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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Liquefaction of sub-bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

Sub-bituminous coal is directly liquefied in two stages by use of a liquefaction solvent containing insoluble material as well as 850.degree. F.+ material and 850.degree. F.- material derived from the second stage, and controlled temperature and conversion in the second stage. The process is in hydrogen balance.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Evaluation of fine-particle size catalysts using bituminous and subbituminous coals  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of Sandia`s fine-particle size catalyst testing project are to evaluate and compare the activities of fine-particle size catalysts being developed in DOE/PETC`s Advanced Research Coal Liquefaction Program by using Sandia`s standard coal liquefaction test procedures. The first test procedure uses bituminous coal (DECS-17 Blind Canyon coal), phenanthrene as the reaction solvent, and a factorial experimental design that is used to evaluate catalysts over ranges of temperature, time, and catalyst loading. The best catalyst evaluated to date is West Virginia University`s iron catalyst that was impregnated onto the coal. Current work is aimed at developing a standard test procedure using subbituminous Wyodak coal. Ibis test is being developed using Pacific Northwest Laboratories` 6-line ferrihydrite catalyst and coal samples impregnated with either molybdenum or iron at Argonne National Laboratories. Results of testing catalysts with bituminous coal will be summarized and the development of the subbituminous coal test procedure will be presented.

Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Pelletizing lignite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignite is formed into high strength pellets having a calorific value of at least 9,500 Btu/lb by blending a sufficient amount of an aqueous base bituminous emulsion with finely-divided raw lignite containing its inherent moisture to form a moistened green mixture containing at least 3 weight % of the bituminous material, based on the total dry weight of the solids, pelletizing the green mixture into discrete green pellets of a predetermined average diameter and drying the green pellets to a predetermined moisture content, preferrably no less than about 5 weight %. Lignite char and mixture of raw lignite and lignite char can be formed into high strength pellets in the same general manner.

Goksel, Mehmet A. (Houghton, MI)

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Impacts of Texas Lignite on Selective Catalytic Reduction System Life and Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NOx control are being broadly applied to U.S. power generating units fired with western subbituminous and eastern bituminous coals and natural gas. Prior to 2010, no power generating units firing Texas lignite were equipped with SCR. To develop an understanding of the potential deactivation and erosion of SCR catalyst by Texas lignite, a pilot-scale SCR reactor was used in a two-phase program at the Sandow Station, located near Rockdale, Texas. The test pro...

2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

6

Impacts of Texas Lignite on Selective Catalytic Reduction System Life and Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NOx control are being broadly applied to U.S. power generating units fired with western subbituminous and eastern bituminous coals and natural gas. To date, no power generating units firing Texas lignite are equipped with SCR. To develop an understanding of the potential deactivation and erosion of SCR catalyst by Texas lignite, a pilot-scale SCR reactor was used in a one-year program to test a plate-type catalyst at the Sandow Station, located near Rockdal...

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

Table 8.3a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. 7 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur ...

8

Table 8.3b Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. 7 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur ...

9

Table 8.4c Consumption for Electricity Generation by Energy Source ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. 9 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur ...

10

Table 8.2d Electricity Net Generation: Commercial and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. 9 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur ...

11

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal includes anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous and lignite coal. ... DOE, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Form OE-781R, ...

12

Table 8.2d Electricity Net Generation: Commercial and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. 9 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, ...

13

Definition: Bituminous coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bituminous coal Bituminous coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Bituminous coal A dense coal, usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke; contains 45-86% carbon.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown; often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull

14

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Anthracite kg CO2 / MMBtu Bituminous Sub-bituminous Lignite Electric Power Sector Industrial Coking ... Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, ...

15

Subbituminous and bituminous coal dominate U.S. coal ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

While almost all coal consumed in the United States is used to generate electricity (90% in 2010), coal is not entirely homogeneous. Coal is ...

16

Table 6. Coal production and number of mines by State and coal...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal production and number of mines by State and coal rank, 2011" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Bituminous",,"Subbituminous",,"Lignite",,"Anthracite",,"Total" "Coal-Producing State and...

17

Electric Power Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Total (All Sectors) by State, 2011 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Census Division and State Receipts...

18

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Lehigh University This project determines the feasibility of using low grade power plant waste heat to dry lignite and sub-bituminous coals before they are burned in...

19

Table 8.2c Electricity Net Generation: Electric Power Sector ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. 9 Solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) energy. 2 Distillate fuel oil ...

20

International Energy Annual 2001 - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy ... Coal includes anthracite, subanthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, lignite, and brown coal.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

EIA - Electricity Data  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Industrial Sector by State, July 2013 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite; Census Division and State Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight

22

Electric Power Annual  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

4. Weighted Average Cost of Fossil Fuels for the Electric Power Industry, 2002 through 2011 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Fossil Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite All Coal Ranks...

23

Table 8.5b Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. 9 Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, ...

24

Albany, OR * Anchorage, AK * Morgantown, WV * Pittsburgh, PA...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

including lignite and sub-bituminous coal, make up about half of U.S. coal production and reserves. They have lower energy and sulfur contents than bituminous coal, but higher...

25

Demonstration of Pressurizing Coal/Biomass Mixtures Using Posimetric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a range of coal types (bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite) and biomass types (wood, corn stover, and switchgrass) at biomass loadings from 30 to 50 percent by weight....

26

Lignite Fuel Enhancement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Design Team continues to conference this quarter albeit not as often. Primary focus this quarter is the continued procurement of material, receiving, and construction/installation. Phase 1 extension recommendation, and subsequent new project estimate. Forms 424 and 4600 were submitted to Ms. Zysk. The NETL technology team subsequently agreed that the increase is justified and made their recommendation to DOE HQ. All major mechanical equipment was delivered this quarter. Three hot water in-bed coils are all that remains for delivery. Two of the five are installed above the dryer air distribution bed. The dryer, baghouse, bucket elevator, control room, exhaust fan, process ductwork, and piping have all been installed. The mezzanine level over the inlet ductwork for access to the dryer was installed. Instrumentation was delivered and locations were identified. Cable is being pulled and connections made from the Control Room to the Motor Control Center. ''Emergency Stop'' equipment logic conditions were discussed and finalized. The functional description was competed and reviewed with Honeywell Controls. Piping & Instrument diagrams are completed. Some electrical schematics have been delivered for equipment south of Q-line. Dry & Wet coal conveyors are not completed. The exhaust chimney was installed. An Open House and ribbon cutting took place on August 9th. GRE project manager gave a presentation of the technology. Joe Strakey, NETL, also spoke. The Open House was attended by Governor Hoevon and Senator Conrad who also spoke about Clean Coal and helped kick-off Blue Flint ethanol and a potential Liquefaction plant. The deign team met the following day to discuss test plan and progress update. Headwaters Energy Incorporated also attended the Open House. A meeting was conducted with them to begin planning for the marketing and finalize our memorandum of understanding. Headwaters still plans to contact all US lignite plants and all bituminous plants who have switched to PRB. Major pieces of equipment received this quarter included the Dryer, Exhaust Fan, additional duct work, and control cabinets.

Charles Bullinger

2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

27

INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production coal-derived hydrocarbons. Coal is more easily recovered and more widely available than oil shale and

Seth, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Liquefaction and Gasification of Western Coals", in5272 (1976). COal Processing - Gasification, Liguefaction,or gaseous fuels, coal gasification has advanced furthest

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of char and gases. The Fischer-Tropsch process is an exampleprocess economics, the Fischer-Tropsch process has not beenevaluations for a Fischer-Tropsch plant in the United

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

July 22, 1974. Project Western Coal: Conversion of Coal Intoand Gasification of Western Coals", in proceedings of ERDA/Investigators' Conference - Coal Research, Colorado School

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

THE EFFECTS OF SOLVENTS ON SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL BELOW ITS PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W. S. , "Solvent Treatment of Coal", Mills and Boon, London,of this solvent with the coal structure. When coupled withis indeed quite an unusual coal solvent. REFEREMCES Oele, A.

Grens III., Edward A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I.D I.D XBL 7111- 11389 g. s urn coal iurn REfERENCES 1. W.H. Wiser, Coal Catalysis, Proceedings of the EPRIC. Howard. Chern; (John Wil of Coal Utilization H. H. lowry.

Seth, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of Molten-Salt/Organic-Solvent CombinationsAs an alternative to molten salts, inorganic acids are aniii) Investigation of molten-salt/organic- Dee Extraction of

Seth, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquefaction Chemistry B. Molten Salt Catalysis RationaleUsed Equipment and Procedure Molten Salt a. b. c. Treat~entEquipment and Procedure Molten Salt Treatment a. Equipment

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Gasification of Lignite Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report on the gasification of lignite coal is presented in two parts. The first includes research into technology options for preparing low-rank fuels for gasification, gasifiers for converting the coal into synthesis gas, and technologies that may be used to convert synthesis gas into valuable chemical products. The second part focuses on performance and cost screening analyses for either Greenfield or retrofit gasification options fueled by low-rank lignite coal. The work was funded through Tailor...

2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

36

Lignite Fuel Enhancement  

SciTech Connect

Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was performed in March/April 2010 after commercial coal drying system was commissioned. Preliminary tests with dried coal were performed in March/April 2010. During the test Unit 2 was in outage and, therefore, test unit (Unit 1) was carrying entire station load and, also, supplying all auxiliary steam extractions. This resulted in higher station service, lower gross power output, and higher turbine cycle heat rate. Although, some of these effects could be corrected out, this would introduce uncertainty in calculated unit performance and effect of dried lignite on unit performance. Baseline tests with dried coal are planned for second half of 2010 when both units at Coal Creek will be in service to establish baseline performance with dried coal and determine effect of coal drying on unit performance. Application of GRE's coal drying technology will significantly enhance the value of lignite as a fuel in electrical power generation power plants. Although existing lignite power plants are designed to burn wet lignite, the reduction in moisture content will increase efficiency, reduce pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions, and improve plant economics. Furthermore, the efficiency of ultra supercritical units burning high-moisture coals will be improved significantly by using dried coal as a fuel. To date, Great River Energy has had 63 confidentiality agreements signed by vendors and suppliers of equipment and 15 utilities. GRE has had agreements signed from companies in Canada, Australia, China, India, Indonesia, and Europe.

Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite-based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Table 7.2 Coal Production, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Rank Mining Method Location Total 1 Bituminous Coal 1 Subbituminous Coal Lignite Anthracite 1...

39

Polygeneration of SNG, hydrogen, power, and carbon dioxide from Texas lignite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This feasibility study has shown that siting a mine mouth lignite fed gasification plant in Texas to produce hydrogen, SNG, electric power, and carbon dioxide could be economically feasible in an era of high natural gas prices. Because of the high moisture content of the lignite the choice of gasification system becomes an important issue. Hydrogen produced from Texas lignite in a coproduction plant could be produced in the range $5.20-$6.20/MMBTU (HHV basis) equivalent to between $0.70 and $0.84 per kilogram. This range of hydrogen costs is equivalent to hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming of natural gas if the natural gas feed price was between $3.00 and $4.00/MMBTU. With natural gas prices continuing to remain above $5.00/MMBTU this concept of using Texas lignite for hydrogen production would be economically viable. For the production of SNG from Texas lignite, the costs range from $6.90-$5.00/MMBTU (HHV basis). If natural gas prices remain above $5.00/MMBTU then the configuration using the advanced dry feed gasification system would be economically viable for production of SNG. This option may be even more attractive with other low rank coals such as Wyoming subbituminous and North Dakota lignite coals that are priced lower than Texas lignite. Production of electric power from these conceptual coproduction plants provides a valuable revenue stream. The opportunity to sell carbon dioxide for EOR in Texas provided another valuable revenue stream for the plants. The break even cost of recovering the carbon dioxide ranged from about $5.50 to $7.75 per ton depending on whether SNG or hydrogen was the product.

Gray, D.; Salerno, S.; Tomlinson, G.; Marano, J.J. [Mitretek Systems, Falls Church, VA (United States)

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Impacts of Texas Lignite Coal on SCR Catalyst Life and Performance: Field Data from TXU's Martin Lake Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are being broadly applied to power generating units fired with Power River Basin (PRB) and bituminous coals and natural gas. To develop an understanding of the potential deactivation and erosion of SCR catalyst in Texas-lignite-fired units, an in-situ mini SCR reactor was used to test two types of catalyst at TXU Energy's Martin Lake Unit 3. Prior to this test program, no long-term test data on the effects of Texas lignite on SCR catalyst life and performance e...

2003-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Method for providing improved solid fuels from agglomerated subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided for separating agglomerated subbituminous coal and the heavy bridging liquid used to form the agglomerates. The separation is performed by contacting the agglomerates with inert gas or steam at a temperature in the range of 250.degree. to 350.degree. C. at substantially atmospheric pressure.

Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal  

SciTech Connect

The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

2009-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

43

Metalliferous lignite in North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Thin, impure, lignite beds in a belt across portions of North Dakota and South Dakota are highly enriched in U, Mo, and As. These beds contained on the order of 0.25% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and equal amounts of Mo. The metals were leached from overlying volcanic ash, and infiltrated through the lignites with the ground water, where they were precipitated on formed metallo-organic complexes. The belt of metalliferous lignites concides with a major surface drainage divide, where water moves generally downward and laterally.

Noble, E.A.

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and spray dryer absorbers combined with fabric filters (SDAs-FFs). The work focused on technology commercialization by involving industry and emphasizing the communication of results to vendors and utilities throughout the project.

Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Mercury and Other Trace Metals in Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes the trace metal analyses of more than 150 as-received bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coal samples from full-scale power plants. Analyses for mercury, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and lead offer a benchmark for utilities to compare and contrast their own estimates and measurements of trace element content in coal.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

46

Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar  

SciTech Connect

In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Increasing Power Plant Efficiency: Lignite Fuel Enhancement ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increasing Power Plant Efficiency: Lignite Fuel Enhancement (Completed March 31, 2010) Project Description The objectives of this project are to demonstrate a unique system for...

48

Self oxidation of Romanian lignite during storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to large emissions of pollutants, the Romanian coal fired power plants will operate less frequently, but they will play an important role in ensuring the stability of power system. A long storage period leads to a devaluation of lignite. The paper ... Keywords: calorific value, lignite, spontaneous heating, stock pile, storage period

Mihai Cruceru; Bogdan Diaconu; Popescu Lumini?a

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

NETL - Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NETL - Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool NETL - Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool Agency/Company /Organization: National Energy Technology Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Website: www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/refshelf/results.asp?ptype=Models/Too References: Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool [1] Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool The Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool illustrates key data from the Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity report. The tool provides an

52

LARGE-SCALE MECURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY TESTING FOR LIGNITE-FIRED UTILITIES-OXIDATION SYSTEMS FOR WET FGD  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a consortium-based effort directed toward resolving the mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. Specifically, the EERC team--the EERC, EPRI, URS, ADA-ES, Babcock & Wilcox, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, SaskPower, and the Mercury Task Force, which includes Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Otter Tail Power Company, Great River Energy, Texas Utilities (TXU), Montana-Dakota Utilities Co., Minnkota Power Cooperative, BNI Coal Ltd., Dakota Westmoreland Corporation, and the North American Coal Company--has undertaken a project to significantly and cost-effectively oxidize elemental mercury in lignite combustion gases, followed by capture in a wet scrubber. This approach will be applicable to virtually every lignite utility in the United States and Canada and potentially impact subbituminous utilities. The oxidation process is proven at the pilot-scale and in short-term full-scale tests. Additional optimization is continuing on oxidation technologies, and this project focuses on longer-term full-scale testing. The lignite industry has been proactive in advancing the understanding of and identifying control options for Hg in lignite combustion flue gases. Approximately 1 year ago, the EERC and EPRI began a series of Hg-related discussions with the Mercury Task Force as well as utilities firing Texas and Saskatchewan lignites. This project is one of three being undertaken by the consortium to perform large-scale Hg control technology testing to address the specific needs and challenges to be met in controlling Hg from lignite-fired power plants. This project involves Hg oxidation upstream of a system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The team involved in conducting the technical aspects of the project includes the EERC, Babcock & Wilcox, URS, and ADA-ES. The host sites include Minnkota Power Cooperative Milton R. Young Unit 2 and TXU Monticello Unit 3. The work involves establishing Hg oxidation levels upstream of air pollution control devices (APCDs) and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with those removal rates, investigating the possibility of the APCD acting as a multipollutant control device, quantifying the balance of plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization.

Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Jeffrey S. Thompson

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

Crawford, D.L.

1992-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

55

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As of September 28, 2001, all the major project tasks have been completed. A presentation was given to the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) and the North Dakota Division of Community Services (DCS). In general, the feasibility study has resulted in the following conclusions: (1) Municipal wood resources are sufficient to support cofiring at the NDSP. (2) Steps have been taken to address all potential fuel-handling issues with the feed system design, and the design is cost-effective. (3) Fireside issues of cofiring municipal wood with coal are not of significant concern. In general, the addition of wood will improve the baseline performance of lignite coal. (4) The energy production strategy must include cogeneration using steam turbines. (5) Environmental permitting issues are small and do not affect economics. (6) The base-case economic scenario provides for a 15-year payback of a 20-year municipal bond and does not include the broader community benefits that can be realized.

Darren D. Schmidt

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

Microsoft Word - LB-Lignite-Oct09  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rate of 1.4 gpm, the overall economic cost to drill and complete lignite storage wells for CO 2 injection can be less than 3% of the delivered cost of CO 2 . The delivered...

58

Swelling of lignites in organic solvents  

SciTech Connect

Data on the swelling of Turkish lignites can be summarized using linear multiparameter equations that take into account various properties of solvents. Factors responsible for the amounts of absorbed solvents are the basicity and cohesion energy density of the solvents.

R.G. Makitra; D.V. Bryk [Institute of the Geology and Geochemistry of Fossil Fuels, Lviv (Ukraine)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

Manipulation of Electrical Conductivity in Bituminous Coal by CNT ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, the conductivity of Bituminous coal samples found from Khalaspir coal mine is studied. This coal mine is located in the northern part of Bangladesh.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Selective oil agglomeration of lignite  

SciTech Connect

In this study, desulfurization and deashing of Adiyaman-Glbai lignite by the agglomeration method were studied. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of solid concentration, bridging liquid type and dosage, pH, and screen size on the agglomeration after desliming were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water (the Mediterranean Sea water, the Aegean Sea water, and the Black Sea water) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of sea waters and soda lake water in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the reduction of total sulfur content of agglomerates. In addition, the usage of NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3} in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the ash content reduction of the agglomerates. 27 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Halime Abakay Temel; Volkan Bozkurt; Arun Kumar Majumder [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Department of Mining Engineering

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and P. Fugassi, Phenanthrene Extraction of Bituminous Coal,Coal Science, Advances in Chemistry Series No. 55, 448 C.Mechanism of High Volatile Coal, Coal Science, Advances in

Dorighi, G.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Energy & Society Toolkit Appendices Toolkit Appendices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bituminous Coal 25.8 25.8 24.4 27.2 Sub-bituminous Coal 26.2 26.2 25.3 27.3 Lignite 27.6 27.6 24.8 31.3 Oil Shale (& Tar Sandsc ) 29.1 29.1 24.6 34 Peat 28.9 28.9 28.4 29.5 Secondary Fuels / Products BKB & Patent

Kammen, Daniel M.

64

The Power Systems Development Facility: Test Results 2005  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Transport Gasifier test facility at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) has operated for over 7,750 hours, gasifying bituminous and sub-bituminous coals and lignites using air and oxygen as the oxidant. During this time plant reliability and performance has improved progressively and the high degree of process understanding developed has been used to improve designs for key equipment items, such as coal feeding and ash removal. Using state-of-the-art data analysis and modeling software, the...

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

65

Improving the technology of creating water-coal fuel from lignites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the preparation of coal-water fuel slurries from lignite. The heat of combustion as related to the preparation of the lignite was investigated. The hydrobarothermal processing of suspensions of lignites was studied in autoclaves.

Gorlov, E.G.; Golovin, G.S.; Zotova, O.V. [Rossiiskaya Akadeiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Methane cracking over a bituminous coal char  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methane cracking over a bed of Chinese bituminous coal char was studied using a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure and temperatures between 1073 and 1223 K. Methane conversion over the fresh char increased with increasing temperature to 90% at 1223 K. Hydrogen was the only gas-phase product that was detected during the experimentation. The char was shown to exert a significant catalytic effect on methane cracking by comparing results from experiments with the raw char and demineralised char as well as from blank experiments using quartz. It was further shown that the ash was not the source of the catalytic effect of the char. However, both methane conversion and hydrogen yield decreased with increasing reaction time, irrespective of other experimental conditions, indicating that the char rapidly became deactivated following the exposure to methane. It was speculated that the deposition of carbon from methane cracking was responsible for this deactivation, which is supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image analysis. It was demonstrated that the catalytic activity of the deactivated char can be partially recovered by burning off the carbon deposits with an oxidizing gas mixture containing 0.46% oxygen. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Zhi-qiang Sun; Jin-hu Wu; Mohammad Haghighi; John Bromly; Esther Ng; Hui Ling Wee; Yang Wang; Dong-ke Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Microsoft Word - LB-Lignite.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Name Organization E-Mail Darin Damiani, U.S. Department of Energy, Darin.Damiani@netl.doe.gov Principal Investigator Edward Steadman Field Test Information: Field Test Name Lignite in North Dakota Field Validation Test Test Location Section 36-T159N-R90W in Burke County, North Dakota Amount and Source of CO 2 Tons Less than 500 tons for the project Source Commercial source - Praxair Flatland Exploration Company, subsidiary of Fischer Oil and Gas ND State Land Department Eagle Operating, Inc. Schlumberger Field Test Partners (Primary Sponsors) Praxair Summary of Field Test Site and Operations: CO 2 in an Unminable Lignite Seam - The site for the pilot-scale CO 2 sequestration-enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) project operated by the Energy & Environmental Research Center is

68

(Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms)  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to: (1) characterize selected aerobic bacterial strains for their abilities to depolymerize lignite coal polymers, and isolate and identify the extracellular enzymes responsible for depolymerization of the coal; (2) characterize selected strictly anaerobic bacteria, that were previously shown to reductively transform coal substructure model compounds, for the ability to similarly transform polymeric coal; and (3) isolate more strains of anaerobic bacteria by enrichment using additional coal substructure model compounds and coal as substrates.

Crawford, D.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values across the APCDs are 2.1% and 39.4% with standard deviations (STDs) of 1990 and 75%, respectively for the ICR and SEC tests. This clearly demonstrates that variability is an issue irrespective of using 'similar' fuels at the plants and the same source sampling team measuring the species. The study also concluded that elemental mercury is the main Hg specie that needs to be controlled. 2004 technologies such as activated carbon injection (ACI) may capture up to 60% with double digit lb/MMacf addition of sorbent. PRB coal-fired units have an Hg input of 7-15 lb/TBtu; hence, these units must operate at over 60% mercury efficiency in order to bring the emission level below 5.8 lb/TBtu. This was non-achievable with the best technology available as of 2004. Other key findings include: (1) Conventional particulate collectors, such as Cold-side Electro-Static Precipitators (CESPs), Hot-side Electro-Static Precipitator (HESP), and Fabric Filter (FF) remove nearly all of the particulate bound mercury; (2) CESPs perform better highlighting the flue gas temperature effect on the mercury removal. Impact of speciation with flue gas cooling is apparent; (3) SDA's do not help in enhancing adsorption of mercury vapor species; and (4) Due to consistently low chlorine values in fuels, it was not possible to analyze the impact of chlorine. In summary, it is difficult to predict the speciation at two plants that burn the same fuel. Non-fuel issues, such as flue gas cooling, impact the speciation and consequently mercury capture potential.

Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Oxidative decomposition of formaldehyde catalyzed by a bituminous coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been observed that molecular hydrogen is formed during long-term storage of bituminous coals via oxidative decomposition of formaldehyde by coal surface peroxides. This study has investigated the effects of coal quantity, temperature, and water content on the molecular hydrogen formation with a typical American coal (Pittsburgh No. 6). The results indicate that the coal's surface serves as a catalyst in the formation processes of molecular hydrogen. Furthermore, the results also indicate that low temperature emission of molecular hydrogen may possibly be the cause of unexplained explosions in confined spaces containing bituminous coals, for example, underground mines or ship holds. 20 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Haim Cohen; Uri Green [Ariel University Center in Samaria, Beer Sheva (Israel). Biological Chemistry Department

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Emissions estimation for lignite-fired power plants in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The major gaseous emissions (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide), some various organic emissions (e.g. benzene, toluene and xylenes) and some trace metals (e.g. arsenic, cobalt, chromium, manganese and nickel) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are estimated. The estimations are made separately for each one of the thirteen plants that produced electricity in 2007, because the lignite-fired thermal plants in Turkey are installed near the regions where the lignite is mined, and characteristics and composition of lignite used in each power plant are quite different from a region to another. Emission factors methodology is used for the estimations. The emission factors obtained from well-known literature are then modified depending on local moisture content of lignite. Emission rates and specific emissions (per MWh) of the pollutants from the plants without electrostatic precipitators and flue-gas desulfurization systems are found to be higher than emissions from the plants having electrostatic precipitators and flue -gas desulfurization systems. Finally a projection for the future emissions due to lignite-based power plants is given. Predicted demand for the increasing generation capacity based on the lignite-fired thermal power plant, from 2008 to 2017 is around 30%. 39 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

Nurten Vardar; Zehra Yumurtaci [Yildiz Technical University Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Liquefaction of calcium-containing subbituminous coals and coals of lower rank  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for the treatment of a calcium-containing subbituminous coal and coals of lower rank to form insoluble, thermally stable calcium salts which remain within the solids portions of the residue on liquefaction of the coal, thereby suppressing the formation of scale, made up largely of calcium carbonate which normally forms within the coal liquefaction reactor (i.e., coal liquefaction zone), e.g., on reactor surfaces, lines, auxiliary equipment and the like. An oxide of sulfur, in liquid phase, is contacted with a coal feed sufficient to impregnate the pores of the coal. The impregnated coal, in particulate form, can thereafter be liquefied in a coal liquefaction reactor (reaction zone) at coal liquefaction conditions without significant formation of scale.

Brunson, Roy J. (Baytown, TX)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Microbial activities in forest soils exposed to chronic depositions from a lignite power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

around a coal-burning power plant: a case study in the Czechdepositions from a lignite power plant Susanne Klose 1* ,DEPOSITIONS FROM A LIGNITE POWER PLANT Susanne Klose 1* ,

Klose, Susanne; Wernecke, K D; Makeschin, F

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Liquefaction of calcium-containing subbituminous coals and coals of lower rank  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the treatment of a calcium-containing subbituminous coal and coals of lower rank to form insoluble, thermally stable calcium salts which remain within the solids portions of the residue on liquefaction of the coal, thereby suppressing the formation scale, made up largely of calcium carbonate deposits, e.g., vaterite, which normally forms within the coal liquefaction reactor (i.e., coal liquefaction zone), e.g., on reactor surfaces, lines, auxiliary equipment and the like. A solution of a compound or salt characterized by the formula MX, where M is a Group IA metal of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X is an anion which is capable of forming water-insoluble, thermally stable calcium compounds, is maintained in contact with a particulate coal feed sufficient to impregnate said salt or compound into the pores of the coal. On separation of the impregnated particulate coal from the solution, the coal can be liquefied in a coal liquefaction reactor (reaction zone) at coal liquefaction conditions without significant formation of vaterite or other forms of calcium carbonate on reactor surfaces, auxiliary equipment and the like; and the Group IA metal which remains within the liquefaction bottoms catalyzes the reaction when the liquefaction bottoms are subjected to a gasification reaction.

Gorbaty, Martin L. (Sanwood, NJ); Taunton, John W. (Seabrook, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

NETL: News Release - More Electricity, Lower Emissions from Lignite Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

25, 2004 25, 2004 More Electricity, Lower Emissions from Lignite Plants Are Goals of New Clean Coal Project Fuel Enhancement System Expected to Boost Generating Capacities WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham today announced the testing of the Lignite Fuel Enhancement System, a new process that could dramatically reduce air emissions from certain coal-based power plants while boosting overall generating capacity. The project, conducted by Great River Energy, is expected to boost the generating capacity and efficiency of power plants that burn high-moisture lignite coal, thereby reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The new technology uses waste heat to dry nearly a quarter of the moisture in the coal before it is fed into the power plant boiler.

79

Preventing ash agglomeration during gasification of high-sodium lignite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various additives were evaluated to assess their ability to prevent ash agglomeration during the gasification of high-sodium lignite. Additives that showed promise in simple muffle furnace tests included meta-kaolin, vermiculite, two types of silica fume, and one type of bauxite. Additives that were tested and rejected included dolomite, calcite, sand flour, kaolinite, fine kaolin, and calcined bauxite. Based on the muffle furnace test results, the meta-kaolin was selected for a follow-on demonstration in a pilot-scale coal gasifier. Pilot-scale testing showed that the addition of coarse (minus 14-mesh, 920-{mu}m mean size) meta-kaolin at a feed rate roughly equivalent to the ash content of the lignite (10 wt %) successfully prevented agglomeration and deposition problems during gasification of high-sodium lignite at a maximum operating temperature of 927{sup o}C (1700{sup o}F). 13 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

Robert S. Dahlin; Johnny R. Dorminey; WanWang Peng; Roxann F. Leonard; Pannalal Vimalchand [Southern Research Institute and Southern Company Services, Wilsonville, AL (USA). Power Systems Development Facility

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Rapid and medium setting high float bituminous emulsions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a rapid set high float aqueous bituminous emulsion-comprising bitumen, water, and from about 0.4% to about 0.6%, based on the weight of the emulsion, of an anionic emulsifier comprised of an alkaline solution of a combination of (1) 20% to 80% fatty acids selected from the group consisting of tall oil fatty acids, tallow fatty acids, and mixtures. (2) 20% to 80% of a product of the reaction of the fatty acids with a member of the group consists of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic anhydride.

Schilling, P.; Schreuders, H.G.

