory Ozone + Aerosol + Rayleigh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rayleigh + Aerosol Extinction monitor filter Auxiliary Camera CCD Spectrograph picko ff mirror Umbra

179

Origin of palladium black by an infrared spectroscopic method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal blacks are used as catalysts in a number of organic synthesis processes. Using the method of matrix insulation of blacks obtained from organometallic compounds in the inert atmosphere the IR spectra have been recorded for carbon monoxide adsorbed on actual palladium blacks. The controllable mild conditions for reduction of the initial complex by hydrazine hydrate provide a means of separating the intermediate states of this process. By discontinuing at various stages the reduction of the organometallic complex being investigated the authors have obtained IR spectra of carbon monoxide characterizing the stages of forming the metallic palladium black.

Vozdvizhenskii, V.F.; Levintova, T.D.; Sokol'skii, D.V.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

aerosol particles collected: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Saller 2002-05-07 6 Nanomaterials from Aerosols Aerosols are suspensions of liquid or solid particles in a gas. Aerosol particles Materials Science Websites Summary: being clouds...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 2: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

182

Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 1: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

183

AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

184

8, 68456901, 2008 Aerosol optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance, Germany 2 Helmholtz Center Munich, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

SCHWARTZ, S.E.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2 Naoko effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires9 during July-October are investigated region the overall TOA radiative effect from the23 biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due

Wood, Robert

188

Photoacoustic optical properties at UV, VIS, and near IR wavelengths for laboratory generated and winter time ambient urban aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA) measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet wavelength (i.e., 355 nm) and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA's acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009 and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols) and relatively clean (aged aerosols) conditions. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m, respectively) and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}). The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion) days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from traffic emissions and residential wood burning. The analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA), Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA), and Angstrom exponent of scattering (AES) for clean and polluted days provides evidences that the aerosol aging and coating process is suppressed by strong temperature inversion under cloudy conditions. In general, measured UV absorption coefficients were found to be much larger for biomass burning aerosol than for typical ambient aerosols.

Gyawali, Madhu S.; Arnott, W. Patrick; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Song, Chen; Moosmuller, H.; Liu, Li; Mishchenko, M.; Chen, L-W A.; Green, M.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.

2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

189

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source type and mechanism information for the four aerosol samples gathered from the Caribbean, the Sea of Japan, and New Jersey. One way to gauge an aerosol's ability to stay...

190

Origins and accumulation of organic matter in expanded Albian to Santonian black shale sequences on the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Origins and accumulation of organic matter in expanded Albian to Santonian black shale sequences laminated, Cenoma- nian­Santonian black shale sequences contain between 2% and 15% organic carbon about the depositional conditions leading to the black shale accumulations. The low d13 Corg values

Gilli, Adrian

191

6, 93519388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS satellite data and global 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al. Title

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

192

4, 871891, 2007 Mobility of black  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 4, 871­891, 2007 Mobility of black carbon J. Leifeld et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussion EGU Biogeosciences Discuss., 4, 871­891, 2007 www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/4/871/2007/ © Author ­ Published: 23 March 2007 Correspondence to: J. Leifeld (jens.leifeld@art.admin.ch) 871 #12;BGD 4, 871

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon Composites(T300 & SWB): Crush Resistance, Bend StrengthCARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

Rollins, Andrew M.

194

Effects of aerosol species on atmospheric visibility in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Visibility data collected from Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, for the past two decades indicated that the air pollutants have significantly degraded visibility in recent years. During the study period, the seasonal mean visibilities in spring, summer, fall, and winter were only 5.4, 9.1, 8.2, and 3.4 km, respectively. To ascertain how urban aerosols influence the visibility, we conducted concurrent visibility monitoring and aerosol sampling in 1999 to identify the principal causes of visibility impairments in the region. In this study, ambient aerosols were sampled and analyzed for 11 constituents, including water-soluble ions and carbon materials, to investigate the chemical composition of Kaohsiung aerosols. Stepwise regression method was used to correlate the impact of aerosol species on visibility impairments. Both seasonal and diurnal variation patterns were found from the monitoring of visibility. Results showed that light scattering was attributed primarily to aerosols with sizes that range from 0.26 to 0.90 {mu}m, corresponding with the wavelength region of visible light, which accounted for {approximately} 72% of the light scattering coefficient. Sulfate was a dominant component that affected both the light scattering coefficient and the visibility in the region. On average, (NH{sub 4}){sup 2}SO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, total carbon, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-remainder contributed 53%, 17%, 16%, and 14% to total light scattering, respectively. An empirical regression model of visibility based on sulfate, elemental carbon, and humidity was developed, and the comparison indicated that visibility in an urban area could be properly simulated by the equation derived herein. 35 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Chang-Gai Lee; Chung-Shin Yuan; Jui-Cheng Chang; Ching Yuan [National Sun Yat-Sen University (Taiwan)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Review of models applicable to accident aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity.

Glissmeyer, J.A.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering ALAN ROBOCK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering ALAN ROBOCK ABSTRACT In response to global warming, one suggested geoengineering response involves creating a cloud of particles in the stratosphere to reflect some, the volcano analog also warns against geoengineering because of responses such as ozone depletion, regional

Robock, Alan

197

Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplanktonproduced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS{sup -}) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr{sup -1}, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS{sup -} (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr{sup -1}, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ngm{sup -3}, with values up to 400 ngm{sup -3} over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2), both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20 %) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2 %) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increases and decreases in the concentration of CCN over different parts of the ocean. The sign of the CCN change due to the addition of marine organics to seasalt aerosol is determined by the relative significance of the increase in mean modal diameter due to addition of mass, and the decrease in particle hygroscopicity due to compositional changes in marine aerosol. Based on emerging evidence for increased CCN concentration over biologically active surface ocean areas/periods, our study suggests that treatment of sea spray in global climate models (GCMs) as an internal mixture of marine organic aerosols and sea-salt will likely lead to an underestimation in CCN number concentration.

Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, Brett; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

198

DO AEROSOLS CHANGE CLOUD COVER AND AFFECT CLIMATE?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter Schwartz, 1996, modified from;AEROSOL INFLUENCES ON CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE #12;DMS #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN Light scattering by aerosols decreases absorption of solar radiation. #12;AEROSOLS

Schwartz, Stephen E.

199

Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This measurement characterizes the types of BC emissions that result in nearsurface BC containing particles in a region that is dominated by biomass and open pit/stove cooking. Specifically, examine three primary BC emission sources: (i) urban setting (e.g., fossil fuel emissions); and (ii) biomass burning. Source (i) are captured at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bangalore. Biomass emissions (ii) contains a series of 12 day measurement excursions to the rural area surrounding Bangalore.

Sedlacek, Arthur; S, Satheesh; Springston, Stephen

200

Controls on black carbon storage in soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC degradation (microorgan- isms, fire, ozone, UV radiation)UV-oxidation plays an important role in organic matter degradation [

Czimczik, Claudia I; Masiello, Caroline A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

4, 34853533, 2004 Black carbon from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-defined BC residence times. Here, the global BC cycle including emissions, transport, and re- moval emissions J. Hendricks 1 , B. K¨archer 1 , A. D¨opelheuer 2, * , J. Feichter 3 , U. Lohmann 4 , and D´osfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico Received: 19 April 2004 ­ Accepted: 25 May 2004

Boyer, Edmond

202

Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites M I Mishchenko1 instruments suitable for aerosol remote sensing and give examples of aerosol retrievals obtained forcing directly by absorbing and reflecting sunlight, thereby cooling or heating the atmosphere

203

Optimization of aerosol penetration through transport lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will be minimum and -' he penetration of aerosols through the transport system will be maximal. It is the purpose of the study reported herein to experimentally investigate the optimization of aerosol penetration through transport systems and to obtain a... numbers less than 869, bounded the use of this model to Reynolds numbers less than or equal to 1100. 19 IV. SUNNARY OF WORK AND EXPERINENTAL NETHODOLOGY The purpose of the study reported herein was to further analyze the optimization of aerosol...

Wong Luque, Fermin Samuel

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol Naoko Sakaeda,1 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning

Wood, Robert

205

Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May 28, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper Contact: Linda Vu,...

206

Separating Cloud Forming Nuclei from Interstitial Aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has become important to characterize the physicochemical properties of aerosol that have initiated the warm and ice clouds. The data is urgently needed to better represent the aerosol-cloud interaction mechanisms in the climate models. The laboratory and in-situ techniques to separate precisely the aerosol particles that act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN), termed as cloud nuclei (CN) henceforth, have become imperative in studying aerosol effects on clouds and the environment. This review summarizes these techniques, design considerations, associated artifacts and challenges, and briefly discusses the need for improved designs to expand the CN measurement database.

Kulkarni, Gourihar R.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

207

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October? 2. To what extent do the different properties of the Arctic aerosol during April produce differences in clouds? * Do the more polluted conditions during April in the...

208

Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by...

209

aerosol ratio program: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

contribute a major portion of atmospheric aerosol mass loading 5. The estimated global annual Liou, K. N. 2 Studying Clouds and Aerosols with Lidar Depolarization Ratio and...

210

Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

211

aerosol optical thickness: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however,...

212

aerosols iii morphologic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences Websites Summary: of aerosols. Keywords: metal waste recycling; aerosols; fire hazard; explosion hazard. 1. OVERVIEW ProductsRisks generated by the treatment of...

213

The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

Ghan, Steve

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

214

ambient ultrafine aerosols: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 4 Ambient aerosol sampling using the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer...

215

The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

Ghan, Steve

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

216

Synergy between Secondary Organic Aerosols and Long Range Transport...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

between Secondary Organic Aerosols and Long Range Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Synergy between Secondary Organic Aerosols and Long Range Transport of Polycyclic...

217

acid aerosol exposure: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nenes, Athanasios 8 Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia Geosciences Websites Summary: Neutralization of soil aerosol and...

218

Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the Mexico City...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXEPESASTIM and Multivariate Analysis. Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the...

219

Molecular Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application of High Resolution Mass...

220

aerosol samples collected: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

elements analysis of aerosol samples from some CiteSeer Summary: Aerosols deposits on filters from ten Romanian towns with different kinds and levels of industrial development...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in 2008. Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in...

222

aerosol particles emitted: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosols scatter and absorb solar, estimates of the impact of aerosols on visibility, the solar radiation balance, and crop production is presented. 1. INTRODUCTION The attenuation...

223

aerosolized pentamidine effect: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

224

aerosols radioactifs artificiels: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

225

aerosol particle analysis: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: data analysis algorithm is presented. Our earlier algorithm assumed a monomodal aerosol size distribution, while the new algorithm allows us to partition the aerosol...

226

aerosol research study: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in atmospheric thermal structure, burning, bio-sources changes? 12;Aerosol microphysics: size distribution, mixing state, morphology, shape 9 Aerosol Science and Technology,...

227

Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles This webinar was presented by research team Building...

228

The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol concentration in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol concentration in arctic mixed-phase stratus clouds during ISDAC and M-PACE. The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol...

229

Aged black carbon identified in marine dissolved organic carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pool in the northeast Pacific Ocean, Deep Sea Res. , Part I,?445 in the deep NE Pacific Ocean (Table S1). The Suwanneein the northeast Pacific Ocean. If the BC in the Amazon

Ziolkowski, Lori A; Druffel, Ellen R.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Black Pine Engineering  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Black Pine Engineering is commercializing a disruptive technology in the turbomachinery industry. Using a patented woven composite construction, Black Pine Engineering can make turbomachines (turbines, compressors) that are cheaper and lighter than competing technologies. Using this technology, Black Pine Engineering will sell turbo-compressors which solve the problem of wasted steam in geothermal power plants.

231

1 Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols outflow from India and 2 Arabia: Biomass/biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols outflow from India and 2 Arabia: Biomass tracer for biomass/biofuel burning, 16 number concentration of submicrometer carbon-containing particles and biomass/biofuel 22 burning are subject to long-range transport, thereby contributing to anthropogenic 23

Dickerson, Russell R.

