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1

Definition: Bituminous coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bituminous coal Bituminous coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Bituminous coal A dense coal, usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke; contains 45-86% carbon.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown; often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull

2

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although lignite composes 16% of China’s coal reserves bys coal reserves are estimated to be 16% lignite by volume.reserves are classified as bituminous coal by volume, versus 29% sub-bituminous and 16% lignite.

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Investigation of the combustion characteristics of Zonguldak bituminous coal using DTA and DTG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion characteristics of coking, semicoking, and noncoking Turkish bituminous coal samples from Zonguldak basin were investigated applying differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) techniques. Results were compared with that of the coke from Zonguldak bituminous coal, a Turkish lignite sample from Soma, and a Siberian bituminous coal sample. The thermal data from both techniques showed some differences depending on the proximate analyses of the samples. Noncombustible components of the volatile matter led to important changes in thermal behavior. The data front both methods were, evaluated jointly, and some thermal properties were interpreted considering these methods in a complementary combination.

Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Okutan, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

4

Industrial coking of coal batch without bituminous coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For many years, Kuznetsk-coal batch has always included bituminous coal. Depending on the content of such coal, the batch may be characterized as lean ... classification was adopted by specialists of the Eastern

P. V. Shtark; Yu. V. Stepanov; N. K. Popova; D. A. Koshkarov…

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Impact of coal quality and gasifier technology on IGCC performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it is estimated that 47 % of global coal reserves consist of lignite and sub-bituminous coals [2]. Several

6

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal ... Ash with a low melting point causes slagging and fouling problems in pulverized coal combustion boilers. ... The ash composition in coal and operational conditions in boilers such as heat load greatly affect the ash deposition behavior. ...

Katsuya Akiyama; Haeyang Pak; Toshiya Tada; Yasuaki Ueki; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

8

INAA multielemental analysis of Nigerian bituminous coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to analyzed Nigerian bituminous coal and ash. Good statistical agreement (p...?0.05) between the literature and reported elemental values of USGS AGV-1 sam...

V. O. Ogugbuaja; W. D. James

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Production of low ash coal by thermal extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Present study was conducted for the purpose of producing low ash coal from LRC (low rank coals) such as lignite and sub-bituminous coal through thermal extraction using polar solvent. Extraction from bituminous coal

Sang Do Kim; Kwang Jae Woo; Soon Kwan Jeong…

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

molten sodium hydroxide. coal ash. and glass. b, Ultimatealmost all the ash constituents of coal, and hence ofash composition The ash composition bituminous coals 39 are

Seth, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Improving the technology of creating water-coal fuel from lignites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the preparation of coal-water fuel slurries from lignite. The heat of combustion as related to the preparation of the lignite was investigated. The hydrobarothermal processing of suspensions of lignites was studied in autoclaves.

Gorlov, E.G.; Golovin, G.S.; Zotova, O.V. [Rossiiskaya Akadeiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

12

Curriculum Support Maps for the Study of Indiana Coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

": lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite. Indiana coals are bituminous and composed of 55 to 79 nearly 17 billion tons is recoverable. These reserves could last another 585 years at the current rate

Polly, David

13

Study of Chemical Structure Changes of Chinese Lignite upon Drying in Superheated Steam, Microwave, and Hot Air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Study of Chemical Structure Changes of Chinese Lignite upon Drying in Superheated Steam, Microwave, and Hot Air ... An estimated 45% of the world’s coal reserves consist of low-rank coals. ... A range of samples varying from lignites to bituminous coals were used at 30-180°. ...

Arash Tahmasebi; Jianglong Yu; Yanna Han; Fengkui Yin; Sankar Bhattacharya; David Stokie

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

14

Hydrogen from Coal in a Single Step  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The CO2 generated, a greenhouse gas with a potential to contribute to global warming, is generally released to the atmosphere. ... The H2/CH4 ratio in the product gases from three different rank coals Datong coal (bituminous), Taiheiyo coal (sub-bituminous), Wyoming coal (lignite) followed the order Datong>Taiheiyo>Wyoming. ...

Kanchan Mondal; Krzystof Piotrowski; Debalina Dasgupta; Edwin Hippo; Tomasz Wiltowski

2005-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

15

Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1146/annurev-earth-040610-133343 Copyright c 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 0084 known as coalification; progresses from peat through lignite, subbituminous coal, bituminous coal

Macalady, Jenn

16

Kinetics of steam gasification of bituminous coals in terms of their use for underground coal gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The kinetics of steam gasification was examined for bituminous coals of a low coal rank. The examined coals can be the raw material for underground coal gasification. Measurements were carried out under isothermal conditions at a high pressure of 4 MPa and temperatures of 800, 900, 950, and 1000 °C. Yields of gasification products such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane were calculated based on the kinetic curves of formation reactions of these products. Also carbon conversion degrees are presented. Moreover, calculations were made of the kinetic parameters of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formation reaction in the coal gasification process. The parameters obtained during the examinations enable a preliminary assessment of coal for the process of underground coal gasification.

Stanis?aw Porada; Grzegorz Czerski; Tadeusz Dziok; Przemys?aw Grzywacz; Dorota Makowska

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Lignite Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury control technologies for Mercury control technologies for electric utilities Burning lignite coal Background In partnership with a number of key stakeholders, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), through its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), has been carrying out a comprehensive research program since the mid-1990s focused on the development of advanced, cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Mercury is a poisonous metal found in coal, which can be harmful and even toxic when absorbed from the environment and concentrated in animal tissues. Mercury is present as an unwanted by-product of combustion in power plant flue gases, and is found in varying percentages in three basic chemical forms(known as speciation): particulate-bound mercury, oxidized

18

DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam March 10, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- A U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) team of regional partners has begun injecting CO2 into a deep lignite coal seam in Burke County, North Dakota, to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of geologic CO2 storage in the U.S. Great Plains region. Ultimately, geologic carbon sequestration is expected to play an important role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and combating climate change. The Lignite Field Validation Test is being conducted by the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, one of seven regional partnerships under DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program. The seven

19

Characterizing a lignite formation before and after an underground coal gasification experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHARACTERIZING A LIGNITE FORMATION BEFORE AND AFTER AN UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION EXPERIMENT A Thesis by USMAN AHMED Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE Nay, 1981 Major Subject: Petrol eum Engineering CHARACTERIZING A LIGNITE FORMATION BEFORE AND AFTER AN UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION EXPERIMENT A Thesis by USMAN AHMED approved as to sty1e and content by: airma o i ee Head f...