1987-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012" 1. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012" "(dollars per short ton)" "Coal-Producing State","Bituminous","Subbituminous","Lignite","Anthracite","Total" "Alabama",106.57,"-","-","-",106.57 "Alaska","-","w","-","-","w" "Arizona","w","-","-","-","w" "Arkansas","w","-","-","-","w" "Colorado","w","w","-","-",37.54 "Illinois",53.08,"-","-","-",53.08 "Indiana",52.01,"-","-","-",52.01

82

Evaluation of an alternative bituminous material as a soil stabilizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Asphalt cements, cutback asphalts, and emulsified asphalts are used as bituminous stabilizing agents in the pavement systems. The emulsified asphalts are increasingly used in lieu of cutback asphalts because of environmental regulations and safety. Consequently, development of a new stabilization material, which is environmentally safe and non-flammable, is desired for replacing cutback asphalts. In this study a petroleum-resin-based (PRB) material was tested to investigate its physical and mechanical characteristics as an alternative bituminous soil stabilizer in terms of replacing the cutback asphalts because the PRB material has been proved an environmentally safe material. Based on various laboratory tests, including an unconfined compressive strength test, a soil suction test, dielectric measurements, a resilient modulus test, and an optical microscopy test, it has been verified that the PRB material affects base-layer waterproofing, but significant strength gain was not found. When mixed with mostly granular base materials, the PRB material coated soil or aggregate particles and decreased the volume of voids, which can be thought as potential water flow channels. Consequently, the PRB material is expected to reduce permeability.

Kim, Yong-Rak

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Organic geochemical evaluations of bituminous rock and coals in Miocene Himmetoglu basin (Bolu, Turkey)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The studied area is a lake basin located in Bolu basin in Turkey. In the basin, from Upper Cretaceous to Upper Miocene 3,000-m thickness sediments were deposited. Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation consisted of sandstone, claystone, and marl. To the middle level of the formation are located coal, bituminous limestone, and bituminous shales. In the basin, there are two coal beds whose thicknesses range from 1 to 13 m. The coals are easily breakable and black in color. In the coal beds exists some bituminous limestone and bituminous shales, and their thicknesses are between 5 and 45 cm. The amount of organic matter of the bituminous rocks from the Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation are between 6.83 and 56.34 wt%, and the amount of organic matter of the bituminous limestone from the formation are between 13.58 and 57.16 wt%. These values indicate that these rocks have very good source potential. According to hydrogen index (HI), S2/S3, HI-T{sub max}, and HI-OI (oxygen index) parameters, kerogen types of the bituminous rocks and coals belonging to Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation are Type I, Type II, and Type III. In accordance with HI, S2/S3, HI-T{sub max}, and HI-OI parameters, the bituminous rocks and coals from the Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation are mostly immature.

Sari, A.; Geze, Y. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Lignites and Low Rank Coals Conference: Proceedings 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI and the Technische Vereinigung des Grosskraftswerkbetreiber (Technical Association of Large Power Plant Operators) (VGB) jointly held a Conference on Lignites and Low Rank Coals in Wiesbaden, Germany, May 16-18, 2001. These Proceedings include the plenary papers, technical session papers, and rapporteurs' summaries from the conference.

2002-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

86

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Rank By Mining Method By Location 200 U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 Anthracite Lignite Subbituminous Coal Subbituminous coal and...

87

Power Systems Development Facility: Test Results 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Transport Gasifier test facility at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) has operated for almost 9,150 hours, gasifying bituminous and sub-bituminous coals and lignites using air and oxygen as the oxidant. During this time plant reliability and performance has improved progressively and the high degree of process understanding developed has been used to improve designs for key equipment items, such as coal feeding and coarse and fine ash removal. Using state-of-the-art data analysis and mode...

2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

88

"1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel Emission Factors" Fuel Emission Factors" "(From Appendix H of the instructions to Form EIA-1605)" "1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1" "Fuel ",,"Emission Factor ",,"Units" "Coal2" "Anthracite",,103.69,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Bituminous",,93.28,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Sub-bituminous",,97.17,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Lignite",,97.72,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Electric Power Sector",,95.52,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Industrial Coking",,93.71,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Other Industrial",,93.98,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Residential/Commercial",,95.35,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Natural Gas3"

89

Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Oxydesulfurization of a Turkish lignite using trona solutions  

SciTech Connect

This article investigates the possibility of using trona minerals in the oxydesulfurization of coal. The experiments were performed on a Turkish lignite having high organic and high pyritic sulfur content from the Gediz area. Oxydesulfurization of the lignite sample using trona minerals was studied at 423--473 K, under 0--1 MPa oxygen partial pressure at 0--0.3 M equivalent alkalinity of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for 2.5--60 min. Almost all of the pyritic sulfur content and, depending on the working conditions, an important part of the organic sulfur content were removed. Unless the temperature reached 473 K, solid product yield was not negatively affected. Trona minerals were seen as a suitable alkaline to use in oxydesulfurization of coal.

Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Production of mineral wool from lignite coal slag  

SciTech Connect

This is a report of research conducted at the University of North Dakota concerning the utilization of the ''molten state'' condition of lignite coal slag for the fabrication of a mineral wool insulant. The research was funded by the Mercer County Energy Development Board with monies allocated from the Department of Energy. The objective of the research was to investigate, on a preliminary basis, some critical criteria such as the chemical nature of the raw material, the ability of the slag to be fiberized, as well as the possibilities that such a insulant could indeed have a market in the immediate area. In essence it was felt that a mineral wool product could be produced at coal fired power plants which burn lignite at a minimal cost. The major cost saving would come from the fact that the raw material that would be used would not have to have a great deal of energy added at the expense of the consumer.

Manz, O.E.; Eaton, L.C.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Properties and reserves of lignite in the Aydin-Sahinali field, Turkey  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on some lignite properties and calculation of lignite reserves with two classical (isopach and polygon) methods in the Aydin-Sahinali field, Turkey, which is located in the western Turkey. This field has been mined by a private coal company since 1960 by open-cast and mainly underground mining methods. The producing lignites are consumed in domestic heating and industrial factories around Aydin. The metamorphic rocks of Palaezoic age form the basement of the coal field. The lignite-bearing unit of Miocene age, from bottom to the top, consists mainly of pebblestone, lignite and clayey lignite, siltstone with sandstone lenses, white colored claystone, clayey limestone and silisified limestone lenses. This unit in the lignite field was unconformably overlain by Pliocene unconsolidated sands and gravels. Three hundred seventy-three borehole data have been evaluated, and this study shows that a relatively thick and lateral extensive lignite seam has a mineable thickness of 1.6-14.4 m. The core samples from boreholes in panels in the lignite field indicate that the coal seam, on an as-received basis, contains high moisture contents (17.95-23.45%, average), high ash yields (16.30-26.03%, average), relatively high net calorific values (3,281-3,854 kcal/kg, average), and low total sulfur contents (1.00-1.22%, average). The remaining lignite potential in the Aydin-Sahinali lignite field was calculated as a 4.7 Mt of measured and a 2.9 Mt of mineable lignite-reserves.

Kirhan, S.; Inaner, H.; Nakoman, E.; Karayigit, A.I. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Dissolution and swelling of bituminous coal in n-methyl-pyrrolidone.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Research detailed herein examined the extraction and swelling of a bituminous coal in the super solvent n-methyl-pyrrolidone. Correlations were developed to describe the extraction and… (more)

Stoffa, Joseph M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

PROGRAM TOPIC: GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES PREVENTING AGGLOMERATION PROBLEMS DURING GASIFICATION OF HIGH-SODIUM LIGNITE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous gasification studies have shown that sodium vapor released from high-sodium lignites can react with silica to form sticky sodium silicates. 1,2,3

Robert S. Dahlin; Johnny R. Dorminey; Southern Company Services; Wanwang Peng; Southern Company Services; Pannalal Vimalch; Southern Company Services

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

Katamine, N.M.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Field Testing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or without performance additives, to reduce mercury emissions from a Texas utility burning either Texas lignite or a blend of Texas lignite and subbituminous coals. Sorbents...

97

Study of factors affecting syngas quality and their interactions in fluidized bed gasification of lignite coal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of lignite coal Shayan Karimipour a , Regan Gerspacher b , Rajender Gupta a , Raymond J. Spiteri c. " The syngas quality was defined based on conversion, H2/CO, CH4/H2, yield, and gasifier efficiency. " Low coal 2012 Keywords: Lignite coal Gasification Fluidized bed Design of experiments a b s t r a c t A series

Spiteri, Raymond J.

98

Long term contracts, expansion, innovation and stability: North Dakota's lignite mines thrive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

North Dakota's lignite coal industry is mainly located in three countries in the central part of the state. Its large surface lignite mines are tied through long-term (20-40 years) contracts to power plants. The article talks about operations at three of the most productive mines - the Freedom mine, Falkirk mine and Center Mine. 4 figs.

Buchsbaum, L.

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Impact of risk and uncertainty on sustainable development of Kolubara lignite basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper analyzes the various risks and uncertainties and their possible impact on the future development of the Kolubara lignite basin area (Belgrade metropolitan region). What has been examined are the risks caused by the global financial crisis to ... Keywords: energy policy, lignite coal basin, privatisation, risks, sustainable development, uncertain

Slavka Zekovic; Miodrag Vujosevic

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Comparative risk analysis of development of the lignite basins in Serbian part of the Danube region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper gives an overview of the global business risks and risks in the mining development in the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins in the area of the Danube river in Serbia. An identification of main risks is undertaken by application of a comprehensive ... Keywords: danube region, lignite basin, mining and energetics, strategic business risks, sustainable development

Slavka Zekovi?; Tamara Mari?i?

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number was superior to commercial DARCO FGD for mercury capture. The results of the activated carbon market assessment indicate an existing market for water treatment and an emerging application for mercury control. That market will involve both existing and new coal-fired plants. It is expected that 20% of the existing coal-fired plants will implement activated carbon injection by 2015, representing about 200,000 tons of annual demand. The potential annual demand by new plants is even greater. In the mercury control market, two characteristics are going to dominate the customer's buying habit-performance and price. As continued demonstration testing of activated carbon injection at the various coal-fired power plants progresses, the importance of fuel type and plant configuration on the type of activated carbon best suited is being identified.

Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam March 10, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- A U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) team of regional partners has begun injecting CO2 into a deep lignite coal seam in Burke County, North Dakota, to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of geologic CO2 storage in the U.S. Great Plains region. Ultimately, geologic carbon sequestration is expected to play an important role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and combating climate change. The Lignite Field Validation Test is being conducted by the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, one of seven regional partnerships under DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program. The seven

103

Hydroliquefaction of Big Brown lignite in supercritical fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Big Brown lignite was liquefied in a fixed bed tube reactor. Three solvents were used in the liquefaction studies, toluene, cyclohexane and methanol. Two co-solvents, tetralin and water were used with toluene. The effects of the solvents and co-solvents were investigated. Supercritical fluid is the fluid at the temperature and pressure above its critical values. Toluene was the main supercritical fluid used in this study. Tetralin and water as co-solvents can contribute hydrogen to stabilize the free radicals produced during liquefaction reaction. The total conversion of Big Brown lignite and yield of liquid were increased. Water is not as good as tetralin in producing hydrogen, but it can increase the polarity of the solvent, which increases the solvency of supercritical fluids. The liquid product was found to consist primarily of saturated hydrocarbons. It illustrated that the free radicals were saturated by hydrogen during liquefaction. Alkylated aromatics and furans are also common chemical species present in the liquid products. The aromatic species were predominantly alkylated phenols, benzenes, indenes, pyridines and naphthalenes. At the supercritical conditions of this study, temperature and flowrate of the solvent were not important to the conversion of Big Brown lignite and yield of liquid, since supercritical fluids have gas-like viscosities with very high solubilities. To get more liquid products, the main point is to produce more free radicals from coal, inhibit the recombination of these radicals, and prevent the decomposition of these radicals to gas. Tetralin and water are good co-solvents for coal hydroliquefaction. Further research on the mechanism of water as a co-solvent in coal hydroliquefaction was recommended.

Chen, Hui

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

RECONNAISSANCE FOR URANIFEROUS LIGNITES IN NORTH DAKOTA, SOUTH DAKOTA, MONTANA, AND WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

Detailed studies were made at Bullion and Sentinel Buttes, in Slope, Billings, and Golden Valley Counties, N. Dak. Investigations of these areas were followed by a general reconnaissance for uraniferous lignites in North Dakota, eastern Montana, north-central Wyoming, and northwestern South Dakota. Deposits of uraniferous lignites were discovered at Blue Buttes, eastern Montana; and at North Cave Hills, South Cave Hills, and at Slim Buttes in northwestern South Dakota. The only lignites that contain appreciable amounts of uranium are in the upper part of the Sentinel Butte shale member of the Fort Union formation in southwestern North Dakota and eastern Montana, and in the Ludlow formation in northwestern South Dakota. The uranium content of the individual lignite beds ranges from 0.002 to 0.033% uranium and after ignition the uranium content of the ash ranges from 0.010 to 0.091% uranium. Natural ash contains as much as 0.025% uranium; natural clinker or scoria and carbonuceous clay are lower grade than the lignites; and some spring waters contain as much as 0.09 ppm of uranium. The inferred reserves of uranlferous lignites in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana are estimated to be 163,320,000 short tons that contain a weighted average of 0.009% uranium. The potential energy and amount of material available for liquid fuel conversion in this quantity of lignite is very large. The inferred reserve of ash which would result from the burning of these uraniferous lignites is detail amount of uranium (metal) in the known uraniferous lignite in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana is estimated to be about 12,600 short tons. The prospect or finding additional radioactive lignite beds is believed to be good. (auth)

Beroni, E.P.; Bauer, H.L. Jr.

1952-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Radiation intensity of lignite-fired oxy-fuel flames  

SciTech Connect

The radiative heat transfer in oxy-fuel flames is compared to corresponding conditions in air-fuel flames during combustion of lignite in the Chalmers 100 kW oxy-fuel test facility. In the oxy-fuel cases the flue-gas recycle rate was varied, so that, in principle, the same stoichiometry was kept in all cases, whereas the oxygen fraction in the recycled flue-gas mixture ranged from 25 to 29 vol.%. Radial profiles of gas concentration, temperature and total radiation intensity were measured in the furnace. The temperature, and thereby the total radiation intensity of the oxy-fuel flames, increases with decreasing flue-gas recycle rate. The ratio of gas and total radiation intensities increases under oxy-fuel conditions compared to air-firing. However, when radiation overlap between gas and particles is considered the ratios for air-firing and oxy-fuel conditions become more similar, since the gas-particle overlap is increased in the CO{sub 2}-rich atmosphere. A large fraction of the radiation in these lignite flames is emitted by particles whose radiation was not significantly influenced by oxy-fuel operation. Therefore, an increment of gas radiation due to higher CO{sub 2} concentration is not evident because of the background of particle radiation, and, the total radiation intensities are similar during oxy-fuel and air-fuel operation as long as the temperature distributions are similar. (author)

Andersson, Klas; Johansson, Robert; Hjaertstam, Stefan; Johnsson, Filip; Leckner, Bo [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Energy Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE - 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

NO emission during oxy-fuel combustion of lignite  

SciTech Connect

This work presents experimental results and modeling of the combustion chemistry of the oxy-fuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} recycle) combustion process with a focus on the difference in NO formation between oxy-fired and air-fired conditions. Measurements were carried out in a 100 kW test unit, designed for oxy-fuel combustion with flue gas recycling. Gas concentration and temperature profiles in the furnace were measured during combustion of lignite. The tests comprise a reference test in air and three oxy-fuel cases with different oxygen fractions in the recycled feed gas. With the burner settings used, lignite oxy-combustion with a global oxygen fraction of 25 vol % in the feed gas results in flame temperatures close to those of air-firing. Similar to previous work, the NO emission (mg/MJ) during oxy-fuel operation is reduced to less than 30% of that of air-firing. Modeling shows that this reduction is caused by increased destruction of formed and recycled NO. The reverse Zeldovich mechanism was investigated by detailed modeling and was shown to significantly reduce NO at high temperature, given that the nitrogen content is low (low air leakage) and that the residence time is sufficient.

Andersson, K.; Normann, F.; Johnsson, F.; Leckner, B. [Chalmers, Gothenburg (Sweden). Division of Energy Technology

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

Crawford, D.L.

1992-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

108

Alaska Coal Geology: GIS Data | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal Geology: GIS Data Coal Geology: GIS Data Dataset Summary Description Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Available here: GIS shapefiles of relevant faults and geology, associated with the following report: http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-077/pdf/DDS-77.pdf

109

Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Lignite Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury control technologies for Mercury control technologies for electric utilities Burning lignite coal Background In partnership with a number of key stakeholders, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), through its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), has been carrying out a comprehensive research program since the mid-1990s focused on the development of advanced, cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Mercury is a poisonous metal found in coal, which can be harmful and even toxic when absorbed from the environment and concentrated in animal tissues. Mercury is present as an unwanted by-product of combustion in power plant flue gases, and is found in varying percentages in three basic chemical forms(known as speciation): particulate-bound mercury, oxidized

110

Lignite slime as activator in production of oxidized asphalts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of activation of the oxidation of straight-run resids to asphalts by the addition of lignite slimes obtained in the liquefaction of coals of the Kansk-Achinsk basin was studied on the basis of a hypothesis formulated with due regard for the principles of physicochemical mechanics of petroleum disperse systems. A reduction of the air bubble size in the oxidizing vessel should lead to an increase in the total surface of oxidation and hence to a shortening of the time required for oxidation of the feed. A straight-run vacuum resid from mixed West Siberian and Ukhta crudes was used. The resid was oxidized with and without the addition of slime.

Gureev, A.A.; Gorlov, E.G.; Leont'eva, O.B.; Zotova, O.V.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Co-combustion of pellets from Soma lignite and waste dusts of furniture works  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, volatiles and char combustion behaviors of the fuel pellets prepared from a low quality lignite and the dusts of furniture works and their various blends were investigated in an experimental fixed bed combustion system through which air flowed by natural convection. Combustion data obtained for varied bed temperatures, mass of pellets, and blend compositions has showed that ignition times of the pellets decreased and volatiles combustion rates tended to increase with the burning temperature. It was concluded that some synergy had existed between lignite and lower ratios of furniture work dusts, which was indicated by a prompt effect on the volatiles combustion rates. Char combustion rates of blend pellets have depended predominantly on the amount of lignite in the blend. The amounts of combustion residues of the pellets were considerably higher than those calculated from individual ash contents of the raw materials and related to lignite ratio in the blends.

Deveci, N.D.; Yilgin, M.; Pehlivan, D. [Firat University, Elazig (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Microbial activities in forest soils exposed to chronic depositions from a lignite power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

around a coal-burning power plant: a case study in the Czechfrom coal-fired power plants probably had a positive effectdepositions from a lignite power plant Susanne Klose 1* ,

Klose, Susanne; Wernecke, K D; Makeschin, F

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were achieved, a heating value very close to that needed to fire a gas turbine would be achieved; however, some operational issues associated with utilizing recycled syngas or carbon dioxide as the transport gas would also have to be resolved. Use of a coal with a quality similar to the core samples provided earlier in the test program would also improve the gasifier performance. Low cold-gas efficiencies on the order of 20% calculated for oxygen-blown tests resulted in part from specific difficulties experienced in trying to operate the pilot-scale TRDU on this very high-ash lignite. These low levels of efficiency are not believed to be representative of what could be achieved in a commercial KRB transport gasifier. Combustion tests were also performed in the EERC's circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) to evaluate this alternative technology for use of this fuel. It was demonstrated that this fuel does have sufficient heating value to sustain combustion, even without coal drying; however, it will be challenging to economically extract sufficient energy for the generation of steam for electrical generation. The boiler efficiency for the dried coal was 73.5% at 85% sulfur capture (21.4% moisture) compared to 55.3% at 85% sulfur capture (40% moisture). Improved boiler efficiencies for this coal will be possible operating a system more specifically designed to maximize heat extraction from the ash streams for this high-ash fuel. Drying of the coal to approximately 25% moisture probably would be recommended for either power system. Fuel moisture also has a large impact on fuel feedability. Pressurized gasifiers generally like drier fuels than systems operating at ambient pressures. The commercially recommended feedstock moisture for a pressurized transport reactor gasifier is 25% moisture. Maximum moisture content for a CFB system could be approximately 40% moisture as has been demonstrated on the Alstom CFB operating on Mississippi lignite. A preliminary economic evaluation for CO{sub 2} was performed on the alternatives of (1) precombustion separation of CO{sub 2} in

Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

114

Report on the survey of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A radiation survey was conducted in October 1983 as part of the proposed reclamation plan of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota. The survey was made to determine the extent of contamination caused by mining operations in the 1960's. Radiation measurements were made and soil samples were taken at approximately 300 locations around six mine sites comprising eleven lignite mine pits. Toxic element analysis was also done on 50 of the soil samples.

Lyon, R.J.; Prochaska, D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Validation of a FBC model for co-firing of hazelnut shell with lignite against experimental data  

SciTech Connect

Performance of a comprehensive system model extended for modelling of co-firing of lignite and biomass was assessed by applying it to METU 0.3 MW{sub t} Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor co-firing lignite with hazelnut shell and validating its predictions against on-line temperature and concentration measurements of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2} and NO along the same test rig fired with lignite only, lignite with limestone addition and lignite with biomass and limestone addition. The system model accounts for hydrodynamics; volatiles release and combustion, char combustion, particle size distribution for lignite and biomass; entrainment; elutriation; sulfur retention and NO formation and reduction, and is based on conservation equations for energy and chemical species. Special attention was paid to different devolatilization characteristics of lignite and biomass. A volatiles release model based on a particle movement model and a devolatilization kinetic model were incorporated into the system model separately for both fuels. Kinetic parameters for devolatilization were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. Predicted and measured temperatures and concentrations of gaseous species along the combustor were found to be in good agreement. Introduction of biomass to lignite was found to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions but did not affect NO emissions significantly. The system model proposed in this study proves to be a useful tool in qualitatively and quantitatively simulating the processes taking place in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor burning lignite with biomass. (author)

Kulah, Gorkem [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

ITP Mining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining Industry: Chapter 2: Coal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 2 Coal Coal is a mixture of organic mineral material produced by a natural process of growth and decay, or an accumulation of debris both vegetal and mineral with some sorting and stratification. The process is accomplished by chemical, biological, bacteriological and metamorphic action. 1 Forms of Coal Coal is a hydrocarbon that is classified according to the amount of heat it produces. Heat content depends upon the amount of fixed carbon it contains. Rank is the degree of progressive alteration in the transformation from lignite to anthracite. There are four primary ranks of coal: * Anthracite (semi-anthracite, anthracite, and meta-anthracite) * Bituminous (high-volatile, medium-volatile, and low-volatile) * Subbituminous * Lignite (brown coal and lignite)

117

Gasification of New Zealand coals: a comparative simulation study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary feasibility assessment of gasification of New Zealand (NZ) lignite and sub-bituminous coals, using a commercial simulation tool. Gasification of these coals was simulated in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application and associated preliminary economics compared. A simple method of coal characterization was developed for simulation purposes. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen content of the coal was represented by a three component vapor solid system of carbon, methane, and water, the composition of which was derived from proximate analysis data on fixed carbon and volatile matter, and the gross calorific value, both on a dry, ash free basis. The gasification process was modeled using Gibb's free energy minimization. Data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Shell Gasifier base cases using Illinios No. 6 coal was used to verify both the gasifier and the IGCC flowsheet models. The H:C and O:C ratios of the NZ coals were adjusted until the simulated gasifier output composition and temperature matched the values with the base case. The IGCC power output and other key operating variables such as gas turbine inlet and exhaust temperatures were kept constant for study of comparative economics. The results indicated that 16% more lignite than sub-bituminous coal was required. This translated into the requirement of a larger gasifier and air separation unit, but smaller gas and steam turbines were required. The gasifier was the largest sole contributor (30%) to the estimated capital cost of the IGCC plant. The overall cost differential associated with the processing of lignite versus processing sub-bituminous coal was estimated to be of the order of NZ $0.8/tonne. 13 refs., 9 tabs.

Smitha V. Nathen; Robert D. Kirkpatrick; Brent R. Young [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Organic emissions from coal pyrolysis: mutagenic effects. Environ. Health Perspect. 73  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four different types of coal have been pyrolyzed in a laminar flow, drop tube furnace in order to establish a relationship between polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) evolution and mutagenicity. Temperatures of 900K to 1700K and particle residence times up to 0.3 sec were chosen to best simulate conditions of rapid rate pyrolysis in pulverized (44-53,um) coal combustion. The specific mutagenic activity (i.e., the activity per unit sample weight) of extracts from particulates and volatiles captured on XAD-2 resin varied with coal type according to the order: subbituminous> high volatile bituminous> lignite> anthracite. Total mutagenic activity (the activity per gram of coal pyrolyzed), however, varied with coal type according to the order: high volatile bituminous>> subbituminous = lignite>> anthracite, due primarily to high organic yield during high volatile bituminous coal pyrolysis. Specific mutagenic activity peaked in a temperature range of 1300K to 1500K and generally appeared at higher temperatures and longer residence times than peak PAC production.

Andrew G. Braun; Mary J. Wornat; T Amitava Mitra; Adel F. Sarofimt

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: 4. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Commercial Sector by State, 2012 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Census Division and State Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight New England 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Connecticut 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Maine 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Middle Atlantic 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- --

120

Wyoming geo-notes No. 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After a general overview of the mineral industry in Wyoming, activities and data are given on petroleum, natural gas, coal, uranium, trona, thorium, and other industrial minerals, metals, and precious stones. Coal production figures by county and basin are given. Maps are included showing regions containing subbituminous, bituminous, lignite, and strippable deposits of coal; major active and inactive uranium deposits; oil, gas, and oil shale deposits and pipeline corridors; and selected mineral occurrences of bentonite, trona, and jade. Production forecasts are given for uranium, trona, oil, gas, and coal. Reserve estimates are given for petroleum, natural gas, coal, trona, uranium, and oil shale. 8 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

Glass, G.B.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Impact of supplemental firing of tire-derived fuel (TDF) on mercury species and mercury capture with the advanced hybrid filter in a western subbituminous coal flue gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pilot-scale experimental studies were carried out to evaluate the impacts of cofiring tire-derived fuel and a western subbituminous coal on mercury species in flue gas. Mercury samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of the Advanced Hybrid filter to determine mercury concentrations in the flue gas with and without TDF cofiring, respectively. Cofiring of TDF with a subbituminous coal had a significant effect on mercury speciation in the flue gas. With 100% coal firing, there was only 16.8% oxidized mercury in the flue gas compared to 47.7% when 5% TDF (mass basis) was fired and 84.8% when 10% TDF was cofired. The significantly enhanced mercury oxidation may be the result of additional homogeneous gas reactions between Hg{sup 0} and the reactive chlorine generated in the TDF-cofiring flue gas and the in situ improved reactivity of unburned carbon in ash by the reactive chlorine species. Although the cofiring of TDF demonstrated limited improvement on mercury-emission control with the Advanced Hybrid filter, it proved to be a very cost-effective mercury control approach for power plants equipped with wet or dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems because of the enhanced mercury oxidation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Lignite mine spoil characterization and approaches for its rehabilitation  

SciTech Connect

Open cast mining of lignite leaves behind stockpiles of excavated materials (dumps) and refilled mining pits (spoils). Physicochemical and biochemical properties of both kinds of sites were estimated to identify the reasons for their barrenness. Subsequently, surface modifications were attempted, first in a greenhouse and later infield to develop a suitable approach for their rehabilitation. Dumps had low pH (4.8) and high Na{sup +} (2.5 mg g{sup -1}), spoils high pH (8.7) and high Na{sup +} (1.59 mg g{sup -1} soil). Both sites had low available nitrogen and phosphorus and showed very low dehydrogenase and phosphatases activity but no nitrification. The extreme physicochemical conditions and inert nature of damps and spoils explained their barrenness. In the greenhouse experiment, 14 plant species sown in surface materials of dumps and spoils after spreading a 0.15 m thick layer of dune sand, germinated ({gt}85%), and their seedlings survived for two months. This technique was followed at a spoil site (modified spoil site). After three years of stabilization the modified spoil site had only one-fifth Na{sup +} of that in spoil surface in the beginning and also showed higher dehydrogenase and phosphatase activity and nitrification. Pearl millet and Cenchrus ciliaris grown in modified spoil produced 128 to 394 kg and 2.25 to 3.50 Mg dry matter ha{sup -1}. Addition of farmyard manure with N and P fertilizers increased pearl millet yields.

Praveen-Kumar; Kumar, S.; Sharma, K.D.; Choudhary, A.; Gehlot, K. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Jodhpur (India)

2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Coal, Smoke, and Death: Bituminous Coal and American Home Heating, 1920-1959  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air pollution was severe in many parts of the United States in the first half of the twentieth century. Much of the air pollution was attributable to bituminous coal. This paper uses newly digitized state-month mortality data to estimate the effects of bituminous coal consumption for heating on mortality rates in the U.S. between 1920 and 1959. The use of coal for heating was high until the mid-1940s, and then declined sharply. The switch to cleaner fuels was driven by plausibly exogenous changes in the availability of natural gas, the end of war-related supply restrictions, and a series of coal strikes from 1946-1950. The identification strategy leverages the fact that coal consumption for heating increases during cold weather. Specifically, the mortality effects are identified from differences in the temperature-mortality response functions in state-years with greater coal consumption. Cold weather spells in high coal state-years saw greater increases in the mortality rates than cold weather spells in low coal state-years. Our estimates suggest that reductions in the use of bituminous coal for heating between 1945 and 1959 decreased average annual mortality by 2.2-3.5 percent, January mortality by 3.2-5.1 percent, average annual infant mortality by 1.6-2.8 percent, and January infant mortality by 3.1-4.6 percent. Our estimates are likely to be a lower-bound, since they only capture short-run relationships between coal and mortality. We thank Leila Abu-Orf, Paula Levin, and Katherine Rudolph for excellent research assistance. We are grateful to

Alan Barreca

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Concentration of major and trace elements in the Miocene lignite from the Canakkale-Can coalfield  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on major and trace element concentrations of three lignite samples, of which two are from the working lignite seam and one from a feed coal to an thermal power plant. The Canakkale-Can lignite deposit is currently being mined by open-cast mining methods despite its high sulfur content. The production lignites are mainly consumed by a fluidized-bed thermal power plant with 2 160 MW capacity and less domestic heating and industrial factories around Can. Major oxide compositions of the coal ash samples imply that the more abundant oxides are SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and less CaO and Fe2O{sub 3}. Trace element concentrations in the samples on whole-coal basis show that three samples analyzed were enriched in V, and also concentrations of B, Sc, Sn, Th, Tl, and U in one sample that exceed the range values of most world coals.