232

Heterogeneous Chemistry: Understanding Aerosol/Oxidant Interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global radiative forcing of nitrate and ammonium aerosols has mostly been estimated from aerosol concentrations calculated at thermodynamic equilibrium or using approximate treatments for their uptake by aerosols. In this study, a more accurate hybrid dynamical approach (DYN) was used to simulate the uptake of nitrate and ammonium by aerosols and the interaction with tropospheric reactive nitrogen chemistry in a three-dimensional global aerosol and chemistry model, IMPACT, which also treats sulfate, sea salt and mineral dust aerosol. 43% of the global annual average nitrate aerosol burden, 0.16 TgN, and 92% of the global annual average ammonium aerosol burden, 0.29 TgN, exist in the fine mode (D<1.25 {micro}m) that scatters most efficiently. Results from an equilibrium calculation differ significantly from those of DYN since the fraction of fine-mode nitrate to total nitrate (gas plus aerosol) is 9.8%, compared to 13% in DYN. Our results suggest that the estimates of aerosol forcing from equilibrium concentrations will be underestimated. We also show that two common approaches used to treat nitrate and ammonium in aerosol in global models, including the first-order gas-to-particle approximation based on uptake coefficients (UPTAKE) and a hybrid method that combines the former with an equilibrium model (HYB), significantly overpredict the nitrate uptake by aerosols especially that by coarse particles, resulting in total nitrate aerosol burdens higher than that in DYN by +106% and +47%, respectively. Thus, nitrate aerosol in the coarse mode calculated by HYB is 0.18 Tg N, a factor of 2 more than that in DYN (0.086 Tg N). Excessive formation of the coarse-mode nitrate in HYB leads to near surface nitrate concentrations in the fine mode lower than that in DYN by up to 50% over continents. In addition, near-surface HNO{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentrations are underpredicted by HYB by up to 90% and 5%, respectively. UPTAKE overpredicts the NO{sub x} burden by 56% and near-surface NO{sub x} concentrations by a factor of 2-5. These results suggest the importance of using the more accurate hybrid dynamical method in the estimates of both aerosol forcing and tropospheric ozone chemistry.

Joyce E. Penner

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

233

he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earth??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

Keene, William C. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia; Long, Michael S. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

234

Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Black Hole Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mass of a black hole has traditionally been identified with its energy. We describe a new perspective on black hole thermodynamics, one that identifies the mass of a black hole with chemical enthalpy, and the cosmological constant as thermodynamic pressure. This leads to an understanding of black holes from the viewpoint of chemistry, in terms of concepts such as Van der Waals fluids, reentrant phase transitions, and triple points. Both charged and rotating black holes exhibit novel chemical-type phase behaviour, hitherto unseen.

David Kubiznak; Robert B. Mann

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

236

2, 12871315, 2002 Aerosol sources and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in climate variability and climate change studies (IPCC, 2001). Radiative forcing of natural and their contribution to the chemical composition of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during summertime J aerosol sources in the Eastern Mediterranean5 Basin could be investigated at this location since the site

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

6, 1217912197, 2006 Aerosol formation in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

troposphere and lower stratosphere. The model implements a first order scheme for resolving the aerosol size distribution within its geometric size10 sections, which efficiently suppresses numerical diffusion. We operate removes freshly nucleated particles by coagulation. The observation of high ultrafine aerosol

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

6, 32653319, 2006 Study aerosol with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 3265­3319, 2006 Study aerosol with two emission inventories and time factors A. de Meij et in Europe to two different emission inventories and temporal distribution of emissions A. de Meij 1 , M Study aerosol with two emission inventories and time factors A. de Meij et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Combustion of biomass as a global carbon sink  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This note is intended to highlight the important role of black carbon produced from biomass burning in the global carbon cycle, and encourage further research in this area. Consideration of the fundamental physical chemistry of cellulose thermal decomposition suggests that suppression of biomass burning or biasing burning practices to produce soot-free flames must inevitably transfer more carbon to the atmosphere. A simple order-of-magnitude quantitative analysis indicates that black carbon may be a significant carbon reservoir that persists over geological time scales.

Ball, Rowena

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Carbon Fillers for Actuation of Electroactive Thermoset Shape Memory Polyurethane Composites by Resistive Heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, focusing on stimuli-responsive SMPs enables researchers to develop more versatile devices with SMP composites. The electroactive SMP composites incorporated with conductive fillers such as carbon black and carbon nanotubes allow shape recovery actuation...

Yu, Ya-Jen

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

242

ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01)3, 2010SeptemberInfrared SpectralgovCampaignsAerosol IOP

243

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Theory · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Reality · Biomass burning.6 Biomass burning over Angola, 09 Sep. 2004 Absorbing Aerosol Index PMD image #12;biomass burning ocean

Graaf, Martin de

244

Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fertilization on carbon sequestration in the Southern Ocean.production, and carbon sequestration (47). In areas whereproductivity and carbon sequestration and thus influence

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME the resulting time series, we use tropospheric NO2 data as a reference in the regions dominated by biomass sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

Tilstra, Gijsbert

246

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds . Abstract: A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic...

247

Bicycling Black Rings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present detailed physics analyses of two different 4+1-dimensional asymptotically flat vacuum black hole solutions with spin in two independent planes: the doubly spinning black ring and the bicycling black ring system ("bi-rings"). The latter is a new solution describing two concentric orthogonal rotating black rings which we construct using the inverse scattering technique. We focus particularly on extremal zero-temperature limits of the solutions. Such limits exist for both types of solutions; for the bi-rings it is obtained when the two rings drag each other to extremality through the effect of gravitational frame-dragging. We construct the phase diagram of currently known zero-temperature vacuum black hole solutions with a single event horizon, and discuss the non-uniqueness introduced by more exotic black hole configurations such as bi-rings and multi-ring saturns.

Elvang, Henriette

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Bicycling Black Rings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present detailed physics analyses of two different 4+1-dimensional asymptotically flat vacuum black hole solutions with spin in two independent planes: the doubly spinning black ring and the bicycling black ring system ("bi-rings"). The latter is a new solution describing two concentric orthogonal rotating black rings which we construct using the inverse scattering technique. We focus particularly on extremal zero-temperature limits of the solutions. We construct the phase diagram of currently known zero-temperature vacuum black hole solutions with a single event horizon, and discuss the non-uniqueness introduced by more exotic black hole configurations such as bi-rings and multi-ring saturns.

Henriette Elvang; Maria J. Rodriguez

2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

249

The behavior of constant rate aerosol reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An aerosol reactor is a gaseous system in which fine particles are formed by chemical reaction in either a batch or flow process. The particle sizes of interest range from less than 10 angstrom (molecular clusters) to 10 ..mu..m. Such reactors may be operated to study the aerosol formation process, as in a smog reactor, or to generate a product such as a pigment or a catalytic aerosol. Aerosol reactors can be characterized by three temporal or spatial zones or regions of operation for batch and flow reactors, respectively. In zone I, chemical reaction results in the formation of condensable molecular products which nucleate and form very high concentrations of small particles. The number density depends on the concentration of preexisting aerosol. Zone II is a transition region in which the aerosol number concentration levels off as a result of hetergeneous condensation by the stable aerosol. In zone III coagulation becomes sufficiently rapid to reduce the particle number concentration. There may be a zone IV in which agglomerates form.

Friedlander, S.K.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

BLACK HISTORY MONTH  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Black History Month is an annual celebration of achievements by black Americans and a time for recognizing the central role of African Americans in U.S. history. The event grew out of Negro History Week, created by historian Carter G. Woodson and other prominent African Americans. Other countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, also devote a month to celebrating black history.

251

A Black Hole Levitron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the problem of spatially stabilising four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes kept in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al's multi-center solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped in a given volume. This is realised by levitating a black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction resembles a mechanical Levitron.

Xerxes D. Arsiwalla; Erik P. Verlinde

2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

252

Dynamics of black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping horizon which manifests temporally as separate horizons.

Sean A. Hayward

2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

253

Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

254

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Aerosol flow reactor production of superconducting ceramic powder  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Potential applications and basic studies of superconducting ceramics require the reproducible production of chemically homogeneous, ultrapure powders with controlled particle size distributions. Previous work has mainly examined the use of liquid and solid phase methods for superconducting powder production. In this work, it is shown that carbon-free, submicron powders based on the Y-Ba-Cu-O, La-Sr-Cu-O, Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O systems can be produced in a gaseous flow system by reacting aerosol particles containing the nitrate salts of the appropriate metals in flowing oxygen at temperatures of 900 - 1100C. It is also demonstrated that composite Cu/YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/ wires can be fabricated by thermophoretic deposition of the particles onto the inner surface of a Cu tube hby sintering/annealing.

Kodas, T. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Engler, E.; Lee, V.; Parkin, L.S. (Research Div., Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (US))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

257

Calorific and porosity development in carbonized wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wood of four species (red oak, southern yellow pine, black cherry, and hybrid poplar) were carbonized in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere at an average heating rate of 3 degrees Centigrade/minute to selected final temperatures up to 700 degrees Centigrade. The effects of final carbonization temperature on selected properties of the char were obtained using an adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter to investigate heat of combustion and a mercury porosimeter to investigate total porosity, real density, apparent density, and pore size distribution. Pore characteristics of carbonized wood developed before 300 degrees Centigrade in southern yellow pine and before 400 degrees Centigrade in red oak, black cherry, and hybrid poplar. Statistical analysis established linear relationships between heat of combustion versus final carbonization temperature in the carbonization temperature ranges investigated. The results of this study will aid in understanding optimum pryrolysis conditions for the development of calorific and porosity values. (Refs. 22).

Baileys, R.T.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Southern hemisphere tropospheric aerosol microphysics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol particle size distribution data have been obtained in the southern hemisphere from approximately 4{degree}S to 44{degree}S and between ground level and 6 km, in the vicinity of eastern Australia. The relative shape of the free-tropospheric size distribution for particles with radii larger than approximately 0.04 {mu}m was found to be remarkably stable with time, altitude, and location for the autumn-winter periods considered. This was despite some large concentration changes which were found to be typical of the southeastern Australian coastal region. The majority of free-troposphere large particles were found to have sulfuric acid or lightly ammoniated sulfate morphology. Large particles in the boundary layer almost exclusively had a sea-salt morphology.

Gras, J.L. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Aspendale (Australia))

1991-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

259

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

incident radiation are distinguished, and albedos for oceanOceans using multiple satellite datasets in conjunction with MACR (Monte Carlo Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation)ocean temperature is coupled with the rest of the climate system, the dimming of surface radiation

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of ngstrm's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winterspring and summerautumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i) a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winterspring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-lesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surfaceatmosphere system over polar regions.

Tomasi, C.; Wagener, R.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Lupi, A.; Ritter, C.; Smirnov, A.; O Neill, N. T.; Stone, R. S.; Holben, B. N.; Nyeki, S.; Wehrli, C.; Stohl, A.; Mazzola, M.; Lanconelli, C.; Vitale, V.; Stebel, K.; Aaltonen, V.; de Leeuw, G.; Rodriguez, E.; Herber, A. B.; Radionov, V. F.; Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Sakerin, S. M.; Kabanov, D. M.; Xue, Y.; Mei, L.; Istomina, L.; Wagener, R.; McArthur, B.; Sobolewski, P. S.; Kivi, R.; Courcoux, Y.; Larouche, P.; Broccardo, S.; Piketh, S. J.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

262

Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1993 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OP A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Approved as to style and content by: A. R. McFarland (Chair of Committee) N. K. Anand (Mer toer) (', & C. B...

Mekala, Malla R.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

264

"Hybrid" Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss a solution of the Einstein equations, obtained by gluing the external Kerr metric and the internal Weyl metric, describing an axisymmetric static vacuum distorted black hole. These metrics are glued at the null surfaces representing their horizons. For this purpose we use the formalism of massive thin null shells. The corresponding solution is called a "hybrid" black hole. The massive null shell has an angular momentum which is the origin of the rotation of the external Kerr spacetime. At the same time, the shell distorts the geometry inside the horizon. The inner geometry of the "hybrid" black hole coincides with the geometry of the interior of a non-rotating Weyl-distorted black hole. Properties of the "hybrid" black holes are briefly discussed.

Valeri P. Frolov; Andrei V. Frolov

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

265

Carbon Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Capture Pre-Combustion Post-Combustion CO2 Compression Systems Analysis Regulatory Drivers Program Plan Capture Handbook Carbon capture involves the separation of CO2 from...

266

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol chemical vapor Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical and microphysical properties influence aerosol optical properties and radiative effects... distribution of aerosol extensive and intensive properties will aid ......

267

AEROSOL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHARACTERIZATION AT THE ARM SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS (SGP) SITE USING AN AEROSOL CHEMICAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AEROSOL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHARACTERIZATION AT THE ARM SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS (SGP) SITE USING AN AEROSOL CHEMICAL SPECIATION MONITOR Yin-Nan Lee1 , Fan Mei1 , Stephanie DeJong1 , Anne Jefferson2 1 Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY 2 CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

268

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

269

Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

270

In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

Scott Alan Sinquefield

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Facies and Reservoir Characterization of the Permian White Rim Sandstone, Black Box Dolomite, and Black Dragon Member of the Triassic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Geological Sciences, BYU Master of Science Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2, and Black Dragon Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation for CO2 Storage and Sequestration at Woodside Formation, for CO2 Sequestration at Woodside Field, East-central Utah Walter Harston Department

Seamons, Kent E.

273

Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

275

Physical Properties of Ambient and Laboratory-Generated Secondary Organic Aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The size and thickness of organic aerosol particles collected by impaction in five field campaigns were compared to those of laboratory generated secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) was used to measure the total carbon absorbance (TCA) by individual particles as a function of their projection areas on the substrate. Because they flatten less upon impaction, particles with higher viscosity and surface tension can be identified by a steeper slope on a plot of TCA vs. size. The slopes of the ambient data are statistically similar indicating a small range of average viscosities and surface tensions across five field campaigns. Steeper slopes were observed for the plots corresponding to ambient particles, while smaller slopes were indicative of the laboratory generated SOA. This comparison indicates that ambient organic particles have higher viscosities and surface tensions than those typically generated in laboratory SOA studies.