Ahmed, Usman

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Argonne Coal Structure Rearrangement Caused by Sorption of CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Argonne Coal Structure Rearrangement Caused by Sorption of CO2 ... The sorption of CO2 on seven Argonne premium coals was measured by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy as a function of time at constant CO2 pressure (0.62 MPa) and temperature (55 °C). ... The following seven Argonne premium coals were investigated:? Upper Freeport (medium volatile bituminous), Pittsburgh No. 8 (high volatile bituminous), Lewiston?Stockton (high volatile bituminous), Blind Canyon (high volatile bituminous), Illinois No. 6 (high volatile bituminous), Wyodak (sub-bituminous), and Beulah Zap (lignite). ...

A. L. Goodman; R. N. Favors; John W. Larsen

2006-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Soft coal, hard choices: The economic welfare of bituminous coal miners, 1890-1930  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Price Fishback, an economist at the University of Arizona, has looked backward and studied the economic welfare of the bituminous coal miner during the industry's ascendancy, from 1890 to 1930. The result is an impressive work which should be of interest to all students of Appalachia. His account combines economic theory and quantitative evidence to examine the historical record. There are chapters on the coal market during the period as well as appendices presenting the technical basis for the author's work. Chapters are devoted to a discussion of wages and the role of the unions, accident/safety legislation and workers compensation. Living conditions in the company town and the role of the company store are explored as well as the economic development of the region. Labor shortages, subsequent hiring of minorities, and the social problems associated with discrimination and segragation are discussed. Finally, Fishback examines the strike data and draws conclusions about why miners chose to strike.

Fishback, P.V.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Influence of External Clay and Inherent Minerals on Lignite Optical Ignition and Volatile Flame Propagation in Air-Firing and Oxy-Firing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coal sample selected is a lignite sample collected from Xinjiang Autonomous Area, the data for which are practically nonexistent because of the low exploration degree, even though such coal contributes approximately 40% of the overall Chinese coal reserves. ... For the devolatilization rate in Table 3 and Figure 2a, the raw lignite has a devolatilisation rate that was lower than those of air-dried and ammonium acetate-washed Victorian brown coal but certainly higher than those of raw Montana lignites, other Chinese lignites, and bituminous coals examined in the literature. ...

Wirhan Prationo; Jian Zhang; Hawra Ali Abdul Abbas; Xiaojiang Wu; Xiaodong Chen; Lian Zhang

2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

23

Comparative Study of Gasification Performance between Bituminous Coal and Petroleum Coke in the Industrial Opposed Multiburner Entrained Flow Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SUMMARY : Co-gasification performance of coal and petroleum coke (petcoke) blends in a pilot-scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier was studied exptl. ... Two different coals, including a subbituminous coal (Coal A) and a bituminous coal (Coal B), individually blended with a petcoke in the gasifier were considered. ... results suggested that, when the petcoke was mixed with Coal A over 70%, the slagging problem, which could shorten the operational period due to high ash content in the coal, was improved. ...

Zhonghua Sun; Zhenghua Dai; Zhijie Zhou; Jianliang Xu; Guangsuo Yu

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

24

Pelletizing lignite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lignite is formed into high strength pellets having a calorific value of at least 9,500 Btu/lb by blending a sufficient amount of an aqueous base bituminous emulsion with finely-divided raw lignite containing its inherent moisture to form a moistened green mixture containing at least 3 weight % of the bituminous material, based on the total dry weight of the solids, pelletizing the green mixture into discrete green pellets of a predetermined average diameter and drying the green pellets to a predetermined moisture content, preferrably no less than about 5 weight %. Lignite char and mixture of raw lignite and lignite char can be formed into high strength pellets in the same general manner.

Goksel, Mehmet A. (Houghton, MI)

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Low-Grade Coals: A Review of Some Prospective Upgrading Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These are commonly lignites or sub-bituminous coals. ... The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. ... It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. ...

Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Comparative analysis of structural transformations of two bituminous coals with different maximum fluidity during carbonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The variation of the volume of two bituminous coals with different maximum fluidity (MF) values has been determined using carbonization tests, and the quality of coke obtained has been examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. The structural and chemical changes in bituminous coals at the pre-plastic stage during carbonization were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques and compared to the changes in their electric and dielectric parameters. It was observed that the structural and chemical transformations occurred in the disordered phase of both coals in different ways. These differences are attributed to the different redistributions of hydrogen between the radicals generated in the aliphatic and aromatic parts of the macromolecule fragments. 42 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Valentina Zubkova; Victor Prezhdo; Andrzej Strojwas [Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce (Poland). Institute of Chemistry

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Sub-bituminous coal handling problems solved with bunker liner retrofit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After switching to low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal, Northern States Power Co. (NSP) experience several fires and an explosion in the coal storage bunkers of its two-unit, 384-MW Riverside plant located in Minneapolis, Minn. The most recent incident occurred in November 1993 when a blast rocked Unit 7`s coal storage bunker. The spontaneous combustion explosion was touched off when coal dust from the dust collection system was being conveyed back into the bunker and came into contact with hot coal. Reaction to the incident was swift and NSP management established a task force known as ``Operation Cease Fire`` to investigate the situation and develop a solution to eliminate fires and explosions at all of its coal-fired plants. This article describes the problems found in the coal handling systems and the steps taken to correct them.