Inaner, H.; Karayigit, A. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Petrographic characteristics of the Kardia lignites (core KT6A-3), Ptolemais basin (Greece)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to provide useful coal-petrographic data, which will further help the characterization, exploitation, and utilization of the Kardia lignite deposit and also initially to access the depositional conditions mainly in terms of water table level and subsidence rate of the fen substrate. Ash contents, as well as the C, H, N, O, and S were determined in nine lignite samples from core KT6A-3. The ash contents (750{sup o}C) of the studied lignite seams range among 14-37% (on dry basis). Contents of C, H, N, and O have values between 34-52%, 2.5-4.2%, 0.8-2%, and 21-30.6%, respectively. Sulfur does not exceed 1.2%. Huminite group dominates with values between 84-99 vol%, mmf. All samples display a distinct prevalence in detrohuminite (up to 82 vol%) with attrinite being most abundant. Liptinite and inertinite macerals have low contents, which do not exceed 8% and 12%, respectively. The Kardia lignites are medium to very low-grade coals. They formed in fens under limnotelmatic regime and originated from herbaceous vegetation. During peat deposition, conditions were well moist, intense reducing, and favored increased bacterial activity. The ratio of plant growth and peat accumulation versus rise of water table due to the subsidence rate was not well balanced. The petrographical composition of the Kardia lignites is related either to a long residence time of the organic matter in the acrotelm or to an herbaceous vegetation origin.

Antoniadis, P.; Mavridou, E.; Papazisimou, S.; Christanis, K.; Gentzis, T. [CDX Canada Co., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Combustion characterization of coals for industrial applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The five parent coals ear-marked for this study have been characterized. These coals include (1) a Texas (Wilcox) lignite; (2) a Montana (Rosebud) subbituminous; (4) an Alabama (Black Creek) high volatile bituminous; and (5) a Pennsylvania (Buck Mountain) anthracite. Samples for analyses were prepared in accordance with the ASTM standard (ASTM D 2013-72). The following ASTM analyses were performed on each coal: proximate, ultimate, higher heating value, Hardgrove grindability index, ash fusibility, and ash composition. Additionally, the flammability index (FI) of each coal was determined in an in-house apparatus. The FI is indicative of the ignition temperature of a given fuel on a relative basis. The combustion kinetic parameters (apparent activation energies and frequency factors) of Montana subbituminous and Pennsylvania anthracite chars have also been derived from data obtained in the Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). This information depicts the combustion characteristics of these two coal chars. 1 ref., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Nsakala, N.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The mobile phase in coals: Its nature and modes of release: Final report: Part 1, Structural inferences from dry catalytic hydrogenation of a subbituminous coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a study to provide insight into the two component structural model of coal and the mechanisms of coal liquefaction, an approach was adopted in which a subbituminous coal was reacted with hydrogen in the presence of an impregnated molybdenum sulphide catalyst and in the absence of solvent. Reactions were conducted at temperatures between 300 and 400/sup 0/C and for reaction times up to 180 min. The composition and yields of gaseous products, chloroform-soluble liquids and insoluble residues were followed as a function of the reaction conditions by means of different analytical and characterization techniques: gas chromatography; /sup 1/H NMR; elemental analysis; FTIR; solvent swelling in pyridine. 105 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs.

Terrer, M.T.; Derbyshire, F.J.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

A study of high-temperature soaking has been continued. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids were used. Large pyridine extractabilities of more than 70 wt% were obtained for aR cases. A better understanding Of the mechanism is important for the development of coal preconversion using the high-temperature soaking. To investigate the mechanism of the change in coal solubilization by high-temperature soaking, a simple soaking experiment was conducted. The extract from the Illinois No. 6 coal was treated in toluene at three different temperatures, and the treated samples were analyzed by coal swelling using the recently developed method. Furthermore, effects of soaking time, soaking temperature, soluble portions, and coal rank were examined by using actual coal liquids. Although a cross-linked, three-dimensional macromoleculer model has been widely accepted for the structure of coat it has previously been reported that significant portions (far more generally believed) of coal molecules are physically associated. It is known, as reviewed in that paper, that most portions of bituminous coal can be disintegrated in coal derived liquids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 300--400{degrees}C (high-temperature soaking). It was proposed that electron donors and acceptors of low molecular mass contained in these materials substitute coal-coal complexes with charge-transfer interactions. This is physical dissociation of associated coal molecules. However, chemical reactions may occur at these temperatures.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Co-liquefaction of the Elbistan Lignite and Poplar Sawdust. Part I: The Effect of the Liquefaction Parameters  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust, and the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and the poplar sawdust in an inert atmosphere and in non-catalytic conditions have been examined. Also, the effects of solvent/coal ratio and stirring speed on the total conversion derived as the result of the liquefaction process was attempted to be determined. Based on the results, although the effects of the solvent/coal ratio and the stirring speed on total conversion are similar for both the Elbistan lignite and the poplar sawdust, it was also noted that, under similar conditions, the conversion for the poplar sawdust was higher, as compared to the conversion of the Elbistan lignite. As the result of the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust under inert atmospheric conditions, the total conversion was increased partially, depending on both solvent/coal ratio and the speed of stirring. However, it was also noted that the total conversion did not change to a significant extent in high solvent/coal ratios and in stirring speed. As the result of the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust under inert atmospheric conditions, total conversion was increased, based on the solvent/coal ratio. However, as in the case of the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust, it was noted that the high solvent/coal ratios (i.e., solvent/coal ratios of higher than 2/1) did not have a significant effect on the total conversion that was derived as the result of the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust.

Karaca, H.; Acar, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Keklik, I. [Inonu University, Malatya (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy {gamma}-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the bunker of Kardia mine, Ptolemais. According to the obtained results, the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not adequate and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The deterioration of the on-line measurements' accuracy, compared to previous applications in other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the lignite ash content and ash composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average atomic number of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of this method to low-grade lignites that exhibit large variation in ash content and composition. 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis [Public Power Corporation SA, Athens (Greece). General Division of Mines

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP mercury control In low Sulfur eaStern bItumInouS coal flue GaS Background Full-scale field testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of activated carbon injection (ACI) as a mercury-specific control technology for certain coal-fired power plants, depending on the plant's coal feedstock and existing air pollution control device configuration. In a typical configuration, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is injected downstream of the plant's air heater and upstream of the existing particulate control device - either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter (FF). The PAC adsorbs the mercury from the combustion flue gas and is subsequently captured along with the fly ash in the ESP or FF. ACI can have some negative side

132

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 2. Gasification of Jetson bituminous coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report describes the gasification testing of Jetson bituminous coal. This Western Kentucky coal was gasified during an initial 8-day and subsequent 5-day period. Material flows and compositions are reported along with material and energy balances. Operational experience is also described. 4 refs., 24 figs., 17 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-Wet FGD  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury control for Plants firing Mercury control for Plants firing texas lignite and equiPPed with esP-wet fgd Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. One promising mercury control technology involves the use of sorbents such as powdered activated carbon. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted for various combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance, and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. Sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite coal, which are responsible for about 10 percent of annual U.S. power plant

134

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

135

Production of Medium BTU Gas by In Situ Gasification of Texas Lignite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The necessity of providing clean, combustible fuels for use in Gulf Coast industries is well established; one possible source of such a fuel is to perform in situ gasification of Texas lignite which lies below stripping depths. If oxygen (rather than air) is used for gasification, the resulting medium Btu gas could be economically transported by pipeline from the gasification sites to the Gulf coast. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects of implementing this technology are discussed.

Edgar, T. F.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

The First Coal Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Plants Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 329-A January 25, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE FIRST COAL PLANTS Coal has been called "the mainspring" of our civilization. You are probably familiar, in a general way, with the story of how it originated ages ago from beds of peat which were very slowly changed to coal; and how it became lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous, bituminous, or anthracite coal, depending on bacterial and chemical changes in the peat, how much it was compressed under terrific pressure, and the amount of heat involved in the process. You also know that peat is formed by decaying vegetation in shallow clear fresh-water swamps or bogs, but it is difficult to find a simple description of the kinds of plants that, living and dying during different periods of the earth's history, created beds of peat which eventually became coal.

137

Gasification Â… Program Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

th th Annual International Colloquium on Environmentally Preferred Advanced Power Generation, Costa Mesa, CA, February 7, 2012 An Overview of U.S. DOE's Gasification Systems Program Jenny B. Tennant Technology Manager - Gasification 2 Gasification Program Goal "Federal support of scientific R&D is critical to our economic competitiveness" Dr. Steven Chu, Secretary of Energy November 2010 The goal of the Gasification Program is to reduce the cost of electricity, while increasing power plant availability and efficiency, and maintaining the highest environmental standards 3 U.S. Coal Resources Low rank: lignite and sub-bituminous coal - About 50% of the U.S. coal reserves - Nearly 50% of U.S. coal production - Lower sulfur Bituminous coal

138

Formation and prevention of agglomerated deposits during the gasification of high-sodium lignite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-sodium lignite from the Freedom mine in North Dakota was tested in the transport gasifier at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). During the first use of the high-sodium lignite in October 2003, agglomerated deposits formed at various locations in the transport gasifier system. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to characterize the deposits, understand the mechanism of the deposit formation, and test various methods of preventing or minimizing the agglomeration. The results of the deposit analysis and initial lab studies suggested that sodium released from the lignite was deposited on the surface of the sand bed material, resulting in the formation of sticky sodium silicates. Additional laboratory tests indicated that the agglomeration could be avoided or minimized by replacing the sand with a nonreactive bed material (e.g., coarse coal ash), operating at slightly reduced temperatures and using certain types of additives. By using these procedures, we completely eliminated the deposition problems in a subsequent gasification run in August 2004. 10 refs., 10 figs.

Robert S. Dahlin; WanWang Peng; Matt Nelson; Pannalal Vimalchand; Guohai Liu [Southern Research Institute and Southern Company Services, Wilsonville, AL (United States). Power Systems Development Facility

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Co-firing of olive residue with lignite in bubbling FBC  

SciTech Connect

The effect of biomass share on gaseous pollutant emissions from fluidized bed co-firing of various biomass fuels with high calorific value coals have extensively been investigated to date. However, effect of co-firing of olive residues with low calorific value lignites having high ash and sulfur contents has not been studied in bubbling fluidized bed combustors. In this study, experimental results of various runs pertaining to gaseous emissions (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, NO, N{sub 2}O) from METU 0.3 MWt Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor (ABFBC) test rig co-firing olive residue with indigenous lignite at different biomass shares are presented. The results reveal that co-firing increases combustion efficiency irrespective of the biomass share and that increase in biomass share reduces N{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} emissions considerably while increasing CO emission. O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and NO emissions are not found sensitive to increase in biomass share. Olive residues are co-fired with high ash and sulfur containing lignite without any operational problems.

Gogebakan, Z.; Gogebakan, Y.; Selcuk, N. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A B  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

oils and diesel) Crude oil and lease condensate Motor gasoline LPG (Ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, butane, butylene) Natural gas Anthracite Bituminous and subbituminous...

142

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - University of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

control technologies at the pilot scale that show promise for application at plants burning Gulf Coast lignite, or a blend with subbituminous coal. Gulf Coast lignite is one of...

143

Comparison of coal and iron requirements between bituminous coal hydrogenation and low temperature carbonization (L. T. C. ) followed by hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

Plants producing 100,000 tons/yr aviation gasoline and 25,000 tons/yr of liquid petroleum gasoline (L.P.G.) by hydrogenation of coal and 100,000 tons/yr of aviation gasoline, 15,000 tons/yr L.P.G., and 912,000 tons/yr of excess L.T.C. coke by L.T.C. followed by hydrogenation of the L.T.C. tar are considered. Specific data are included on L.T.C., specific data for L.T.C. tar hydrogenation, and total coal requirement for L.T.C. of coal and hydrogenation of the L.T.C. tar. Information is also included on hydrogenation of bituminous coal and iron requirements. Three charts show differences between various bituminous coal conversion processes. The iron requirements for L.T.C. and tar hydrogenation was 100,500 tons and for bituminous coal hydrogenation it was 123,300 tons. An input of 1,480,000 tons of L.T.C. coal was calculated. The power coal requirement for L.T.C. and hydrogenation was 1,612,000 tons. The coal requirement for tar hydrogenation was 482,000 tons and 1,130,000 tons for surplus coke and gas. Therefore about 30% of the total coal was used for aviation gasoline and L.P.G. and about 70% for surplus coke and gas.

1943-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

144

Stability of the bituminous coal microstructure upon exposure to high pressures of helium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements of the structure of two Australian bituminous coals (particle size of 1-0.5 mm) before, during, and after exposure to 155 bar of helium were made to identify any effects of pressure alone on the pore size distribution of coal and any irreversible effects upon exposure to high pressures of helium in the pore size range from 3 nm to 10 {mu}m. No irreversible effects upon exposure were identified for any pore size. No effects of pressure on pore size distribution were observed, except for a small effect at a pore size of about 2 {mu}m for one coal. This study provides a convenient baseline for SANS and USANS investigations on sorption of gases at elevated pressures on coals, by distinguishing between the effect of pressure alone on coal pore size distribution and against the effect of the gas to be investigated. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Richard Sakurovs; Andrzej P. Radliski; Yuri B. Melnichenko; Tomas Blach; Gang Cheng; Hartmut Lemmel; Helmut Rauch [CSIRO Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Petcoke and Low-Rank Coal/Lignite Supply Outlook for IGCC Evaluations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petroleum coke, a by-product of petroleum refining, is used in many industries, with the highest-sulfur forms of petcoke disposed of as fuel for power generation. Because of its high heat content and low moisture, petcoke holds benefits in a fuel blend with lower grade fuels such as lignite for integrated coal gasification. This report reviews the characteristics of petroleum coke, presents its supply and demand outlook, and estimates the relative costs of various coals and petroleum coke at locations in...

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

146

Continuous Ammonia Slip Measurements on a Lignite-Fired Unit with a Selective Catalytic Reduction System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ammonia slip measurements that were made by a tunable diode laser (TDL) were conducted on a lignite-fired unit with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system using a newly developed adjustable flange assembly for dynamic alignment of cross-duct measurements. The single path optics were integrated with a fiber optic–coupled TDL system (Unisearch LasIR) and two shields to allow measurements over the 25-foot (7.62-meter) flue gas duct dimension. The nominal 4.5-foot (1.67-meter) shields were required to ...

2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

147

Exploration of a lignite-bearing basin in Northern Ireland using ground magnetic and VLF-EM methods  

SciTech Connect

In an exploration technique feasibility study, a detailed magnetic and VLF-EM survey was carried out on the poorly exposed, lignite-bearing Crumlin subbasin within the Lough Neagh Basin, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland. The faulted and onlapped margins of the basin, as well as lithological units and structures within the basin, were delineated by simple processing techniques applied to the data. The combination of the two methods overcomes the limitations of each method when it is used alone. These techniques could be successfully applied to other lignite-bearing basins sited on strongly magnetic basement worldwide.

McCaffrey, R.J.; McElroy, W.J.; Leslie, A.G. [Queen`s Univ. of Belfast (United Kingdom)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM images showed a clearly marked boundary between the ash and the silica. Sodium and sulfur are the main culprits in the

Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

149

JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System  

SciTech Connect

Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM images showed a clearly marked boundary between the ash and the silica. Sodium and sulfur are the main culprits in the

Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

150

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Design and economics of a plant to convert western subbituminous coal to SNG (substitute natural gas) using KRW (KRW Energy Systems Inc. ) gasifiers. Topical report (Final) May 1985-January 1986  

SciTech Connect

A first-pass design and cost estimate indicates that the levelized constant-dollar cost of gas for a 125 billion Btu/day plant to convert western subbituminous coal to substitute natural gas (SNG) using KRW gasifiers is $4.70/MMBtu. Process development allowances (PDA) increase the gas cost to $5.09/MMBtu. The levelized constant-dollar gas cost for a scaled-up 250 billion Btu/day plant is estimated at $4.17/MMBtu, indicating that smaller plants can be constructed with less capital risk while producing methane at only slightly higher costs.

Smith, J.T.; Hanny, D.J.; Smelser, S.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Kinetics of catalyzed steam gasification of low-rank coals to produce hydrogen. Final report for the period ending March 31, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The principal goal of coal char-steam gasification research at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to establish the feasibility of low-rank coal gasification for hydrogen production. The program has focused on determining reaction conditions for maximum product gas hydrogen content and on evaluating process kinetics with and without catalyst addition. The high inherent reactivity of lignites and subbituminous coals, compared to coals of higher rank, make them the probable choice for use in steam gasification. An extensive matrix of char-steam gasification tests was performed in a laboratory-scale thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at temperatures of 700/sup 0/, 750/sup 0/, and 800/sup 0/C. Four low-rank coals and one bituminous coal were included in the TGA test matrix. Catalysts screened in the study included K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, trona, nahcolite, sunflower hull ash, and lignite ash. Results showed uncatalyzed North Dakota and Texas lignites to be slightly more reactive than a Wyoming subbituminous coal, and 8 to 10 times more reactive than an Illinois bituminous coal. Several catalysts that substantially improved low-rank coal steam gasification rates included pure and mineral (trona and nahcolite) alkali carbonates. The reactivity observed when using trona and nahcolite to catalyze the steam gasification was the highest, at nearly 3.5 times that without catalysts. The use of these inexpensive, naturally-occurring alkalis as gasification catalysts may result in elimination of the need for catalyst recovery in the hydrogen-from-coal process, thereby simplifying operation and improving process economics. The study included evaluations of temperature and catalyst loading effects, coal and catalyst screening, and determinations of the apparent activation energies of the steam gasification reaction. 11 refs., 23 figs., 9 tabs.

Galegher, S.J.; Timpe, R.C.; Willson, W.G.; Farnum, S.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Kinetics of catalyzed steam gasification of low-rank coals to produce hydrogen. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal goal of coal char-steam gasification research is to establish the feasibility of low-rank coal gasification for hydrogen production. The program has focused on determining reaction conditions for maximum product gas hydrogen content and on evaluating process kinetics with and without catalyst addition. The high inherent reactivity of lignites and subbituminous coals, compared to coals of higher rank, make them the probable choice for use in steam gasification. An extensive matrix of char-steam gasification tests was performed in a laboratory-scale thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at temperatures of 700/sup 0/, 750/sup 0/, and 800/sup 0/C. Reaction conditions for these tests were based on the results of earlier work at UNDERC in which product gases from fixed-bed, atmospheric pressure, steam gasification at temperatures of 700/sup 0/ to 750/sup 0/C were found to contain 63 to 65 mole % hydrogen, with the remainder being carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and less than 1 mole % methane. Four low-rank coals and one bituminous coal were included in the TGA test matrix. Catalysts screened in the study included K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, trona, nahcolite, sunflower hull ash, and lignite ash. Results of this study showed uncatalyzed North Dakota and Texas lignites to be slightly more reactive than a Wyoming subbituminous coal, and 8 to 10 times more reactive than an Illinois bituminous coal. Several catalysts that substantially improved low-rank coal steam gasification rates included pure and mineral (trona and nahcolite) alkali carbonates. The reactivity observed when using trona and nahcolite to catalyze the steam gasification was the highest, at nearly 3.5 times that without catalysts. The use of these inexpensive, naturally-occurring, alkalis as gasification catalysts may result in elimination of the need for catalyst recovery in the hydrogen-from-coal process. 11 refs., 23 figs., 9 tabs.

Galegher, S.J.; Timpe, R.C.; Willson, W.G.; Farnum, S.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Thirteenth biennial lignite symposium: technology and utilization of low-rank coals proceedings. Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These proceedings are the collected manuscripts from the 1985 Lignite Symposium held at Bismarck, North Dakota on May 21-23, 1985. Sponsorship of the thirteenth biennial meeting was by the United States Department of Energy, the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center, and the Texas University Coal Research Consortium. Seven technical sessions plus two luncheons and a banquet were held during the two and a half day meeting. The final half day included tours of the Great Plains Gasification Plant; Basin Electric's Antelope Valley Power Station; and the Freedom Mine. Sessions covered diverse topics related to the technology and use of low-rank coals including coal development and public policy, combustion, gasification, environmental systems for low-rank coal utilization, liquefaction, beneficiation and coal mining and coal inorganics. All the papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

Jones, M.L. (ed.)

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Pilot Plant Assessment of Blend Properties and Their Impact on Critical Power Plant Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low-sulfur subbituminous coals, currently in demand to meet regulated SO2 emission standards, are very different in composition from bituminous coal and affect many operating characteristics when fired in boilers designed for bituminous coal. This report documents a pilot-scale study of the relative impacts of a subbituminous coal or blend containing subbituminous coal on unit operating characteristics such as mill performance, furnace wall slagging, convective pass fouling, and electrostatic precipitato...

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

158

Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Coal Blending for the Reduction of Acid Gas Emissions: A Characterization of the Milling and Combustion Blends of Powder River Basin Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a systematic study of performance and emission parameters from the combustion of Eastern bituminous coal, a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and various blends of these two coals. This study also investigated the effects of coal blending on mill performance, combustion, particulate emissions, and various emissions.

2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any balance-of-plant impacts of the mercury control process, including those associated with ESP performance and fly ash reuse properties. Upon analysis of the project results, the project team identified several areas of interest for further study. Follow-on testing was conducted on Unit 2 in 2009 with the entire unit treated with injected sorbent so that mercury removal across the FGD could be measured and so that other low-ash impact technologies could be evaluated. Three approaches to minimizing ash impacts were tested: (1) injection of 'low ash impact' sorbents, (2) alterations to the injection configuration, and (3) injection of calcium bromide in conjunction with sorbent. These conditions were tested with the goal of identifying the conditions that result in the highest mercury removal while maintaining the sorbent injection at a rate that preserves the beneficial use of ash.

Katherine Dombrowski

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 8. Gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eighth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The period of gasification test was July 28 to August 19, 1983. 6 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Water table recovery in a reclaimed surface lignite mine, Grimes County, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water table recovery in four reclaimed mine blocks containing replaced overburden has been monitored at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas since 1986. Recovery analysis was conducted based on data recorded at 27 wells installed in the reclaimed land and 23 wells installed in adjacent unmined land. It was found that water table recovery in reclaimed mine blocks is predictable: recovery is an exponential function of time and may be described by the following equation: Ew = RC log (t) + Eo where Ew equals any water table elevation above the mine floor to which recovery has occurred over the time, t, transpired between the time recovery began to the time Ew is attained. The constant Eo is the y-intercept which approximates the water table elevation at the beginning time of recovery, to referenced from the time of spoil replacement. The Recovery Coefficient (RC) is the average slope of the recovery curve. RC is proportional to inflow rate and the magnitude (potential saturated thickness) of water table recovery. As RC increases, recovery rate and/or magnitude increases. If recovery is uniform with respect to mine floor elevation, RC distributions for wells in a mine block can be standardized with respect to the mine block dimensions such that one RC value is attained for each mine block. RC is controlled by the complex interrelationships of several factors which may be described by the following factorial equation: RC= f (MD, HS, HP, MB, S 99 where MD = Mine block Dimensions, HS = Hydrostratigraphic Setting, HP = Hydraulic Properties of the spoil, MB = Moisture Balance for the mine area, and SW = Surface Water contribution to spoil resaturation. Based on the analyses the following conclusions were made pertaining to water table recovery at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine: 1) rate of recovery does not appear to be controlled by the amount of sand in the pre-mine overburden, 2) surface water impoundments do not significantly recharge the mine blocks, 3) water table drawdown during mining can impact the local water table down-gradient of the mined land, 4) mining in several locations over an area composed of fluvial-deltaic sediments forces hydraulic connection of many of the stratigraphic units producing an unconfined water table aquifer from the pre-mine confined ground-water systems.

Peace, Kelley H.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Oxidative derivatization and solubilization of coal. Final report. Period: October 1, 1986 - April 30, 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the solubilization of coal by oxidative means to produce motor fuels. Nitric acid was used in the first of two approaches taken to cleave aliphatic linkages in coal and reduce the size of its macrostructure. Mild conditions, with temperatures up to a maximum of 75 C, and nitric acid concentrations below 20% by weight, characterize this process. The solid product, obtained in high yields, is soluble in polar organic solvents. Lower alcohols, methanol in particular, are of interest as carrier solvents in diesel fuel applications. Coals investigated were New York State peat, Wyodak subbituminous coal, North Dakota lignite, and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The lower tank coals were easily converted and appear well suited to the process, while the bituminous Illinois No. 6 and Pitt Seam coals were unreactive. We concentrated our efforts on Wyodak coal and North Dakota lignite. Reaction conditions with regards to temperature, acid concentration, and time were optimized to obtain high product selectivity at maximum conversion. A continuous process scheme was developed for single pass coal conversions of about 50% to methanol-soluble product.

Schulz, J.G.; Porowski, E.N.; Straub, A.M.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Catalyzed steam gasification of low-rank coals to produce hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advance coal gasification technologies using low-rank coal is a promising alternative for meeting future demand for hydrogen. Steam gasification tests conducted at temperatures between 700/sup 0/ and 800/sup 0/C and atmospheric pressure resulted in product gas compositions matching those predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, 63-65 mol% hydrogen and less then 1 mol% methane. Steam gasification tests with four low-rank coals and a single bituminous coal were performed in a laboratory-scale thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at temperatures of 700/sup 0/, 750/sup 0/, and 800/sup 0/C to evaluate process kinetics with and without catalyst addition. Catalysts screened included K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, trona, nahcolite, sunflower hull ash, and recycled lignite ash. North Dakota and Texas lignite chars were slightly more reactive than a Wyoming subbituminous coal char and eight to ten times more reactive than an Illinois bituminous coal char. Pure and mineral (trona nd nahcolite) alkali carbonates and recycled ash from K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-catalyzed steam gasification tests substantially improved low-rank coal steam gasification rates. The reactivities obtained using trona and nahcolite to catalyze the steam gasification were the highest, at nearly 3.5 times those without catalysts.

Sears, R.E.; Timpe, R.C.; Galegher, S.J.; Willson, W.G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Functional and taxonomic diversity of microbial communities in reclaimed East Texas lignite mine soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A two-year study was conducted at Big Brown lignite mine in Freestone County, Texas, to determine the influence of surface mining and reclamation on the functional and taxonomic diversity in soil microbial communities. Quarterly soil samples were collected along a chronosequence including sites of 0, 1, 4, 12, and 28 years following mining and reclamation. In addition to these sites, an unmined reference site, and a tree mott (reclamation age of 20 years) were included in the study. The functional diversity of the microbial communities was assessed using the Biolog sole-carbon source utilization (SCSU) assay. Taxonomic diversity was measured using whole-soil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. Results indicated that surface mining had a transient influence on both the functional and taxonomic diversity of the soil microbial communities reducing complexity during disturbance and early reclamation. However, the effect was reversed as the reclamation process matured. Principal component analysis (PCA) was able to separate the younger sites from the older sites in both the SCSU profiles and the FAME profiles of the soils. The separation of sites was greater, however, in the analysis of the FAME profiles suggesting a more significant change in the level of taxonomic diversity. Results from the SCSU analysis revealed a return to similarity with the reference site between one and four years. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles indicated a return to similarity with the reference site in approximately 12 years.

Peach, Allen Edward

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Regional Studies Program. Extraction of North Dakota lignite: environmental and reclamation issues  

SciTech Connect

This study, sponsored by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, addresses the environmental implications of extraction of coal in North Dakota. These implications are supported by details of the geologic and historical background of the area of focus, the lignite resources in the Fort Union coalfield portion. The particular concentration is on the four-county area of Mercer, Dunn, McLean, and Oliver where substantial coal reserves exist and a potential gasification plant site has been identified. The purposes of this extensive study are to identify the land use and environmental problems and issues associated with extraction; to provide a base of information for assessing the impacts of various levels of extraction; to examine the economics and feasibility of reclamation; and to identify research that needs to be undertaken to evaluate and to improve reclamation practices. The study also includes a description of the physical and chemical soil characteristics and hydrological and climatic factors entailed in extraction, revegetation, and reclamation procedures.

LaFevers, J.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Dvorak, A.J.