O'Brien, Rachel E.; Neu, Alexander; Epstein, Scott A.; MacMillan, Amanda; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

276

Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

Kula, Erhun, E-mail: erhun.kula@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey); Gunalay, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.gunalay@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Business Studies, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

278

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

A novel activated carbon for supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel activated carbon was prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon has large surface area with microporous, and high heteroatom content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heteroatom-containing functional groups can improve the pseudo-capacitance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: A novel activated carbon has been prepared by simple carbonization and activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin which is synthesized by the condensation polymerization method. The morphology, thermal stability, surface area, elemental composition and surface chemical composition of samples have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Electrochemical properties have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol L{sup -1} potassium hydroxide. The activated carbon shows good capacitive behavior and the specific capacitance is up to 210 F g{sup -1}, which indicates that it may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors.

Shen, Haijie [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Liu, Enhui, E-mail: liuenhui99@sina.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Xiang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Zhengzheng; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yuhu; Wu, Zhilian; Xie, Hui [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

DOE research on atmospheric aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the Department`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the Department`s major research activity focusing on atmospheric processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of atmospheric radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. Atmospheric chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of atmospheric response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the atmospheric source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.

Schwartz, S.E.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Application of computational fluid dynamics to aerosol sampling and concentration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An understanding of gas-liquid two-phase interactions, aerosol particle deposition, and heat transfer is needed. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is becoming a powerful tool to predict aerosol behavior for related design work. In this study...

Hu, Shishan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

Aerosol beam-focus laser-induced plasma spectrometer device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for detecting elements in an aerosol includes an aerosol beam focuser for concentrating aerosol into an aerosol beam; a laser for directing a laser beam into the aerosol beam to form a plasma; a detection device that detects a wavelength of a light emission caused by the formation of the plasma. The detection device can be a spectrometer having at least one grating and a gated intensified charge-coupled device. The apparatus may also include a processor that correlates the wavelength of the light emission caused by the formation of the plasma with an identity of an element that corresponds to the wavelength. Furthermore, the apparatus can also include an aerosol generator for forming an aerosol beam from bulk materials. A method for detecting elements in an aerosol is also disclosed.

Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

aerosol particle penetration: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the subsequent aerosol penetration performance through these tubes were conducted for a aerosol particle size range of 5 nm to 20 nm and a flow rate range of 28 Lmin to 169.9...

284

Effects of operating conditions on a heat transfer fluid aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of heat transfer fluid aerosols from process leaks. To simulate industrial leaks, aerosol formation from a plain orifice into ambient air is studied by measuring liquid drop sizes and size distributions at various distances from an orifice. Measurements...

Sukmarg, Passaporn

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

[5] Suh JS, Jeong KS, Lee JS, Han IT. Study of the field-screening effect of highly ordered carbon nanotube arrays. Appl Phys Lett  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

molecular weight polymer. The interfacial strength between carbon fillers and epoxy resin varies for improving and/or optimizing the manufacturing process of epoxymatrix composites. Epoxy resin filled with various carbons (carbon fiber, carbon nanofiber and carbon black) was studied. The epoxy resin system

Chung, Deborah D.L.

286

Charging Black Saturn?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordstrom solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we could find present either a conical singularity or a naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

Brenda Chng; Robert Mann; Eugen Radu; Cristian Stelea

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

287

Charged Schrodinger black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct charged and rotating asymptotically Schrdinger black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity. We begin by obtaining a closed-form expression for the null Melvin twist of a broad class of type IIB backgrounds, ...

Adams, Allan

288

Helical superconducting black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct novel static, asymptotically $AdS_5$ black hole solutions with Bianchi VII$_0$ symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, non-isotropic dual ground states with emergent scaling symmetry.

Aristomenis Donos; Jerome P. Gauntlett

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

289

On Black Hole Entropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two techniques for computing black hole entropy in generally covariant gravity theories including arbitrary higher derivative interactions are studied. The techniques are Wald's Noether charge approach introduced recently, and a field redefinition method developed in this paper. Wald's results are extended by establishing that his local geometric expression for the black hole entropy gives the same result when evaluated on an arbitrary cross-section of a Killing horizon (rather than just the bifurcation surface). Further, we show that his expression for the entropy is not affected by ambiguities which arise in the Noether construction. Using the Noether charge expression, the entropy is evaluated explicitly for black holes in a wide class of generally covariant theories. Further, it is shown that the Killing horizon and surface gravity of a stationary black hole metric are invariant under field redefinitions of the metric of the form $\\bar{g}_{ab}\\equiv g_{ab} + \\Delta_{ab}$, where $\\Delta_{ab}$ is a tensor field constructed out of stationary fields. Using this result, a technique is developed for evaluating the black hole entropy in a given theory in terms of that of another theory related by field redefinitions. Remarkably, it is established that certain perturbative, first order, results obtained with this method are in fact {\\it exact}. The possible significance of these results for the problem of finding the statistical origin of black hole entropy is discussed.}

Ted Jacobson; Gungwon Kang; Robert C. Myers

1994-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

290

Observations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production and Soot Aging under Atmospheric Conditions Using a Novel Environmental Aerosol Chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the processes leading to SOA production under ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations as well as the impact these aerosol types have on climate is poorly understood. Although the majority of atmospheric aerosols scatter radiation either directly...

Glen, Crystal

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

291

Accounting for forest carbon pool dynamics in product carbon footprints: Challenges and opportunities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modification and loss of forests due to natural and anthropogenic disturbance contribute an estimated 20% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. Although forest carbon pool modeling rarely suggests a 'carbon neutral' flux profile, the life cycle assessment community and associated product carbon footprint protocols have struggled to account for the GHG emissions associated with forestry, specifically, and land use generally. Principally, this is due to underdeveloped linkages between life cycle inventory (LCI) modeling for wood and forest carbon modeling for a full range of forest types and harvest practices, as well as a lack of transparency in globalized forest supply chains. In this paper, through a comparative study of U.S. and Chinese coated freesheet paper, we develop the initial foundations for a methodology that rescales IPCC methods from the national to the product level, with reference to the approaches in three international product carbon footprint protocols. Due to differences in geographic origin of the wood fiber, the results for two scenarios are highly divergent. This suggests that both wood LCI models and the protocols need further development to capture the range of spatial and temporal dimensions for supply chains (and the associated land use change and modification) for specific product systems. The paper concludes by outlining opportunities to measure and reduce uncertainty in accounting for net emissions of biogenic carbon from forestland, where timber is harvested for consumer products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Typical life cycle assessment practice for consumer products often excludes significant land use change emissions when estimating carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article provides a methodology to rescale IPCC guidelines for product-level carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle inventories and product carbon footprint protocols need more comprehensive land use-related accounting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interdisciplinary collaboration linking the LCA and forest carbon modeling communities is necessary.

Newell, Joshua P., E-mail: jpnewell@umich.edu [School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Vos, Robert O., E-mail: vos@usc.edu [Spatial Sciences Institute, University of Southern California (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Project of Aerosol Optical Depth Change in South America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Paraguay Uruguay #12;Statistics of Aerosol M ean D ec 01 to 06 Mean Month AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela

Frank, Thomas D.

293

Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aerosols can potentially result in an increase in acid deposition. [4] Acid rain has been studiedSulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols Ben Kravitz,1 Alan limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2

Robock, Alan

294

Organic and Inorganic Aerosol Below-Cloud Scavenging by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concentrations, with an average gravimetric PM1.0 of 8.2 ( 1.6 µg m-3 and an average Fourier transform infrared-rinsing behavior was unaffected by source type. The aerosol OM was hydrophilic throughout the sampling period the description of aerosol lifetimes in global models. Introduction Wet and dry deposition of aerosol particles

Russell, Lynn

295

Phase transformation and growth of hygroscopic aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ambient aerosols play an important role in many atmospheric processes affecting air quality, visibility degradation, and climatic changes as well. Both natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the formation of ambient aerosols, which are composed mostly of sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides in either pure or mixed forms. These inorganic salt aerosols are hygroscopic by nature and exhibit the properties of deliquescence and efflorescence in humid air. For pure inorganic salt particles with diameter larger than 0.1 micron, the phase transformation from a solid particle to a saline droplet occurs only when the relative humidity in the surrounding atmosphere reaches a certain critical level corresponding to the water activity of the saturated solution. The droplet size or mass in equilibrium with relative humidity can be calculated in a straightforward manner from thermodynamic considerations. For aqueous droplets 0.1 micron or smaller, the surface curvature effect on vapor pressure becomes important and the Kelvin equation must be used.

Tang, I.N.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

CADS:Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual describes a library for aerosol kinetics and transport, called CADS (Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator), which employs a section-based approach for describing the particle size distributions. CADS is based upon Cantera, a set of C++ libraries and applications that handles gas phase species transport and reactions. The method uses a discontinuous Galerkin formulation to represent the particle distributions within each section and to solve for changes to the aerosol particle distributions due to condensation, coagulation, and nucleation processes. CADS conserves particles, elements, and total enthalpy up to numerical round-off error, in all of its formulations. Both 0-D time dependent and 1-D steady state applications (an opposing-flow flame application) have been developed with CADS, with the initial emphasis on developing fundamental mechanisms for soot formation within fires. This report also describes the 0-D application, TDcads, which models a time-dependent perfectly stirred reactor.

Moffat, Harry K.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

298

Review: engineering particles using the aerosol-through-plasma method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For decades, plasma processing of materials on the nanoscale has been an underlying enabling technology for many 'planar' technologies, particularly virtually every aspect of modern electronics from integrated-circuit fabrication with nanoscale elements to the newest generation of photovoltaics. However, it is only recent developments that suggest that plasma processing can be used to make 'particulate' structures of value in fields, including catalysis, drug delivery, imaging, higher energy density batteries, and other forms of energy storage. In this paper, the development of the science and technology of one class of plasma production of particulates, namely, aerosol-through-plasma (A-T-P), is reviewed. Various plasma systems, particularly RF and microwave, have been used to create nanoparticles of metals and ceramics, as well as supported metal catalysts. Gradually, the complexity of the nanoparticles, and concomitantly their potential value, has increased. First, unique two-layer particles were generated. These were postprocessed to create unique three-layer nanoscale particles. Also, the technique has been successfully employed to make other high-value materials, including carbon nanotubes, unsupported graphene, and spherical boron nitride. Some interesting plasma science has also emerged from efforts to characterize and map aerosol-containing plasmas. For example, it is clear that even a very low concentration of particles dramatically changes plasma characteristics. Some have also argued that the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium approach is inappropriate to these systems. Instead, it has been suggested that charged- and neutral-species models must be independently developed and allowed to 'interact' only in generation terms.

Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luhrs, Claudia C [UNM; Richard, Monique [TEMA

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Composite catalysts supported on modified carbon substrates and methods of making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a composite carbon catalyst is generally disclosed. The method includes oxidizing a carbon precursor (e.g., carbon black). Optionally, nitrogen functional groups can be added to the oxidized carbon precursor. Then, the oxidized carbon precursor is refluxed with a non-platinum transitional metal precursor in a solution. Finally, the solution is pyrolyzed at a temperature of at least about 500.degree. C.

Popov, Branko N. (Columbia, SC); Subramanian, Nalini (Kennesaw, GA); Colon-Mercado, Hector R. (Columbia, SC)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

300

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Technical Note: Estimating Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimating anthropogenic aerosol effects on the planetary energy balance through the aerosol influence on clouds using the difference in cloud radiative forcing from simulations with and without anthropogenic emissions produces estimates that are positively biased. A more representative method is suggested using the difference in cloud radiative forcing calculated with aerosol radiative effects neglected. The method also yields an aerosol radiative forcing decomposition that includes a term quantifying the impact of changes in surface albedo. The method requires only two additional diagnostic calculations: the whole-sky and clear-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative flux with aerosol radiative effects neglected.

Ghan, Steven J.

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

302

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

303

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Aerosol Science and Technology, 41:202216, 2007 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes, such as con- densation, coagulation, gas-to-particle conversion (Reid et al. 1998), and particle Aerosol size distribution is, along with particle refractive in- dex and shape, one of important

305

Organic aerosol components observed in Northern Hemispheric datasets from Aerosol Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study we compile and present results from the factor analysis of 43 Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) datasets (27 of the datasets are reanalyzed in this work). The components from all sites, when taken together, ...