Steppling, K.P.; McAtee, K.L.; Huggins, J.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Calculation and modelling to the brown coal drying fluidized bed specialized for Greek lignite of west Macedonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brown coal is considered to be a competitive primary energy source for power generation in parts of Central and Eastern Europe due to the economically recoverable reserves of this fuel in these regions. Specifically for Greece lignites is the main fuel ... Keywords: brown coal, electric energy, energy source, fluidized bed, lignites

John Karmalis; Nikolaos Asimopoulos; Dimitrios Zissopoulos; Natsos Kouvatsis

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Modification of sub-bituminous coal by steam treatment: Caking and coking properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Chinese sub-bituminous Shenfu (SF) coal was steam treated under atmospheric pressure and the caking and coking properties of the treated coals were evaluated by caking indexes (GRI) and crucible coking characterizations. The results show that steam treatment can obviously increase the GRI of SF coal. When the steam treated coals were used in the coal blends instead of SF raw coal, the micro-strength index (MSI) and particle coke strength after reaction (PSR) of the coke increased, and particle coke reactivity index (PRI) decreased, which are beneficial for metallurgical coke to increase the gas permeability in blast furnace. The quality of the coke obtained from 8% of 200 °C steam treated SF coal in coal blends gets to that of the coke obtained from the standard coal blends, in which there was no SF coal addition in the coal blends. The removal of oxygen groups, especially hydroxyl group thus favoring the breakage of the coal macromolecules and allowing the treated coal formation of much more amount of hydrocarbons, may be responsible for the modified results. The mechanism of the steam treatment was proposed based on the elemental analysis, thermo gravimetric (TG) and FTIR spectrometer characterizations of the steam treated coal.

Hengfu Shui; Haiping Li; Hongtao Chang; Zhicai Wang; Zhi Gao; Zhiping Lei; Shibiao Ren

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

2009-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

31

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP mercury control In low Sulfur eaStern bItumInouS coal flue GaS Background Full-scale field testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of activated carbon injection (ACI) as a mercury-specific control technology for certain coal-fired power plants, depending on the plant's coal feedstock and existing air pollution control device configuration. In a typical configuration, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is injected downstream of the plant's air heater and upstream of the existing particulate control device - either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter (FF). The PAC adsorbs the mercury from the combustion flue gas and is subsequently captured along with the fly ash in the ESP or FF. ACI can have some negative side

32

The natural radioactivity contents in feed coals from the lignite-fired power plants in Western Anatolia, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......mineral matter contents than other Tertiary coals. Therefore, they have been consumed...total capacity of 1680 MW. The Soma coal basin is one of the largest economic lignite basins of western Turkey. Coal mining has been practised in this region......

N. Füsun Çam; Günseli Yaprak; Elif Eren

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These two coals represent the two main types of non-lignite coals currently used in the U.S.: a medium-sulfur eastern bituminous coal and a low-sulfur western sub-bituminous coal. ... At a commercial scale, this would likely mean that there could be a roughly 3-fold decrease in the size of the gasifier compared to the case of dry mixing coal and the regenerated calcium oxide. ...

Nicholas S. Siefert; Dushyant Shekhawat; Shawn Litster; David A. Berry

2013-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

34

Coal petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of lignite samples from the Ogwashi–Asaba Formation, Nigeria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organic sediments picked up randomly from seven small outcrops within the Ogwashi–Asaba Formation, southern Nigeria, are examined and evaluated by means of coal petrology and chemical and mineralogical analyses in order to determine the palaeoenvironmental conditions and the factors controlling their formation. Six samples proved to be low-rank coals C to B (lignite), one carbonaceous shale. The lignite samples display low ash yield, low telohuminite and high detrohuminite and liptinite contents; they contain small amounts of clastic minerals, mainly quartz and clays, which point to the topogenous character of the depositional palaeoenvironment. The palaeomires formed in a continental basin crossed by the mid-Tertiary palaeo-Niger River; the latter, as well as the tropical rainfall supplied the mires with water. The dense vegetation cover on the mire surface and the surroundings and/or the low relief energy of the broad area restricted the inorganic influx resulting in high-grade coal formation. As the outcrops are distributed over a distance of 60 km, the expected reserves of good quality lignite constitute a very promising exploration target.

Jude Ogala; George Siavalas; Kimon Christanis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0) concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH{sub 3} addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH{sub 3} reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation. 30 refs., 4 figs.

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jiashun Zhu; Quanhai Wang; Yaji Huang; Chengchung Chiu; Bruce Parker; Paul Chu; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Experimental Investigation of the Combustion of Bituminous Coal in Air and O2/CO2 Mixtures: 1. Particle Imaging of the Combustion of Coal and Char  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental Investigation of the Combustion of Bituminous Coal in Air and O2/CO2 Mixtures: 1. Particle Imaging of the Combustion of Coal and Char ... (1, 2) Extensive studies in both pilot-plant and lab scales have pointed out the pronounced influence of gas composition (air versus O2/CO2) on coal combustion performance. ... By augmenting a companion paper on ash formation in air versus O2/CO2,(17) this study aims to provide further evidence to promote the understanding on the role of CO2 on the combustion of bituminous coal and hence shed new lights into the retrofitting of existing power generation plants with oxy-firing technology. ...