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

 

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Origin and Method of Transportation, 2006 Origin and Method of Transportation, 2006 April 2008 2006 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution table formats and data sources made in 2005 are carried over to the 2006 table except in several significant areas (See Note for 2005 changes). In 2005, EIA reported coal synfuel distributed to electric generating plants as a single national total. For its 2006 table, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data by making follow-up contacts with the synfuel plants to

170

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 December 2008 2007 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution data sources made in 2006 are carried over to the 2007 tables. As in 2006, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data with previously collected information to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating consumer, which was not reported on the EIA-3A survey form. Although not contained in the EIA-6A master file, this information has been documented in an ancillary spreadsheet in the EIA

171

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Table 4.8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons) Region and State Anthracite Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Total Underground Surface Underground Surface Underground Surface Surface 1 Underground Surface Total Appalachian .............................................. 4.0 3.3 68.2 21.9 0.0 0.0 1.1 72.1 26.3 98.4 Alabama ................................................... .0 .0 .9 2.1 .0 .0 1.1 .9 3.1 4.0 Kentucky, Eastern .................................... .0 .0 .8 9.1 .0 .0 .0 .8 9.1 9.8 Ohio .......................................................... .0 .0 17.4 5.7 .0 .0 .0 17.4 5.7 23.1

172

PriceTechNotes2011.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

prices prices are developed for the following three categories: coking coal; steam coal (all noncoking coal); and coal coke imports and exports. Coking coal, used in the industrial sector only, is a high-quality bitumi- nous coal that is used to make coal coke. Steam coal, which may be used by all sectors, includes anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite. In the industrial sector, coal consumption is the sum of cok- ing coal and steam coal. The industrial coal price is the quantity- weighted average price of these two components. Imports and exports of coal coke are available only on the national level and are accounted for in the industrial sector. Coal coke imports and ex- ports are reported separately and are not averaged with other coal prices and expenditures. Coking Coal Coking coal is generally more expensive than steam coal; therefore, it is identified separately

173

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Electric Utilties by State, 2012 2. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Electric Utilties by State, 2012 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Census Division and State Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight New England 353 2.20 7.7 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Connecticut 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Maine 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 353 2.20 7.7 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- --

174

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: 5. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Industrial Sector by State, 2012 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Census Division and State Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight New England 19 0.66 6.9 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Connecticut 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Maine 19 0.66 6.9 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- --

175

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Stocks: August 2011 Coal Stocks: August 2011 Stocks Coal stocks continued the usual summer decline as utilities burned into their summer stockpile in August. Sigificant declines from August 2010 were seen in total coal stockpiles, driven by a 14 percent drop in bituminous coal stockpiles as well as a 10 percent drop in subbituminous coal stockpiles. Lignite stockpiles declined by 6 percent over the same time period. Days of burn The average number of days of burn held at electric power plants is a forward looking estimate of coal supply given a power plant's current stockpile and past consumption patterns. The average number of days of burn held on hand at electric power plants increased slightly in August 2011 compared to previous months. This was largely driven by increases in

176

Coal production: 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US coal production and related data are reported for the year 1980, with similar data for 1979 given for comparison. The data here collected on Form EIA-7A, coal production report, from 3969 US mines that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1980. Among the items covered are production, prices, employment, productivity, stocks, and recoverable reserves. Data are reported by state, county, coal producing district, type of mining, and by type of coal (anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite). Also included are a glossary of coal terms used, a map of the coal producing disricts, and form EIA-7A with instructions. 14 figures, 63 tables.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Supplement a to compilation of air pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources. Fifth edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Supplement to AP-42 addresses pollutant-generating activity from Bituminous and Subbituminous Coal Combustion; Anthracite Coal Combustion; Fuel Oil Combustion; Natural Gas Combustion; Wood Waste Combustion in Boilers; Lignite Combustion; Waste Oil Combustion: Stationary Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation; Heavy-duty Natural Gas-fired Pipeline Compressor Engines; Large Stationary Diesel and all Stationary Dual-fuel engines; Natural Gas Processing; Organic Liquid Storage Tanks; Meat Smokehouses; Meat Rendering Plants; Canned Fruits and Vegetables; Dehydrated Fruits and Vegetables; Pickles, Sauces and Salad Dressing; Grain Elevators and Processes; Cereal Breakfast Foods; Pasta Manufacturing; Vegetable Oil Processing; Wines and Brandy; Coffee Roasting; Charcoal; Coal Cleaning; Frit Manufacturing; Sand and Gravel Processing; Diatomite Processing; Talc Processing; Vermiculite Processing; paved Roads; and Unpaved Roads. Also included is information on Generalized Particle Size Distributions.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Converting syncrudes to transportation fuels: Appendix 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Syncrudes derived from oil shale and those produced in direct coal liquefaction processes can be converted to transportation fuels using modern commercial hydroprocessing technology. Upgrading routes typically consist of hydrogen addition and removal of heteroatom and inorganic impurities. This paper reviews refining routes and discusses the properties of finished transportation fuel products (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel) produced from syncrudes. Fuels produced from bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite are contrasted with those produced from oil shale and petroleum. Transportation fuels from shale oil resemble those from waxy petroleum crudes. Upgraded products from liquids made in H-Coal, EDS, and SRC-II direct coal liquefaction processes are low in paraffin content and consist mainly of cyclic hydrocarbons. As a result, the latter have some unusual and desirable properties for transportation fuels. 14 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

Sullivan, R.F.; O'Rear, D.J.; Frumkin, H.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Independent Power Producers by State, 2012 3. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Independent Power Producers by State, 2012 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Census Division and State Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight New England 732 0.87 10.5 41 0.09 2.0 0 -- -- Connecticut 0 -- -- 41 0.09 2.0 0 -- -- Maine 32 0.80 7.0 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 700 0.88 10.7 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- --

180

 

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Origin and Method of Transportation, 2007 December 2008 2007 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution data sources made in 2006 are carried over to the 2007 tables. As in 2006, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data with previously collected information to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating consumer, which was not reported on the EIA-3A survey form. Although not contained in the EIA-6A

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

 

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 April 2008 2006 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution table formats and data sources made in 2005 are carried over to the 2006 table except in several significant areas (See Note for 2005 changes). In 2005, EIA reported coal synfuel distributed to electric generating plants as a single national total. For its 2006 table, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data by making follow-up contacts with the synfuel plants to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating

182

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

into the substantial reserves of mid- and high-sulfur bituminous coal in Illinois, Indiana, and western Kentucky and from lignite mines in Texas and Louisiana. Appalachian coal...

183

PURPOSE - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Waste/Other Coal (including anthracite culm, bituminous gob, fine coal, lignite waste, waste coal) RC. tons. 20. 29. ... the Government Accountability Office, ...

184

Management of lignite fly ash for improving soil fertility and crop productivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and bioferfertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy metal contents and in the level of gamma-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

Ram, L.C.; Srivastava, N.K.; Jha, S.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Masto, R.E.; Selvi, V.A. [Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Flash hydropyrolysis of coal. Quarterly report No. 4, October 1--December 31, 1977  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this program is to experimentally study the process variables and chemistry of the Flash Hydropyrolysis Process, a rapid gas-phase, non-catalytic coal hydrogenation technique developed at BNL for the conversion to gaseous and liquid fuels. The experimental equipment used for this purpose is a highly instrumented 1 inch down-flow tubular reactor originally designed to operate at up to 4000 psi and 800/sup 0/C, with coal feed up to 1 lb/hr. These conditions are being extended to include temperatures to 900/sup 0/C at pressures equal to or less than 2500 psi and coal feed to 2 lbs/hr. Coal and char analyses are performed on a routine basis. A second distillation curve was performed on the total organic liquid product, this time extending the distillation temperature range to 350/sup 0/C. The results were similar to the first curve indicating that the liquid contains approximately 50% BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) and 50% heavier hydrocarbons. A major portion of the experimental effort was devoted to the study of the effect of coal particle residence time. A number of exploratory runs were also conducted and results are reported here, including the use of a Battelle Treated Coal (BTC-caking coal treated with CaO), a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal, a mixture of lignite and lignite char and a lignite impregnated with iron.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

JV Task-123 Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and with funding from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducting tests to prove that a high level of mercury control (>90%) can be achieved at a power plant burning a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. With funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), DOE, and Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates Program, the EERC completed an additional sampling project to provide data as to the behavior of a number of trace elements across the various pollution control devices, with a special emphasis on the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results showed that the concentrations of almost all the elements of interest leaving the stack were very low, and a high percentage of the trace elements were captured in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (for most, >80%). Although, with a few exceptions, the overall mass balances were generally quite good, the mass balances across the wet FGD were more variable. This is most likely a result of some of the concentrations being very low and also the uncertainties in determining flows within a wet FGD.

Dennis Laudal

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

None

1982-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

An RTD study for the flow of lignite particles through a pilot rotary dryer. Part 2: Flighted drum case  

SciTech Connect

In Part 2 of this work a flighted pilot rotating cylindrical drum, intended to be used as either a dryer or calciner (kiln), has been used to investigate the flow, through it, of pulverized moist lignite. Tracer pulse input-response experiments have been performed. Residence Time Distribution (RTD) data have been deduced for three types of flight geometry, namely: Rectangular (RA), Equal Angular Distribution (EAD) and Equal Horizontal Distribution (EHD). For each flight shape, mean residence time {bar t} has been correlated with drum operating conditions. The sequence {bar t}{sub EAD} < {bar t}{sub RA} < {bar t}{sub EHD} has been validated. A comparison between the residence time predictions for the flighted and the bare drum has indicated that {bar t} for the former may be higher by up to 3.5 times than that for the latter. Exceptionally high solids hold-up values (i.e., Z = 0.13--0.42) have been observed and compared to theoretical predictions. Particle size segregation during lignite flow through the flighted drum was not confirmed.

Hatzilyberis, K.S.; Androutsopoulos, G.P. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Soil microbial biomass: an estimator of soil development in reclaimed lignite mine soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A two-year study was conducted at the Big Brown lignite mine in Fairfield, Texas, to determine the rate and extent of recovery of the soil microbial biomass (SMB) in mixed overburden. The relationships between SMB carbon (SMBC), basal respiration and soil organic carbon (SOC) accretion was evaluated using the respiratory quotient (qCO2) and the ratio of the SMB to SOC (SMBC:SOC ratio). Newly leveled, 1-, 3-, 5-, 10-, 15-, and 23-year-old reclaimed mixed overburden as well as an unmined soil were sampled bimonthly to measure SMIBC and other parameters. Three methods [chloroform fumigation incubation (FI), chloroform fumigation extraction (FE), and substrate-induced respiration (SIR)] were used to measure SMB and compared as estimators of SMB in reclaimed mine soils. Basal respiration (CO2 evolved from untreated soil), metabolic quotient (i.e. specific respiratory activity; qCO2; C02 produced per unit mass of SMB), and the SMBC:SOC ratio (the abundance of SMB relative to SOC) were used to determine trends in microbial biomass dynamics relative to SOC accumulation. A nearly linear increase in SMB was observed over the chronosequence of mine soils (r--O.98 to 0.99) for each of the three biomass methods. Mean values of SMB from 12 sample dates ranged from 41 pg SMIBC g-1 at the 0-year site to 291 ptg SMBC g-' at the 23-year site. The unmined reference soil averaged 84 jig SMBC g-1 through the period of the study. The qCO2 declined from 0.24 to 0. 12 Mg C02-C Mg SMBC d-' during the first year and tended to stabilize near 0.06 to 0.09 as reclaimed sites matured. The ratios of SMBC:SOC increased linearly with age of site through 23 years (r--O. 97). A substantial amount of seasonal variation in SMB was observed during the two-year study. Older sites (15-and 23-years) showed significant fluctuations of SMB that correlated well with the growing season of Coastal bermudagrass. Microbial biomass peaked during mid to late summer and declined to a minimum during the cold, wet winter months. Younger sites were less affected by seasonal influences, and changes at these sites appeared more related to changes in soil moisture.

Swanson, Eric Scott

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers for lignite gasification with KRW gasifiers for gasification of coal fines. Topical report (Final), April 1985-January 1986  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A first-pass design and cost estimate was prepared for a plant to convert lignite to substitute natural gas (SNG) using Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify the coal and the KRW fluid-bed gasifiers to gasify the coal fines. The overall plant thermal efficiency is between that of the Lurgi and KRW base case designs. The study-case design is of commercial interest compared to a Lurgi plant when the Lurgi plant coal fines cannot be sold. The study case is more capital-intensive because it requires more-expensive boilers and more of different types of process units than either base case. There is no advantage over a KRW plant design that provides a 30% lower cost of gas.

Smelser, S.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

An RTD study for the flow of lignite particles through a pilot rotary dryer. Part 1: Bare drum case  

SciTech Connect

In Part 1 of the present work a pilot rotating cylindrical drum, without an internal lifting flight system (bare), has been employed for the study of lignite motion through it, at ambient temperature. Tracer pulse stimulus-response experiments have been carried out to deduce residence time distribution (RTD) data and relate them to the operating conditions (slope, speed of revolution, etc.). Mean residence time, space-time and solids hold-up have been correlated with the drum operating conditions. Experimental data of mean axial velocity of solids have been compared with theoretical predictions and found to deviate within a {+-}15% margin. A size segregation of particles during their motion through the kiln under a variety of operating conditions has been confirmed and quantified. An average maximum divergence of 20% between the residence time of the smallest and that of the largest nominal particle sizes has been assessed.

Hatzilyberis, K.S.; Androutsopoulos, G.P. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Task 50 - deposition of lignites in the Fort Union Group and related strata of the northern Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

Late Cretaceous, Paleocene, and early Eocene geologic and paleontologic studies were undertaken in western North Dakota, eastern and south-central Montana, and northwestern and northeastern Wyoming. These study areas comprise the Williston, Bighorn, and Powder River Basins, all of which contain significant lignite resources. Research was undertaken in these basins because they have the best geologic sections and fossil record for the development of a chronostratigraphic (time-rock) framework for the correlation of lignite beds and other economic resources. A thorough understanding of the precise geologic age of the deposition of sediments permits a powerful means of interpreting the record of geologic events across the northern Great Plains. Such an understanding allows for rigorous interpretation of paleoenviromnents and estimates of resource potential and quality in this area of economically significant deposits. This work is part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of molluscan fossil faunas to provide a paleoenvironmentally sensitive independent means of interpreting time intervals of brief duration during the Late Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene. This study focuses on the record of mollusks and, to a lesser extent, mammals in the (1) Hell Creek-Tullock Formations, which include the Cretaceous-Paleocene boundary, in the western portion of the Williston Basin, Montana; (2) uppermost Cretaceous, Paleocene, and lowermost Eocene strata in western North Dakota, which -includes the last interior seaway in North Dakota; (3) upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene of the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin of south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming; and (4) Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The geologic record provides different physical and paleontological information to aid in interpreting the geologic record through the study interval.

Hartman, J.H.; Roth, B.; Kihm, A.J.

1997-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

194

Coal and bituminous reserves  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 5 of this book contains sections entitled: other coal processes; underground processing of coal; and other important energy sources.

NONE

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

subbituminous coal, and lignite. 2 Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1973-1979, data are for gas turbine and internal combustion plant stocks of petroleum. For 1980-2000, electric...

196

--No Title--  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2. OSU reports that the CDCL plant's 200+ hours of operation, using metallurgical coke and subbituminous and lignite coals, shows the robustness of its novel moving-bed...

197

DOE-Supported Project Advances Clean Coal, Carbon Capture Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2. OSU reports that the CDCL plant's 200+ hours of operation, using metallurgical coke and subbituminous and lignite coals, shows the robustness of its novel moving-bed...

198

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. [Effect of preconversion heat soak with coal liquids  

SciTech Connect

A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

A study of high-temperature soaking has been continued. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids were used. Large pyridine extractabilities of more than 70 wt% were obtained for aR cases. A better understanding Of the mechanism is important for the development of coal preconversion using the high-temperature soaking. To investigate the mechanism of the change in coal solubilization by high-temperature soaking, a simple soaking experiment was conducted. The extract from the Illinois No. 6 coal was treated in toluene at three different temperatures, and the treated samples were analyzed by coal swelling using the recently developed method. Furthermore, effects of soaking time, soaking temperature, soluble portions, and coal rank were examined by using actual coal liquids. Although a cross-linked, three-dimensional macromoleculer model has been widely accepted for the structure of coat it has previously been reported that significant portions (far more generally believed) of coal molecules are physically associated. It is known, as reviewed in that paper, that most portions of bituminous coal can be disintegrated in coal derived liquids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 300--400{degrees}C (high-temperature soaking). It was proposed that electron donors and acceptors of low molecular mass contained in these materials substitute coal-coal complexes with charge-transfer interactions. This is physical dissociation of associated coal molecules. However, chemical reactions may occur at these temperatures.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, a subbituminous, and a bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. A zeta meter, a tube furnace, and other equipment required for the investigation have been acquired and installed. Preliminary work shows that the lignite (Psoc 1482) is negatively charged between pH 1.8 and pH 11.0 and has an isoelectric point of pH 1.8.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification. First quarterly report, October 1, 1989--December 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, a subbituminous, and a bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. A zeta meter, a tube furnace, and other equipment required for the investigation have been acquired and installed. Preliminary work shows that the lignite (Psoc 1482) is negatively charged between pH 1.8 and pH 11.0 and has an isoelectric point of pH 1.8.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Catalysts and process developments for two-stage liquefaction. Final technical report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Research in this project centered upon developing and evaluating catalysts and process improvements for coal liquefaction in the two-stage, close-coupled catalytic process. The major results are summarized here and they are described in more detail under each Task. In tasks for coal pretreatment and beneficiation, it was shown for coal handling that drying of both lignite or subbituminous coals using warm air, vacuum oven or exposing to air for long time was detrimental to subsequent liquefaction. Both laboratory and bench-scale beneficiations indicated that in order to achieve increased liquefaction yield for Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, size separation with in sink-float technique should be used. For subbituminous coal, the best beneficiation was aqueous SO{sub 2} treatment, which reduced mineral matter. In the case of lignite, the fines should be rejected prior to aqueous SO{sub 2} treatment and sink-float gravity separation. In liquefying coals with supported catalysts in both first and second stages, coal conversion was highest (93%) with Illinois No. 6 coal, which also had the highest total liquid yield of 80%, however, the product contained unacceptably high level of resid (30%). Both low rank coals gave lower conversion (85--87%) and liquid yields (57--59%), but lighter products (no resid). The analysis of spent first stage catalysts indicated significant sodium and calcium deposits causing severe deactivation. The second stage catalysts were in better condition showing high surface areas and low coke and metal deposits. The use of dispersed catalyst in the first stage would combat the severe deactivation.

Cronauer, D.C.; Swanson, A.J.; Sajkowski, D.J.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

Stable aqueous suspension of partial oxidation ash, slag and char containing polyethoxylated quaternary ammonium salt surfactant  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pumpable aqueous suspension of particulate matter with reduced viscosity and increased resistance to sedimentation. It has a particle size in the range of about 37-2000 microns as produced by quench cooling of scrubbing the hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H/sub 2/+CO at a temperature in the range of about 1700{sup 0}F - 3000{sup 0}F from the partial oxidation of solid carbonaceous fuel selected from the group consisting of anthracite, bituminous, sub-bituminous and lignite coal, coke from coal, petroleum coke, coal liquefaction solid residue, oil shale, tar sands, asphaltic bitumen, and mixtures thereof. Wherein the aqueous suspension comprises water, about 1.0-50.0 weight percent of the particulate matter consisting of a mixture of slag and char, and about 0.1-10.0 weight percent of a polyethoxylated quaternary ammonium salt surfactant of the formula: where R is an alkyl radical selected from the group consisting of coco, tallow, lauryl, oleyl, and octadecyl, and x+y has a value in the range of 2-15.

Najjar, M.S.; Yaghmaie, F.; Sorell, L.S.

1989-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

205

Entrained-flow gasification at elevated pressure: Volume 1: Final technical report, March 1, 1985-April 30,1987  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The general purpose of this research program was to develop a basic understanding of the physical and chemical processes in entrained coal gasification and to use the results to improve and evaluate an entrained gasification computer model. The first task included the collection and analysis of in-situ gasifier data at elevated pressures with three coal types (North Dakota lignite, Wyoming subbituminous and Illinois bituminous), the design, construction, and testing of new coal/oxygen/steam injectors with a fourth coal type (Utah bituminous), the collection of supporting turbulent fluid dynamic (LDV) data from cold-flow studies, and the investigation of the feasibility of using laser-based (CARS) daignostic instruments to make measurements in coal flames. The second task included improvements to the two-dimensional gasifier submodels, tabulation and evaluation of new coal devolatilization and char oxidation data for predictions, fundamental studies of turbulent particle dispersion, the development of improved numerical methods, and validation of the comprehensive model through comparison of predictions with experimental results. The third task was to transfer technical advances to industry and to METC through technical seminars, production of a detailed data book, code placement, and publication of results. Research results for these three tasks are summarized briefly here and presented in detail in the body of the report and in supporting references. 202 refs., 73 figs., 23 tabs.

Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

1987-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Catalyzed steam gasification of low-rank coals to produce hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced coal gasification technologies using low-rank coal is a promising alternative for meeting future demand for hydrogen. Steam gasification tests conducted at temperatures between 700/sup 0/ and 800/sup 0/C and atmospheric pressure resulted in product gas compositions matching those predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, 63-65 mol% hydrogen and less than 1 mol% methane. Steam gasification tests with four low-rank coals and a single bituminous coal were performed in a laboratory-scale thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at temperatures of 700/sup 0/, 750/sup 0/, and 800/sup 0/C to evaluate process kinetics with and without catalyst addition. Catalysts screened included K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, trona, nahcolite, sunflower hull ash, and recycled lignite ash. Uncatalyzed lignites and a subbituminous coal were found to be eight to ten times more reactive with steam at 700/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C than an Illinois bituminous coal. This relationship, within this narrow temperature range, is important as this is the range that thermodynamically favors the production of hydrogen from steam gasification at atmospheric pressure. The reactivity of the uncatalyzed coals increased 3 to 4 times with an increase in steam gasification temperature from 700/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C. For the catalyzed coals during steam gasification: Reactivity increased approximately 2 times over the 700/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C temperature range for low-rank coals catalyzed with potassium carbonate. Sodium carbonate was found to be as effective a catalyst as potassium carbonate for the steam gasification of low-rank coal chars on a mass loading basis; and naturally occurring mineral sources of sodium carbonates/bicarbonates, trona and nahcolite, are as effective in catalyzing low-rank coal steam gasification as the pure carbonates. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Sears, R.E.; Timpe, R.C.; Galegher, S.J.; Willson, W.G.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Determination of Mercury in Coal by Isotope Dilution Cold-Vapor Generation Inductively  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Articles Determination of Mercury in Coal by Isotope Dilution Cold-Vapor Generation Inductively developed for high-accuracy determinations of mer- cury in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. A closed- system digestion process employing a Carius tube is used to completely oxidize the coal matrix

210

Behavior of chars from Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca Lignite (Turkey) during non-catalytic and catalytic gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reactivities of chars obtained by pyrolysis of Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut lignite and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca lignite (Turkey) at different temperatures were determined by CO{sub 2} gasification and by combustion with O{sub 2}. Catalytic effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gasification reactivity of chars was investigated. Gasification tests were performed in the fixed bed reactors operating at ambient pressure. Reactivity of chars during the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions was determined by calculating the reaction rate constants and reactivity of chars during the O{sub 2} gasification was determined by using ignition temperatures of the samples. Activation energies and Arrhenius constants of the chars on the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions were also calculated by the help of Arrhenius curves. The activation energy for CO{sub 2} gasification was generally decreased with pyrolysis temperature, due to the different surface characteristics and different nature of carbon atoms gasified as the gasification reactions proceed. Generally, the increase in pyrolysis temperature leads to an increase in gasification reactivity with CO{sub 2}. The reactivity of chars in catalytic gasification was higher than the corresponding non-catalytic reactivity of the same chars. Ignition temperature increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature.

Bozkurt, Y.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Sinag, A.; Tekes, A.T.; Canel, M. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. [High temperature soaking coal in coal liquids prior to liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Soaking coal in coal liquids at 300-400[degrees]C (high-tenperature soaking) has been studied for coal dissolution prior to liquefaction in the previous task. Two high-volatile bituminous coals, Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8, were examined in three different coal liquids. The high-temperature soaking was effective to solubilize more than 70 wt% cf these coals. The mechanism of disintegration of coal by the high-temperature soaking was investigated under various soaking conditions. The products was also analyzed with solvent swelling. These results were rationalized that coal is solubilized primarily by physical disintegration. The derived mechanism was consistent with the new concept of coal structure: A significant portion of coal is physically associated, not three-dimensionally cross-linked. Radically-induced scission reactions were proposed to prorate breakage of coal moleculs by the combination of the high-temperature soaking before liquefaction. In this term, the effect of radical initiators were investigated under the conditions of the high-temperature soaking and liquefaction. Illinois No. 6 coal and a coal liquid derived from the same coal were used. The first section reports the effect of radical initiators on coal disintegration, and the second section reports the effect of a radical initiator on coal liquefaction. Radical initiators had a positive effect on disintegration. However, the effect was highly temperature-dependent and had a negative effect on liquefaction at high tenperatures.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Soaking coal in coal liquids at 300-400{degrees}C (high-tenperature soaking) has been studied for coal dissolution prior to liquefaction in the previous task. Two high-volatile bituminous coals, Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8, were examined in three different coal liquids. The high-temperature soaking was effective to solubilize more than 70 wt% cf these coals. The mechanism of disintegration of coal by the high-temperature soaking was investigated under various soaking conditions. The products was also analyzed with solvent swelling. These results were rationalized that coal is solubilized primarily by physical disintegration. The derived mechanism was consistent with the new concept of coal structure: A significant portion of coal is physically associated, not three-dimensionally cross-linked. Radically-induced scission reactions were proposed to prorate breakage of coal moleculs by the combination of the high-temperature soaking before liquefaction. In this term, the effect of radical initiators were investigated under the conditions of the high-temperature soaking and liquefaction. Illinois No. 6 coal and a coal liquid derived from the same coal were used. The first section reports the effect of radical initiators on coal disintegration, and the second section reports the effect of a radical initiator on coal liquefaction. Radical initiators had a positive effect on disintegration. However, the effect was highly temperature-dependent and had a negative effect on liquefaction at high tenperatures.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

Tom Campbell

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Combustion characterization of coals for industrial applications. Final technical report, January 1, 1981-May 29, 1985  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-depth fundamental information was obtained from a two-inch inner diameter laminar flow reactor referred to as the Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). This information consists of the following: (1) pyrolysis kinetic characteristics of four coals of various rank (Texas lignite, Montana subbituminous, Alabama high volatile bituminous, and Pennsylvania anthracite); and (2) combustion kinetic studies of chars produced from the foregoing parent coals. A number of standard ASTM and special in-house bench scale tests were also performed on the coals and chars prepared therefrom to characterize their physicochemical properties. The pilot scale (500,000 Btu/hr) Controlled Mixing History Furnace (CMHF) was used to determine the effect of staged combustion on NO/sub x/ emissions control from an overall combustion performance of the Alabama high volatile bituminous coal. The quantitative fundamental data developed from this study indicate significant differences in coal/char chemical, physical, and reactivity characteristics, which should be useful to those interested in modeling coal combustion and pyrolysis processes. These results underscore the fact that coal selection is one of the keys governing a successful coal conversion/utilization process. The combustion kinetic information obtained on the high volatile bituminous coal has been used in conjunction with combustion engineering's proprietary mathematical models to predict the combustion performance of this coal in the Controlled Mixing History Furnace. Comparison of the predicted data with the experimental results shows a virtually one-to-one scale-up from the DTFS to the CMHF. These data should provide vital information to designers in the area of carbon burnout and NO/sub x/ reduction for large scale coal utilization applications. 31 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs.

Nsakala, N.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Design Team continued to conference this quarter. Their primary task during this timeframe was to finalize the dryer design based on information learned from the NDIC Pilot work and detailed design discussions at Barr offices in August. Heyl-Patterson was tasked with incorporating all comments and drafting drawings. They submitted a preliminary proposal which spawned detailed discussions about tube bundle, air locks, and fire suppression systems. The type of fire protection specified dictated the final structural arrangement. Three meetings were spent discussing the pro's and con's of suppression vs. ventilation systems. In the end, the dryer and bucket elevator will have suppression systems and the remaining equipment will be explosion vented. This is in agreement with GRE's current insurer, FM Global. Three inlet airlocks were reduced to two and four outlets were reduced to three. The inlet plenum was subdivided for greater flexibility and sparging air added in the outlet plenum. It was also decided to use bundles with varied material, diameter, and tube & fin spacing. This will be completed in an effort to identify for us which configuration has the best heat transfer characteristics using coal as the fluidizing medium. The dryer will also be delivered in four pieces. This will allow for installation through the current access door on the Air Heater deck. The Input/Output list and functional description was completed and forwarded to Honeywell to finalize controls. Major pieces of equipment received this quarter were the Bucket Elevator, Liewell Screen, conveyors, and Motor Control Center. ICI completed removal of the wall separating Silo 28 from the dryer area; handrail and grating between the two areas has also been removed. They relocated a blowdown line. They moved an Air Heater basket access hatch.

Charles Bullinger

2005-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

216

Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. World recoverable coal reserves as of January 1, 2009 2. World recoverable coal reserves as of January 1, 2009 billion short tons Recoverable reserves by coal rank Region/country Bituminous and anthracite Subbituminous Lignite Total 2010 production Reserves-to- production ratio (years) World total 445.0 285.9 215.2 946.1 7.954 119 United Statesa 118.4 107.2 33.1 258.6 1.084 238 Russia 54.1 107.4 11.5 173.1 0.359 482 China 68.6 37.1 20.5 126.2 3.506 36 Other non-OECD Europe and Eurasia 42.2 18.9 39.9 100.9 0.325 311 Australia and New Zealand 40.9 2.5 41.4 84.8 0.473 179 India 61.8 0.0 5.0 66.8 0.612 109 OECD Europe 6.2 0.9 54.5 61.6 0.620 99 Africa 34.7 0.2 0.0 34.9 0.286 122 Other non-OECD Asia 3.9 3.9 6.8 14.7 0.508 29 Other Central and South America 7.6 1.0 0.0 8.6 0.085 101

218

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Receipts and Quality of Coal Delivered for the Electric Power Industry, 2002 through 2012 . Receipts and Quality of Coal Delivered for the Electric Power Industry, 2002 through 2012 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Period Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight 2002 423,128 1.47 10.1 391,785 0.36 6.2 65,555 0.93 13.3 2003 467,286 1.50 10.0 432,513 0.38 6.4 79,869 1.03 14.4 2004 470,619 1.52 10.4 445,603 0.36 6.0 78,268 1.05 14.2 2005 480,179 1.56 10.5 456,856 0.36 6.2 77,677 1.02 14.0 2006 489,550 1.59 10.5 504,947 0.35 6.1 75,742 0.95 14.4 2007 467,817 1.62 10.3 505,155 0.34 6.0 71,930 0.90 14.0

219

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012 Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 31. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Coal-Producing State Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Anthracite Total Alabama 106.57 - - - 106.57 Alaska - w - - w Arizona w - - - w Arkansas w - - - w Colorado w w - - 37.54 Illinois 53.08 - - - 53.08 Indiana 52.01 - - - 52.01 Kentucky Total 63.12 - - - 63.12 Kentucky (East) 75.62 - - - 75.62 Kentucky (West) 48.67 - - - 48.67 Louisiana - - w - w Maryland 55.67 - - - 55.67 Mississippi - - w - w Missouri w - - - w Montana w 17.60 w - 18.11 New Mexico w w - - 36.74 North Dakota - - 17.40 - 17.40 Ohio 47.80 - - - 47.80 Oklahoma 59.63 - - - 59.63 Pennsylvania Total 72.57

220

Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500 deg. C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

Park, Sang-Woo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Cheol-Hyeon, E-mail: jangch@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalyst for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char activities. The effects of potassium impregnation conditions (pH and coal surface charge) on the reactivities, in carbon dioxide, of chars derived from demineralized lignite, subbituminous and bituminous coals have been determined. Impregnation of the acid-leached coal with potassium from strongly acidic solutions resulted in initial slow char reactivity which progressively increased with reaction time. Higher reactivities were obtained for catalyst (potassium) loaded at pH 6 or 10. The dependence of char gasification rates on catalyst addition pH increased in the order: pH 6 {approximately} pH 10 {much gt} pH 1.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Average Operating Heat Rate for Selected Energy Sources, . Average Operating Heat Rate for Selected Energy Sources, 2002 through 2012 (Btu per Kilowatthour) Year Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Nuclear 2002 10,314 10,641 9,533 10,442 2003 10,297 10,610 9,207 10,422 2004 10,331 10,571 8,647 10,428 2005 10,373 10,631 8,551 10,436 2006 10,351 10,809 8,471 10,435 2007 10,375 10,794 8,403 10,489 2008 10,378 11,015 8,305 10,452 2009 10,414 10,923 8,159 10,459 2010 10,415 10,984 8,185 10,452 2011 10,444 10,829 8,152 10,464 2012 10,498 10,991 8,039 10,479 Coal includes anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous and lignite coal. Waste coal and synthetic coal are included starting in 2002. Petroleum includes distillate fuel oil (all diesel and No. 1 and No. 2 fuel oils), residual fuel oil (No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils and bunker C fuel oil, jet fuel, kerosene, petroleum coke, and waste oil.