Kroll, Jesse

306

Optical Sensing of Ecosystem Carbon Fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Solar Induced Fluorescence (peaks at 690 and 735 nm) #12;GEP = ! fAPAR PARin Where: GEP is the gross and absorbed carbon - In existing models ! is assigned a maximum value based on cover type and downregulated Calibration panel AMSPEC FUSION #12;SK-Old Aspen Seasonality: NDVI, EVI, GEP Data from T. Hilker, T.A. Black

307

The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study describes a new modeling paradigm that significantly advances how the third activity is conducted while also fully exploiting data and findings from the first two activities. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a computational framework for the atmospheric sciences community that streamlines the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The AMT consists of a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of aerosol process modules via comparison with a wide range of field measurements. The philosophy of the AMT is to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules over local to regional spatial scales that are compatible with most field campaigns measurement strategies. The performance of new treatments can then be quantified and compared to existing treatments before they are incorporated into regional and global climate models. Since the AMT is a community tool, it also provides a means of enhancing collaboration and coordination among aerosol modelers.

Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Grell, Georg; Barth, Mary

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

308

Calibration of the On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) with ammonium chloride and sodium chloride aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) is a light attenuation device designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG&G Idaho. Its purpose is to provide an on-line indication of aerosol concentration in the PHEBUS-FP tests. It does this by measuring the attenuation of a light beam across a tube through which an aerosol is flowing. The OLAM does not inherently give an absolute response and must be calibrated. A calibration has been performed at Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) Sandia Aerosol Research Laboratory (SARL) and the results are described here. Ammonium chloride and sodium chloride calibration aerosols are used for the calibration and the data for the sodium chloride aerosol is well described by a model presented in this report. Detectable instrument response is seen over a range of 0.1 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas to 10 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas.

Brockmann, J.E.; Lucero, D.A.; Romero, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pentecost, G. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

A new aerosol collector for quasi on-line analysis of particulate organic matter: the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) and first applications with a GC/MS-FID  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In many environments organic matter significantly contributes to the composition of atmospheric aerosol particles influencing its properties. Detailed chemical characterization of ambient aerosols is critical in order to ...

Hohaus, T.

310

Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Uncertainties and Frontiers in Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Transport Power Industry Biomass burning Residential Human activity Perspective Aerosol Sources (rather than, Mixing, Chemistry, Climate) Climate Effects Resource: AeroCom, an international model intercomparison of fossil fuel (coal, oil, diesel, gasoline), domestic wood burning, forest fires #12;Natural sources

312

Aerosol Spray Synthesis of Porous Molybdenum Sulfide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and colloidal silica, SiO2, was ultrasonically nebulized using a household humidifier; the resulting aerosol in materials science because of their ability to be scaled-up for industrial applications.[2] USP solution, as indicated by Eq. 2. Typically, micron-sized particles are obtained; however, by adding

Suslick, Kenneth S.

313

3, 59195976, 2003 The nitrate aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 3, 5919­5976, 2003 The nitrate aerosol field over Europe M. Schaap et al. Title Page Abstract of Utrecht, Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Science, PO Box 80005, 3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands 2, The Netherlands 3 Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), PO Box 1, 1755 LE Petten, The Netherlands 4 Joint

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Aerosols using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are different than the collection of particles from water Filtration has high efficiency for all sizes Size Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Human health Carbonaceous aerosol implicated as important for toxicity and adverse of particulate matter Again, agreement between these two approaches would give a high level of confidence

Einat, Aharonov

315

Preparation of highly loaded Pt/carbon xerogel catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells by the Strong Electrostatic Adsorption method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and composition, such as carbon xerogels and aerogels, constitute an interesting alternative to carbon blacks [4, the samples were filtered, dried and reduced. In order to increase the Pt weight percentage, up to three

Regalbuto, John R.

316

Gasification of black liquor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for treating a concentrated aqueous black liquor carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt comprising: (a) providing a gasifier vessel maintained at a pressure of from about 1 to 50 atmospheres and containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom within a sump equipped with an overflow discharge; (b) introducing into the top of the drying zone the concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds; (c) evaporating water from the concentrated aqueous black liquor in the drying zone by direct contact of the aqueous black liquor with the hot gas rising from the gasification zone to produce dried black liquor solids; (d) introducing a first portion of an oxygen-containing gas into the gas space in the gasification zone located below the drying zone immediately above the molten salt pool to partially oxidize and gasify a fraction of the carbonaceous material in the dried black liquor solids falling through the zone to form a hot combustible gas; (e) introducing a second portion of the oxygen-containing gas beneath the surface of the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of essentially all carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool; (f) withdrawing the cooled combustible gas having a higher heating value of at least about 90 Btu/scf (dry basis) from an upper portion of the drying zone; and (g) withdrawing from the overflow discharge in the molten salt reduction zone a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide.

Kohl, A.L.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

317

Fuel moisture influences on fire-altered carbon in masticated fuels: An experimental study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

] Biomass burning is a significant contributor to atmospheric carbon emissions but may also provide mastication (mechanical forest thinning) and fire convert biomass to black carbon is essential moisture and its role in dictating both the quantity and quality of the carbon produced in masticated fuel

318

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs William T: Available online 6 January 2014 Keywords: Wildland fire Climate Forests Carbon cycle Emissions a b s t r a c climate change and the principal emissions component of wildland fires, while black carbon and other

319

Black holes at accelerators.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ar X iv :h ep -p h/ 05 11 12 8v 3 6 A pr 2 00 6 Black Holes at Accelerators Bryan Webber Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK In theories with large extra dimensions and TeV-scale gravity, black holes... 2000 3000 Missing ET (GeV) Ar bi tra ry S ca le p p ? QCD SUSY 5 TeV BH (n=6) 5 TeV BH (n=2) (PT > 600 GeV) (SUGRA point 5) Figure 10: Missing transverse energy for various processes at the LHC. 4.2. Event Characteristics Turning from single...

Webber, Bryan R

320

Aerosol, Cloud, and Climate: From Observation to Model (457th Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last 100 years, the Earth has warmed by about 1F, glaciers and sea ice have been melting more quickly than previously, especially during the past decade, and the level of the sea has risen about 6-8 inches worldwide. Scientists have long been investigating this phenomenon of global warming, which is believed to be at least partly due to the increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air from burning fossil fuels. Funded by DOE, teams of researchers from BNL and other national labs have been gathering data in the U.S. and internationally to build computer models of climate and weather to help in understanding general patterns, causes, and perhaps, solutions. Among many findings, researchers observed that atmospheric aerosols, minute particles in the atmosphere, can significantly affect global energy balance and climate. Directly, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight. Indirectly, increased aerosol concentration can lead to smaller cloud droplets, changing clouds in ways that tend to cool global climate and potentially mask overall warming from man-made CO2.

Wang, Jian (Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department) [Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

322

Extremal black disks in QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We argue that in the high energy QCD a true black disk wave function necessarily contains many quarks. This corresponds to necessity of non-vacuum reggeon loops in formation of a black disk. The result comes from decomposition of the black disk S-matrix in characters on group manifold.

Alexey V. Popov

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

323

Black holes and black strings in plane waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the construction of black holes and black strings in vacuum plane wave spacetimes using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. We find solutions of the linearised equations of motion in the asymptotic region for a general source on a plane wave background. We observe that these solutions do not satisfy our previously defined conditions for being asymptotically plane wave. Hence, the space of asymptotically plane wave solutions is restricted. We consider the solution in the near region, treating the plane wave as a perturbation of a black object, and find that there is a regular black string solution but no regular black hole solution.

Julian Le Witt; Simon F. Ross

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

324

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

325

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

Kohl, A.L.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

326

Black Hole Thermodynamics Today  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A brief survey of the major themes and developments of black hole thermodynamics in the 1990's is given, followed by summaries of the talks on this subject at MG8 together with a bit of commentary, and closing with a look towards the future.

Ted Jacobson

1998-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

Combustion of black liquor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes an improvement in the combustion of black liquor in an existing Tomlison recovery boiler unit in which black liquor is sprayed into a furnace in which it is successively dried, pyrolyzed and converted to a bed of solid carbonaceous residue, using a primary air stream and a secondary air stream and the residue is subsequently converted to a smelt. The improvement comprises: the addition of between an effective amount up to 5% oxygen by volume to the primary air stream directed at the bed of solid carbonaceous residue, the amount of oxygen added being sufficient to increase the adiabatic flame temperature, the combustion rate of the solid carbonaceous material, the rate of pyrolysis, the temperature in the lower portion of the furnace, the the drying rate of black liquor droplets, and to decrease the temperature of the gases entering the heat transfer surfaces in the upper portion of the furnace and the rate of deposit formation on the surfaces and wherein the amount of black liquor combusted is increased as compared with the amount combusted in the same furnace operated without the addition of oxygen to the primary air.

Mullen, W.T.

1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Quantum black hole inflation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we follow a new approach for particle creation by a localized strong gravitational field. The approach is based on a definition of the physical vacuum drawn from Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Using the fact that the gravitational field red-shifts the frequency modes of the vacuum, a condition on the minimum stregth of the gravitational field required to achieve real particle creation is derived. Application of this requirement on a Schwartzchid black hole resulted in deducing an upper limit on the region, outside the event horizon, where real particles can be created. Using this regional upper limit, and considering particle creation by black holes as a consequence of the Casimir effect, with the assumption that the created quanta are to be added to the initial energy, we deduce a natural power law for the development of the event horizon, and consequently a logarithmic law for the area spectrum of an inflating black hole. Application of the results on a cosmological model shows that if we start with a Planck-dimensional black hole, then through the process of particle creation we end up with a universe having the presently estimated critical density. Such a universe will be in a state of eternal inflation.

M. B. Altaie

2001-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

329

Black brane steady states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We follow the evolution of an asymptotically AdS black brane with a fixed temperature gradient at spatial infinity until a steady state is formed. The resulting energy density and energy flux of the steady state in the boundary theory are compared to a conjecture on the behavior of steady states in conformal field theories. Very good agreement is found.

Amado, Irene

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 737747, 2008 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/8/737/2008/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Physics Capturing vertical profiles of aerosols and black carbon over the Indian Ocean using autonomous profiles of aerosol and water vapor were determined using autonomous unmanned aerial vehi- cles equipped and black carbon concentrations are presented along with the trade wind thermodynamic structure from the sur

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Hard, infrared black coating with very low outgassing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrared astronomical instruments require absorptive coatings on internal surfaces to trap scattered and stray photons. This is typically accomplished with any one of a number of black paints. Although inexpensive and simple to apply, paint has several disadvantages. Painted surfaces can be fragile, prone to shedding particles, and difficult to clean. Most importantly, the vacuum performance is poor. Recently a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was developed to apply thick (30 {micro}m) diamond-like carbon (DLC) based protective coatings to the interior of oil pipelines. These DLC coatings show much promise as an infrared black for an ultra high vacuum environment. The coatings are very robust with excellent cryogenic adhesion. Their total infrared reflectivity of < 10% at normal incidence approaches that of black paints. We measured outgas rates of <10{sup -12} Torr liter/sec cm{sup 2}, comparable to bare stainless steel.

Kuzmenko, P J; Behne, D M; Casserly, T; Boardman, W; Upadhyaya, D; Boinapally, K; Gupta, M; Cao, Y

2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

332

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 799816, 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/799/2011/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosols on near surface temperature changes G. S. Jones, N. In the simulations black carbon, from fossil fuel and bio- fuel sources (fBC), produces a positive radiative forcing and bio-fuel black carbon is found to have a detectable contribution to the warming over the last 50 yr

Meskhidze, Nicholas

333

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

334

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas extinction. We retrieve ozone and nitrogen dioxide number densities and aerosol extinction from transmission), Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III

335

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols (2010), Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols" (Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, D14109

Robock, Alan

336

Statistical analysis of aerosol species, trace gasses, and meteorology in Chicago  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

possible pollutant sources. Keywords Atmospheric aerosols . Canonical correlation analysis . Chicago air pollution studies involve collection and anal- ysis of atmospheric aerosols and concurrent meteorol- ogy) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to atmospheric aerosol and trace gas concentrations

O'Brien, Timothy E.

337

BLACK HOLE AURORA POWERED BY A ROTATING BLACK HOLE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a model for high-energy emission sources generated by a standing magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) shock in a black hole magnetosphere. The black hole magnetosphere would be constructed around a black hole with an accretion disk, where a global magnetic field could be originated by currents in the accretion disk and its corona. Such a black hole magnetosphere may be considered as a model for the central engine of active galactic nuclei, some compact X-ray sources, and gamma-ray bursts. The energy sources of the emission from the magnetosphere are the gravitational and electromagnetic energies of magnetized accreting matters and the rotational energy of a rotating black hole. When the MHD shock generates in MHD accretion flows onto the black hole, the plasma's kinetic energy and the black hole's rotational energy can convert to radiative energy. In this Letter, we demonstrate the huge energy output at the shock front by showing negative energy postshock accreting MHD flows for a rapidly rotating black hole. This means that the extracted energy from the black hole can convert to the radiative energy at the MHD shock front. When an axisymmetric shock front is formed, we expect a ring-shaped region with very hot plasma near the black hole; this would look like an 'aurora'. The high-energy radiation generated from there would carry to us the information for the curved spacetime due to the strong gravity.