Lian Zhang; Eleanor Binner; Luguang Chen; Yu Qiao; Chun-Zhu Li; Sankar Bhattacharya; Yoshihiko Ninomiya

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

38

Alaska Coal Geology: GIS Data | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal Geology: GIS Data Coal Geology: GIS Data Dataset Summary Description Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Available here: GIS shapefiles of relevant faults and geology, associated with the following report: http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-077/pdf/DDS-77.pdf

39

The Key Coal Producers ONLINE SUPPORTING MATERIALS to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Shaanxi and Shanxi together accounted for 83 percent of China's proven coal reserves in 2000, and Shanxi is not considered reserves [8]. Of China's forecasted coal reserves, a broader category than proven reserves, only January 13, 2011 #12;shown in Figures 1 and 2. The production data for anthracite, bituminous and lignite

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

40

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

July 22, 1974. Project Western Coal: Conversion of Coal Intoand Gasification of Western Coals", in proceedings of ERDA/Investigators' Conference - Coal Research, Colorado School

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The First Coal Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Plants Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 329-A January 25, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE FIRST COAL PLANTS Coal has been called "the mainspring" of our civilization. You are probably familiar, in a general way, with the story of how it originated ages ago from beds of peat which were very slowly changed to coal; and how it became lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous, bituminous, or anthracite coal, depending on bacterial and chemical changes in the peat, how much it was compressed under terrific pressure, and the amount of heat involved in the process. You also know that peat is formed by decaying vegetation in shallow clear fresh-water swamps or bogs, but it is difficult to find a simple description of the kinds of plants that, living and dying during different periods of the earth's history, created beds of peat which eventually became coal.

42

Synthesis Gas Production with an Adjustable H2/CO Ratio through the Coal Gasification Process: Effects of Coal Ranks And Methane Addition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the decline of oil reserves and production, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) part of Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) synthesis technology has become increasing important. ... The Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that over 50% of the coal reserve base in the United States (U.S.) is bituminous coal, about 30% is sub-bituminous, and 9% is lignite. ...

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

43

The fate of char-N at pulverized coal conditions Jennifer P. Spinti*, David W. Pershing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-free oxidant was 50­60% for lignites and 40­50% for bituminous coals. In char flames doped with NOx The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved. Keywords: Pulverized coal combustion; Char nitrogen; NOx formation The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(03)00168-8 #12;the temperature

Utah, University of

44

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Liquefaction and Gasification of Western Coals", in5272 (1976). COal Processing - Gasification, Liguefaction,or gaseous fuels, coal gasification has advanced furthest

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

A novel lignite pre-drying system with low-grade heat integration for modern lignite power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite accounts for 40 % of the global coal reserves, and its long term future is predicated...1]. In China, where lignite resources exceed 130 billion tons, it is...2]. As the low-rank coal, lignite generally f...

Cheng Xu; Gang Xu; Yu Han; Feifei Liang; Yaxiong Fang…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants in Greece in Relation to Mined Lignite Quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions were shown to vary with the calorific value and carbonate content of lignite burned at three large power plants. ... The annual carbon dioxide emissions, Q, in a lignite-fired power plant can be calculated on the basis of the total carbon mass balance, using the following formula:(18)Specific emission factor, Qs, expressed in tons of CO2 generated per MW h is given bywhere Q is the annual CO2 emissions (in tons), Qs is the specific CO2 emissions (in tons MW?1 h?1), L is the annual lignite consumption (in tons/year), CL is the total carbon content of lignite on an as-received basis (%), W is the annual production of bottom ash ( in tons/year), CW is the total carbon content of bottom ash on an as-received basis (%), F is the annual production of fly ash (in tons/year), CF is the total carbon content of fly ash on an as-received basis (%), and E is the annual production of electricity ( in MW h). ... The carbon dioxide emitted as a product of combustion of coal (fossil fuels) is currently responsible for over 60% of the enhanced greenhouse effect. ...

Despina Vamvuka; Michael Galetakis

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

47

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1991--September 19, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the main goals for competitive coal liquefaction is to decrease gas yields to reduce hydrogen consumption. Complexing this element as methane and ethane decreases process efficiently and is less cost effective. To decrease the gas yield and increase the liquid yield, an effective preconversion process has been explored on the basis of the physically associated molecular nature of coal. Activities have been focused on two issues: (1) maximizing the dissolution of associated coal and (2) defining the different reactivity associated with a wide molecular weight distribution. Two-step soaking at 350{degrees}C and 400{degrees}C in a recycle oil was found to be very effective for coal solubilization. No additional chemicals, catalysts, and hydrogen are required for this preconversion process. High-volatile bituminous coals tested before liquefaction showed 80--90% conversion with 50--55% oil yields. New preconversion steps suggested are as follows: (1) dissolution of coal with two-step high-temperature soaking, (2) separation into oil and heavy fractions of dissolved coal with vacuum distillation, and (3) selective liquefaction of the separated heavy fractions under relatively mild conditions. Laboratory scale tests of the proposed procedure mode using a small autoclave showed a 30% increase in the oil yield with a 15--20% decrease in the gas yield. This batch operation projects a substantial reduction in the ultimate cost of coal liquefaction.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Gasification of New Zealand Coals: A Comparative Simulation Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary feasibility assessment of gasification of New Zealand (NZ) lignite and sub-bituminous coals, using a commercial simulation tool. ... Coal is a nonrenewable resource; however, the world’s coal reserves amount to twice the combined oil and gas reserves. ... The reasons for the entrained flow gasifier selection include its high suitability to low rank coals (lignites) and the use of entrained flow gasifiers for an IGCC as the industrially preferred choice dictated through experience. ...

Smitha V. Nathen; Robert D. Kirkpatrick; Brent R. Young

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

49

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the loss of Zn to the coal ash (which appears to invoLve ionhydrocracking is the catalyst/coal ash interaction typifiedof chlorides of metals found in coal ash is of interest, and

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

THE EFFECTS OF SOLVENTS ON SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL BELOW ITS PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

W. S. , "Solvent Treatment of Coal", Mills and Boon, London,of this solvent with the coal structure. When coupled withis indeed quite an unusual coal solvent. REFEREMCES Oele, A.

Grens III., Edward A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I.D I.D XBL 7111- 11389 g. s urn coal iurn REfERENCES 1. W.H. Wiser, Coal Catalysis, Proceedings of the EPRIC. Howard. Chern; (John Wil of Coal Utilization H. H. lowry.