223

table7.2_02.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002; 2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Bituminous and NAICS Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Code(a) Subsector and Industry TOTAL Acetylene Breeze Total Anthracite Coal Lignite Coke Coke Total United States RSE Column Factors: 1.1 2.1 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.9 1.4 0.7 0.9 311 Food 6.42 113.78 0 1.46 W 1.46 0 5.18 0 311221 Wet Corn Milling 3.11 106.84 0 1.32 0 1.32 0 0 0 31131 Sugar 3.14 80.39 0 1.65 W 1.64 0 5.18 0 311421 Fruit and Vegetable Canning 7.09 103.28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 7.53 123.52 0 2.32 0 2.32 0 0 0 3121 Beverages 7.96 124.83

224

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Stocks of Coal by Coal Rank: Electric Power Sector, 2002 - 2012 4. Stocks of Coal by Coal Rank: Electric Power Sector, 2002 - 2012 Electric Power Sector Period Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Coal Total End of Year Stocks 2002 70,704 66,593 4,417 141,714 2003 57,716 59,884 3,967 121,567 2004 49,022 53,618 4,029 106,669 2005 52,923 44,377 3,836 101,137 2006 67,760 68,408 4,797 140,964 2007 63,964 82,692 4,565 151,221 2008 65,818 91,214 4,556 161,589 2009 91,922 92,448 5,097 189,467 2010 81,108 86,915 6,894 174,917 2011 82,056 85,151 5,179 172,387 2012 86,437 93,833 4,846 185,116 2010, End of Month Stocks January 86,354 86,893 4,845 178,091 February 82,469 83,721 4,836 171,026 March 86,698 86,014 5,030 177,742 April 92,621 89,545 7,095 189,260 May 93,069 91,514 7,085 191,669

225

Copyrolysis of Seyitomer-lignite and safflower seed: influence of the blending ratio and pyrolysis temperature on product yields and oil characterization  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolytic behaviors of biomass/coal mixtures were investigated under a heating rate of 7{sup o}C min{sup -1}, over a range of pyrolysis temperatures between 400 and 700{sup o}C, and the blending ratio of coal in mixtures was varied between 0 and 100 wt %. The results indicated that considerable synergistic effects were observed during the copyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor leading to an increase in the oil yield at lower than coal blending ratios of 33%. At the lower blending coal ratio conditions, the oil yields are higher than the expected ones, calculated as the sum of oil fractions produced by pyrolysis of each separated component. The maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 39.5% was obtained with 5% of lignite mixed with safflower seed. The obtained oils are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. These findings can potentially help to understand and predict the behavior of coal/biomass blends in practical liquefaction systems. 33 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Ozlem Onay; Evren Bayram; O. Mete Kockar [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Powder River Basin Coal Supply and Suitability: EPRI Report Series on Low-Sulfur Coal Supplies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utility use of subbituminous coals from the Powder River Basin is expected to increase 100 million tons by the year 2000, with much of the growth coming from units designed for high-sulfur bituminous coal. This report addresses whether Powder River Basin coal suppliers will be able to command a premium for their product and documents the recent and rapid improvements utilities have made in using subbituminous coals.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers with in-line conversion of by-product liquids to methane. Topical report (Final), December 1985-November 1986  

SciTech Connect

A first-pass conceptual design and screening cost estimate was prepared for a hypothetical plant to convert lignite to methane using Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers and employing a black box reactor to convert by-product liquids in the gas phase to methane. Results were compared to those from conventional and modified Lurgi-plant designs. The in-line conversion plant can potentially reduce the cost of gas from a Lurgi plant by about 20%. Due to reduced capital investment, over $200 million could be invested in the reactor before the cost of gas from the in-line conversion plant is as high as that of a Lurgi plant.

Smelser, S.C.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

CO{sub 2} Sequestration Potential of Charqueadas Coal Field in Brazil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The I2B coal seam in the Charqueadas coal field has been evaluated as a target for enhanced coal bed methane production and CO{sub 2} sequestration. The samples were low rank coals (high volatile bituminous and sub-bituminous) obtained from the I2B seam as ?3? cores. Such properties as sorption capacity, internal structure of the samples, porosity and permeability were of primary interest in this characterization study.

Romanov, V [NETL

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

230

Large-Scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Removal for Subbituminous...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the mid-1990s to develop advanced, cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Anticipating new Federal rules and possible state legislation,...

231

Recovery of Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling and Microbial Community Functionality in a Post-Lignite Mining Rehabilitation Chronosequence in East Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface mining for coal alters the original soil profile characteristics and the associated physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Our objectives were to compare soil characteristics and the distribution of nutrients to 1 m depth over a chronosequence of 40 years to determine when a reclaimed mine soil (RMS) returned to premined conditions. We sampled 5 sites aged 0 to 20 years reclaimed by the crosspit spreader technique (CP) and 3 sites aged 20 to 40 years reclaimed by the mixed overburden technique (MO). An unmined site (UM) served as a control. Changes in soil texture (sand to clay loam) after mining corresponded with increased macroaggregation (>2 mm) and enhanced C sequestration up to ~250 Mg C ha-1 at the MO20 site. Soil chemical [pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR)] and physical properties [bulk density (BD) and texture] met or exceeded reclamation and revegetation standards. Most soil C was associated with organic matter, but a small amount of lignitic C was detected in some samples. Soil organic C and N reached or exceeded premined concentrations after 0 and 10 years, respectively. Soil NO3--N and P did not reach premined conditions, but soil K, Ca, Mg and S exceeded premined conditions and stratified after 10-15 years. Micronutrients exceeded premined concentrations. Soil microbial biomass and mineralization rates recovered after 16 years of reclamation. Bacteria and fungi recovered to premined levels after 20 years. The CP20 site was most closely related to the UM site, but sites 10 years and older were comparable. Dominant phyla (Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria; 70% of all sequences) returned to premined levels after 10 years, which correlated with soil quality indicators, suggesting the importance of these phyla in soil health. Community-level physiological profiles did not differ between sites and metabolic diversity peaked at CP15 and CP20. GeoChip showed separation between the UM sites and reclamation sites. Soil microbial functionality appeared to recover faster than taxonomic composition of the soil microbial community. Further analysis of functional genes will expand upon this research so that we may better quantify soil quality in RMS.

Ng, Justin

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Proceedings. 20th symposium on western fuels  

SciTech Connect

This conference on lignite, brown coal and subbituminous coal covered advanced power systems, CCBs and power plant auxiliary systems, environmental issues and control technologies - mercury and multipollutants, fuel properties and upgrading, energy and water, power plant systems performance, and carbon sequestration. The poster papers are also included. Some of the papers only consist of a printout of the overheads/viewgraphs.

NONE

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Evaluation of a Dow-Based Gasification-Combined-Cycle Plant Using Low-Rank Coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This feasibility study developed performance and cost data for two different Dow-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants, designed to fire either Texas lignite or Wyoming subbituminous coals at a Gulf Coast location. It demonstrated the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of these plants for generating power from low-rank coals.

1989-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

234

Development of Silica/Vanadia/ Titania Catalysts for Removal of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(subbituminous or lignite) coals. Therefore, need exists for a low cost Hg oxidation/capturing process. Activated power plants. However, the incremental cost of Hg control via ACI is estimated to range from $3810. This superior oxidation capability is advantageous to power plants equipped with wet-scrubbers where oxidized Hg

Li, Ying

235

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Effective Stress(MPa)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Transport Properties of Low-Rank Coal, PRB, WY: Implications for Carbon Sequestration on the mechanical and flow properties of sub-bituminous coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Lab measurements were conducted on one-inch diameter core samples of coal under hydrostatic

Stanford University

236

Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 20(2) 389--399 (2012) Recent Advances in Flame Tomography*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-fuel combustion, co-firing biomass with coal and fluid- ized bed combustion. Flame characteristics under to be the main source of energy in many countries in the years to come. Coal-fired power stations are burning an in- creasingly varied range of fuels and fuel blends, in- cluding sub-bituminous and lower volatile

Yan, Yong

237

NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Labbe, D.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Deformation behaviour of bitumen and bituminous mixes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the temperature at which a bitumen disc contained in a brass ring under the loading of a steel ball will touch a base plate 25 mm below the ring when the sample temperature is raised at 5oC per minute (BS2000-58, 1983). Chapter 2. Review of previous research...

Ossa, Edgar Alexander

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Evaluation of fine-particle size catalysts using standard test procedures  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to evaluate and compare the activities/selectivities of fine-particle size catalysts being developed in the DOE/PETC Advanced Research (AR) Liquefaction Program by using standard coal liquefaction activity test procedures. Since bituminous and subbituminous coals have significantly different properties, it is feasible that catalysts may perform differently with these coal types. Because all previous testing has been done with the DECS-17 Blind Canyon bituminous coal, it is important to develop the capability of evaluating catalysts using a subbituminous coal. Initial efforts towards developing a subbituminous coal test are aimed at comparing the reactivities of the Wyodak subbituminous coal and the Blind Canyon bituminous coal. Therefore, the same factorial experimental design was used with the Wyodak coal as was used previously with the Blind Canyon coal. In addition, PNL`s 6-line ferrihydrite catalyst precursor was used in the development of the Wyodak coal test procedure because this catalyst is the best powder catalyst found to date in Sandia`s tests with Blind Canyon coal. Results show that Blind Canyon coal yields higher DHP amounts in the reaction products and higher tetrahydrofuran conversions at the higher severity conditions. Wyodak coal gives higher heptane conversions and higher gas yields for all conditions tested.

Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Alternative and innovative transport modes for moving US steam-coal exports to the Asian Pacific Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy demands of the Asian Pacific Basin (APB). US coal reserves, among the world's largest, contain vast amounts of surface-mineable coal in the West in addition to significant volumes in the Midwest and East. However, high inland-transportation costs and the relatively low calorific value of some Western coals have recently resulted in delivered prices exceeding those of the world market -- maintaining the United States as a marginal supplier in a market that now receives one-third of worldwide steam-coal exports. This study describes alternatives that might reduce these delivered costs, emphasizing transport modes for four regions and mentioning blending for a fifth: (1) subbituminous coals of the Powder River Basin (Wyoming and Montana), (2) bituminous coals of central Utah and Colorado, (3) bituminous and subbituminous coals of the Four Corners Region (where Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona meet), (4) bituminous and subbituminous coals of Alaska, and (5) bituminous coals of the Illinois Basin (Illinois, Indiana, and western Kentucky). It investigates innovative rail and ocean transport modes, coal-slurry pipelines, coal blends, and unconventional transport modes like overland conveyors and intermodal containers. It compares delivered prices under various scenarios, combining different transportation alternatives. 142 refs., 28 figs., 38 tabs.

Szpunar, C.B.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Traczyk, P.A.; Brolick, H.J.; Heller, J.N.; Uttmark, G.F.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Effect of coal rank and process conditions on temperature distribution in a liquefaction reactor  

SciTech Connect

The temperature distribution in a liquefaction reactor in the integrated TSL process is studied. The effects of gas and slurry superficial velocities, process solvent characteristics, reactor length, and catalyst sulfiding agent on the exotherm and temperature difference in the reactor are studied. A substantial temperature difference is observed with subbituminous coal as compared with bituminous coal, at comparable reactor conditions. Some of the factors that are believed to have contributed to the large exotherm and temperature difference in the reactor are slow kinetics and high reaction heat for subbituminous coal conversion and pyrrhotite catalysis.

Nalitham, R.V.; Moniz, M.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Special precautions for multiple short-delay blasting in coal mines  

SciTech Connect

Special precautions for multiple short-delay blasting of coal in underground mines are presented in this circular to guide safety engineers, shot firers, and coal-mine inspectors. These new safety recommendations are suggested in addition to those normally followed in blasting, as outlined in the Federal Mine Safety Codes for bituminous-coal, lignite, and anthracite mines.

Nagy, J.; Hartmann, I.; Van Dolah, R.W.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Filtering coal-derived oil through a filter media precoated with particles partially solubilized by said oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solids such as char, ash, and refractory organic compounds are removed from coal-derived liquids from coal liquefaction processes by the pressure precoat filtration method using particles of 85-350 mesh material selected from the group of bituminous coal, anthracite coal, lignite, and devolatilized coals as precoat materials and as body feed to the unfiltered coal-derived liquid.

Rodgers, Billy R. (Concord, TN); Edwards, Michael S. (Knoxville, TN)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Long-Term Demonstration of Sorbent Enhancement Additive Technology for Mercury Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Term DemonsTraTion of sorbenT Long-Term DemonsTraTion of sorbenT enhancemenT aDDiTive TechnoLogy for mercury conTroL Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The combustion of subbituminous coals typically results in higher fractions of elemental mercury emissions than the combustion of bituminous coals. This complicates mercury capture efforts, particularly for technologies using powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection, because elemental mercury is not readily captured by PAC injection alone. In short, unmodified PACs are better suited for bituminous coals than for subbituminous coals. Various proprietary sorbent enhancement additives (SEA) have been developed to increase the mercury reactivity of PACs, and perhaps fly

247

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Advanced Utility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field Testing Program Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field Testing Program Sorbent Technologies Corporation, will test an advanced halgenated activated carbon to determine the mercury removal performance and relative costs of sorbent injection for advanced sorbent materials in large-scale field trials of a variety of combinations of coal-type and utility plant-configuration. These include one site (Detroit Edison's St. Clair Station) with a cold-side ESP using subbituminous coal, or blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal, and one site (Duke Energy's Buck Plant) with a hot-side ESP which burns a bituminous coal. Related Papers and Publications: Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report for the period April 1 - October 31, 2004 [PDF-2275KB] Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report for the period of October 2003 - March 2004 [PDF-1108KB]

248

Mercury Emissions from Curing Concretes that Contain Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents new laboratory data on the release of mercury from concrete containing fly ash and powdered activated carbon sorbents used to capture mercury. The concretes studied in this project were made with fly ashes from lignite and subbituminous coal, including fly ashes containing powdered activated carbon (PAC). Minute quantities of mercury were emitted from five concretes during the standard 28-day curing process and throughout an additional 28 days of curing for two of these concretes. Ge...

2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

249

Mercury Leachability From Concretes That Contain Fly Ashes and Activated Carbon Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents new laboratory data on the leaching of mercury from concrete that contains fly ash and powdered activated carbon (PAC) sorbents used to capture mercury. The concretes studied during this project were made with fly ashes from lignite and subbituminous coal, including fly ashes containing PAC. Only very low levels of mercuryless than 5 parts per trillionwere leached from the fly ash concretes in both 18-hour and 7-day laboratory leach tests.

2007-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

250

Pilot plant assessment of blend properties and their impact on critical power plant components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of blending eastern bituminous coals with western subbituminous coals on utility boiler operation. Relative to the baseline bituminous coal, the testing reported here indicated that there were significant impacts to boiler performance due to the blending of the eastern and western coals. Results indicated that fuel blending can be used to adequately control flue gas emissions of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} at the expense of reduced milling efficiency, increased sootblowing in the high-temperature and low-temperature regions of the boiler and, to a lesser extent, decreased collection efficiency for an electrostatic precipitator. The higher reactivity of the subbituminous coal increased the overall combustion efficiency, which may tend to decrease the impact of milling efficiency losses. The extent of these impacts was directly related to the percentage of subbituminous coal in the blends. At the lowest blend ratios of subbituminous coal, the impacts were greatly reduced.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Measurement of Sorption-Induced Strain  

SciTech Connect

Strain caused by the adsorption of gases was measured in samples of subbituminous coal from the Powder River basin of Wyoming, U.S.A. and high-volatile bituminous coal from east-central Utah, U.S.A. using an apparatus developed jointly at the Idaho National Laboratory (Idaho Falls, Idaho, U.S.A.) and Colorado School of Mines (Golden, Colorado, U.S.A.). The apparatus can be used to measure strain on multiple small coal samples based on the optical detection of the longitudinal strain instead of the more common usage of strain gauges, which require larger samples and longer equilibration times. With this apparatus, we showed that the swelling and shrinkage processes were reversible and that accurate strain data could be obtained in a shortened amount of time. A suite of strain curves was generated for these coals using gases that included carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, helium, and various mixtures of these gases. A Langmuir-type equation was applied to satisfactorily model the strain data obtained for pure gases. The sorption-induced strain measured in the subbituminous coal was larger than the high-volatile bituminous coal for all gases tested over the range of pressures used in the experimentation, with the CO2-induced strain for the subbituminous coal over twice as great at the bituminous coal.

Eric P. Robertson; Richard L. Christiansen

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Microsoft Word - LB-Lignite.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal in ND Revised Deliverable Schedule Additional Information In the upcoming months, well stimulation will continue as necessary to ready the wells for CO 2 injection. The...

253

Separating lignite hydrogenation sludge by vacuum distillation  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum distillation was studied as a means to separate coal hydrogenation sludge. Additives containing mainly aromatic hydrocarbons intensified the process. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Gorlov, E.G.; Grobanova, L.T.; Belyavtseva, N.V. [Rossiskaya Akademiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

Michael L. Swanson

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

255

Non-linear Regression - Subbituminous / CS-ESP / Darco Hg-LH  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Activated Carbon Injection Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Innovations for Existing Plants Program...

256

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENT WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and F. Ziegler Brenstoff-Chemie 50, O. W. Van Krevelen andand F. Shaw Brenstoff-Chemie Table I. Analysis of Roland

Lindsey, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENT WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

~. ~. ~. ~. Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . Coal and Solventon Subbiturninous Coal Below Pyrolysis Temperatures, LBL-Treatment of Extract Solution Coal Residue Treatment. Yield

Lindsey, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been conducting research on gasification for six decades. One of the objectives of this gasification research has been to maximize carbon conversion and the water–gas shift process for optimal hydrogen production and syngas quality. This research focus and experience were a perfect fit for the National Center for Hydrogen Technology ® (NCHT®) Program at the EERC for improving all aspects of coal gasification, which ultimately aids in the production and purification of hydrogen. A consortia project was developed under the NCHT Program to develop an improved predictive model for ash formation and deposition under the project entitled “Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III: Development of the CABRE III Model.” The computer-based program is now applicable to the modeling of coal and ash behavior in both entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasification systems to aid in overall gasification efficiency. This model represents a significant improvement over the CABRE II model and runs on a Microsoft Windows PC platform. The major achievements of the CABRE III model are partitioning of inorganic transformations between various phases for specific gas cleanup equipment; slag property predictions, including standard temperature–viscosity curves and slag flow and thickness; deposition rates in gasification cleanup equipment; provision for composition analysis for all input and output streams across all process equipment, including major elements and trace elements of interest; composition analysis of deposit streams for various deposit zones, including direct condensation on equipment surfaces (Zone A), homogeneous particulate deposition (Zone B), and entrained fly ash deposition (Zone C); and physical removal of ash in cyclones based on D50 cut points. Another new feature of the CABRE III model is a user-friendly interface and detailed reports that are easily exportable into Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, or as pdf files. The user interface provides stepwise guides with built-in checks for efficient entry of required input data on fuels of interest to allow a successful execution of the model. The model was developed with data from several fuels selected by the sponsors, including bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, and petroleum coke (petcoke). The data from these fuels were obtained using small pilot-scale entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasifiers at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The CABRE III model is expected to further advance the knowledge base for the NCHT® Program and, more importantly, allow for prediction of the slagging and fouling characteristics of fuels in reducing environments. The information obtained from this program will potentially also assist in maintaining prolonged gasifier operation free from failure or facilitate troubleshooting to minimize downtime in the event of a problem.

Stanislowski, Joshua; Azenkeng, Alexander; McCollor, Donald; Galbreath, Kevin; Jensen, Robert; Lahr, Brent

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

259

Microsoft PowerPoint - ACC032503_V2_1.PPT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council Mercury & Multi- Emissions Compliance: Strategies & Tactics March 26-27, 2003 Charlotte, NC Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory TJF_ACC_March2003 Presentation Outline * Regulatory drivers * Program objectives * Current program * Future plans TJF_ACC_March2003 Power Plant Mercury Emissions Coal Plants Emit ~ 48 tons/year NETL Boiler Database 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 10 20 30 Lignite SubB Bituminous Lignite SubB Bituminous Total US Hg Emissions (tons per year) 0 10 20 30 0 2 4 6 8 10 Hg Emission Rate (lb per TBtu) TJF_ACC_March2003 Potential Mercury Regulations MACT Standards * Likely high levels of Hg reduction * Compliance: Dec. 2007 Clean Power Act of 2003 * Re-introduced in Senate (S.

260

Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

A group of 40 hvb coals, mostly from western Kentucky fields, has been examined with regard to ASTM Gieseler plastometric properties. Twenty-nine of these coals have also been studied over a range of temperatures by isothermal Gieseler plastometry. Raw Gieseler data provide melting and coking slopes and readily calculable fluidity spans. Maximum fluidity by slope intersection is a more consistent measure than observed maximum fluidity. Isothermal slopes and maximum fluidities follow Arrhenius temperature dependencies, with activation energies related systematically to fluid properties. These freshly sampled coals are also characterized by chemical, physical and petrographic criteria, by quantitative solvent extractions, by pyrolysis gas chromatography, by Fourier Transform infrared analysis of coals and extraction residues, by the HPLC analysis of coal extracts, and by optical microscopy of coals and Gieseler semi-coke residues. Multiple linear regression analysis yields three-term expressions which estimate maximum fluidities (both ASTM and isothermal) with R values of .90 to .92. Slopes and critical temperatures are similarly predictable. Plastometer experiments with selected coals under superatmospheric pressures show both melting slopes and maximum fluidities to be sharply increased, the latter by one to three orders of magnitude. Some suggestions are offered to accommodate this new information into the general body of knowledge concerning the phenomenon of plasticity in mid-ranked coals. 81 references, 28 figures, 40 tables.

Lloyd, W. G.; Reasoner, J. W.; Hower, J. C.; Yates, L. P.; Clark, C. P.; Davis, E.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Irefin, A.; Jiminez, A.; Jones, T. M.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

were also closer in size to the baseline cases. * Cases 1, 2, 13 and 14, Account 8.3 (Condenser and Auxiliaries): The condenser costs were re-calibrated using a series of more...

262

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Effects of coal type on coal plasticity are investigated. Seven coals, from the Argonne premium sample bank ranging from lignite to low volatile bituminous, are studied. Different indices and structural data of a coal are shown to affect its plastic behavior. A coal-specific parameter incorporating the effects of labile bridges, oxygen, and hydrogen on plasticity has been used to successfully correlate measured values of maximum plasticity (i.e. minimum apparent viscosity) at elevated temperature with coal type.

Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Model documentation of the Short-Term Coal Analysis System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The short-term coal analysis system (SCOAL) is used by the Data Analysis and Forecasting Branch (DAFB) as an analytic aid to support preparation of short-term projections of bituminous coal and lignite production at the state level, and anthracite production, domestic imports of coal, and domestic and export demand for US coal at the national level. A description of SCOAL is presented which includes a general overview of the model and its analytical capabilities. (DMC)

Not Available

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Program on Technology Innovation: Feasibility of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Fuel Analysis—Phase II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the first phase of this project, researchers evaluated the capabilities of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for fuel characterization in gasification applications. A LIBS system was assembled and optimized to identify and measure the elemental spectra from the following gasifier feedstocks: bituminous coal, lignite coal, and petroleum coke, including three blends of coal and pet coke as well as coal treated with limestone. Laboratory LIBS data were acquired and processed using artificial ne...

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

265

Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

This report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41993, 'Evaluation of EPRI's MerCAP{trademark} Technology for Power Plant Mercury Control'. This project has investigated the mercury removal performance of EPRI's Mercury Capture by Amalgamation Process (MerCAP{trademark}) technology. Test programs were conducted to evaluate gold-based MerCAP{trademark} at Great River Energy's Stanton Station Unit 10 (Site 1), which fired both North Dakota lignite (NDL) and Power River Basin (PRB) coal during the testing period, and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 (Site 2) [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company] which fires a low sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. Additional tests were carried out at Alabama Power's Plant Miller, which fires Powder River Basin Coal, to evaluate a carbon-based MerCAP{trademark} process for removing mercury from flue gas downstream of an electrostatic precipitator [Alabama Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company]. A full-scale gold-based sorbent array was installed in the clean-air plenum of a single baghouse compartment at GRE's Stanton Station Unit 10, thereby treating 1/10th of the unit's exhaust gas flow. The substrates that were installed were electroplated gold screens oriented parallel to the flue gas flow. The sorbent array was initially installed in late August of 2004, operating continuously until its removal in July 2006, after nearly 23 months. The initial 4 months of operation were conducted while the host unit was burning North Dakota lignite (NDL). In November 2004, the host unit switched fuel to burn Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and continued to burn the PRB fuel for the final 19 months of this program. Tests were conducted at Site 1 to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent plate spacing, sorbent pre-cleaning and regeneration, and spray dryer operation on MerCAP{trademark} performance. At Site 2, a pilot-scale array was installed in a horizontal reactor chamber designed to treat approximately 2800 acfm of flue gas obtained from downstream of the plant's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The initial MerCAP{trademark} array was installed at Plant Yates in January 2004, operating continuously for several weeks before a catastrophic system failure resulting from a failed flue gas fan. A second MerCAP{trademark} array was installed in July 2006 and operated for one month before being shut down for a reasons pertaining to system performance and host site scheduling. A longer-term continuous-operation test was then conducted during the summer and fall of 2007. Tests were conducted to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent space velocity, and sorbent rinsing frequency on mercury removal performance. Detailed characterization of treated sorbent plates was carried out in an attempt to understand the nature of reactions leading to excessive corrosion of the substrate surfaces.

Carl Richardson

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

266

Demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second in a series of annual summaries on minable coal in the United States, pursuant to the power plant and industrial fuel use act. The demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1980 by area, rank, and potential method of mining is given. Reserve data are given by state and by type of coal (anthracite, bithiminous, subbituminous, and lignite). An introduction, summary, and a glossary of selected coal classification terms is also included. The appendix provides the demonstrated reserve base adjustments and related notions by state. References are also included. Coal reserves for 1979 are given for comparison. 7 figures, 6 tables.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and NAICS Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas from Local

268

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas

269

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace

270

Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

None

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Compilation of air-pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources, Fourth Edition. Supplement B  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42, new or revised emissions data are presented for Bituminous And Subbituminous Coal Combustion; Anthracite Coal Combustion; Residential Wood Stoves; Waste Oil Combustion; Refuse Combustion; Sewage Sludge Incineration; Surface Coating; Polyester Resin Plastics Product Fabrication; Soap and Detergents; Grain Elevators and Processing Plants; Lime Manufacturing; Crushed Stone Processing; Western Surface Coal Mining; Wildfires and Prescribed Burning; Unpaved Roads; Aggregate Handling And Storage Piles; Industrial Paved Roads; Industrial Wind Erosion; and Appendix C.3, Silt Analysis Procedures.

Not Available

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Fuel Flexibility in Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to increase efficiencies of carbonizers, operation at high pressures is needed. In addition, waste biomass fuels of opportunity can be used to offset fossil fuel use. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Fluidized Bed Gasifier/Combustor (FBG/C) was used to gasify coal and mixtures of coal and biomass (sawdust) at 425 psig. The purpose of the testing program was to generate steady state operating data for modeling efforts of carbonizers. A test program was completed with a matrix of parameters varied one at a time in order to avoid second order interactions. Variables were: coal feed rate, pressure, and varying mixtures of sawdust and coal types. Coal types were Montana Rosebud subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous. The sawdust was sanding waste from a furniture manufacturer in upstate New York. Coal was sieved from -14 to +60 mesh and sawdust was sieved to -14 mesh. The FBG/C operates at a nominal 425 psig, but pressures can be lowered. For the tests reported it was operated as a jetting, fluidized bed, ash-agglomerating gasifier. Preheated air and steam are injected into the center of the bottom along with the solid feed that is conveyed with cool air. Fairly stable reactor internal flow patterns develop and temperatures stabilize (with some fluctuations) when steady state is reached. At nominal conditions the solids residence time in the reactor is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours, so changes in feed types can require on the order of hours to equilibrate. Changes in operating conditions (e.g. feed rate) usually require much less time. The operating periods of interest for these tests were only the steady state periods, so transient conditions were not monitored as closely. The test matrix first established a base case of operations to which single parameter changes in conditions could be compared. The base case used Montana Rosebud at a coal feed rate of 70 lbm/hr at 425 psig. The coal sawdust mixtures are reported as percent by weight coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the coal sawdust mixtures. The coal sawdust mixtures segregate quickly when transported. This is visi

McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A. (Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Inc.)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

273

Prog054  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF POTENTIAL MERCURY PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF POTENTIAL MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR TXU Description Objective This project is intended to identify and evaluate potential mercury control technologies at the pilot scale which show promise for application at plants burning Gulf Coast lignite or a blend with subbituminous coal. Gulf Coast lignite is one of the most challenging coals in regard to mercury control because of its high mercury concentration and the high percentage of elemental mercury. Background Of all the mercury control options available to be deployed to meet pending mercury control regulations, activated carbon injection (ACI) is considered to be among the most mature and, therefore, most readily available for commercial use in coal-fired power plants. However, very small amounts of carbon (generally

274

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Highlights: August 2011 Highlights: August 2011 Extreme heat in Texas, New Mexico, Colorado and Arizona drove significant increases in the retail sales of electricity in the Southwest. Wind generation increased in much of the United States, except the middle of the country where total generation declined. Bituminous coal stocks dropped 14% from August 2010. Key indicators Same Month 2010 Year to date Total Net Generation -1% 11% Residential Retail Price -6% 11% Cooling Degree-Days -3% 2% Natural Gas Price, Henry Hub -6% -9% Bituminous Coal Stocks -14% -14% Subbituminous Coal Stocks -10% -17% Heat wave drives record demand and wholesale prices in Texas A prolonged August heat wave in Texas stressed available generating capacity and produced very high wholesale prices in the Electric

275

Recommended guidelines for solid fuel use in cement plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pulverized solid fuel use at cement plants in North America is universal and includes bituminous and sub-bituminous coal, petroleum coke, and any combination of these materials. Provided are guidelines for the safe use of pulverized solid fuel systems in cement plants, including discussion of the National Fire Protection Association and FM Global fire and explosion prevention standards. Addressed are fire and explosion hazards related to solid fuel use in the cement industry, fuel handling and fuel system descriptions, engineering design theory, kiln system operations, electrical equipment, instrumentation and safety interlock issues, maintenance and training, and a brief review of code issues. New technology on fire and explosion prevention including deflagration venting is also presented.