Takahashi, Masaaki [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aichi University of Education, Kariya, Aichi 448-8542 (Japan); Takahashi, Rohta, E-mail: takahasi@phyas.aichi-edu.ac.j [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Carbon Nanotubes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Carbon nanotubes have extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal andoptical properties. They are harder than diamond yet exible, have betterelectrical conductor than copper, but can also (more)

Fredriksson, Tore

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

Alexandrov, Mikhail

340

Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Da-Ren (Creve Coeur, MO)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

ARM - PI Product - Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearchWarmingMethaneProductsCSSEFProductsMerged andAerosol Optical

342

Aerosol Working Group Contributions Accomplishments for 2006  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout the BuildingInnovation 2011 Simulation StudiesAerosol

343

TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOL PROGRAM, PROGRAM PLAN, MARCH 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of Tropospheric Aerosol Program (TAP) will be to develop the fundamental scientific understanding required to construct tools for simulating the life cycle of tropospheric aerosols--the processes controlling their mass loading, composition, and microphysical properties, all as a function of time, location, and altitude. The TAP approach to achieving this goal will be by conducting closely linked field, modeling, laboratory, and theoretical studies focused on the processes controlling formation, growth, transport, and deposition of tropospheric aerosols. This understanding will be represented in models suitable for describing these processes on a variety of geographical scales; evaluation of these models will be a key component of TAP field activities. In carrying out these tasks TAP will work closely with other programs in DOE and in other Federal and state agencies, and with the private sector. A forum to directly work with our counterparts in industry to ensure that the results of this research are translated into products that are useful to that community will be provided by NARSTO (formerly the North American Research Strategy on Tropospheric Ozone), a public/private partnership, whose membership spans government, the utilities, industry, and university researchers in Mexico, the US, and Canada.

SCHWARTZ,S.E.; LUNN,P.

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

aerosol characteristic researching: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

as they have significant impacts both on localregional air pollution and global climate. Recent for Aerosol and Cloud Chemistry, Aerodyne Research, Incorporated, Billerica,...

345

aerosol challenge model: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

climate change is important because of its strong capability in causing extinction of solar radiation. A three-dimensional interactive aerosol-climate model has been used to...

346

aircraft exhaust aerosol: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Window Location on a King Air 200 Aircraft:aerosol.atmos.und.edu) Objective A Raytheon Beechcraft King Air 200 aircraft has been used to obtain Condensation Particle...

347

aerosol mass spectrometry: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

analysis of aerosol organic nitrates with electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry MIT - DSpace Summary: Four hydroxynitrates (R(OH)R'ONO2) representative of...

348

aerosol assisted chemical: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 5 Simulating Aerosols Using a Chemical Transport Model with Assimilation of...

349

ambient fine aerosols: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 4 Chemical characterization of the ambient organic aerosol soluble in water:...

350

aerosol chemical characteristion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 5 Simulating Aerosols Using a Chemical Transport Model with Assimilation of...

351

aerosol characterization experiment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 8 Desert dust aerosol age characterized by massage tracking of tracers...

352

aerosol generation characterization: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 5 Desert dust aerosol age characterized by massage tracking of tracers...

353

aerosol monitor development: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Paris May 2003John Matthews Monitoring the Aerosol Phase Function University of New Mexico 12;AstroParticles & Atmosphere, Paris May 2003John Matthews 12;AstroParticles &...

354

aerosol particle charger: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction The Universal Serial Bus (USB) port Allen, Jont 9 New approaches for the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry...

355

aerosol mass spectrometer: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2004. The concentration of a species Zhang, Qi 8 Development of a thermal desorption chemical ionization mobility mass spectrometer for the speciation of ultrafine aerosols. Open...

356

aerosol particles generated: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry based technique University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Real-...

357

aerosol monitors including: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical ... Ridley, David Andrew 33...

358

aerosol retrieval validation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

off the coast of Chile and Peru, where aerosol-cloud interactions are important to the energy balance (15), and limitations in current observing and modeling capabilities...

359

aerosol detection equipment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Daniel, Rosenfeld 464 Mixtures of pollution, dust, sea salt, and volcanic aerosol during ACE-Asia: Radiative properties Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites...

360

Aerosol generation and entrainment model for cough simulations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The airborne transmission of diseases is of great concern to the public health community. The possible spread of infectious disease by aerosols is of particular (more)

Ersahin, Cem.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

atmospheric aerosols basic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of atmospheric aerosol. Aplin, KL 2012-01-01 13 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1....

362

Atmospheric pressure flow reactor / aerosol mass spectrometer studies of tropospheric aerosol nucleat and growth kinetics. Final report, June, 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program was to determine the mechanisms and rates of growth and transformation and growth processes that control secondary aerosol particles in both the clear and polluted troposphere. The experimental plan coupled an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to provide simultaneous measurement of condensed and particle phases. The first task investigated the kinetics of tropospheric particle growth and transformation by measuring vapor accretion to particles (uptake coefficients, including mass accommodation coefficients and heterogeneous reaction rate coefficients). Other work initiated investigation of aerosol nucleation processes by monitoring the appearance of submicron particles with the AMS as a function of precursor gas concentrations. Three projects were investigated during the program: (1) Ozonolysis of oleic acid aerosols as model of chemical reactivity of secondary organic aerosol; (2) Activation of soot particles by measurement deliquescence in the presence of sulfuric acid and water vapor; (3) Controlled nucleation and growth of sulfuric acid aerosols.

Worsnop, Douglas R.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Supermassive Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supermassive black holes have generally been recognized as the most destructive force in nature. But in recent years, they have undergone a dramatic shift in paradigm. These objects may have been critical to the formation of structure in the early universe, spawning bursts of star formation and nucleating proto-galactic condensations. Possibly half of all the radiation produced after the Big Bang may be attributed to them, whose number is now known to exceed 300 million. The most accessible among them is situated at the Center of Our Galaxy. In the following pages, we will examine the evidence that has brought us to this point, and we will understand why many expect to actually image the event horizon of the Galaxy's central black hole within this decade.

Fulvio Melia

2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

364

Shape of black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is well known that celestial bodies tend to be spherical due to gravity and that rotation produces deviations from this sphericity. We discuss what is known and expected about the shape of black holes' horizons from their formation to their final, stationary state. We present some recent results showing that black hole rotation indeed manifests in the widening of their central regions, limits their global shapes and enforces their whole geometry to be close to the extreme Kerr horizon geometry at almost maximal rotation speed. The results depend only on the horizon area and angular momentum. In particular they are entirely independent of the surrounding geometry of the spacetime and of the presence of matter satisfying the strong energy condition. We also discuss the the relation of this result with the Hoop conjecture.

Clement, Mara E Gabach

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Black Pine Circle Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

Mytko, Christine

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

Black Pine Circle Project  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

Mytko, Christine

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Low temperature pyrolysis of black liquor and polymerization of products in alkali aqueous medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure pyrolysis for the production of liquids and gases from black liquor and its calcium salts and acidic precipitate have been carried out in a little stainless steel tube. Yields, sum of liquid and gas products, from black liquor and its calcium salts and acidic precipitate were 44.7%, 52.0% and 59.1% of dry basis respectively. The precipitates obtained from black liquor by acidifying with hydrochloric acid and passing carbon dioxide have been polymerized in aqueous acetone containing formaldehyde and ammonia, and converted a polymeric resin.

Demirbas, A. (Dept. of Chemical Education, Karadeniz Teknik Univ., Trabzon (TR)); Ucan, H. (Dept. of Chemistry, Selcuk Univ., Konya (TR))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

E-Print Network 3.0 - administrado como aerosol Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

del ozono estratosfrico, los aerosoles atmosfricos y... a los cambios en las emisiones que los GEI de larga duracin, como el CO2. Los aerosoles antropgenos... ms...

369

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol robotic network Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

), AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization, Remote Sens... Period examining aerosol properties and radiative ... Source: Brookhaven...

370

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol condensation model Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applied Science Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 8 DETERMINING AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING AT ARM SITES Summary: OF AEROSOL DIRECT FORCING By linear model and by...

371

SciTech Connect: Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol code validation - Test AB5 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol code...

372

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosolized polymerized type Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

spheric aerosol particles and isolated from fog... in atmospheric aerosol particles and rainwater in the 1980's (Si- moneit, 1980; Likens and ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique,...

373

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol radiative forcing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

No. DE- Summary: : WHY MEASUREMENTS ALONE CANNOT QUANTIFY AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING OF CLIMATE CHANGE Stephen E. Schwartz... of radiative forcing of climate change by aerosols,...

374

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosols nanometriques application Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is studying how aerosol particles affect everything from Summary: of aerosol particles on climate change, public health, and renewable energy applications. In particular, he......

375

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol main physical Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND INTEGRAL AEROSOL PROPERTIES RETRIEVAL FROM RAMAN LIDAR DATA USING PRINCIPLE COMPONENT ANALYSIS Summary: retrievals of physical aerosol parameters from ground-based and...

376

Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in the Trade Wind Boundary Layer.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation includes an overview of aerosol, cloud, and precipitation properties associated with shallow marine cumulus clouds observed during the Barbados Aerosol Cloud Experiment (BACEX, (more)

Jung, Eunsil

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol light absorption Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND Summary: population centers were used to calculate the aerosol forcing due to light scattering and absorption. Directly... , NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Aerosols influence...

378

Large Aerosols Play Unexpected Role in Ganges Valley | U.S. DOE...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

The data have revealed that large aerosols in this region absorb a greater amount of light than expected. The Science Aerosol particles in the atmosphere may absorb solar...

379

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol atmospheric interactions Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Climate Summary: order estimates of aerosol-climate interaction But... only Earth System Models can include all... of the interactions (in theory at least) 12;Aerosols <>...

380

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric aerosol size Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for about ten percent of all aerosols in the atmosphere. We... , can actually absorb solar energy and warm the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols are very important... by...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

aerosol source-receptor relationships: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

382

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol particle size Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of aerosol over many orders-of-magnitude of particle size range, from subcritical clusters on the molecular... to modeling aerosol dynamics under conditions of new...

383

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol load study Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conditions... reserved. Keywords: India; Aerosol loading; Aerosol forcing; MODIS; TOMS; Remote sensing 1. Introduction... heating effect on the earth surface and in turn...

384

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis od aerosol Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tivanski, Rebecca Hopkins, Yury Desyaterik... of Aerosols 12;Aerosol Transport From Mexico City During MILAGRO T0 T1 T2 Mexico ... Source: Brookhaven National Laboratory,...

385

Total Organic Carbon Analyzer | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Total Organic Carbon Analyzer Total Organic Carbon Analyzer The carbon analyzer is used to analyze total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC), total organic carbon (TOC), purgeable...

386

Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advanced Algorithm Design Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia #12;Red-Black Tree A red-black tree is a binary search tree, and each node contains one extra field: its color, it can be either black or red of the binary search tree. If a binary search tree satisfies all the following red-black properties, it is a red

Chen, Yangjun

387

Black holes in massive gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the black hole solutions of the ghost-free massive gravity theory and its bimetric extension and outline the main results on the stability of these solutions against small perturbations. Massive (bi)-gravity accommodates exact black hole solutions, analogous to those of General Relativity. In addition to these solutions, hairy black holes -- solutions with no correspondent in General Relativity -- have been found numerically, whose existence is a natural consequence of the absence of the Birkhoff's theorem in these theories. The existence of extra propagating degrees of freedom, makes the stability properties of these black holes richer and more complex than those of General Relativity. In particular, the bi-Schwarzschild black hole exhibits an unstable spherically symmetric mode, while the bi-Kerr geometry is also generically unstable, both against the spherical mode and against superradiant instabilities. If astrophysical black holes are described by these solutions, the superradiant instability o...

Babichev, Eugeny

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Black Hole's 1/N Hair  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

389

Observational Evidence for Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Astronomers have discovered two populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range 10^6 to 10^{10} solar masses, one each in the nucleus of every galaxy. There is strong circumstantial evidence that all these objects are true black holes with event horizons. The measured masses of supermassive black hole are strongly correlated with properties of their host galaxies, suggesting that these black holes, although extremely small in size, have a strong influence on the formation and evolution of entire galaxies. Spin parameters have recently been measured for a handful of black holes. Based on the data, there is an indication that the kinetic power of at least one class of relativistic jet ejected from accreting black holes may be correlated with black hole spin. If verified, it would suggest that these jets are powered by a generalized Penrose process mediated by magnetic fields.