Seth, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Hydrothermal Treatment of a Sub-bituminous Coal and Its Use in Coking Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crucible coking determinations suggest that hydrothermal treatment can greatly increase the coke strength and the particle coke strength after reaction toward CO2 and decrease the coke reactivity when the hydrothermally treated coals were used in the coal blends instead of the raw coal. ... While the cokes from the crucible coking experiments were subjected to 800 rotations at a speed of 25 rpm, the weight percent of coke particles (>0.2 ... The coal charges were coked in the lab. ...

Hengfu Shui; Ye Wu; Zhicai Wang; Zhiping Lei; Changhui Lin; Shibiao Ren; Chunxiu Pan; Shigang Kang

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

53

ccpi-lignite | netl.doe.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Coal Power Initiative Power Plant Improvement Initiative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program FutureGen Lignite Fuel...

54

Solvent extraction of bituminous coals using light cycle oil: characterization of diaromatic products in liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many studies of the pyrolytic degradation of coal-derived and petroleum-derived aviation fuels have demonstrated that the coal-derived fuels show better thermal stability, both with respect to deposition of carbonaceous solids and cracking to gases. Much previous work at our institute has focused on the use of refined chemical oil (RCO), a distillate from the refining of coal tar, blended with light cycle oil (LCO) from catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil. Hydroprocessing of this blend forms high concentrations of tetralin and decalin derivatives that confer particularly good thermal stability on the fuel. However, possible supply constraints for RCO make it important to consider alternative ways to produce an 'RCO-like' product from coal in an inexpensive process. This study shows the results of coal extraction using LCO as a solvent. At 350{sup o}C at a solvent-to-coal ratio of 10:1, the conversions were 30-50 wt % and extract yields 28-40 wt % when testing five different coals. When using lower LCO/coal ratios, conversions and extract yields were much smaller; lower LCO/coal ratios also caused mechanical issues. LCO is thought to behave similarly to a nonpolar, non-hydrogen donor solvent, which would facilitate heat-induced structural relaxation of the coal followed by solubilization. The main components contributed from the coal to the extract when using Pittsburgh coal are di- and triaromatic compounds. 41 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Josefa M. Griffith; Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). EMS Energy Institute

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Lignite oxidative desulphurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coal is a feedstock for the production of 30.3 % of primary energy (hard coal – 28.5 % and lignite – 1.8 %) and 42 % ... Such tendency is caused by the considerable coal reserves exceeding other reserves of n...

Volodymyr Gunka; Serhiy Pyshyev

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

E-Print Network 3.0 - australian bituminous coal Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applied Physics Institute Collection: Engineering 36 Impact of coal quality and gasifier technology on IGCC performance Summary: was captured and the two highest rank...

57

An initial study on feasible treatment of Serbian lignite through utilization of low-rank coal upgrading technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Despite benefiting from vast fuel reserves, combustion of low-rank coals is commonly characterized by low thermal efficiency and high pollutant emissions, partly due to high moisture content of the coals in question. Thus, removal of moisture from low-rank coals is deemed an important quality upgrading method. The paper provides an overview of the current status of low-rank coal upgrading technologies, particularly with respect to utilization of drying and dewatering procedures. In order to examine the influence of relevant parameters on the moisture removal process, a model of convective coal drying in a packed, as well as in a fluid bed combustion arrangement, is developed and presented. Product-specific data (intraparticle mass transfer, gas–solid moisture equilibrium) related to the coal variety addressed herein (lignite) are obtained through preliminary investigations. Effective thermal conductivity of the packed bed as defined by Zehner/Bauer/Schlünder is used to define heat transfer mechanisms occurring in the packed bed. Similar two-phase fluidization model has been validated for different types of biomaterials.

Milan Staki?; Dejan Cvetinovi?; Predrag Škobalj; Vuk Spasojevi?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Formation and retention of methane in coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

60

Lignite Fuel Enhancement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Design Team continues to conference this quarter albeit not as often. Primary focus this quarter is the continued procurement of material, receiving, and construction/installation. Phase 1 extension recommendation, and subsequent new project estimate. Forms 424 and 4600 were submitted to Ms. Zysk. The NETL technology team subsequently agreed that the increase is justified and made their recommendation to DOE HQ. All major mechanical equipment was delivered this quarter. Three hot water in-bed coils are all that remains for delivery. Two of the five are installed above the dryer air distribution bed. The dryer, baghouse, bucket elevator, control room, exhaust fan, process ductwork, and piping have all been installed. The mezzanine level over the inlet ductwork for access to the dryer was installed. Instrumentation was delivered and locations were identified. Cable is being pulled and connections made from the Control Room to the Motor Control Center. ''Emergency Stop'' equipment logic conditions were discussed and finalized. The functional description was competed and reviewed with Honeywell Controls. Piping & Instrument diagrams are completed. Some electrical schematics have been delivered for equipment south of Q-line. Dry & Wet coal conveyors are not completed. The exhaust chimney was installed. An Open House and ribbon cutting took place on August 9th. GRE project manager gave a presentation of the technology. Joe Strakey, NETL, also spoke. The Open House was attended by Governor Hoevon and Senator Conrad who also spoke about Clean Coal and helped kick-off Blue Flint ethanol and a potential Liquefaction plant. The deign team met the following day to discuss test plan and progress update. Headwaters Energy Incorporated also attended the Open House. A meeting was conducted with them to begin planning for the marketing and finalize our memorandum of understanding. Headwaters still plans to contact all US lignite plants and all bituminous plants who have switched to PRB. Major pieces of equipment received this quarter included the Dryer, Exhaust Fan, additional duct work, and control cabinets.

Charles Bullinger

2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

A study on carbon dioxide emissions from bituminous coal in Korea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Consumption of primary energy in Korea increased 5.25 % per year over a 10 years span starting in 1990. Korea ranked 8th in primary energy consumption in 2011; coal consumption increased 35 % from 87,827 milli...