Young, G.L.; Jayaraman, H.; Tseng, H. (and others)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature- staged liquefaction. [Catalyst precursors for molybdenum-based catalyst and iron-based catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two coals, a Texas subbituminous C and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation on liquefaction conversion behavior in temperature staged reactions for 30 minutes each at 275{degree} and 425{degree}C in H{sub 2} and 95:5 H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S atmospheres. Methanol, pyridine, tetrahydrofuran, and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide were used as swelling agents. Molybdenum-based catalyst precursors were ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, molybdenum trisulfide, molybdenum hexacarbonyl, and bis(tricarbonylcyclopentadienyl-molybdenum). Ferrous sulfate and bis(dicarbonylcyclo-pentadienyliron) served as iron-based catalyst precursors. In addition, ion exchange was used for loading iron onto the subbituminous coal. For most experiments, liquefaction in H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S was superior to that in H{sub 2}, regardless of the catalyst precursor. The benefit of the H{sub 2}S was greater for the subbituminous, presumably because of its higher iron content relative to the hvab coal. Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide was the only swelling agent to enhance conversion of the hvab coal significantly; it also caused a remarkable increase in conversion of the subbituminous coal. The combined application of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation also improves liquefaction, mainly through increased oil yields from the hvab coal and increased asphaltenes from the subbituminous. A remarkable effect from use of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate as a catalyst precursor is substantial increase in pristane and phytane yields. Our findings suggest that these compounds are, at least in part, bound to the coal matrix.

Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature- staged liquefaction. Technical progress report, January--March 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two coals, a Texas subbituminous C and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation on liquefaction conversion behavior in temperature staged reactions for 30 minutes each at 275{degree} and 425{degree}C in H{sub 2} and 95:5 H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S atmospheres. Methanol, pyridine, tetrahydrofuran, and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide were used as swelling agents. Molybdenum-based catalyst precursors were ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, molybdenum trisulfide, molybdenum hexacarbonyl, and bis(tricarbonylcyclopentadienyl-molybdenum). Ferrous sulfate and bis(dicarbonylcyclo-pentadienyliron) served as iron-based catalyst precursors. In addition, ion exchange was used for loading iron onto the subbituminous coal. For most experiments, liquefaction in H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S was superior to that in H{sub 2}, regardless of the catalyst precursor. The benefit of the H{sub 2}S was greater for the subbituminous, presumably because of its higher iron content relative to the hvab coal. Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide was the only swelling agent to enhance conversion of the hvab coal significantly; it also caused a remarkable increase in conversion of the subbituminous coal. The combined application of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation also improves liquefaction, mainly through increased oil yields from the hvab coal and increased asphaltenes from the subbituminous. A remarkable effect from use of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate as a catalyst precursor is substantial increase in pristane and phytane yields. Our findings suggest that these compounds are, at least in part, bound to the coal matrix.

Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

Orndorff, R.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Pilot-scale study of the effect of selective catalytic reduction catalyst on mercury speciation in Illinois and Powder River Basin coal combustion flue gases  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur (S) and chlorine (Cl)) and one Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal with very low S and very low Cl were tested in a pilot-scale combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for controlling nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The SCR catalyst induced high oxidation of elemental Hg (Hg{sup 0}), decreasing the percentage of Hg{sup 0} at the outlet of the SCR to values <12% for the three Illinois coal tests. The PRB coal test indicated a low oxidation of Hg{sup 0} by the SCR catalyst, with the percentage of Hg{sup 0} decreasing from {approximately} 96% at the inlet of the reactor to {approximately} 80% at the outlet. The low Cl content of the PRB coal and corresponding low level of available flue gas Cl species were believed to be responsible for low SCR Hg oxidation for this coal type. The test results indicated a strong effect of coal type on the extent of Hg oxidation. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, C.W.; Srivastava, R.K.; Ghorishi, S.B.; Karwowski, J.; Hastings, T.H.; Hirschi, J.C. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Role of char during reburning of nitrogen oxides. First quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Customarily, coal and lignite have not been considered viable reburning fuels for a number of reasons. NO reduction through homogeneous gas phase mechanisms is generally believed more important than the heterogeneous NO reduction on char; and coal devolatilization in the fuel rich environment generates only about 50% of the volatile hydrocarbon radicals than gaseous hydrocarbons under the same fuel-to-oxidant stoichiometry. In addition, the fuel nitrogen could result in additional nitrogen oxide emissions in the burnout stage. What has not been anticipated is the highly active nature of lignite char surface. First, it has been demonstrated in the literature that lignite char can be gasified by nitrogen oxide; second, the minerals in lignite char can catalyze the CO + NO and gasification reaction; and third, lignite char has a highly porous structure which is desirable for gas/solid reactions. The unique NO activity on char surface is expected to benefit the utilities which are involved in coal combustion and have to meet the stringent Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This program is aimed at a better understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms involved in the reburning with chars. Char gasification rates will be measured with and without the presence of CO. Further, the rate of the char catalyzed CO + NO reaction will also be measured. Experiments have been conducted with a flow reactor which simulates the reburning stage. One bituminous coal and two lignites, one from North Dakota and the other from Mississippi, are used in these tasks. A unique component of this program is the use of the fractal concept in the estimations of these gas/solid reaction rates. The proposed program is designed to investigate the relative importance of these two reactions (char gasification and ash catalyzed CO + NO reactions) under reburning conditions.

Chen, Wei-Yin

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Carbon Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors 3. Carbon Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel EIA Fuel Code Source and Tables (As Appropriate) Factor (Pounds of CO2 Per Million Btu)*** Bituminous Coal BIT Source: 1 205.30000 Distillate Fuel Oil DFO Source: 1 161.38600 Geothermal GEO Estimate from EIA, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting 16.59983 Jet Fuel JF Source: 1 156.25800 Kerosene KER Source: 1 159.53500 Lignite Coal LIG Source: 1 215.40000 Municipal Solid Waste MSW Source: 1 (including footnote 2 within source) 91.90000 Natural Gas NG Source: 1 117.08000 Petroleum Coke PC Source: 1 225.13000 Propane Gas PG Sources: 1 139.17800 Residual Fuel Oil RFO Source: 1 173.90600 Synthetic Coal SC Assumed to have the emissions similar to Bituminous Coal. 205.30000

282

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage - Directions, Challenges, and Opportunities Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Capture and Storage November 13-15, 2007 Austin, Texas C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 U.S. Fossil Fuel Reserves / Production Ratio 250+ Year Supply at Current Demand Levels ! 258 11.7 9.7 0 100 200 300 Coal Oil Natural Gas Anthracite & Bituminous Sub- Bituminous & Lignite Sources: BP Statistical Review, June 2004, - for coal reserves data - World Energy Council; EIA, Advance Summary U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2003 Annual Report, September 22, 2004 - for oil and gas reserves data. C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 80 120 160 200 240 1970 1975 1980

283

Effects of coal interaction with supercritical CO{sub 2}: physical structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is known that polar solvents swell coal, break hydrogen-bonds in the macromolecular structure, and enhance coal liquefaction efficiencies. The effects of drying, interaction with supercritical CO{sub 2} and degassing on the physical structure of coal have been studied using gas sorption technique and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Both drying and interaction with supercritical CO{sub 2} drastically change the micropore and mesopore surface area, absolute volume, and volume distribution in both bituminous coal and lignite. Degassing removes debris in the pore space which allows for better analysis of the changes in the morphology that were induced by drying and exposure to supercritical CO{sub 2}. SEM reveals that interaction of bituminous coal with supercritical CO{sub 2} results in an abundance of carbon structures similar to the maceral collinite.

Gathitu, B.B.; Chen, W.Y.; McClure, M. [University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Process for producing electrodes from carbonaceous particles and a boron source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described of making an electric arc furnace graphite electrode comprising: (a) calcining a carbonaceous material selected form the group consisting of anthracite coal, bituminous coal, lignites, and nos. 2 and 3 cokes; (b) mixing the calcined carbonaceous material with pitch, a lubricant, and a boron source selected from the group consisting of elemental boron, boron carbide, silicon tetraboride, and iron boride, in an amount such that the boron content is from about 0.1 to about 5.0 percent by weight of the graphite electrode to form a mixture; (c) extruding the mixture into an electrode form; (d) and graphitizing the electrode form to provide a graphite electrode.

Sara, R.V.

1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

285

Supercritical plants to come online in 2009  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A trio of coal-fired power plants using supercritical technology set to enter service this year. These are: We Energies is Elm Road Generating Station in Wisconsin, a two-unit, 1,230 MW supercritical plant that will burn bituminous coal; a 750 MW supercritical coal-fired power plant at the Comanche Generating Station in Pueblo, Colo., the third unit at the site; and Luminant's Oak Grove plant in Texas which will consist of two supercritical, lignite-fueled power generation units. When complete, the plant will deliver about 1,6000 MW. Some details are given on each of these projects. 2 photos.

Spring, N.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R{sub B/A} of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R{sub B/A} is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

Ots, A. A., E-mail: aots@sti.ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 3 full-scale additive tests, conducted at IPL's Petersburg Station Unit 2. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2007.

Gary Blythe

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report.

Edward Levy

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Improved coal liquefaction was reinvestigated for the current two-stage process on the basis of the associated molecular nature of coal. Since a significant portion of coal molecules are physically associated as pointed in our recent paper, physical dissolution should be considered. The step-wise, high-temperature soaking is a simple and effective method for coal dissolution. Larger dissolution makes liquefaction severity lower. Broad molecular mass distribution in the associated coal was another important factor. The selective reaction of fractions with high molecular weight isolated after the high-temperature soaking makes gas yield lower. Tests using an autoclave by the concept shown in Figure 5 enabled to more oil and 15-20% less gas yields. It is expected that the procedure will result in great cost reduction in coal liquefaction.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Development of coker feeds from aromatic oil and bituminous coal digests.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Kingwood coal has been digested with two coal derived (anthracene oil and carbon black base) and two petroleum derived (slurry oil and Maraflex oil) aromatic… (more)

Clendenin, L. Mitchell.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Visual representation of carbon dioxide adsorption in a low-volatile bituminous coal molecular model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide can be sequestered in unmineable coal seams to aid in mitigating global climate change, while concurrently CH{sub 4} can be desorbed from the coal seam and used as a domestic energy source. In this work, a previously constructed molecular representation was used to simulate several processes that occur during sequestration, such as sorption capacities of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}-induced swelling, contraction because of CH{sub 4} and water loss, and the pore-blocking role of moisture. This is carried out by calculating the energy minima of the molecular model with different amounts of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}O. The model used is large (>2000 atoms) and contains a molecular-weight distribution, so that it has the flexibility to be used by other researchers and for other purposes in the future. In the low-level molecular modeling presented here, it was anticipated that CO{sub 2} would be adsorbed more readily than CH{sub 4}, that swelling would be anisotropic, greater perpendicular to the bedding plane because of the rank of this coal, and finally, that, with the addition of moisture, CO{sub 2} capacity in the coal would be reduced. As expected with this high-rank coal, there was swelling when CO{sub 2} perturbed the structure of approximately 5%. It was found that, on the basis of the interconnected pore structure and molecular sizes, CO{sub 2} was able to access 12.4% more of the pore volume (as defined by helium) than CH{sub 4}, in the rigid molecular representation. With water as stationary molecules, mostly hydrogen bound to the coal oxygen functionality, pore access decreased by 5.1% of the pore volume for CO{sub 2} accessibility and 4.7% of the pore volume for CH{sub 4} accessibility. 36 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Marielle R. Narkiewicz; Jonathan P. Mathews [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Department of Energy and Minerals Engineering

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2005.07.001  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The The PCO process for photochemical removal of mercury from flue gas B Christopher R. McLarnon a , Evan J. Granite b, * , Henry W. Pennline b a Powerspan Corp., P.O. Box 219, 54 Old Bay Road, New Durham, NH 03855, United States b National Energy Technology Laboratory, United States Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, MS 58-106, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940, United States Abstract A promising technology has been developed to capture and remove elemental mercury species from coal-fired power plants. Powerspan Corp. has licensed the technology and initiated a bench and pilot test program to develop the Photochemical Oxidation, or PCOi, process for commercial application with subbituminous and lignite fuels. The process has the potential to serve as a low cost mercury oxidation technology that will facilitate elemental mercury removal in a downstream SO 2 scrubber, wet electrostatic precipitator

294

Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Ultra Low-NOx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultra Low NOx Integrated System Ultra Low NOx Integrated System TFS 2000(tm) Low NOx Firing System Project Summary: ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important,

296

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Electric Power Sector Coal Stocks: January 2012 Electric Power Sector Coal Stocks: January 2012 Stocks Above normal temperatures in January have allowed electric utilities to significantly replinish stockpiles of coal. The upswing in coal stockpiles corresponds to decreasing consumption of coal at electric generators seen in the resource use section across all regions of the country. Days of Burn Days of burn Coal capacity The average number of days of burn held at electric power plants is a forward looking estimate of coal supply given a power plant's current stockpile and past consumption patterns. Along with coal stockpiles at electric power plants, the supply of coal significantly increased in January of 2012. Total bituminous coal days of burn increased 10 percent from January 2011 to 87, while subbituminous supply increased nearly 10

297

Final_Tech_Session_Schedule_and_Location.xls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring and Modeling Sorption- Induced Coal Strain Eric P. Robertson, Idaho National Laboratory Richard L. Christiansen, Colorado School of Mines FOURTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION DOE/NETL May 2-5, 2005 Abstract Strain caused by the adsorption of gases was measured in samples of subbituminous coal from the Powder River basin of Wyoming, U.S.A. and high-volatile bituminous coal from east-central Utah, U.S.A. using an apparatus developed jointly at the Idaho National Laboratory (Idaho Falls, Idaho, U.S.A.) and Colorado School of Mines (Golden, Colorado, U.S.A.). The apparatus can be used to measure strain on multiple small coal samples based on the optical detection of the longitudinal strain instead of the more common usage of strain gauges, which require larger samples and longer equilibration times. With

298

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Electric Power Sector Coal Stocks: October 2013 Electric Power Sector Coal Stocks: October 2013 Stocks In October 2013, total coal stocks increased 0.8 percent from the previous month. This follows the normal seasonal pattern for this time of year as the country begins to build up coal stocks to be consumed during the winter months. Compared to last October, coal stocks decreased 17.7 percent. This occurred because coal stocks in October 2012 were at an extremely high level. Days of Burn Days of burn Coal capacity The average number of days of burn held at electric power plants is a forward looking estimate of coal supply given a power plant's current stockpile and past consumption patterns. The total bituminous supply decreased from 85 days the previous month to 78 days in October 2013, while the total subbituminous supply decreased from 63 days in September 2013 to

299

Combustion characterization of coals for industrial applications. First quarterly progress report, 1 April 1982-30 June 1982  

SciTech Connect

Three of the five coals ear-marked for this study have been characterized. These coals include (1) A Montana (Rosebud) subbituminous; (2) An Illinois (No. 6) high volatile bituminous; and (3) A Pennsylvania (Buck Mountain) anthracite. Samples for analyses were prepared in accordance with the ASTM standard (ASTM D 2013-72). The following ASTM analyses were performed on each coal: proximate, ultimate, higher heating value, Hardgrove grindability index, ash fusibility, and ash composition. Additionally, the flammability index (FI) of each coal was determined in an in-house apparatus. The (FI) is indicative of the ignition temperature of a given fuel on a relative basis. These analyses yielded information regarding the ASTM classification of the three coals as well as their chemical, physical, and ignitibility characteristics. 1 figure, 2 tables.

Borio, R.W.; Goetz, G.J.; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Patel, R.L.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process- This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the recent progress of our work. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of structure and pretreatment-liquefaction reactions of a Montana subbituminous Coal (DECS-9), and thermochemical analysis of three mw and reacted bituminous coals. Temperature programmed liquefaction has been performed on three low-rank coals both in the presence and absence of dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalyst. We also performed a detailed study of the effects of mild thermal pretreatment -- drying in air and in vacuum -- on thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Important information on structure and structure transformation during thermal pretreatment and liquefaction reactions of low-rank coals has been derived by applying solid-state CPMAS [sup 13]C NMR and flash pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) for characterization of the macromolecular network of a Montana subbituminous coal and its residues from temperature-programmed and nonprogrammed liquefaction (TPL and N-PL) at final temperatures ranging from 300 to 425[degree]C in H-donor and non-donor solvents. The results revealed that this coal contains significant quantities of oxygen-bearing structures, corresponding to about 18 O-bound C per 100 C atoms and one O-bound C per every 5 to 6 aromatic C.

Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hou, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, August 1992--July 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process- This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the recent progress of our work. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of structure and pretreatment-liquefaction reactions of a Montana subbituminous Coal (DECS-9), and thermochemical analysis of three mw and reacted bituminous coals. Temperature programmed liquefaction has been performed on three low-rank coals both in the presence and absence of dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalyst. We also performed a detailed study of the effects of mild thermal pretreatment -- drying in air and in vacuum -- on thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Important information on structure and structure transformation during thermal pretreatment and liquefaction reactions of low-rank coals has been derived by applying solid-state CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and flash pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) for characterization of the macromolecular network of a Montana subbituminous coal and its residues from temperature-programmed and nonprogrammed liquefaction (TPL and N-PL) at final temperatures ranging from 300 to 425{degree}C in H-donor and non-donor solvents. The results revealed that this coal contains significant quantities of oxygen-bearing structures, corresponding to about 18 O-bound C per 100 C atoms and one O-bound C per every 5 to 6 aromatic C.

Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hou, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

1981-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

304

The release of iron during coal combustion. Milestone report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iron plays an important role in the formation of both fly ash and deposits in many pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Several authors indicate that iron content is a significant indicator of the slagging propensity of a majority of US bituminous coals, in particular eastern bituminous coals. The pyritic iron content of these coals is shown to be a particularly relevant consideration. A series of investigations of iron release during combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile bituminous coal under combustion conditions ranging from oxidizing to inert. Experimental measurements are described in which, under selected conditions, major fractions of the iron in the coal are released within a 25 ms period immediately following coal devolatilization. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that the iron is released as a consequence of oxygen attack on porous pyrrhotite particles. Experimental testing of the proposed mechanism reveals that the release is dependent on the presence of both pyrite in the raw coal and oxygen in the gas phase, that slow preoxidation (weathering) of the pyrite significantly inhibits the iron release, and that iron loss increases as oxygen penetration of the particle increases. Each observation is consistent with the postulated mechanism.

Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

China Energy Databook - Rev. 4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal, lignite, peat, and oil shale, Crude oil and naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale, Crude oil and naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. Crude oil and natural

Sinton Editor, J.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2] Crude oil, naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2] Crude oil, naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2] Crude oil, natural

Fridley, Ed., David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Reduction in Mercury Emissions with Lignite Coke W. Esser-Schmittmann, J. Wirling and U. Lenz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). Therefore, without cooling the flue gas, significant quantities of mercury will pass through the particulate, page 4824. Licata, A., et al, June 1994, "An Economic Alternative to Controlling Acid Gases, Mercury electrostatic precipitator combination. -Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction System to reduce nitrogen oxide

Columbia University

308

Microbial activities in forest soils exposed to chronic depositions from a lignite power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deposition from coal-fired power plants probably had akm downwind of a coal-fired power plant (sites Ia, II, andterm emissions from coal-fired power plants to forest soils

Klose, Susanne; Wernecke, K D; Makeschin, F

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

NETL: Gasification Systems - Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) Project No.: DE-FC21-90MC25140 Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) Project ID: DE-FC21-90MC25140 NETL Contact: Morgan Mosser (304) 285-4723 Organization: Southern Company Services, Inc. - Birmingham, AL Project Timeline: Start: 09/14/1990 End: 01/31/2009 Power Systems Development Facility The objectives of the work at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) are two-fold; development of the Transport Gasifier for a wide range of US coals from high sodium lignite to Midwestern bituminous and provide a test platform to test various critical components that are likely to appear in future advanced coal-based power facilities producing power and fuels such as hydrogen with zero emissions. With regard to the development of the

310

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Field Demonstration of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control ALSTOM will test their proprietary activated carbon-based sorbent which promotes oxidation and capture of mercury via preparation with chemical additives. ALSTOM proposes to test the sorbents at three utilities burning different coals, PacificCorpÂ’s Dave Johnston (PRB), Basin ElectricÂ’s Leland Olds (North Dakota Lignite) and Reliant EnergyÂ’s Portland Unit (bituminous). Other project partners include Energy and Environmental Research Center, North Dakota Industrial Commission and Minnkota Power who will be a non-host utility participant. Upon completion of this two year project, ALSTOM will demonstrate the capability of controlling mercury emissions from units equipped with electrostatic precipitators, a configuration representing approximately 75% of the existing units.

311

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasifier: Commercial Gasifiers: Fixed (Moving) Bed Gasifiers Gasifier: Commercial Gasifiers: Fixed (Moving) Bed Gasifiers Lurgi Dry-Ash Gasifier Lurgi GmbH first developed Lurgi dry-ash gasification technology in the early 1930s to produce what was still known as town gas, in one of the first practical applications of gasification. The first commercial plant based on this technology was built in 1936. In the 1950s, Lurgi and Ruhrgas further developed the technology to handle bituminous coals in addition to the traditional lignite feedstock. Lurgi dry-ash gasification technology has since been used worldwide to produce synthesis gas (syngas), and is the basis of such major projects as the Sasol synfuel plants in South Africa, and the Great Plains Synfuels Plant in North Dakota. An estimated 150 Lurgi gasifiers are in operation today, mainly in South Africa, China and the United States (North Dakota).

312

Petrographic, mineralogical, and chemical characterization of certain Alaskan coals and washability products. Final report, July 11, 1978-October 11, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Petrological, mineralogical and chemical characterization provides basic information needed for proper utilization of coals. Since many of these coals are likely to be beneficiated to reduce ash, the influence of coal washing on the characteristics of the washed product is important. Twenty samples of Alaskan coal seams were used for this study. The coals studied ranged in rank from lignite to high volatile A bituminous with vitrinite/ulminite reflectance ranging from 0.25 to 1.04. Fifteen raw coals were characterized for proximate and ultimate analysis reflectance rank, petrology, composition of mineral matter, major oxides and trace elements in coal ash. Washability products of three coals from Nenana, Beluga and Matanuska coal fields were used for characterization of petrology, mineral matter and ash composition. Petrological analysis of raw coals and float-sink products showed that humodetrinite was highest in top seam in a stratigraphic sequence

Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

Baxter, L.L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved management and reporting. The other four tasks involved field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. These four tasks included: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal was completed in 2006; only the TMT-15 additive was tested in these efforts. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1 were completed in 2007, and both the TMT-15 and Nalco 8034 additives were tested.

Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

315

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous sampling has shown that air pollution control devices can have a significant impact on mercury and other trace elements. For example, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can substantially increase the percentage of oxidized mercury that can then be removed by a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) also readily captures most of the trace elements of interest. The emission of these trace elements is then directly related to the overall particulate collect...

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

317

The use of solid-state NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Quarterly report, June 1--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

One area for improvement in the economics of coal liquefaction is coal drying, particularly for the lower rank coals. However, there is considerable evidence to show that drying has a detrimental effect on the liquefaction behavior of coals. Regarding the liquefaction of coal, there does not appear to have been any systematic study of the methods of coal drying on coal structure and the role water plays in enhancing or lessening coal reactivity toward liquefaction. To conduct this study two coals, the North Dakota Beulah Zap lignite and the Utah Blind Canyon coals were chosen. These coals represent a low and high rank coal, respectively. In addition, the Beulah Zap lignite has a high moisture content whereas the Blind Canyon coal (hvA) bituminous has a very low moisture content. The overall objectives of this study are to develop a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for measuring the water in coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during coal drying, to determine what effect water has on retrograde/condensation reactions, and to determine the mechanism by which water may impact coal reactivity toward liquefaction. Different methods of drying are being investigated to determine if drying can be accomplished without destroying coal reactivity toward liquefaction. The objectives for this quarterly report period were (1) to measure the volumetric swelling ratio for initial and chemically-dried coals and (2) to conduct preliminary experiments concerning the exchange of water in coal with deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O).

Netzel, D.A.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Role of char during reburning of Nnitrogen oxides. Second quarterly report, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Reburning is an emerging three-stage combustion technology designed for the reduction of NO by introducing a small amount of reburning fuel above the primary flame where the majority of NO is chemically reduced to nitrogen. While coal, in general, has not been considered an effective reburning fuel, research at the University of Mississippi suggested that lignite has a reburning efficiency even higher than that of methane. Furthermore, heterogeneous mechanisms are more important than homogeneous mechanisms for char/NO reaction. The objectives of this research are to investigate: (1) implications of pore structure analysis, (2) parameters governing heterogeneous reactions, and (3) estimation of rates of NO reduction and mass transfer limitations. Experiments have been performed in a flow reactor with a simulated fuel gas at a stoichiometric ratio (SR) 1.1. Reburning fuels in this study include chars derived from Pittsburgh No.8 bituminous coal and Mississippi lignite. Chars were produced in N{sub 2} by suspending a sample basket in a tube furnace. Pore structure analyses include BET-N{sub 2}, BET-CO{sub 2}, and DR-CO{sub 2} surface pore size distribution, micropore volume, total pore volume, and average pore radius. These studies suggest that neither BET-N{sub 2} nor DR- CO{sub 2} surface area is a normalization factor of chars of different origin. Reaction with NO leads to closures of pores, which may be contributed by formation of surface complexes.

Chen, Wei-Yin [Mississippi Univ., University, MS (United States); Fan, L.T. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Lu, Te-Chang; Tang, Lin [Mississippi Univ., University, MS (United States); Meng, Fang [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was purchased used and all of the equipment has nearly reached the end of its useful service.

Ronald Landreth

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Superheater/intermediate temperature air heater tube corrosion tests in the MHD coal fired flow facility (Montana Rosebud POC tests)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nineteen alloys have been exposed for approximately 1000 test hours as candidate superheater and intermediate temperature air heater tubes in a U.S. DOE facility dedicated to demonstrating Proof of Concept for the bottoming or heat and seed recovery portion of coal fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generating plants. Corrosion data have been obtained from a test series utilizing a western United States sub-bituminous coal, Montana Rosebud. The test alloys included a broad range of compositions ranging from carbon steel to austenitic stainless steels to high chromium nickel-base alloys. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO-containing deposits, developed principally, oxide scales by an oxidation/sulfidation mechanism. In addition to being generally porous, these scales were frequently spalled and/or non-compact due to a dispersed form of outward growth by oxide precipitation in the adjacent deposit. Austenitic alloys generally had internal penetration as trans Tranular and/or intergranular oxides and sulfides. While only two of the alloys had damage visible without magnification as a result of the relatively short exposure, there was some concern about Iona-term corrosion performance owing to the relatively poor quality scales formed. Comparison of data from these tests to those from a prior series of tests with Illinois No. 6, a high sulfur bituminous coal, showed less corrosion in the present test series with the lower sulfur coal. Although K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}was the principal corrosive agent as the supplier of sulfur, which acted to degrade alloy surface scales, tying up sulfur as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} prevented the occurrence of complex alkali iron trisulfates responsible for severe or catastrophic corrosion in conventional power plants with certain coals and metal temperatures.

White, M.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Predicting extents of mercury oxidation in coal-derived flue gases  

SciTech Connect

The extent of Hg oxidation determines the portion of Hg in the flue gas from a coal-fired power station that can be removed in SO{sub 2} scrubbers. This article evaluates predicted extents of Hg oxidation from a detailed chemical reaction mechanism, emphasizing the data from 1 and 29 MW pilotscale furnaces for diverse coal types. The proposed mercury (Hg) oxidation mechanism consists of a 168-step gas phase mechanism that accounts for interaction among all important flue gas species and a heterogeneous oxidation mechanism on unburned carbon (UBC) particles, similar to established chemistry for dioxin production under comparable conditions. The mechanism was incorporated into a gas cleaning system simulator to predict the proportions of elemental and oxidized Hg species in the flue gases, given relevant coal properties (C/H/O/N/S/Cl/Hg), flue gas composition (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, HCl), emissions (NOx, SOx, CO), the recovery of fly ash, fly ash loss-on-ignition (LOI), and a thermal history. Predictions are validated without parameter adjustments against datasets from lab-scale and from pilot-scale coal furnaces at 1 and 29 MWt. Collectively, the evaluations cover 16 coals representing ranks from sub-bituminous through high-volatile bituminous, including cases with Cl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} injection. The predictions are, therefore, validated over virtually the entire domain of Cl-species concentrations and UBC levels of commercial interest. Additional predictions identify the most important operating conditions in the furnace and gas cleaning system, including stoichiometric ratio, NOX, LOI, and residence time, as well as the most important coal properties, including coal-Cl. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Stephen Niksa; Naoki Fujiwara [Niksa Energy Associates, Belmont, CA (US)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

Not Available

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Experimental study of oxy-fuel combustion and sulfur capture in a mini-CFBC  

SciTech Connect

Oxy-fuel technology uses effectively pure oxygen for fossil fuel combustion in order to obtain a highly concentrated CO{sub 2} stream, suitable for direct compression and sequestration. It is an effective technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere from large point sources such as power generation plants. Oxy-fuel FBC technology has the combined advantage of producing high CO{sub 2} concentration flue gas and allowing excellent fuel flexibility. In addition, with external cooling of the recirculated solids, the flue gas recirculation ratio can be reduced. CETC-Ottawa has carried out oxy-fuel fluidized bed combustion with flue gas recirculation on its modified mini-CFBC. The mini-CFBC has an internal diameter of 100 mm and internal height of 5000 mm. Both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals were fired. Limestone was premixed with coal and fed to the mini-CFBC. Recirculated solids were cooled in the return leg of the mini-CFBC. The bed temperature was controlled at about 850{sup o}C, while the oxygen concentration in the primary gas was about 25% and in the secondary gas was about 50%. With flue gas recycle, the CO{sub 2} concentration in the flue gas reached 82-90%. Sulfur capture efficiency and CO and NOx concentrations were also measured and were all at acceptable levels. The transition from air firing to oxy-fuel firing was a fast and relatively smooth process, and operation of the mini-CFBC under oxy-fuel firing conditions was similar to that of air firing. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

L. Jia; Y. Tan; C. Wang; E.J. Anthony [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Commercial Use of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Commercial Use of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Operating Facilities - Sasol Production of liquid fuels and chemicals from coal on a large scale has been a reality in South Africa for decades. Sasol Synfuels owns and operates Sasol II and Sasol III, which are two F-T synthesis-based fuels production plants in Secunda, South Africa. The Sasol plants represent the most significant example of commercialized F-T synthesis in the world. Construction of Sasol II began in the mid 1970s, with operation of the two plants commencing in the early 1980s. The two plants contain 80 Sasol-Lurgi Fixed Bed Dry Bottom (FBDB) gasifiers, and total output from both of the plants is approximately 150,000 barrels per day (bpd), reaching 160,000 bpd in 2006. The feedstock for the plants is sub-bituminous coal supplied by Sasol Mining, a sister company of Sasol Synfuels. Natural gas is also used as a supplemental feedstock. A proprietary iron-based Fisher-Tropsch (FT) process is used to convert the synthesis gas (syngas) produced by the gasifiers to gasoline, light olefins (alkenes), and a variety of other products.