Ramesh Narayan; Jeffrey E. McClintock

2014-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

390

Biogenic carbon and anthropogenic pollutants combine to form a cooling haze over the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biogenic carbon and anthropogenic pollutants combine to form a cooling haze over the southeastern Y. Fung, April 15, 2009 (sent for review July 28, 2008) Remote sensing data over North America is large enough in summer to provide regional cooling; thus we conclude that this secondary aerosol source

Goldstein, Allen

391

Solar absorption by Mie resonances in cloud droplets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the enhancement factor for absorption of light by carbonKlett JD. Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation bySize parameter; Particle absorption; Water clouds; Aerosols

Zender, Charles S; Talamantes, Jorge

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Aerosol radiative forcing and the accuracy of satellite aerosol optical depth retrieval  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) of the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) is typically between 0.06 and 0.15, while the RMSE between t = 0.1 and t = 0.8. The Department of Energy research satellite instrument, the Multispectral aerosol radiative forcing are known, the predictions of future global warming may remain unacceptably high

393

Aerosol Processes Enabling Solar Energy Applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Development of alternative energy sources is essential to satisfy future energy demands. While remaining fossil fuel resources may substantially meet these demands, anthropogenic carbon dioxide: (more)

An, Woo Jin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering: The Question of Justice Toby Svoboda1,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering: The Question of Justice Toby Svoboda1,* , Klaus Keller2 , Marlos of geoengineering as a means to address global climate change. This paper focuses on the question of whether a particular form of geoengineering, namely deploying sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere to counteract some

395

An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REVIEW An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols BY PHILIP J, MD 21218, USA We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation

Robock, Alan

396

aerosol ratio test: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosol ratio test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effect of mineral dust aerosol...

397

Organic Aerosol Formation Downwind from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organic Aerosol Formation Downwind from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Nicole ONeill - ATOC 3500 and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. · The lightest chemicals in the oil evaporated within hours, as scientists expected them to do. What they didn't expect

Toohey, Darin W.

398

Spatial and Seasonal Trends in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial and Seasonal Trends in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Tracers and Water-Soluble Organic biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC natural and anthropogenic sources and is dominated by terrestrial plant foliage (7). The global

Zheng, Mei

399

CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds Ilan Koren,1 * Guy Dagan,1 Orit Altaratz1 Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a warm base

Napp, Nils

400

Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-47669 Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey Siegel and Iain Walker of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey A. Siegel Iain S. Walker, Ph.D. ASHRAE Student Member that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems of 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Climatology of aerosol optical depth in northcentral Oklahoma: 19922008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of aerosol models; for identification of aerosols from spe- cific events (e.g., the Central American fires Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most dimming; that is, the decrease in solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Additionally, the wavelength

402

Absorption cross-section 139 Accumulation mode, of aerosol 146  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

133, 151 residence times 153 size distributions 144 Air composition 2 molecular weight 4, 6 Albedo 122 dioxide Coagulation (aerosol) 146 Column model 32 Conditional unstability 56 Continuity equation 75261 INDEX A Absorption cross-section 139 Accumulation mode, of aerosol 146 Acetaldehyde (CH3CHO

Jacob, Daniel J.

403

Laboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.3 Complex Refractive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.4 Size Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3.5 Coagulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4 Sea Salt AerosolsLaboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index Thesis submitted for the degree

Oxford, University of

404

Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Rachel L. Atlas1' gas-phase emissions and the aerosols they form (figure 6), including a cloud condensation nuclei Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are particles which water vapor condenses onto to form cloud droplets

Collins, Gary S.

405

Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Hispanics in the Why Blacks Help Less U.S. Economy, eds.71(1):42-71. Why Blacks Help Less Fernandez, Roberto M. andProblems 49 (1): 11- Why Blacks Help Less Heflin, Coleen M.

Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Black-white asymmetry in visual perception  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tion of black and white in human vision. Investi- gativeneural responses to black and white ments are balanced, weand observers. The black white asymmetry with a 1.28 is

Lu, Z.-L.; Sperling, G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exclude Black Men from Blue-Collar Jobs. Berkeley, CA:How Black and Latino Blue Collar Workers Make Decisionsof Sample Respondents Blue-Collar Latinos Blue-Collar Black

Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

RHIC | Black Holes?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for1 20115, 2001 MediaBrookhavenBlack Holes at

409

ARM - Black Forest News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |NovemberARMContactsARM Engineering6,GermanyBlack Forest News

410

RHIC | Black Holes?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323 K.Office ofMayPVREPORTPortalPriceA/4Black

411

Black Stars and Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stars that are collapsing toward forming a black hole but are frozen near the Schwarzschild horizon are termed ``black stars''. Collisions of black stars, in contrast to black hole collisions, may be sources of gamma ray bursts, whose basic parameters are estimated quite simply and are found to be consistent with observed gamma ray bursts. Black star gamma ray bursts should be preceded by gravitational wave emission similar to that from the coalescence of black holes.

Tanmay Vachaspati

2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

412

Carbon Fiber  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

413

Carbon Fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

414

Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

None

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

415

Sequencing the Black Aspergilli species complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ~15 members of the Aspergillus section Nigri species complex (the "Black Aspergilli") are significant as platforms for bioenergy and bioindustrial technology, as members of soil microbial communities and players in the global carbon cycle, and as food processing and spoilage agents and agricultural toxigens. Despite their utility and ubiquity, the morphological and metabolic distinctiveness of the complex's members, and thus their taxonomy, is poorly defined. We are using short read pyrosequencing technology (Roche/454 and Illumina/Solexa) to rapidly scale up genomic and transcriptomic analysis of this species complex. To date we predict 11197 genes in Aspergillus niger, 11624 genes in A. carbonarius, and 10845 genes in A. aculeatus. A. aculeatus is our most recent genome, and was assembled primarily from 454-sequenced reads and annotated with the aid of >2 million 454 ESTs and >300 million Solexa ESTs. To most effectively deploy these very large numbers of ESTs we developed 2 novel methods for clustering the ESTs into assemblies. We have also developed a pipeline to propose orthologies and paralogies among genes in the species complex. In the near future we will apply these methods to additional species of Black Aspergilli that are currently in our sequencing pipeline.

Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf; Zhou, Kemin; Otillar, Robert; Baker, Scott; Grigoriev, Igor

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

416

Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystalline Gallium Oxide Thin Films.AdministrationAerosol Indirect

418

Aerosol Remote Sealing System - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout the BuildingInnovation 2011 Simulation StudiesAerosol Remote Sealing

419

Optical black holes and solitons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We exhibit a static, cylindrically symmetric, exact solution to the Euler-Heisenberg field equations (EHFE) and prove that its effective geometry contains (optical) black holes. It is conjectured that there are also soliton solutions to the EHFE which contain black hole geometries.

Shawn Westmoreland

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

420

Entropy of Lovelock Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general formula for the entropy of stationary black holes in Lovelock gravity theories is obtained by integrating the first law of black hole mechanics, which is derived by Hamiltonian methods. The entropy is not simply one quarter of the surface area of the horizon, but also includes a sum of intrinsic curvature invariants integrated over a cross section of the horizon.

Ted Jacobson; Robert C. Myers

1993-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Black Holes of Negative Mass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I demonstrate that, under certain circumstances, regions of negative energy density can undergo gravitational collapse into a black hole. The resultant exterior black hole spacetimes necessarily have negative mass and non-trivial topology. A full theory of quantum gravity, in which topology-changing processes take place, could give rise to such spacetimes.

R. B. Mann

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

422

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

423

ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

424

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

425

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

426

spectra from size-resolved particle samples col-lected from the Southeastern Aerosol Visibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and acrolein aerosols. We believe that these transformations are due to acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reac

Bishop, James K.B.

427

Assessment of the Upper Particle Size Limit for Quantitative Analysis of Aerosols Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the vaporization dynamics of individual aerosol particles, such as thermophoretic forces and vapor expulsion. Since

Hahn, David W.

428

Modeling the Direct and Indirect Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols on Tropical Cyclones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are conducted under the three aerosol scenarios: 1) the clean case with an aerosol number concentration of 200 cm-1, 2) the polluted case with a number concentration of 1000 cm-1, and 3) the aerosol radiative effects (AR) case with same aerosol concentration...

Lee, Keun-Hee

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

429

AEROSOLS AND CLIMATE THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to address two major pollutants that have an impact on warming: black soot and tropospheric ozone. Both are proven health hazards. Reducing both would not only address climate change, but also dramatically improve people's health. " #12;#12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per

Schwartz, Stephen E.

430

CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

Zaveri, Rahul

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

431

CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

Zaveri, Rahul

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

432

Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the worlds first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STARs spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

433

Particle size distribution of indoor aerosol sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As concern about Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, it has become necessary to determine the nature of particles produced by different indoor aerosol sources and the typical concentration that these sources tend to produce. These data are important in predicting the dose of particles to people exposed to these sources and it will also enable us to take effective mitigation procedures. Further, it will also help in designing appropriate air cleaners. A new state of the art technique, DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) System is used to determine the particle size distributions of a number of sources. This system employs the electrical mobility characteristics of these particles and is very effective in the 0.01--1.0 {mu}m size range. A modified system that can measure particle sizes in the lower size range down to 3 nm was also used. Experimental results for various aerosol sources is presented in the ensuing chapters. 37 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

Shah, K.B.

1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

434

Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

Andrews, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Preparation of supported electrocatalyst comprising multiwalled carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparing a durable non-precious metal oxygen reduction electrocatalyst involves heat treatment of a ball-milled mixture of polyaniline and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the presence of a Fe species. The catalyst is more durable than catalysts that use carbon black supports. Performance degradation was minimal or absent after 500 hours of operation at constant cell voltage of 0.40 V.

Wu, Gang; Zelenay, Piotr

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

437

The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) field campaign will provide a detailed set of observations with which to (1) perform radiative and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure studies, (2) evaluate a new retrieval algorithm for aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the presence of clouds using passive remote sensing, (3) extend a previously developed technique to investigate aerosol indirect effects, and (4) evaluate the performance of a detailed regional-scale model and a more parameterized global-scale model in simulating particle activation and AOD associated with the aging of anthropogenic aerosols. To meet these science objectives, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility will deploy the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol properties, radiation, and cloud characteristics at a location subject to both clear and cloudy conditions, and clean and polluted conditions. These observations will be supplemented by two aircraft intensive observation periods (IOPs), one in the summer and a second in the winter. Each IOP will deploy one, and possibly two, aircraft depending on available resources. The first aircraft will be equipped with a suite of in situ instrumentation to provide measurements of aerosol optical properties, particle composition and direct-beam irradiance. The second aircraft will fly directly over the first and use a multi-wavelength high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and scanning polarimeter to provide continuous optical and cloud properties in the column below.

Berkowitz, CM; Berg, LK; Cziczo, DJ; Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, EI; Fast, JD; Rasch, PJ; Shilling, JE; Zaveri, RA; Zelenyuk, A; Ferrare, RA; Hostetler, CA; Cairns, B; Russell, PB; Ervens, B

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

438

Effect of sulfidity on the corrosivity of white, green, and black liquors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion testing was performed in white, green, and black liquors from a kraft mill. The liquors were modified in composition to simulate conditions of high (40%) sulfidity and low (30%) sulfidity, and then heated in laboratory autoclaves to the temperatures of the respective tanks from which the samples were taken. Specimens of carbon and stainless steels were exposed under free corrosion potential conditions, and their corrosion rates determined from weight loss measurements. In white, green, 45% solids black, and flash tank liquors, active corrosion rates for the carbon steels were typically 20 to 75% higher in the higher sulfidity liquors. In 15% solids weak black liquor there was no appreciable difference in corrosion rates, with carbon steels remaining passive in both low and high sulfidity. In 26% solids intermediate black liquor there were large increases in the corrosion rates of carbon steel between low and high sulfidity liquors, resulting from a change from passive to active conditions. Stainless steels UNS S30403, S32304, and S31803 had very low corrosion rates in all the liquors tested, regardless of sulfidity.

Wensley, A.; Champagne, P.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Aerodynamic size associations of natural radioactivity with ambient aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aerodynamic size of /sup 214/Pb, /sup 212/Pb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 7/Be, /sup 32/P, /sup 35/S (as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and stable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was measured using cascade impactors. The activity distribution of /sup 212/Pb and /sup 214/Pb, measured by alpha spectroscopy, was largely associated with aerosols smaller than 0.52 ..mu..m. Based on 46 measurements, the activity median aerodynamic diameter of /sup 212/Pb averaged 0.13 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.97), while /sup 214/Pb averaged 0.16 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.86). The larger median size of /sup 214/Pb was attributed to ..cap alpha..-recoil depletion of smaller aerosols following decay of aerosol-associated /sup 218/Po. Subsequent /sup 214/Pb condensation on all aerosols effectively enriches larger aerosols. /sup 212/Pb does not undergo this recoil-driven redistribution. Low-pressure impactor measurements indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was about three times larger than the activity median diameter /sup 212/Pb, reflecting differences in atmospheric residence times as well as the differences in surface area and volume distributions of the atmospheric aerosol. Cosmogenic radionuclides, especially /sup 7/Be, were associated with smaller aerosols than SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ regardless of season, while /sup 210/Pb distributions in summer measurements were similar to sulfate but smaller in winter measurements. Even considering recoil following /sup 214/Po ..cap alpha..-decay, the avervage /sup 210/Pb labeled aerosol grows by about a factor of two during its atmospheric lifetime. The presence of 5 to 10% of the /sup 7/Be on aerosols greater than 1 ..mu..m was indicative of post-condensation growth, probably either in the upper atmosphere or after mixing into the boundary layer.