Jeongwoo Lee; Chang-Sang Cho; Ki-hyup Hong; Jae-Hak Jeong…

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois Basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Unlike long-term heating in subsiding sedimentary basins, the near-instantaneous thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter near magmatic intrusions is comparable to artificial thermal maturation in the laboratory in terms of short duration and limited extent. This study investigates chemical and H, C, N, O isotopic changes in high volatile bituminous coal near two Illinois dike contacts and compares observed patterns and trends with data from other published studies and from artificial maturation experiments. Our study pioneers in quantifying isotopically exchangeable hydrogen and measuring the D/H (i.e., 2H/1H) ratio of isotopically non-exchangeable organic hydrogen in kerogen near magmatic contacts. Thermal stress in coal caused a reduction of isotopically exchangeable hydrogen in kerogen from 5% to 6% in unaltered coal to 2–3% at contacts, mostly due to elimination of functional groups (e.g., OH, COOH, NH2). In contrast to all previously published data on D/H in thermally matured organic matter, the more mature kerogen near the two dike contacts is D-depleted, which is attributed to (i) thermal elimination of D-enriched functional groups, and (ii) thermal drying of hydrologically isolated coal prior to the onset of cracking reactions, thereby precluding D-transfer from relatively D-enriched water into kerogen. Maxima in organic nitrogen concentration and in the atomic N/C ratio of kerogen at a distance of ?2.5 to ?3.5 m from the thicker dike indicate that reactive N-compounds had been pyrolytically liberated at high temperature closer to the contact, migrated through the coal seam, and recombined with coal kerogen in a zone of lower temperature. The same principle extends to organic carbon, because a strong ?13Ckerogen vs. ?15Nkerogen correlation across 5.5 m of coal adjacent to the thicker dike indicates that coal was functioning as a flow-through reactor along a dynamic thermal gradient facilitating back-reactions between mobile pyrolysis products from the hot zone as they encounter less hot kerogen. Vein and cell filling carbonate is most abundant in highest rank coals where carbonate ?13CVPDB and ?18OVSMOW values are consistent with thermal generation of 13C-depleted and 18O-enriched CO2 from decarboxylation and pyrolysis of organic matter. Lower background concentrations of 13C-enriched carbonate in thermally unaffected coal may be linked to 13C-enrichment in residual CO2 in the process of CO2 reduction via microbial methanogenesis. Our compilation and comparison of available organic H, C, N isotopic findings on magmatic intrusions result in re-assessments of majors factors influencing isotopic shifts in kerogen during magmatic heating. (i) Thermally induced shifts in organic ?D values of kerogen are primarily driven by the availability of water or steam. Hydrologic isolation (e.g., near Illinois dikes) results in organic D-depletion in kerogen, whereas more common hydrologic connectivity results in organic D-enrichment. (ii) Shifts in kerogen (or coal) ?13C and ?15N values are typically small and may follow sinusoidal patterns over short distances from magmatic contacts. Laterally limited sampling strategies may thus result in misleading and non-representative data. (iii) Fluid transport of chemically active, mobile carbon and nitrogen species and recombination reactions with kerogen result in isotopic changes in kerogen that are unrelated to the original, autochthonous part of kerogen.

Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz; Ling Gao; Peter E. Sauer; Katarina Topalov

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Effect of bituminous coal properties on carbon dioxide and methane high pressure sorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High pressure sorption experiments with carbon dioxide and methane were carried out at a temperature of 45 °C and at pressures up to 15 MPa with three samples of methane-bearing, medium-rank coals in a moisture-equilibrated state using a manometric method. The samples were taken from selected positions of drill cores from exploration boreholes in the Bohemian part of the Upper Silesian Basin, and were characterized by a narrow range of degree of coalification and markedly different petrographic compositions, including a different mineral matter content. The total porosity of the coal samples was between 9% and 10%. A positive correlation was found between the equilibrium moisture in the coal samples and the total abundance of oxygen functional groups determined by FTIR. The excess sorption capacities ranged from 0.78 to 0.91 mmol g?1 for CO2 and from 0.45 to 0.52 mmol g?1 for CH4, and after recalculation to coal organic matter, the excess sorption capacities increased by up to 14% in the coal with the highest mineral fraction. The highest CO2/CH4 ratio was found in the sample that had the highest inertinite and liptinite content. The experimental isotherm data was fitted by modified Langmuir and Dubinin–Radushkevich sorption isotherms. The parameters obtained by these two methods were in good agreement for carbon dioxide. It was found that the sorption capacity of the organic matter in a coal sample with prevalence of inertinite (63.0 vol.%) was lower only by 14% for CO2 and by 18% for CH4 than the sorption capacity of the organic matter in a coal sample with prevalence of vitrinite (65.3 vol.%). This provided confirmation that the petrographic composition of a coal has an ambiguous effect.

Zuzana Weishauptová; Old?ich P?ibyl; Ivana Sýkorová; Vladimír Machovi?

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquefaction of rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Final topical report, June 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supported catalysts, either in fixed bed or ebullating bed reactors, are subject to deactivation with time, especially if the feed contains deactivating species, such as metals and coke precursors. Dispersed catalyst systems avoid significant catalyst deactivation because there are no catalyst pores to plug, hence no pore mouth plugging, and hopefully, no relevant decline of catalyst surface area or pore volume. The tests carried out in 1994, at the Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL) for DOE covered a slate of 5 dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal, which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested earlier at Wilsonville. The catalysts included three iron and two molybdenum types. The Bailey iron oxide and the two molybdenum catalysts have previously been tested in DOE-sponsored research. These known catalysts will be used to help provide a base line and tie-in to previous work. The two new catalysts, Bayferrox PK 5210 and Mach-1`s Nanocat are very finely divided iron oxides. The iron oxide addition rate was varied from 1.0 to 0.25 wt % (dry coal basis) but the molybdenum addition rate remained constant at 100 wppm throughout the experiments. The effect of changing recycle rate, sulfur and iron oxide addition rates, first stage reactor temperature, mass velocity and catalyst type were tested in the 1994 operations of ERDL`s recycle coal liquefaction unit (RCLU). DOE will use these results to update economics and plan future work. The test program will resume in mid 1995, with another 2-3 months of pilot plant testing.