325

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - ALTA for Cyclone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Demonstration of ALTA NOx Control for Cyclone-Fired Boilers Full-Scale Demonstration of ALTA NOx Control for Cyclone-Fired Boilers The primary goal of this project was to evaluate a technology called advanced layered technology application (ALTA) as a means to achieve NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MMBtu in a cyclone boiler. Reaction Engineering International (REI) conducted field testing and combustion modeling to refine the process design, define the optimum technology parameters, and assess system performance. The ALTA NOx control technology combines deep staging from overfire air, rich reagent injection (RRI), and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Field testing was conducted during May-June 2005 at AmerenUE's Sioux Station Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone boiler unit that typically burns an 80/20 blend of Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. Parametric testing was also conducted with 60/40 and 0/100 blends. The testing also evaluated process impacts on balance-of-plant issues such as the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, slag tapping, waterwall corrosion, ammonia slip, and heat distribution.

326

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: The preliminary evaluation of the kinetics of coal liquefaction distillation resid conversion  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the use of a novel laboratory-scale batch reactor, designed by the University of Delaware, to study the kinetics of coal liquefaction resid reactivity. The short time batch reactor (STBR) is capable of conducting reactions at temperatures up to 450{degrees}C and pressures up to 2500 psi at well-defined reaction times from a few seconds to 30 min or longer. Sixty experiments were conducted with the STBR in this project. The products of the resid/tetralin/hydrogen reaction were separated by solubility, and several analytical procedures were used to evaluate the reaction products, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Changes were monitored in the boiling ranges of the products, as a function of process conditions (time, temperature, and tetralin donor solvent-to-resid ratio), with and without catalysts. Two distillation resid samples were studied; Sample 1 is the resid of the second stage product stream from Wilsonville Run 259 which used Pittsburgh seam coal (Ireland mine) bituminous coal, and Sample 2 is the resid of the same streak from Wilsonville Run 260 which used Wyodak and Anderson (Black Thunder Mine) subbituminous coal. It was determined that the resid reactivity was different for the two samples studied. The results demonstrate that further development of this experimental method is warranted to empirically assess resid reactivity and to provide data for use in the construction of an empirical model of coal conversion in the direct liquefaction process.

Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, He [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration.

Croft, Gregory D. [University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Patzek, Tad W. [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)], E-mail: patzek@mail.utexas.edu

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Results of the PDF{trademark} test burn at Clifty Creek Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Process Derived Fuel (PDF{sup TM}) from the ENCOAL process is different from other coals used to generate steam for the power industry. Although PDF{sup TM} is currently produced from Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, the coal structure changes during processing. Compared to the parent coal, PDF{sup TM} contains much less moisture and slightly lower volatile matter resulting in a higher heating value and higher ash per million Btu. These coal properties can potentially benefit utility boiler performance. Combining the high combustion reactivity typical of PRB coals with significantly reduced moisture should produce higher flame zone temperatures and shorter flames. As a result, some boilers may experience increased steam production, better burnout, or lower excess air. The objective of the work contracted to Quinapoxet Engineering was to quantify the impacts of burning PDF{sup TM} on boiler performance at Clifty Creek Unit 3. A unique optical temperature monitor called SpectraTemp was used to measure changes in furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) with time and boiler operating parameters for both PDF{sup TM} blends as well as a baseline coal blend consisting of 60% PRB coal, 20% Ohio coal, and 20% low-volatile eastern bituminous coal from Virginia. FEGT was then related to net plant heat rate, NO{sub x} emissions, and electrostatic precipitator performance.

Johnson, S.A.; Knottnerus, B.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work completed during the fifth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. Work this quarter focused on analytical characterization of untreated and treated Wyodak subbituminous coal and Illinois {number sign}6 bituminous coal. Mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of methanol/HCl pretreatment on the composition of each coal's inorganic phase. Results from these studies indicated that calcite is largely removed during pretreatment, but that other mineral species such as pyrite are unaffected. This finding is significant, since calcite removal appears to directly correlate with low severity liquefaction enhancement. Further work will be performed to study this phenomenon in more detail.

Miller, R.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Effect of Coal Blending By  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants are a major source of mercury (Hg) released into the environment and the utility industry is currently investigating options to reduce Hg emissions. One control option is to utilize existing pollution control equipment such as wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers. The split (speciation) between chemical forms of mercury (Hg) species has a strong influence on the control and environmental fate of Hg emissions from coal combustion. The high-temperature coal combustion process releases Hg in elemental form (Hg 0). A significant fraction of the Hg 0 can be subsequently oxidized in the low-temperature, post-combustion environment of a coal-fired boiler. Relative to Hg 0, oxidized Hg (Hg 2+) is more effectively removed by air pollution control systems (APCS). For example, the water-soluble Hg 2+ is much more easily captured than insoluble Hg 0 in FGD units. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology widely applied for reducing NOX emissions from power plants also affects the speciation of Hg in the coal combustion flue gases. Recent full-scale field tests conducted in the U.S. showed increases in Hg oxidation across the SCR catalysts for plants firing bituminous coals with sulfur (S) content ranging from 1.0 to 3.9%. However, plants firing subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coals which contains significantly lower chlorine (Cl) and sulfur (S)

Pilot-scale Coal Combustor The; Shannon D. Serre; Chun Wai Lee

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Coal-fired power-plant-capital-cost estimates. Final report. [Mid-1978 price level; 13 different sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conceptual designs and order-of-magnitude capital cost estimates have been prepared for typical 1000-MW coal-fired power plants. These subcritical plants will provide high efficiency in base load operation without excessive efficiency loss in cycling operation. In addition, an alternative supercritical design and a cost estimate were developed for each of the plants for maximum efficiency at 80 to 100% of design capacity. The power plants will be located in 13 representative regions of the United States and will be fueled by coal typically available in each region. In two locations, alternate coals are available and plants have been designed and estimated for both coals resulting in a total of 15 power plants. The capital cost estimates are at mid-1978 price level with no escalation and are based on the contractor's current construction projects. Conservative estimating parameters have been used to ensure their suitability as planning tools for utility companies. A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been included for each plant to reflect the requirements of the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions. The estimated costs of the FGD facilities range from 74 to 169 $/kW depending on the coal characteristics and the location of the plant. The estimated total capital requirements for twin 500-MW units vary from 8088 $/kW for a southeastern plant burning bituminous Kentucky coal to 990 $/kW for a remote western plant burning subbituminous Wyoming coal.

Holstein, R.A.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Utilization of Partially Gasified Coal for Mercury Removal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this project, General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) developed a novel mercury (Hg) control technology in which the sorbent for gas-phase Hg removal is produced from coal in a gasification process in-situ at a coal burning plant. The main objective of this project was to obtain technical information necessary for moving the technology from pilot-scale testing to a full-scale demonstration. A pilot-scale gasifier was used to generate sorbents from both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Once the conditions for optimizing sorbent surface area were identified, sorbents with the highest surface area were tested in a pilot-scale combustion tunnel for their effectiveness in removing Hg from coal-based flue gas. It was determined that the highest surface area sorbents generated from the gasifier process ({approx}600 m{sup 2}/g) had about 70%-85% of the reactivity of activated carbon at the same injection rate (lb/ACF), but were effective in removing 70% mercury at injection rates about 50% higher than that of commercially available activated carbon. In addition, mercury removal rates of up to 95% were demonstrated at higher sorbent injection rates. Overall, the results of the pilot-scale tests achieved the program goals, which were to achieve at least 70% Hg removal from baseline emissions levels at 25% or less of the cost of activated carbon injection.

Chris Samuelson; Peter Maly; David Moyeda

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

336

Flash pyrolysis of oil shale with various gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The flash pyrolysis of Colorado Oil Shale with methane at a temperature of 800/sup 0/C and pressure of 500 psi appears to give the highest yield of hydrocarbon gas and liquid followed by hydrogen and lowest with helium. In the methane pyrolysis over 54.5% of the carbon in the kerogen is converted to ethylene and benzene. The flash pyrolysis with hydrogen (flash hydropyrolysis) of the oil shale at increasing temperatures showed a rapidly increasing amount of methane formed and a decrease in ethane formation, while the BTX (benzene mainly) yield remained at approximately 10%. At 950/sup 0/C and 500 psi almost all (97.0%) of the carbon in the kerogen is converted to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Experiments with a mixture of a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal and oil shale under flash hydropyrolysis and methane pyrolysis conditions indicated higher yields of methane and ethylene and slightly lower yields of benzene than predicted by partial additive calculations. These exploratory experiments appear to be of sufficient interest to warrant a fuller investigation of the interaction of the natural resources, oil shale, coal and natural gas under flash pyrolysis conditions.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Coal derived fuel gases for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Product streams from state-of-the-art and future coal gasification systems are characterized to guide fuel cell program planners and researchers in establishing performance goals and developing materials for molten carbonate fuel cells that will be compatible with gasifier product gases. Results are presented on: (1) the range of gasifier raw-gas compositions available from the major classes of coal gasifiers; (2) the degree of gas clean-up achievable with state-of-the-art and future gas clean-up systems; and (3) the energy penalties associated with gas clean-up. The study encompasses fixed-bed, fluid-bed, entrained-bed, and molten salt gasifiers operating with Eastern bituminous and Western subbituminous coals. Gasifiers operating with air and oxygen blowing are evaluated, and the coal gasification product streams are characterized with respect to: (1) major gas stream constituents, e.g., CO, H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O; (2) major gas stream contaminants, e.g., H/sub 2/S, COS, particulates, tars, etc.; and (3) trace element contaminants, e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, Hg, etc.

Not Available

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Annual report, July 1991--June 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Westinghouse`s Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO{sub x} levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Research guidance studies to assess gasoline from coal by methanol-to-gasoline and sasol-type Fischer--Tropsch technologies. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study provides a technical and economic comparison between the new Mobil methanol-to-gasoline technology under development and the commercially available Fischer--Tropsch technology for the production of motor gasoline meeting U.S. quality standards. Conceptual plant complexes, sited in Wyoming, are complete grass-roots facilities. The Lurgi dry-ash, pressure technology is used to gasify sub-bituminous strip coal. Except for the Mobil process, processes used are commercially available. Coproduction of products, namely SNG, LPG and gasoline, is practiced. Four sensitivity cases have also been developed in less detail from the two base cases. In all areas, the Mobil technology is superior to Fischer--Tropsch: process complexity, energy usage, thermal efficiency, gasoline selectivity, gasoline quality, investment and gasoline selectivity, gasoline quality, investment and gasoline cost. Principal advantages of the Mobil process are its selective yield of excellent quality gasoline with minimum ancillary processing. Fischer--Tropsch not only yields a spectrum of products, but the production of a gasoline meeting U.S. specifications is difficult and complex. This superiority results in about a 25% reduction in the gasoline cost. Sensitivity study conclusions include: (1) the conversion of methanol into gasoline over the Mobil catalyst is highly efficient, (2) if SNG is a valuable product, increased gasoline yield via the reforming of SNG is uneconomical, and (3) fluid-bed operation is somewhat superior to fixed-bed operation for the Mobil methanol conversion technology.

Schreiner, M.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

Andrew Lucero

2009-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and related combustion performance. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive Powder River Basin coal (PRB) to a moderately reactive Midwestern bituminous coal (HVB) to a less reactive medium volatile Eastern bituminous coal (MVB). Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis.

Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

2002-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

343

China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Production [1] Hard coal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2]Production Changes Imports Exports Russian Federation World [1] Hard coal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [Production India Russian Federation Japan World [1] Hard coal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [

Fridley, Ed., David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Program 054  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FF 405 - 605 Basin Electric Antelope Valley 1 ND Lignite FF 404 - 504 Great River Energy Stanton 1 ND Lignite ESP 305 - 505 Minnkota Power Milton R. Young 2 ND Lignite...

345

Fossil energy program progress report for March 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During March we treated Illinois No. 6 coal with aqueous Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and CaO at 80/sup 0/C and atmospheric pressure for use in hydrocarbonization run HC-26. The run was carried out at a coal feed rate of 8.7 lbs/hr and at 1055/sup 0/F and 300 psig with no difficulties. In support of in situ gasification, the current series of bituminous coal tests was concluded and a series of block pyrolysis tests using lignite was started. In contrast to the behavior observed with bituminous coal, drying of the lignite block occurred by a shrinking-core mechanism. The fracture toughness of 2/sup 1///sub 4/ Cr-1 Mo in. thick sections suitable for large coal conversion systems is being explored for material in the as-fabricated condition in our pressure vessel and piping materials work. Preparation of a facility for environmental exposure of materials is nearing completion. Two topical reports on ceramics and cermets are now in reproduction. In our welding and cladding program, the effort to develop the submerged arc and gas metal-arc welding methods for overlaying 2/sup 1///sub 4/ Cr-1 Mo steel is continuing. The nickel content of the deposits appears to be a major factor that affects cracking of the weld overlay deposits. In our experimental work on fireside corrosion, data for a 1000 hr exposure of type 304, 310, and 316 stainless steels, Alloy 600, and Alloy 800 heat exchanger tubes exposed in the FluiDyne Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor are presented for times to 1500 hrs. Work continued on preparation of the second and third issues of the Synthetic Fuels Process Research Digest. In our work on surveys of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities, information is being assembled concerning use of critical let-down valves, expansion joints, and mechanical connectors in demonstration plants. In our work on magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, testing of the handling characteristics and magnetic susceptability of coal from a power plant pulverizer continued.

McNeese, L.E.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Mercury Measurements Characterizing the Impact of SCR on Mercury: Consol Test Site 5 - Eastern Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plant wi th an SCR, ESP, and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber 8212 fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining ...

2005-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

347

Mercury Measurements Characterizing the Impact of SCR on Mercury: Consol Site 7 - Eastern Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plant with an SCR, ESP, and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercu...

2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

348

Mercury Measurements Characterizing the Impact of SCR on Mercury: Consol Test Site 4 - Eastern Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plant wit h an SCR, ESP, and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercu...

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

349

Mercury Measurements Characterizing the Impact of SCR on Mercury: Consol Site 6 - Eastern Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plant with an SCR, ESP, and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber 8211 fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining ...

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is focussed on the effective preconversion and liquefaction of coal. One of the main goals of this project was to reduce hydrogen consumption by decreasing the gas yield and increasing the oil yield based on a new structural model of coal. Two factors were critically evaluated during these tasks: (1) maximizing dissolution of associated coal and (2) different reactivity of fractions with different molecular weight. High-temperature soaking at{approximately} 350{degree}C in a coal liquid (recycle oil) was one method for effective dissolution not requiring additional chemicals and/or hydrogen. Two-step soaking at 350{degree}C and 400{degree}C was more effective for maximum dissolution. The addition of a relatively small amount of hydrogen peroxide during soaking slightly enhanced preconversion. Separation of dissolved coal into light and heavy fractions, followed by liquefaction of the heavy fraction, was effective as a means to improve product selectivity. Vacuum distillation was projected for the simple separation method. Cyclohexane extraction was used instead of vacuum distillation since cyclohexane solubles closely resemble the distillable oil fraction. Tests of the suggested procedure inferred a 30% increase in the oil yield and a 15--20% decrease in the gas yield. The effectiveness of the suggested procedure was confirmed from coal/oil ratios (g/ml) of 1/10--{1/2}. Batchwise vacuum distillation was tested, but was not successful due to an inherent problem in resolubilizing pitch samples in coal liquid. Progress this quarter is described.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Evaluation of co-cokes from bituminous coal with vacuum resid or decant oil, and evaluation of anthracites, as precursors to graphite.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Graphite is utilized as a neutron moderator and structural component in some nuclear reactor designs. During the reactor operaction the structure of graphite is damaged… (more)

Nyathi, Mhlwazi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Reactivity of heat treated chars  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reactivities of a number of chars produced from American coals varying in rank from lignite to anthracite have been measured in air, CO/sub 2/, steam and H/sub 2/. The variables chosen for the study were: rank of the parent coal, inorganic matter content, particle size, reaction temperature and pressure as well as heat treatment conditions used during char preparation. In all gasification atmospheres studied, reactivity plots for different chars are essentially of the same general shape and have three distinct regions. The reaction rate first increases slowly with time. The plot then goes through a maximum in slope, followed by a lengthy region of decreasing slope as burn-off approaches 100 percent. The shape of the burn-off curves can be explained on the basis of what is known about the development of porosity and surface area in microporous chars as they undergo gasification. Using an adjustable time parameter, equations have been developed which successfully correlate the reactivity data. Char reactivity decreases, in general, with increase in rank of the parent coal. Reactivities of chars in air, CO/sub 2/ and steam increase over 150-fold in going from a low volatile bituminous to a lignite parent coal; the spread in char reactivities in H/sub 2/ is only 30-fold. Removal of inorganic matter from coal precursors prior to their charring or from chars produced from the raw coals has a marked effect on char reactivity and surface area. Removal of inorganic matter (by acid washing) decreases, in general, reactivity of chars produced from lower rank coals, whereas reactivities of chars derived from higher rank coals increase.

Mahajan, O. P.; Walker, Jr., P. L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Characterization of sorbent properties of soil organic matter and carbonaceous geosorbents using n-alkanes and cycloalkanes as molecular probes  

SciTech Connect

Nonspecific interactions and modes (i.e., adsorption vs absorption) of sorption by noncondensed, amorphous organic phases (here termed organic matter; OM) in soils and by rigid, aromatic, and condensed phases (termed carbonaceous geosorbents; CGs) were investigated using n-alkanes and cycloalkanes as molecular probes. Sorption isotherms of and cyclooctane from water for seven CGs (charcoal, lignite coke, activated carbon, graphite, partially oxidized graphite, diesel soot, bituminous coal), four sorbents with a predominance of OM (lignite, peat, two sapric soils), and two soils containing OM and high amounts of CGs were measured in batch systems. The peat and the sapric soils showed extensively linear sorption, while the CGs exhibited highly nonlinear and strong (K{sub oc} values being up to 105 times those for the OM-rich materials at low concentrations) sorption for the alkanes studied, showing that enhanced sorption by CGs can occur to completely apolar sorbates that do not undergo any specific interaction. The n-octane-to-cyclooctane sorption coefficient ratios for adsorption to CGs were {ge}1, being distinctly different from those for absorption to the OM-rich materials. The measured sorption isotherms and the CG compositions in the soils determined by quantitative petrography analysis suggest, however, that CGs occurring in soils may be far less effective sorbents than the reference CGs used in the sorption experiments at least for nonspecifically interacting sorbates, probably because of competitive sorption and/or pore blocking by natural OM. The presented approaches and results offer a basis for interpreting sorption data for other organic compounds, as nonspecific interactions and sorption modes are relevant for any compound. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Satoshi Endo; Peter Grathwohl; Stefan B. Haderlein; Torsten C. Schmidt [Eberhard-Karls-University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany). Center for Applied Geoscience (ZAG)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

The fate of alkali species in advanced coal conversion systems  

SciTech Connect

The fate of species during coal combustion and gasification was determined experimentally in a fluidized bed reactor. A molecular-beam sampling mags spectrometer was used to identify and measure the concentration of vapor phase sodium species in the high temperature environment. Concurrent collection and analysis of the ash established the distribution of sodium species between gas-entrained and residual ash fractions. Two coals, Beulah Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous, were used under combustion and gasification conditions at atmospheric pressure. Steady-state bed temperatures were in the range 800--950[degree]C. An extensive calibration procedure ensured that the mass spectrometer was capable of detecting sodium-containing vapor species at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. In the temperature range 800[degree] to 950[degree]C, the concentrations of vapor phase sodium species (Na, Na[sub 2]O, NaCl, and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]) are less than 0.05 ppm under combustion conditions with excess air. However, under gasification conditions with Beulah Zap lignite, sodium vapor species are present at about 14 ppm at a temperature of 820[degree]. Of this amount, NaCl vapor constitutes about 5 ppm and the rest is very likely NAOH. Sodium in the form of NaCl in coal enhances the vaporization of sodium species during combustion. Vapor phase concentration of both NaCl and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] increased when NaCl was added to the Beulah Zap lignite. Ash particles account for nearly 100% of the sodium in the coal during combustion in the investigated temperature range. The fine fly-ash particles (<10 [mu]m) are enriched in sodium, mainly in the form of sodium sulfate. The amount of sodium species in this ash fraction may be as high as 30 wt % of the total sodium. Sodium in the coarse ash particle phase retained in the bed is mainly in amorphous forms.

Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

The fate of alkali species in advanced coal conversion systems. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fate of species during coal combustion and gasification was determined experimentally in a fluidized bed reactor. A molecular-beam sampling mags spectrometer was used to identify and measure the concentration of vapor phase sodium species in the high temperature environment. Concurrent collection and analysis of the ash established the distribution of sodium species between gas-entrained and residual ash fractions. Two coals, Beulah Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous, were used under combustion and gasification conditions at atmospheric pressure. Steady-state bed temperatures were in the range 800--950{degree}C. An extensive calibration procedure ensured that the mass spectrometer was capable of detecting sodium-containing vapor species at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. In the temperature range 800{degree} to 950{degree}C, the concentrations of vapor phase sodium species (Na, Na{sub 2}O, NaCl, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) are less than 0.05 ppm under combustion conditions with excess air. However, under gasification conditions with Beulah Zap lignite, sodium vapor species are present at about 14 ppm at a temperature of 820{degree}. Of this amount, NaCl vapor constitutes about 5 ppm and the rest is very likely NAOH. Sodium in the form of NaCl in coal enhances the vaporization of sodium species during combustion. Vapor phase concentration of both NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} increased when NaCl was added to the Beulah Zap lignite. Ash particles account for nearly 100% of the sodium in the coal during combustion in the investigated temperature range. The fine fly-ash particles (<10 {mu}m) are enriched in sodium, mainly in the form of sodium sulfate. The amount of sodium species in this ash fraction may be as high as 30 wt % of the total sodium. Sodium in the coarse ash particle phase retained in the bed is mainly in amorphous forms.

Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend leading submodels of coal transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation energy technologies. During the first two projects years, significant progress was made on most of the tasks, as described in detail in the two previous annual reports. In the current third annual report, we report in detail on the BYU task on the properties and intrinsic reactivities of chars prepared at high-pressure. A flat-flame burner was used in a high pressure laminar flow facility to conduct high temperature, high heating rate coal pyrolysis experiments. Heating rates were approximately 10{sup 5} K/s, which is higher than in conventional drop tube experiments. Char samples from a Pitt No.8 coal and lignite were collected at 1300 C at 1, 6, 10, and 15 atm. Swelling ratios of the lignite were less than 1.0, and only about 1.3 for the Pitt No.8 coal. All coals showed slight increases in swelling behavior as pressure increased. The swelling behavior observed for the Pitt No.8 coal at each pressure was lower than reported in high pressure drop tube experiments, indicating the effect of heating rate on particle swelling. This heating rate effect was similar to that observed previously at atmospheric pressure. SEM photos revealed that bituminous coal has large physical structure transformations, with popped bubbles due to the high heating rate. TGA char oxidation reactivities were measured at the same total pressure as the char preparation pressure. The general trend was that the TGA reactivity on a gram per gram available basis decreased for both Pitt No.8 and Knife River lignite coal chars with increasing char formation pressure. The Pitt No.8 char intrinsic activation energy and oxygen reaction order remained relatively constant with increasing pressure. This new data provides some of the only information available on the morphology, structure, and reactivity of chars prepared in high pressure flames.

Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas Fletcher; Alan Sayre

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of MerCAP for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of MerCAP(tm) for Power Plant Mercury Control Evaluation of MerCAP(tm) for Power Plant Mercury Control URS Group and its test team will perform research to further develop the novel Mercury Control via Adsorption Process (MerCAP™). The general MerCAP™ concept is to place fixed structures into a flue gas stream to adsorb mercury and then periodically regenerate them and recover the captured mercury. EPRI has shown that gold-based sorbents can achieve high levels of mercury removal in scrubbed flue gases. URS is proposing tests at two power plants using gold MerCAP™, installed downstream of either a baghouse or wet scrubber, to evaluate mercury removal from flue gas over a period of 6 months. At Great River Energy’s Stanton Station, which burns North Dakota lignite, sorbent structures will be retrofitted into a single compartment in the Unit 10 baghouse enabling reaction with a 6 MWe equivalence of flue gas. At Southern Company Services’ Plant Yates, which burns Eastern bituminous coal, gold-coated plates will be configured as a mist eliminator (ME) located downstream of a 1 MWe pilot wet absorber , which receives flue gas from Unit 1.

358

SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR-ASSISTED SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 66.1% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1993--June 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. In addition, a synergistic effect has been demonstrated, in which solvent blends are more effective for coal swelling than the pure solvents alone. Therefore, it will be necessary to use only low levels of swelling agents and yet promote the impregnation of catalyst precursors. The rate of the impregnation of catalyst precursors into swollen coal increases greatly as the effectiveness of the solvent to swell the coal increases. This effect is also demonstrated by improved catalyst precursor impregnation with increased contact temperature. Laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent.

Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Coal distribution, January-June 1985. [USA; January-June; 1981 to 1985; producing district; destination; transport means  

SciTech Connect

This Energy Information Administration (EIA) report continues the quarterly series on coal distribution started in 1957 by the Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, as a Mineral Industry Survey, Distribution of Bituminous Coal and Lignite Shipments. The publication provides volume data on coal distribution by coal-producing district of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination necessary for EIA to fulfill its data colletion functions as authorized by the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974. All data for 1985 in this report are preliminary. Data for 1981-1984 are final. Coal shipments from mines in Appalachia were 10.2% lower, while shipments from western mines were up by 13.7%, reaching a record 6-month high. Export shipments moved ahead of their 1984 pace by 9.2% despite a 27.0% decline in shipments to Canada. Texas expanded its lead as the Nation's top State to receive coal, and North Dakota experienced an upsurge in coal receipts due to the startup of the Great Plains coal gasification project. Coal production and purchases totaled 438.4 million short tons, 2.2% below last year's level. 6 figs., 33 tabs.

McNair, M.B.

1985-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Model documentation of the Short-Term Coal Analysis System. Volume 2. Model description. [SCOAL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second of three volumes of documentation for the Short-Term Coal Analysis System (SCOAL) developed by the Coal Data Analysis and Forecasting Branch, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels. The principal aim of SCOAL is to project on a quarterly basis the likely contribution of each of the 26 major bituminous coal, lignite, and anthracite producing states to total US production. A secondary objective is to estimate a companion demand-side aggregated by region but disaggregated by end-use sector. In its current use, the two sides are operated in tandem, and serve to cross-validate each other by means of tracking market balances. The purposes of this report are to describe the estimation method, results, and performance evaluation criteria that were deemed relevant in assessing the potential predictive performance of SCOAL's statistically fitted relationships and to discuss the pre- and post-estimation considerations that prevailed over the course of mode development. The single equation parameter estimates, associated significance levels, statistical equation performance measures, and general comments regarding SCOAL's supply and demand side equations are presented.

Not Available

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

System analysis of nuclear-assisted syngas production from coal - article no. 042901  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. The results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

Harvego, E.A.; McKellar, M.G.; O'Brien, J.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

System Analysis of Nuclear-Assisted Syngas Production from Coal  

SciTech Connect

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via hightemperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Fundamental Study of Low NOx Combustion Fly Ash Utilization  

SciTech Connect

This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over forty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.

E. M. Suubert; I. Kuloats; K. Smith; N. Sabanegh; R.H. Hurt; W. D. Lilly; Y. M. Gao

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During the time that enhanced AC was injected, the average mercury removal for the month long test was approximately 74% across the test baghouse module. ACI was interrupted frequently during the month long test because the test baghouse module was bypassed frequently to relieve differential pressure. The high air-to-cloth ratio of operations at this unit results in significant differential pressure, and thus there was little operating margin before encountering differential pressure limits, especially at high loads. This limited the use of sorbent injection as the added material contributes to the overall differential pressure. This finding limits sustainable injection of AC without appropriate modifications to the plant or its operations. Handling and storage issues were observed for the TOXECON ash-AC mixture. Malfunctioning equipment led to baghouse dust hopper plugging, and storage of the stagnant material at flue gas temperatures resulted in self-heating and ignition of the AC in the ash. In the hoppers that worked properly, no such problems were reported. Economics of mercury control at Big Brown were estimated for as-tested scenarios and scenarios incorporating changes to allow sustainable operation. This project was funded under the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory project entitled 'Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program--Phase II'.