Bondietti, E.A.; Papastefanou, C.; Rangarajan, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Black optic display  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the zonal steppe soils of Russia. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. ,CD-ROM "Land Resources of Russia", International Institute

Hammes, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES' CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., Billerica, MA; 2 Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA; 3 NOAA CIRES, Boulder, CO; 4 UC Davis, Davis, CA; 5 of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02- 98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy

444

Aged black carbon in marine sediments and sinking particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combining reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for more com-using coupled reverse osmosiselectrodialysis, Geochim.and POC. Reverse osmosis coupled to electrodialysis (RO/ED)

Coppola, Alysha I; Ziolkowski, Lori A; Masiello, Caroline A; Druffel, Ellen R. M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

BLACK CARBON: Climate Impact of Bushfire in Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fire is a ubiquitous feature of the Australian landscape characteristics of natural flora suggest that fire has been commonplace since well before the arrival of man some 40,000 years ago. Emissions from bushfire at a ...

Porter, Stephen D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

ARM - Field Campaign - Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01)3,Cloud OD Sensor TWST

447

Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutron Scattering4 By I. Tudosa,Spreading

448

Carbon supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

Delnick, F.M.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Criteria pollutant and acid aerosol characterization study, Catano, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Catano Criteria Pollutant and Acid Aerosol Characterization Study (CPAACS) was to measure criteria pollutant concentrations and acid aerosol concentrations in and around the Ward of Catano, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 1994. Continuous air sampling for criteria pollutants was performed at three fixed stations and one moobile station that was deployed to four locations. Air samples for acid aerosol analyses and particulate matter measurements were collected at three sites. Semicontinuous sulfate analysis was performed at the primary site. Continuous measurements of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and relative humidity were also made at each site. The study was conducted from June 1 through September 30, 1994.

Edgerton, E.S.; Harlos, D.P.; Sune, J.M.; Akland, G.G.; Vallero, D.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Stimuli-Tailored Dispersion State of Aqueous Carbon Nanotube Suspensions and Solid Polymer Nanocomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoparticles (such as, carbon nanotubes, carbon black, clay etc.) have one or more dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. Owing to very high van der Waals force of attraction, these nanoparticles exist in a highly aggregated state. It is often...

Etika, Krishna

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

451

Quantification of soil organic carbon using mid- and near- DRIFT spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(X) and soil property data (Y) into a new smaller set of latent variables and their scores that best describe all the variance in the data. Oxidizable organic carbon content was measured by a modified Walkley-Black method, and total organic carbon...

Kang, Misun

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

452

A New Aerosol Flow System for Photochemical and Thermal Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For studying the formation and photochemical/thermal reactions of aerosols relevant to the troposphere, a unique, high-volume, slow-flow, stainless steel aerosol flow system equipped with 5 UV lamps has been constructed and characterized experimentally. The total flow system length 6 is 8.5 m and includes a 1.2 m section used for mixing, a 6.1 m reaction section and a 1.2 m 7 transition cone at the end. The 45.7 cm diameter results in a smaller surface to volume ratio than is found in many other flow systems and thus reduces the potential contribution from wall reactions. The latter are also reduced by frequent cleaning of the flow tube walls which is made feasible by the ease of disassembly. The flow tube is equipped with ultraviolet lamps for photolysis. This flow system allows continuous sampling under stable conditions, thus increasing the amount of sample available for analysis and permitting a wide variety of analytical techniques to be applied simultaneously. The residence time is of the order of an hour, and sampling ports located along the length of the flow tube allow for time-resolved measurements of aerosol and gas-phase products. The system was characterized using both an inert gas (CO2) and particles (atomized NaNO3). Instruments interfaced directly to this flow system include a NOx analyzer, an ozone analyzer, relative humidity and temperature probes, a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer, an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer, a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, an integrating nephelometer, and a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer equipped with a long path (64 m) cell. Particles collected with impactors and filters at the various sampling ports can be analyzed subsequently by a variety of techniques. Formation of secondary organic aerosol from ?-pinene reactions (NOx photooxidation and ozonolysis) are used to demonstrate the capabilities of this new system.

Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Yu, Yong; Perraud, Veronique; Bruns, Emily; Alexander, M. L.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Dabdub, Donald; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Carbon microtubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

454

Mexico City Aerosol Analysis During Milagro Using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0) - Part 1: Fine Particle Composition and Organic Source Apportionment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive ...

Aiken, A. C.

455

Sensitivity of aerosol properties to new particle formation mechanism and to primary emissions in a continental-scale chemical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of aerosol particles and in turn their number concentration and size distribution. Aerosol particles can grow contribution from coagulation. The aerosol mass concentration, which is primarily in the accumulation mode of aerosol number concentration and size distri- bution is important for considerations of the aerosol

456

Ann. Geophys., 27, 34393464, 2009 www.ann-geophys.net/27/3439/2009/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in climate change. Aerosol radiative forcing is determined not only by the total amount of aerosol by dust (30%), sea salt (16%), organic matter (OM) (13%), and black carbon (BC) (4%). BC and dust account) for the biomass burning aerosols, indicating errors in particle size distributions in the model. Still, the model

Chin, Mian

457

Fundamental Study of Black Liquor Gasification Kinetics. Quarterly progress report for the period October 1999 to December 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research is to evaluate the kinetics of gasification of kraft black liquor under laboratory conditions simulating pressurized, oxygen-blown gasification. The significant independent variables are gasifier temperature, black liquor composition particle size, and particle residence time. The authors will quantify their impact on the concentration of major and trace gas phase species, as well as the composition of condensed phase inorganic products, including specification of the Na- and S-containing compounds and overall carbon conversion.

NONE

2000-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

458

A Physically Based Framework for Modelling the Organic Fractionation of Sea Spray Aerosol from Bubble Film Langmuir Equilibria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of a large fraction of organic matter in primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) can strongly affect its cloud condensation nuclei activity and interactions with marine clouds. Global climate models require new parameterizations of the SSA composition in order to improve the representation of these processes. Existing proposals for such a parameterization use remotely-sensed chlorophyll-a concentrations as a proxy for the biogenic contribution to the aerosol. However, both observations and theoretical considerations suggest that existing relationships with chlorophyll-a, derived from observations at only a few locations, may not be representative for all ocean regions. We introduce a novel framework for parameterizing the fractionation of marine organic matter into SSA based on a competitive Langmuir adsorption equilibrium at bubble surfaces. Marine organic matter is partitioned into classes with differing molecular weights, surface excesses, and Langmuir adsorption parameters. The classes include a lipid-like mixture associated with labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a polysaccharide-like mixture associated primarily with semi-labile DOC, a protein-like mixture with concentrations intermediate between lipids and polysaccharides, a processed mixture associated with recalcitrant surface DOC, and a deep abyssal humic-like mixture. Box model calculations have been performed for several cases of organic adsorption to illustrate the underlying concepts. We then apply the framework to output from a global marine biogeochemistry model, by partitioning total dissolved organic carbon into several classes of macromolecule. Each class is represented by model compounds with physical and chemical properties based on existing laboratory data. This allows us to globally map the predicted organic mass fraction of the nascent submicron sea spray aerosol. Predicted relationships between chlorophyll-\\textit{a} and organic fraction are similar to existing empirical parameterizations, but can vary between biologically productive and non-productive regions, and seasonally within a given region. Major uncertainties include the bubble film thickness at bursting and the variability of organic surfactant activity in the ocean, which is poorly constrained. In addition, marine colloids and cooperative adsorption of polysaccharides may make important contributions to the aerosol, but are not included here. This organic fractionation framework is an initial step towards a closer linking of ocean biogeochemistry and aerosol chemical composition in Earth system models. Future work should focus on improving constraints on model parameters through new laboratory experiments or through empirical fitting to observed relationships in the real ocean and atmosphere, as well as on atmospheric implications of the variable composition of organic matter in sea spray.

Burrows, Susannah M.; Ogunro, O.; Frossard, Amanda; Russell, Lynn M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Elliott, S.

2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

459

Revisit Carbon/Sulfur Composite for Li-S Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To correlate the carbon properties e.g. surface area and porous structure, with the electrochemical behaviors of carbon/sulfur (C/S) composite cathodes for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, four different carbon frameworks including Ketjen Black (KB, high surface area and porous), Graphene (high surface area and nonporous), Acetylene Black (AB, low surface area and nonporous) and Hollow Carbon Nano Sphere (HCNS, low surface area and porous) are employed to immobilize sulfur (80 wt.%). It has been revealed that high surface area of carbon improves the utilization rate of active sulfur and decreases the real current density during the electrochemical reactions. Accordingly, increased reversible capacities and reduced polarization are observed for high surface area carbon hosts such as KB/S and graphene/S composites. The porous structure of KB or HCNS matrix promotes the long-term cycling stability of C/S composites but only at relatively low rate (0.2 C). Once the current density increases, the pore effect completely disappears and all Li-S batteries show similar trend of capacity degradation regardless of the different carbon hosts used in the cathodes. The reason has been assigned to the formation of reduced amount of irreversible Li2S on the cathode as well as shortened time for polysulfides to transport towards lithium anode at elevated current densities. This work provides valuable information for predictive selection on carbon materials to construct C/S composite for practical applications from the electrochemical point of view.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Zuo, Pengjian; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

460

Modeling the formation of boron carbide particles in an aerosol flow reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the formation of submicron crystals of boron carbide (B[sub 4]C) by coagulation and sintering by the rapid carbothermal reduction of intimately mixed carbon-boron oxide powders in an aerosol flow reactor at temperatures above the boiling point of boron oxide is investigated. High heating rates (10[sup 5] K/s) force rapid evaporation of boron oxide and suboxides from the precursor powder, resulting in its rupture and formation of boron carbide molecular clusters that grow to macroscopic particles by coagulation. Consequently, the formation and growth of B[sub 4]C particles are described by simultaneous interparticle collision and coalescence using a two-dimensional particle-size distribution model that traces the evolution of both size and shape characteristics of the particles through their volume and surface area. In addition to the coagulation term, the governing population balance equation includes a coalescence contribution based on B[sub 4]C sintering law.

Xiong, Y.; Pratsinis, S.E. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Center for Aerosol Processes, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Weimer, A.W. (Ceramics and Advanced Materials Research, Dow Chemical U.S.A., Midland, MI (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "black carbon aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Aerosol mass spectrometry systems and methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system according to one embodiment includes a particle accelerator that directs a succession of polydisperse aerosol particles along a predetermined particle path; multiple tracking lasers for generating beams of light across the particle path; an optical detector positioned adjacent the particle path for detecting impingement of the beams of light on individual particles; a desorption laser for generating a beam of desorbing light across the particle path about coaxial with a beam of light produced by one of the tracking lasers; and a controller, responsive to detection of a signal produced by the optical detector, that controls the desorption laser to generate the beam of desorbing light. Additional systems and methods are also disclosed.

Fergenson, David P.; Gard, Eric E.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

462

Soot particle aerosol dynamics at high pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have used detailed calculations to analyze the coagulation dynamics of a soot aerosol at high pressures (20 and 50 atm). They find that the soot size distribution is altered compared to lower-pressure conditions because the mean free path at high pressures is reduced to the point that the particles are similar in size to the mean free path. At lower pressures the form of the size distribution becomes constant (self-preserving) in time, allowing optical measurements to be easily interpreted. However, the authors find that at pressures above about 5 atm the shape of the size distribution continually changes. As a result, proper and accurate interpretation of optical data at high pressures is more difficult than at lower pressures.

Harris, S.J. (General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (USA). Physics Dept.); Kennedy, I.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Diesel Aerosol Sampling in the Atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Minnesota Center for Diesel Research along with a research team including Caterpillar, Cummins, Carnegie Mellon University, West Virginia University (WVU), Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, and Tampere University in Finland have performed measurements of Diesel exhaust particle size distributions under real-world dilution conditions. A mobile aerosol emission laboratory (MEL) equipped to measure particle size distributions, number concentrations, surface area concentrations, particle bound PAHs, as well as CO 2 and NO x concentrations in real time was built and will be described. The MEL was used to follow two different Cummins powered tractors, one with an older engine (L10) and one with a state-of-the-art engine (ISM), on rural highways and measure particles in their exhaust plumes. This paper will describe the goals and objectives of the study and will describe representative particle size distributions observed in roadway experiments with the truck powered by the ISM engine.

David Kittelson; Jason Johnson; Winthrop Watts; Qiang Wei; Marcus Drayton; Dwane Paulsen; Nicolas Bukowiecki

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

464

Carbon Storage Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership MSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Montana State University MVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring,...

465

Thermodynamics of regular black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate thermodynamics for a magnetically charged regular black hole (MCRBH), which comes from the action of general relativity and nonlinear electromagnetics, comparing with the Reissner-Norstr\\"om (RN) black hole in both four and two dimensions after dimensional reduction. We find that there is no thermodynamic difference between the regular and RN black holes for a fixed charge $Q$ in both dimensions. This means that the condition for either singularity or regularity at the origin of coordinate does not affect the thermodynamics of black hole. Furthermore, we describe the near-horizon AdS$_2$ thermodynamics of the MCRBH with the connection of the Jackiw-Teitelboim theory. We also identify the near-horizon entropy as the statistical entropy by using the AdS$_2$/CFT$_1$ correspondence.

Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

2008-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

466

Black Hole Interior Mass Formula  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We argue by explicit computations that, although the area product, horizon radii product, entropy product and \\emph {irreducible mass product} of the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are universal, the \\emph{surface gravity product}, \\emph{surface temperature product} and \\emph{Komar energy product} of the said horizons do not seem to be universal for Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole space-time. We show the black hole mass formula on the \\emph{Cauchy horizon} following the seminal work by Smarr\\cite{smarr} for the outer horizon. We also prescribed the \\emph{four} laws of black hole mechanics for the \\emph{inner horizon}. New definition of the extremal limit of a black hole is discussed.

Parthapratim Pradhan

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

467

High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

469

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

aerosol content monitoring: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rings, Jrg 2008-01-01 6 The impact of aerosols on simulated ocean temperature and heat content in the 20th century Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: The...

471

Effects of aerosols on deep convective cumulus clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work investigates the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on deep convective clouds and the associated radiative forcing in the Houston area. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE) coupled with a spectral-bin microphysics is employed...

Fan, Jiwen

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

Continuous air monitor for alpha-emitting aerosol particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new alpha Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) sampler is being developed for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. The effort involves design, fabrication and evaluation of systems for the collection of aerosol and for the processing of data to speciate and quantify the alpha emitters of interest. At the present time we have a prototype of the aerosol sampling system and we have performed wind tunnel tests to characterize the performance of the device for different particle sizes, wind speeds, flow rates and internal design parameters. The results presented herein deal with the aerosol sampling aspects of the new CAM sampler. Work on the data processing, display and alarm functions is being done in parallel with the particle sampling work and will be reported separately at a later date. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

McFarland, A.R.; Ortiz, C.A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Rodgers, J.C.; Nelson, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

Gard, Eric (San Francisco, CA); Riot, Vincent (Oakland, CA); Coffee, Keith (Diablo Grande, CA); Woods, Bruce (Livermore, CA); Tobias, Herbert (Kensington, CA); Birch, Jim (Albany, CA); Weisgraber, Todd (Brentwood, CA)

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

474

MELCOR 1. 8. 1 assessment: LACE aerosol experiment LA4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MELCOR code has been used to simulate LACE aerosol experiment LA4. In this test, the behavior of single- and double-component, hygroscopic and nonhygroscopic, aerosols in a condensing environment was monitored. Results are compared to experimental data, and to CONTAIN calculations. Sensitivity studies have been done on time step effects and machine dependencies; thermal/hydraulic parameters such as condensation on heat structures and on pool surface, and radiation heat transfer; and aerosol parameters such as number of MAEROS components and sections assumed, the degree to which plated aerosols are washed off heat structures by condensate film draining, and the effect of non-default values for shape factors and diameter limits. 9 refs., 50 figs., 13 tabs.

Kmetyk, L.N.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 8a). The IE cooling increases snow/ice by about 10% (Their cooling e?ect on surface temperatures promotes ice androw), cooling from the aerosol DE increases snow/ice cover

Koch, Dorothy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

A review of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent field and laboratory evidence indicates that the oxidation of isoprene, (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C[subscript 5]H[subscript 8]) forms secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Global biogenic emissions of isoprene (600 Tg ...

Kroll, Jesse

477

atmospheric aerosol limb: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coefficient is 0.5 and then 1.0 2. For the same conditions calculate the H Weber, Rodney 5 Secondary organic aerosol 1. Atmospheric chemical mechanism for production...

478

atmospheric aerosols recorded: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coefficient is 0.5 and then 1.0 2. For the same conditions calculate the H Weber, Rodney 4 Secondary organic aerosol 1. Atmospheric chemical mechanism for production...

479

atmospheric aerosols relation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coefficient is 0.5 and then 1.0 2. For the same conditions calculate the H Weber, Rodney 4 Secondary organic aerosol 1. Atmospheric chemical mechanism for production...

480

aerosol source apportionment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary...

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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

aerosolized bacillus anthracis: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and remotely sensed aerosol observations. William D. Collins; Phillip J. Rasch; Brian E. Eaton; Boris V. Khattatov; Jean-francois Lamarque; C. Zender 2001-01-01 118 THESE DE...

482

Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facilitys ground-based facilities.

Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

2013-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

483

Aerosol-Cloud interactions : a new perspective in precipitation enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increased industrialization and human activity modified the atmospheric aerosol composition and size-distribution during the last several decades. This has affected the structure and evolution of clouds, and precipitation ...

Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

MICS Asia Phase II - Sensitivity to the aerosol module  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the framework of the model inter-comparison study - Asia Phase II (MICS2), where eight models are compared over East Asia, this paper studies the influence of different parameterizations used in the aerosol module on the aerosol concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in PM10. An intracomparison of aerosol concentrations is done for March 2001 using different configurations of the aerosol module of one of the model used for the intercomparison. Single modifications of a reference setup for model configurations are performed and compared to a reference case. These modifications concern the size distribution, i.e. the number of sections, and physical processes, i.e. coagulation, condensation/evaporation, cloud chemistry, heterogeneous reactions and sea-salt emissions. Comparing monthly averaged concentrations at different stations, the importance of each parameterization is first assessed. It is found that sulfate concentrations are little sensitive to sea-salt emissions and to whether condensation is computed...

Sartelet, Karine; Sportisse, Bruno

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

aerosol optical depths: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AERONET, AVHRR and 3 MODIS 4 A. Hauser, D. Oesch have been used to 9 retrieve the spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth for 10 central Europe. At eight AERONET sites,...

486

aerosol optical depth: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AERONET, AVHRR and 3 MODIS 4 A. Hauser, D. Oesch have been used to 9 retrieve the spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth for 10 central Europe. At eight AERONET sites,...

487

aerosol strong acidity: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nucleation theories. Citation: Erupe, M. E., et al Lee, Shan-Hu 12 Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia Geosciences...

488

Results from simulated upper-plenum aerosol transport tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of eight aerosol transport experiments, designated as Aerosol Transport Tests (ATT) A101 through A108, has recently been completed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These tests provide a data base for validation of aerosol transport modeling used in the TRAP-MELT2 computer code (Jordan and Kuhlman, 1985), which was developed at Battelle Columbus Laboratories to calculate aerosol/fission-product transport in the reactor coolant system in postulated light-water reactor (LWR) core-melt accidents. Results from tests A103 and A104 have been summarized in a previous paper (Wright and Pattison, 1985a); the present paper discusses results from tests A105 through A108.

Wright, A.L.; Pattison, W.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Thermophoresis and Its Thermal Parameters for Aerosol Collection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

K/cm (a) Figure 3. (a). Thermophoretic collection ratio vs.Lin, J. , et al. , Thermophoretic deposition of particles inof a plate- to-plate thermophoretic precipitator, Aerosol

Huang, Z.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

aerosol particle deposition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosol particles as an alternative way to determine the electron mean free path of low energy electrons in solid and liquid materials. The mean free path is obtained from fits...

491

An investigation of aerosol physical properties in Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From June through October 2001, three Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (TDMA) systems were operated around Houston, Texas, to obtain a large, high-quality dataset in order to explore characteristics of aerosol size distributions...

Gasparini, Roberto

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Aerosol Transport and Deposition Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, various aerosol particle transport and deposition mechanisms were studied through the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, including inertial impaction, gravitational effect, lift force, interception, and turbophoresis, within...

Tang, Yingjie

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

493

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of September 2003 through February 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include chemical fractionation of the organic fraction to quantify the ratio of organic mass to organic carbon (OM/OC). The average OM/OC ratio for the 31 samples analyzed so far is 1.89, ranging between 1.62 and 2.53, which is consistent with expectations for an atmospherically processed regional aerosol. Analysis of the single particle data reveals that a on a particles in Pittsburgh consist of complex mixture of primary and secondary components. Approximately 79% of all particles measured with the instrument containing some form of carbon, with Carbonaceous Ammonium Nitrate (54.43%) being the dominant particle class. PMCAMx predictions were compared with data from more than 50 sites of the STN network located throughout the Eastern United States for the July 2001 period. OC and sulfate concentrations predicted by PMCAMx are within {+-}30% of the observed concentration at most of these sites. Spherical Aluminum Silicate particle concentrations (SAS) were used to estimate the contribution of primary coal emissions to fine particle levels at the central monitoring site. Primary emissions from coal combustion contribute on average 0.44 {+-} 0.3 {micro}g/m{sup 3} to PM{sub 2.5} at the site or 1.4 {+-} 1.3% of the total PM{sub 2.5} mass. Chemical mass balance analysis was performed to apportion the primary organic aerosol. About 70% of the primary OC emissions are from vehicular sources, with the gasoline contribution being on average three times greater than the diesel emissions in the summer.

Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Climate impacts of carbonaceous and other non-sulfate aerosols: A proposed study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In addition to sulfate aerosols, carbonaceous and other non-sulfate aerosols are potentially significant contributors to global climate change. We present evidence that strongly suggests that current assessments of the effects of aerosols on climate may be inadequate because major aerosol components, especially carbonaceous aerosols, are not included in these assessments. Although data on the properties and distributions of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols are insufficient to allow quantification of their climate impacts, the existing information suggests that climate forcing by this aerosol component may be significant and comparable to that by sulfate aerosols. We propose that a research program be undertaken to support a quantitative assessment of the role in climate forcing of non-sulfate, particularly carbonaceous, aerosols.

Andreae, M.O.; Crutzen, P.J. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cofer, W.R. III; Hollande, J.M. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Division] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Balloon-borne photometric studies of the stratospheric aerosol layer after Mt. Pinatubo eruption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using Sun-tracking photometers on board balloons, the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol layer has been studied over Hyderabad (17.5 deg N) during October 1991 and April 1992. From the angular distribution of the scattered radiation intensity measurements the aerosol size parameters is derived. Over a decade of aerosol measurements at Hyderabad, aerosol extinction and number density obtained during October 1991 in the stratosphere are found to be the highest ever obtained with a distinct aerosol layer between 16 and 30 km. The derived aerosol size parameter shows layered structures. Analysis of the size parameter obtained during April 1992 indicates formation of aerosols at higher altitudes by coagulation with a subsequent reduction in the aerosol number density. The obtained results are found to agree well with that of an independent lidar measurement made over Ahmedabad (23 deg N) and with the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II (SAGE II) results.

Ramachandran, S.; Jayaraman, A.; Acharya, Y.B.; Subbaraya, B.H. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Representing Cloud Processing of Aerosol in Numerical Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The satellite imagery in Figure 1 provides dramatic examples of how aerosol influences the cloud field. Aerosol from ship exhaust can serve as nucleation centers in otherwise cloud-free regions, forming ship tracks (top image), or can enhance the reflectance/albedo in already cloudy regions. This image is a demonstration of the first indirect effect, in which changes in aerosol modulate cloud droplet radius and concentration, which influences albedo. It is thought that, through the effects it has on precipitation (drizzle), aerosol can also affect the structure and persistence of planetary boundary layer (PBL) clouds. Regions of cellular convection, or open pockets of cloudiness (bottom image) are thought to be remnants of strongly drizzling PBL clouds. Pockets of Open Cloudiness (POCs) (Stevens et al. 2005) or Albrecht's ''rifts'' are low cloud fraction regions characterized by anomalously low aerosol concentrations, implying they result from precipitation. These features may in fact be a demonstration of the second indirect effect. To accurately represent these clouds in numerical models, we have to treat the coupled cloud-aerosol system. We present the following series of mesoscale and large eddy simulation (LES) experiments to evaluate the important aspects of treating the coupled cloud-aerosol problem. 1. Drizzling and nondrizzling simulations demonstrate the effect of drizzle on a mesoscale forecast off the California coast. 2. LES experiments with explicit (bin) microphysics gauge the relative importance of the shape of the aerosol spectrum on the 3D dynamics and cloud structure. 3. Idealized mesoscale model simulations evaluate the relative roles of various processes, sources, and sinks.

Mechem, D.B.; Kogan, Y.L.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

497

Simulation of aerosol dynamics: a comparative review of mathematical models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three modeling approaches used are based-continuous, discrete (sectional), and parameterized representations of the aerosol size distribution. Simulations of coagulation and condensation are performed with the three models for clear, hazy, and urban atmospheric conditions. Relative accuracies and computational costs are compared. Reference for the comparison is the continuous approach. The results of the study provide useful information for the selection of an aerosol model, depending on the accuracy requirements and computational constraints associated with a specific application.

Seigneur, C.; Hudischewskyj, A.B.; Seinfeld, J.H.; Whitby, K.T.; Whitby, E.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

499

Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

500

Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ahead, and identifying the carbon pools and other green house gas emissions sources and savings coveredCarbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 Carbon