Coless, L.A.; Poole, M.C.; Wen, M.Y.

1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

65

JV Task-123 Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and with funding from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducting tests to prove that a high level of mercury control (>90%) can be achieved at a power plant burning a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. With funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), DOE, and Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates Program, the EERC completed an additional sampling project to provide data as to the behavior of a number of trace elements across the various pollution control devices, with a special emphasis on the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results showed that the concentrations of almost all the elements of interest leaving the stack were very low, and a high percentage of the trace elements were captured in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (for most, >80%). Although, with a few exceptions, the overall mass balances were generally quite good, the mass balances across the wet FGD were more variable. This is most likely a result of some of the concentrations being very low and also the uncertainties in determining flows within a wet FGD.

Dennis Laudal

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Drying Kinetics Characteristic of Indonesia Lignite Coal (IBC) Using Lab Scale Fixed Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent instability of energy market arouse a lot of interest about coal which has a tremendous amount of proven coal reserves worldwide. South Korea hold the second rank by importing 80 million tons of coal in...

TaeJin Kang; DoMan Jeon; Hueon Namkung…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Coal Ranks and Geothermal Gradients in High-volatile Bituminous Coalfields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... 380; Sw. No., 6. If it is assumed that no great changes in geothermal gradient have occurred since the early Pleistocene, this coal was metamorphosed at a temperature ... Silesia5. The most obvious explanation is that of a nearly two to one difference in geothermal gradient. Comparison of data from the Carboniferous coalfields of the Netherlands with analyses of ...

R. P. SUGGATE; J. O. ELPHICK

1964-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

68

ITP Mining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining Industry: Chapter 2: Coal  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2 2 Coal Coal is a mixture of organic mineral material produced by a natural process of growth and decay, or an accumulation of debris both vegetal and mineral with some sorting and stratification. The process is accomplished by chemical, biological, bacteriological and metamorphic action. 1 Forms of Coal Coal is a hydrocarbon that is classified according to the amount of heat it produces. Heat content depends upon the amount of fixed carbon it contains. Rank is the degree of progressive alteration in the transformation from lignite to anthracite. There are four primary ranks of coal: * Anthracite (semi-anthracite, anthracite, and meta-anthracite) * Bituminous (high-volatile, medium-volatile, and low-volatile) * Subbituminous * Lignite (brown coal and lignite)

69

Coal facies in a Cenozoic paralic lignite bed, Krabi Basin, southern Thailand: Changing peat-forming conditions related to relative sea-level controlled watertable variations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Cenozoic Krabi Basin in the southern part of peninsular Thailand contains about 112 million tons proven coal reserves. At present, coal is only produced from the Bang Mark mine located in the southern part of the basin, where the main lignite bed is 7–20 m thick. The lignite bed occurs in an overall paralic succession. The present paper investigates the depositional conditions of an approximately 8 m thick lignite bed (main seam) in the Bang Mark mine using organic petrography, including maceral ratios, and geochemistry. The results are further interpreted in a sequence stratigraphic context. The lignite is of low rank and is completely dominated by huminite indicating generally oxygen-deficient conditions in the precursor mire. Very low inertinite contents suggest rare occurrences of wildfires. The lower part of the lignite bed represents a topogenous fresh water peat mire with open water areas that in few cases may have experienced influx of saline water. The peat mire was subjected to periodic inundations and deposition of siliciclastics. Tissue preservation was relatively poor. The upper part of the lignite bed represents a slightly domed fresh water ombrogenous peat mire with a stable watertable and a balance between peat accumulation and accommodation space creation that favoured preservation of plant tissues. In general, the mire vegetation changed from less woody in the topogenous mire to more arborescent in the ombrogenous mire, where plants with suberinised wood cell walls also were more frequent. Decompacted, the lignite bed corresponds to a minimum ~ 11 m thick peat deposit that records from ~ 22,000 to 55,000 years of peat accumulation. Watertable rise in the peat mire was controlled overall by relative sea-level rise. In a sequence stratigraphic context, the lignite bed overlies a terrestrialisation surface (TeS; sensu Diessel, 2007) and the lowermost part records peat formation during a falling watertable and a decreasing accommodation/peat accumulation ratio (terrestrialisation). An accommodation reversal surface (ARS; sensu Diessel, 2007) indicates a change to paludification style of peat formation characterised by rising watertable and a high accommodation/peat accumulation ratio. Another ARS marks a gradual change to a situation with a balanced accommodation/peat accumulation ratio. The overall watertable rise throughout peat formation, but at a gradually slower rate from base to top, suggests that the lignite bed could be located in the late transgressive systems tract (TST).

H.I. Petersen; B. Ratanasthien

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

The natural radioactivity contents in feed coals from the lignite-fired power plants in Western Anatolia, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......production cost. Present Turkey reserves of lignite are estimated to be 8.4 billion...constitute the most important known lignite reserves. The Mugla basin is one of...The Seyitomer basin has a lignite reserve of about 200 Mt and supplies......

N. Füsun Çam; Günseli Yaprak; Elif Eren

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Properties of Upgraded Shengli Lignite and Its Behavior for Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-rank coals (LRCs, i.e., brown coal and lignite) have an estimated proportion of 45% of the world’s coal reserves and constitute a significant resource for both energy and chemical feedstocks. ... (10)Figure 15 shows the calculating results of reactivity parameters (Rmax, Rave, and R) for SL lignite and different upgraded lignites obtained by isothermal upgrading. ...