John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

366

ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

368

Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Arc Steelmaking - Phase II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current trend in the steel industry is a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces, and an increasing number of alternative processes using metallic scrap iron, pig iron and metallized iron ore products. Currently, iron ores from Minnesota and Michigan are pelletized and shipped to the lower Great Lakes ports as blast furnace feed. The existing transportation system and infrastructure is geared to handling these bulk materials. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the needs of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling. A recent commercial installation employing Kobe Steel’s ITmk3 process, was installed in Northeastern Minnesota. The basic process uses a moving hearth furnace to directly reduce iron oxides to metallic iron from a mixture of iron ore, coals and additives. The resulting products can be shipped using the existing infrastructure for use in various steelmaking processes. The technology reportedly saves energy by 30% over the current integrated steelmaking process and reduces emissions by more than 40%. A similar large-scale pilot plant campaign is also currently in progress using JFE Steel’s Hi-QIP process in Japan. The objective of this proposal is to build upon and improve the technology demonstrated by Kobe Steel and JFE, by further reducing cost, improving quality and creating added incentive for commercial development. This project expands previous research conducted at the University of Minnesota Duluth’s Natural Resources Research Institute and that reported by Kobe and JFE Steel. Three major issues have been identified and are addressed in this project for producing high-quality nodular reduced iron (NRI) at low cost: (1) reduce the processing temperature, (2) control the furnace gas atmosphere over the NRI, and (3) effectively use sub-bituminous coal as a reductant. From over 4000 laboratory tube and box furnace tests, it was established that the correct combination of additives, fluxes, and reductant while controlling the concentration of CO and CO2 in the furnace atmosphere (a) lowers the operating temperature, (b) decreases the use of reductant coal (c) generates less micro nodules of iron, and (d) promotes desulphurization. The laboratory scale work was subsequently verified on 12.2 m (40 ft) long pilot scale furnace. High quality NRI could be produced on a routine basis using the pilot furnace facility with energy provided from oxy-gas or oxy-coal burner technologies. Specific strategies were developed to allow the use of sub-bituminous coals both as a hearth material and as part of the reaction mixture. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling was used to study the overall carbothermic reduction and smelting process. The movement of the furnace gas on a pilot hearth furnace and larger simulated furnaces and various means of controlling the gas atmosphere were evaluated. Various atmosphere control methods were identified and tested during the course of the investigation. Based on the results, the appropriate modifications to the furnace were made and tested at the pilot scale. A series of reduction and smelting tests were conducted to verify the utility of the processing conditions. During this phase, the overall energy use characteristics, raw materials, alternative fuels, and the overall economics predicted for full scale implementation were analyzed. The results indicate that it should be possible to lower reaction temperatures while simultaneously producing low sulfur, high carbon NRI if the right mix chemistry and atmosphere are employed. Recommendations for moving the technology to the next stage of commercialization are presented.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Iwao Iwasaki; Richard F. Kiesel; David J. Englund; David W. Hendrickson; Rodney L. Bleifuss

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

369

TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined less by the needs of the plant than by the availability in the soil solution; in addition to occurring naturally, Cl is present in excess as the anion complement in K fertilizer applications. An analysis was performed on existing data for switchgrass samples from ten different farms in the south-central portion of Iowa, with the goal of determining correlations between switchgrass elemental composition and geographical and seasonal changes so as to identify factors that influence the elemental composition of biomass. The most important factors in determining levels of various chemical compounds were found to be seasonal and geographical differences related to soil conditions. Combustion testing was performed to obtain deposits typical of boiler fouling and slagging conditions as well as fly ash. Analysis methods using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy and chemical fractionation were applied to determine the composition and association of inorganic materials in the biomass samples. Modified sample preparation techniques and mineral quantification procedures using cluster analysis were developed to characterize the inorganic material in these samples. Each of the biomass types exhibited different inorganic associations in the fuel as well as in the deposits and fly ash. Morphological analyses of the wheat straw show elongated 10-30-{micro}m amorphous silica particles or phytoliths in the wheat straw structure. Alkali such as potassium, calcium, and sodium is organically bound and dispersed in the organic structure of the biomass materials. Combustion test results showed that the blends fed quite evenly, with good burnout. Significant slag deposit formation was observed for the 100% wheat straw, compared to bituminous and subbituminous coals burned under similar conditions. Although growing rapidly, the fouling deposits of the biomass and coal-biomass blends were significantly weaker than those of the coals. Fouling was only slightly worse for the 100% wheat straw fuel compared to the coals. The wheat straw ash was found to show the greatest similar

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRI’s coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERC’s TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200–500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRI’s patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERC’s TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

371

Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further testing, demonstration and economic analysis as described in the Phase II effort is warranted and should be pursued.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

2008-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

372

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Lignite Coal in Lignite Coal Plains CO 2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership RCSP Annual Meeting Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania November 17, 2009 Darren Schmidt, P.E. Energy & Environmental Research Center Lignite Field Validation Test Burke County, North Dakota Goal and Objectives Goal * Determine the feasibility of simultaneous carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration and natural gas production from a lignite coal seam. Objectives * Inject CO 2 into lignite coal seam and monitor CO

373

Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, August 1992--October 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five borad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and miocrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Pyrolysis of four isomers of butylbenzene was investigated in static microautoclave reactors at 450{degrees}C under 0.69 MPa of UHP N{sub 2}. Thee rates of disappearance of substrates were found to depend upon the bonding energy of C{alpha}-C{beta} bond in the side chain in the initial period of pyrolysis reactions. Possible catalytic effects of metal surfaces on thermal degradation and deposit formation at temperatures >400{degrees}C have been studied. Carbon deposition depends on the composition of the metal surfaces, and also depends on the chemical compositions of the reactants. Thermal stressing of JP-8 was conducted in the presence of alumina, carbonaceous deposits recovered from earlier stressing experiments, activated carbon, carbon black, and graphite. The addition of different solid carbons during thermal stressing leads to different reaction mechanisms. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, along with {sup 13}C-labeling techniques, have been used to examine the thermal stability of a jet fuel sample mixed with 5% benzyl alcohol. Several heterometallic complexes consisting of two transition metals and sulfur in a single molecule were synthesized and tested as precursors of bimetallic dispersed catalysts for liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coals.

Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Walsh, P.M.; Coleman, M.M.; Bortiatynski, J.; Burgess, C.; Dutta, R.; Gergova, K.; Lai, W.C.; Li, J.; McKinney, D.; Parfitt, D.; Peng, Y.; Sanghani, P.; Yoon, E.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G. (WU)

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

375

VHF EPR analysis of organic sulfur in coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A direct and non-destructive technique called very High Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (VHF EPR) utilizing instrumentation and application techniques developed in this laboratory, is proving to be a practical and sensitive analytical method for the organic sulfur in coal. Research during this past year (1992--1993) was very successful in terms of obtaining spectrochemical information on organic sulfur in coal both quantitatively (amount of organic sulfur) and qualitatively (form and distribution of organic sulfur). Starting in this funding year, the authors have begun to develop and use a two-species model (non-exchanging and axially symmetric) for the simulation of VHF EPR coal spectra. Such a model provides quantitative information on the total concentration of sulfur species that can be directly related to the organic sulfur content as measured by conventional chemical methods. Utilizing the newly developed method, they have analyzed the VHF EPR spectra from some sub-bituminous coals containing organic sulfur in the range from 2% to 12% and a number of maceral blends. Excellent quantitative agreement is achieved between VHF EPR results and chemical analyses. In addition, the modelling of VHF EPR spectra of coal provides detailed spectral parameters. These parameters can be related to the molecular structures of the paramagnetic species giving rise to the EPR signals, as demonstrated by our study of the model compounds. The foundation of VHF EPR analysis of aromatic sulfur radicals has been firmly established based on careful investigations of the molecular and electronic structures of the thiophenic model compounds. The results validate the theoretical soundness of the method and carry important practical implications.

Clarkson, R.B.; Belford, R.L. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Effect of liquefaction processing conditions on combustion characteristics of solvent-refined coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of several direct liquefaction processes currently under advanced stages of development is the Solvent-Refined Coal-I (SRC-I) process. A major SRC-1 product option is a low sulfur, low ash solid (SRC) which could be used as an electric utility boiler fuel much in the same manner that pulverized coal is currently fired in this type of combustion equipment. SRC-I processing has been performed using three variations in the manner in which mineral matter and unconverted coal are separated from the hot coal liquid. These processes are the Pressure Filtration Deashing (PFD), Anti-Solvent Deashing (ASD), and Critical Solvent Deashing (CSD). Since processing conditions may influence the combustion of SRC-I solids produced, an experimental program was carried out at both the bench and pilot plant scale to determine the influence of processing (i.e. solids separation method) and combustion conditions on carbon burnout of these three varieties of SRC solid boiler fuels. Included in this study was an examination of NO/sub x/ emissions (particularly for the CSD SRC and PFD SRC) with the objective of attaining low NO/sub x/ emissions without adversely affecting combustion efficiency. The work was carried out at the laboratory, bench and pilot plant scales employing Thermo-Gravimetric analyses, Drop Tube Furnace testing, and Controlled Mixing History furnace testing, respectively. Reactivity and NO/sub x/ emissions results were compared with those obtained from two coals previously tested and used as reference coals. One of these coals was a high reactivity Wyoming subbituminous coal and the other was a low reactivity Kentucky high volatile bituminous coal. The type of processing scheme used in the SRC-I deashing step was found to have a major impact on the combustion properties of the resultant solid SRC product.

Goetz, G.J.; Lao, T.C.; Mehta, A.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Measurement and Modeling of Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability Changes in Coal  

SciTech Connect

Strain caused by the adsorption of gases was measured in samples of subbituminous coal from the Powder River basin of Wyoming, U.S.A., and high-volatile bituminous coal from the Uinta-Piceance basin of Utah, U.S.A. using a newly developed strain measurement apparatus. The apparatus can be used to measure strain on multiple small coal samples based on the optical detection of the longitudinal strain. The swelling and shrinkage (strain) in the coal samples resulting from the adsorption of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, helium, and a mixture of gases was measured. Sorption-induced strain processes were shown to be reversible and easily modeled with a Langmuir-type equation. Extended Langmuir theory was applied to satisfactorily model strain caused by the adsorption of gas mixtures using the pure gas Langmuir strain constants. The amount of time required to obtain accurate strain data was greatly reduced compared to other strain measurement methods. Sorption-induced changes in permeability were also measured as a function of pres-sure. Cleat compressibility was found to be variable, not constant. Calculated variable cleat-compressibility constants were found to correlate well with previously published data for other coals. During permeability tests, sorption-induced matrix shrinkage was clearly demonstrated by higher permeability values at lower pore pressures while holding overburden pressure constant. Measured permeability data were modeled using three dif-ferent permeability models from the open literature that take into account sorption-induced matrix strain. All three models poorly matched the measured permeability data because they overestimated the impact of measured sorption-induced strain on permeabil-ity. However, by applying an experimentally derived expression to the measured strain data that accounts for the confining overburden pressure, pore pressure, coal type, and gas type, the permeability models were significantly improved.

Eric P. Robertson

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept program: Bench Run 05 (227-97). Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results Bench Run PB-05, conducted under the DOE Proof of Concept - Bench Option Program in direct coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. Bench Run PB-05 was the fifth of the nine runs planned in the POC Bench Option Contract between the U.S. DOE and included the evaluation of the effect of using dispersed slurry catalyst in direct liquefaction of a high volatile bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and in combined coprocessing of coal with organic wastes, such as heavy petroleum resid, MSW plastics, and auto-shredder residue. PB-05 employed a two-stage, back-mixed, slurry reactor system with an interstage V/L separator and an in-line fixed-bed hydrotreater. Coprocessing of waste plastics with Illinois No. 6 coal did not result in the improvement observed earlier with a subbituminous coal. In particular, decreases in light gas yield and hydrogen consumption were not observed with Illinois No. 6 coal as they were with Black Thunder Mine coal. The higher thermal severity during PB-05 is a possible reason for this discrepancy, plastics being more sensitive to temperatures (cracking) than either coal or heavy resid. The ASR material was poorer than MSW plastics in terms of increasing conversions and yields. HTI`s new dispersed catalyst formulation, containing phosphorus-promoted iron gel, was highly effective for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal under the reaction conditions employed; over 95% coal conversion was obtained, along with over 85% residuum conversion and over 73% distillate yields.

Comolli, A.G.; Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, T.L.K.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Popper, G.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous subbituminous lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination with feedwater heating, would result in heat rate reductions of 7.43 percent for PRB coal and 10.45 percent for lignite.

Edward Levy

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

382

The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

higher for the hard coal-fired plants, at about 180 to 300for the hard coal- and lignite-fired plants, but the net GHGlower than for coal- and lignite-fired plants. This is due

Sathre, Roger

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Design Concepts for Co-Production of Power, Fuels & Chemicals Via Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the program is to develop design concepts, incorporating advanced technologies in areas such as oxygen production, feed systems, gas cleanup, component separations and gas turbines, for integrated and economically viable coal and biomass fed gasification facilities equipped with carbon capture and storage for the following scenarios: (i) coproduction of power along with hydrogen, (ii) coproduction of power along with fuels, (iii) coproduction of power along with petrochemicals, and (iv) coproduction of power along with agricultural chemicals. To achieve this goal, specifically the following objectives are met in this proposed project: (i) identify advanced technology options and innovative preliminary design concepts that synergistically integrate plant subsections, (ii) develop steady state system simulations to predict plant efficiency and environmental signature, (iii) develop plant cost estimates by capacity factoring major subsystems or by major equipment items where required, and then capital, operating and maintenance cost estimates, and (iv) perform techno- economic analyses for the above described coproduction facilities. Thermal efficiencies for the electricity only cases with 90% carbon capture are 38.26% and 36.76% (HHV basis) with the bituminous and the lignite feedstocks respectively. For the coproduction cases (where 50% of the energy exported is in the form of electricity), the electrical efficiency, as expected, is highest for the hydrogen coproduction cases while lowest for the higher alcohols (ethanol) coproduction cases. The electrical efficiencies for Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases are slightly higher than those for the methanol coproduction cases but it should be noted that the methanol (as well as the higher alcohol) coproduction cases produce the finished coproduct while the Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases produce a coproduct that requires further processing in a refinery. The cross comparison of the thermal performance between the various coproduct cases is further complicated by the fact that the carbon footprint is not the same when carbon leaving with the coproduct are accounted for. The economic analysis and demand for a particular coproduct in the market place is a more meaningful comparison of the various coproduction scenarios. The first year cost of electricity calculated for the bituminous coal is $102.9/MWh while that for the lignite is $108.1/MWh. The calculated cost of hydrogen ranged from $1.42/kg to $2.77/kg depending on the feedstock, which is lower than the DOE announced hydrogen cost goal of $3.00/kg in July 14, 2005. Methanol cost ranged from $345/MT to $617/MT, while the market price is around $450/MT. For Fischer-Tropsch liquids, the calculated cost ranged from $65/bbl to $112/bbl, which is comparable to the current market price of crude oil at around $100/bbl. It should be noted, however, that F-T liquids contain no sulfur and nitrogen compounds. The calculated cost of alcohol ranged from $4.37/gal to $5.43/gal, while it ranged from $2.20/gal to $3.70/gal in a DOE funded study conducted by Louisiana State University. The Louisiana State University study consisted of a significantly larger plant than our study and benefited from economies of scale. When the plant size in our study is scaled up to similar size as in the Louisiana State University study, cost of alcohol is then reduced to a range of $3.24/gal to $4.28/gal, which is comparable. Urea cost ranged from $307/MT to $428/MT, while the market price is around $480/MT.

Rao, A. D.; Chen, Q.; Samuelsen, G. S.

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

384

Mercury Measurements Characterizing the Impact of SCR on Mercury: Consol Test Site 10---Eastern-Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plant w ith an SCR, ESP and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber – fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is to determine mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired faci...

2005-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

385

Mercury Measurements Characterizing the Impact of SCR on Mercury: Consol Test Site 3 - Eastern Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plant Wit h an SCR, ESP, and Wet FGD; Impact of Chloride Addition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber - fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mer...

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

386

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

kerosene other kerosene shale oil gas/diesel oil residualbituminous coal lignite oil shale other petroleum products (

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Notes for International Energy Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... lignite, brown coal, and for Estonia, oil shale. Coal / Consumption. United States coal consumption is from Energy Information Administration, ...

388

Coordinating author Maurizio Cocchi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and agricul- tural wastes, natural gas, petroleum, oil shale, coal, lignite) and used in a number of ways

389

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Postcombustion and its influences in 135 MWe CFB boilers  

SciTech Connect

In the cyclone of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a noticeable increment of flue gas temperature, caused by combustion of combustible gas and unburnt carbon content, is often found. Such phenomenon is defined as post combustion, and it could introduce overheating of reheated and superheated steam and extra heat loss of exhaust flue gas. In this paper, mathematical modeling and field measurements on post combustion in 135MWe commercial CFB boilers were conducted. A novel one-dimensional combustion model taking post combustion into account was developed. With this model, the overall combustion performance, including size distribution of various ashes, temperature profile, and carbon content profiles along the furnace height, heat release fraction in the cyclone and furnace were predicted. Field measurements were conducted by sampling gas and solid at different positions in the boiler under different loads. The measured data and corresponding model-calculated results were compared. Both prediction and field measurements showed post combustion introduced a temperature increment of flue gas in the cyclone of the 135MWe CFB boiler in the range of 20-50{sup o}C when a low-volatile bituminous coal was fired. Although it had little influence on ash size distribution, post combustion had a remarkable influence on the carbon content profile and temperature profile in the furnace. Moreover, it introduced about 4-7% heat release in the cyclone over the total heat release in the boiler. This fraction slightly increased with total air flow rate and boiler load. Model calculations were also conducted on other two 135MWe CFB boilers burning lignite and anthracite coal, respectively. The results confirmed that post combustion was sensitive to coal type and became more severe as the volatile content of the coal decreased. 15 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Shaohua Li; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Qing Liu; Junfu Lu; Guangxi Yue [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Southern Company Services' study of a Kellogg Rust Westinghouse (KRW)-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plant  

SciTech Connect

A site-specific evaluation of an integrated-gasification-combined- cycle (IGCC) unit was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) to determine the effect of such a plant would have on electricity cost, load response, and fuel flexibility on the Southern electric system (SES). The design of the Plant Wansley IGCC plant in this study was configured to utilize three oxygen-blown Kellogg Rust Westinghouse (KRW) gasifiers integrated with two General Electric (GE) MS7001F combustion turbines. The nominal 400-MW IGCC plant was based on a nonphased construction schedule, with an operational start date in the year 2007. Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal was the base coal used in the study. Alabama lignite was also investigated as a potential low-cost feedstock for the IGCC plant, but was found to be higher in cost that the Illinois No. 6 coal when shipped to the Wansley site. The performance and cost results for the nominal 400-MW plant were used in an economic assessment that compared the replacement of a 777-MW pulverized-coal-fired unit with 777-MW of IGCC capacity based on the Southern electric system's expansion plans of installing 777-MW of baseload capacity in the year 2007. The economic analysis indicated that the IGCC plant was competitive compared to a baseload pulverized-coal-fired unit. Capital costs of the IGCC unit were approximately the same as a comparably sized pulverized-coal-fired plant, but the IGCC plant had a lower production cost due to its lower heat rate. 10 refs., 34 figs., 18 tabs.

Gallaspy, D.T.; Johnson, T.W.; Sears, R.E. (Southern Co. Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes  

SciTech Connect

There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Analysis of mass loss of a coal particle during the course of burning in a flow of inert material  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an attempt to explain the role of erosion during the process of coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Different kinds of carbon deposits found in Poland, both bituminous as well as lignite with the particle of 10 mm in diameter were the subject of the research. According to many publications it is well known that erosion plays a significant role in coal combustion, by changing its mechanism as well as generating an additional mass loss of the mother particle. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of an inert material on an erosive mass loss of a single coal particle burning in a two-phase flow. The determination of the influence of a coal type, the rate of flow of inert material and the temperature inside the furnace on the erosive mass loss of burning coal particle was also taken into consideration. The results obtained indicate that the velocity of the erosive mass loss depends on the chemical composition and petrographic structure of burning coal. The mechanical interaction of inert and burning coal particles leads to the shortening of the period of overall mass loss of the coal particle by even two times. The increase in the rate of flow of the inert material intensifies the generation of mass loss by up to 100%. The drop in temperature which slows down the combustion process, decreases the mass loss of the coal particle as the result of mechanical interaction of the inert material. As was observed, the process of percolation plays a significant role by weakening the surface of the burning coal. (author)

Pelka, Piotr [Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Boilers and Thermodynamics, Armii Krajowej 19c, Czestochowa, Silesia 42-200 (Poland)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hybrid combined cycle power plant natural gas combined cyclePower Plants study, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

SciTech Connect

The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPE’s technology “refines” coal by employing a novel catalyst to “crack” the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild “catalytic” gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPE’s catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to “fluidize” the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400°F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A Pd–Cu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal  

SciTech Connect

The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further testing, demonstration and economic analysis as described in the Phase II effort is warranted and should be pursued.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

2008-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

397

EFFECTS OF COFIRING LIGNIN AND BIOSOLIDS WITH COAL ON FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE AND COMBUSTION PRODUCTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin, derived from municipal solid waste and biosolid feedstocks using Masada Resource Group's patented CES OxyNol{trademark} process, and acidified biosolids were evaluated as supplemental fuels with coal for producing steam and electricity. Tests were conducted in a pilot-scale (550,000-Btu/hr [580-MJ/hr]) combustion system to evaluate the effects of coal characteristics, blend mixture (on a dry wt% basis) and furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) on boiler heat-exchange surface slagging and fouling, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} production, fly ash characteristics, and combustion efficiency. The effects of blending lignin and acidified biosolids with coal on fuel handling and pulverization characteristics were also addressed. An 80 wt% Colorado--20 wt% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal blend from the Tennessee Valley Authority Colbert Steam Plant, hereafter referred to as the Colbert coal, and a bituminous Pittsburgh No. 8 coal were tested. The lignin and acidified biosolids were characterized by possessing higher moisture content and lower carbon, hydrogen, and heating values relative to the coals. Ash contents of the fuels were similar. The lignin also possessed higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2}, CaO, and SO{sub 3} and lower concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, and N relative to the coals. The sulfur content of lignin could be reduced through a more thorough washing and drying of the lignin in an efficient commercial-scale dewatering device. Acidified biosolids were distinguished by higher concentrations of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MgO and lower SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to the other fuels. Trace element concentrations, especially for Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni, were generally greater in the lignin and acidified biosolid fuels relative to the Colbert coal. Maximum trace element emission factors were calculated for 95:5 Colbert coal--lignin and 90:5:5 Colbert coal--lignin--acidified biosolid blends and compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency emission factors for pulverized coal-fired units that are unequipped with pollution control devices. Calculated maximum trace element emission factors for the fuel blends were generally less than or within the range of those for the uncontrolled coal-fired units, except for Cr and Pb which were greater.

Kevin C. Galbreath

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Health Effects of Subchronic Inhalation of Simulated Downwind Coal Combustion Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to conduct a comprehensive laboratory-based evaluation of selected respiratory and cardiac health hazards of subchronic (up to 6 months) inhalation of simulated key components of 'downwind plume' emissions of coal combustion. This project was performed as an integral part of a joint government-industry program termed the 'National Environmental Respiratory Center' (NERC), which is aimed at disentangling the roles of different physical-chemical air pollutants and their sources in the health effects associated statistically with air pollution. The characterization of the exposure atmosphere and the health assays were identical to those employed in the NERC protocols used to evaluate other pollution source emissions, such as diesel, gasoline, and wood combustion. The project had two phases, each encompassing multiple tasks. Guidelines for the composition of the exposure atmosphere were set by consensus of an expert workshop. Development of the capability to generate the exposure atmosphere and pilot studies of the comparative exposure composition using two coal types were accomplished in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the toxicological study was conducted using Powder River Basin Sub-bituminous coal. NETL provided 50% support for the work in Phase 1 and had intended to provide 20% support for the work in Phase 2. Phase 1 is completed and Phase 2 is in the final stages. All animal exposures were completed without incident, and the composition of the exposure atmospheres met the targets. All of the health sample collections are completed, but some samples remain to be analyzed. Data summaries and final statistical analysis of results remain to be completed. The goal is to submit all publications before the end of FY-08. Repeated exposure to simulated downwind coal emissions caused some significant health effects, but the number of effects tended to be fewer than those caused by the other NERC exposures (diesel and gasoline emissions and hardwood smoke). the lowest concentration, a dilution containing approximately 100 {micro}g particulate matter (PM)/m{sup 3}, was a no-effects level for nearly all measured variables. One of the most interesting findings was that few, if indeed any, health outcomes appeared to be caused by the PM component of the exposure. This finding strongly suggests that PM simulating the major contributions of coal combustion to environmental PM is of very low toxicity.

Joe Mauderly

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

399

Investigation Of Synergistic NOx Reduction From Cofiring And Air Staged Combustion Of Coal And Low Ash Dairy Biomass In A 30 Kilowatt Low NOx Furnace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alternate, cost effective disposal methods must be developed for reducing phosphorous and nitrogen loading from land application of animal waste. Cofiring coal with animal waste, termed dairy biomass (DB), is the proposed thermo-chemical method to address this concern. DB is evaluated as a cofired fuel with Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal in a small-scale 29 kW_(t) low NO_(x) burner (LNB) facility. Fuel properties, of PRB and DB revealed the following: a higher heating value of 29590 kJ/kg for dry ash free (DAF) coal and 21450 kJ/kg for DAF DB. A new method called Respiratory Quotient (RQ), defined as ratio of carbon dioxide moles to oxygen moles consumed in combustion, used widely in biology, was recently introduced to engineering literature to rank global warming potential (GWP) of fuels. A higher RQ means higher CO_(2) emission and higher GWP. PRB had an RQ of 0.90 and DB had an RQ of 0.92. For comparison purposes, methane has an RQ of 0.50. For unknown fuel composition, gas analyses can be adapted to estimate RQ values. The LNB was modified and cofiring experiments were performed at various equivalence ratios (phi) with pure coal and blends of PRB-DB. Standard emissions from solid fuel combustion were measured; then NO_(x) on a heat basis (g/GJ), fuel burnt fraction, and fuel nitrogen conversion percentage were estimated. The gas analyses yielded burnt fraction ranging from 89% to 100% and confirmed an RQ of 0.90 to 0.94, which is almost the same as the RQ based on fuel composition. At the 0.90 equivalence ratio, unstaged pure coal produced 653 ppm (377 g/GJ) of NOx. At the same equivalence ratio, a 90-10 PRB:LADB blended fuel produced 687 ppm (397 g/GJ) of NO_(x). By staging 20% of the total combustion air as tertiary air (which raised the equivalence ratio of the main burner to 1.12), NO_(x) was reduced to 545 ppm (304 g/GJ) for the 90-10 blended fuel. Analysis of variance showed that variances were statistically significant because of real differences between the independent variables (equivalence ratio, percent LADB in the fuel, and staging intensity).

Lawrence, Benjamin Daniel

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The overall objective of the test program described in this quarterly report is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants with configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. This technology was successfully evaluated in NETL's Phase I tests at scales up to 150 MW, on plants burning subbituminous and bituminous coals and with ESPs and fabric filters. The tests also identified issues that still need to be addressed, such as evaluating performance on other configurations, optimizing sorbent usage (costs), and gathering longer-term operating data to address concerns about the impact of activated carbon on plant equipment and operations. The four sites identified for testing are Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station, AmerenUE's Meramec Station, AEP's Conesville Station, and Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant. In addition to tests identified for the four main sites, parametric testing at Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3 has been scheduled and made possible through additional costshare participation targeted by team members specifically for tests at Holcomb or a similar plant. This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. Long-term testing was completed at Meramec during this reporting period. Preliminary results from parametric, baseline and long-term testing at Meramec are included in this report. Planning information for the other three sites is also included. In general, quarterly reports will be used to provide project overviews, project status, and technology transfer information. Topical reports will be prepared to present detailed technical information.

Sharon Sjostrom

2005-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

402

REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the DL1 material was 2.5-4.0 $/barrel greater than the base petroleum crude, while the DL2 material was 3.0-4.0 /barrel higher than the crude. Co-processing the coal liquids with lower quality, less expensive petroleum crudes that have higher sulfur, resid and metals contents was also examined. The coal liquids have higher values under this scenario, but the values are dependent on the prices of the alternative crudes.

NONE

1998-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

403

NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment.

Hamid Farzan

2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

404

Present coal potential of Turkey and coal usage in electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

Total coal reserve (hard coal + lignite) in the world is 984 billion tons. While hard coal constitutes 52% of the total reserve, lignite constitutes 48% of it. Turkey has only 0.1% of world hard coal reserve and 1.5% of world lignite reserves. Turkey has 9th order in lignite reserve, 8th order in lignite production, and 12th order in total coal (hard coal and lignite) consumption. While hard coal production meets only 13% of its consumption, lignite production meets lignite consumption in Turkey. Sixty-five percent of produced hard coal and 78% of produced lignite are used for electricity generation. Lignites are generally used for electricity generation due to their low quality. As of 2003, total installed capacity of Turkey was 35,587 MW, 19% (6,774 MW) of which is produced from coal-based thermal power plants. Recently, use of natural gas in electricity generation has increased. While the share of coal in electricity generation was about 50% for 1986, it is replaced by natural gas today.

Yilmaz, A.O. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

DOE/NETL's Mercury Emissions Control Technology R&D Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Emissions Control Mercury Emissions Control Technology R&D Program LRC and Lignite Industry Meeting August 27-28, 2002 Bismarck, ND Thomas J. Feeley, III, Product Manager Innovations for Existing Plants LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 Presentation Outline * About NETL * IEP Program * Hg Background * Hg and lignite coals * Hg Control R&D LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 About NETL LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 * One of DOE's 17 national labs * Government owned / operated * Sites in: - Pennsylvania - West Virginia - Oklahoma - Alaska * More than 1,100 federal and support contractor employees National Energy Technology Laboratory LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 Electric Power Using Coal Clean Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal Production Environmental Control V21 Next Generation Carbon Sequestration Exploration & Production Refining &

407

The Investigation of Sponge Iron Production Parameters by Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... In the present work, the possibilities of coal-based sponge iron production for industrial applications by using domestic lignite coal were ...

408

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - NETL CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DESIGNATIO...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(CREST) Optimize catalysts used for conversion of southwestern lignite into synthetic crude oil that can be shipped to nearby TX refineries and power plants for devel of...

409

Great Plains Coal Gasification Project: Quarterly technical progress report, third fiscal quarter 1987-1988, January-March 1988  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes the operation of the Great Plains Gasification Plant, including lignite coal production, SNG production, gas quality, by-products, and certain problems encountered. (LTN)

Not Available

1988-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Great Plains Coal Gasification Project: Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1988 (Fourth fiscal quarter, 1987-1988)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This progress report describes the operation of the Great Plains Gasification Plant, including lignite coal production, SNG production, gas quality, by-products, and certain problems encountered. (LTN)