Xianjun Yang; Cheng Zhang; Peng Tan; Tao Yang; Qingyan Fang; Gang Chen

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

73

Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces, Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines. Alaskan coals have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States and are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Another untapped potential resource is coalbed methane estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters).

Romeo M. Flores; Gary D. Stricker; Scott A. Kinney

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Radon concentrations in three underground lignite mines in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......being operated by the Aegean Lignite Enterprise (Ege Linyitleri...determined in three underground lignite mines, namely Tuncbilek...which is the main state body of lignite coal production, processing...of TKi. GLi Tuncbilek coal reserve, which is located on the mid-west......

S. Çile; N. Altinsoy; N. Çelebi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (USA). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Study on Combustion Characteristics of Lignite in a CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The shortage of coal promotes the lignite utility in power plant because of the rapid economy development recently. However, lignite is high in moisture content as well as volatile content and low in calorific va...

J. Leng; T. S. Zou; J. X. Wu; C. Jiang…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 December 2008 2007 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution data sources made in 2006 are carried over to the 2007 tables. As in 2006, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data with previously collected information to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating consumer, which was not reported on the EIA-3A survey form. Although not contained in the EIA-6A master file, this information has been documented in an ancillary spreadsheet in the EIA

78

The spatial distribution of the lignite qualitative parameters and variant estimates of coal reserves: the Czech Part of the Vienna Basin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The aim of this article is to inform about the spatial distribution of the lignite qualitative parameters and total lignite reserves in the Czech Part of the Vienna Basin—The South Moravian Lignite Coalfield (...

Jan Jelínek; František Stan?k; Lukáš Vebr…

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

Tom Campbell

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

80

Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Gasification of New Zealand coals: a comparative simulation study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary feasibility assessment of gasification of New Zealand (NZ) lignite and sub-bituminous coals, using a commercial simulation tool. Gasification of these coals was simulated in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application and associated preliminary economics compared. A simple method of coal characterization was developed for simulation purposes. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen content of the coal was represented by a three component vapor solid system of carbon, methane, and water, the composition of which was derived from proximate analysis data on fixed carbon and volatile matter, and the gross calorific value, both on a dry, ash free basis. The gasification process was modeled using Gibb's free energy minimization. Data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Shell Gasifier base cases using Illinios No. 6 coal was used to verify both the gasifier and the IGCC flowsheet models. The H:C and O:C ratios of the NZ coals were adjusted until the simulated gasifier output composition and temperature matched the values with the base case. The IGCC power output and other key operating variables such as gas turbine inlet and exhaust temperatures were kept constant for study of comparative economics. The results indicated that 16% more lignite than sub-bituminous coal was required. This translated into the requirement of a larger gasifier and air separation unit, but smaller gas and steam turbines were required. The gasifier was the largest sole contributor (30%) to the estimated capital cost of the IGCC plant. The overall cost differential associated with the processing of lignite versus processing sub-bituminous coal was estimated to be of the order of NZ $0.8/tonne. 13 refs., 9 tabs.

Smitha V. Nathen; Robert D. Kirkpatrick; Brent R. Young [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Size Dependence of the Drying Characteristics of Single Lignite Particles in Superheated Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite, or brown coal, is the lowest ... accounts for 23 pct of the proven recoverable reserves of all coal.[1...] Because of its high moisture content, which makes the cost of transporting the raw lignite high,...

Tsuyoshi Kiriyama; Hideaki Sasaki…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Physical properties of selected block Argonne Premium bituminous coal related to CO2, CH4, and N2 adsorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CO2, CH4, and N2 adsorption and gas-induced swelling were quantified for block Blind Canyon, Pittsburgh #8 and Pocahontas Argonne Premium coals that were dried and structurally relaxed at 75 °C in vacuum. Strain measurements were made perpendicular and parallel to the bedding plane on ~ 7 × 7 × 7 mm3 coal blocks and gravimetric sorption measurements were obtained simultaneously on companion coal blocks exposed to the same gaseous environment. The adsorption amount and strain were determined after equilibration at P  ? 1.8 MPa. There is a strong non-linear correlation between strain and the quantity of gas adsorbed and the results for all gases and coals studied follow a common pattern. The dependence of the coal matrix shrinkage/swelling coefficient (Cgc) on the type and quantity of gas adsorbed is seen by plotting the ratio between the strain and the adsorbate concentration against the adsorbate concentration. In general, Cgc increases with increasing adsorbate concentration over the range of ~ 0.1 to 1.4 mmol/g. Results from the dried block coals are compared to CO2 experiments using native coals with an inherent level of moisture as received. The amount of CO2 adsorbed using native coals (assuming no displacement of H2O by CO2) is significantly less than the dried coals. The gas-induced strain (S) and adsorption amount (M) were measured as a function of time following step changes in CO2, CH4, and N2 pressure from vacuum to 1.8 MPa. An empirical diffusion equation was applied to the kinetic data to obtain the exponent (n) for time dependence for each experiment. The data for all coals were pooled and the exponent (n) evaluated using an ANOVA statistical analysis method. Values for (n) near 0.5 were found to be independent on the coal, the gas or type of measurement (e.g., parallel strain, perpendicular strain, and gas uptake). These data support the use of a Fickian diffusion model framework for kinetic analysis. The kinetic constant k was determined using a unipore diffusion model for each experiment and the data were pooled for ANOVA analysis. For dry coal, statistically significant differences for k were found for the gases (CO2 > N2 > CH4) and coals (Pocahontas >Blind Canyon > Pittsburgh #8) but not for the method of the kinetic measurement (e.g., strain or gas uptake). For Blind Canyon and Pittsburgh #8 coal, the rate of CO2 adsorption and gas-induced strain for dry coal was significantly greater than that of the corresponding native coal. For Pocahontas coal the rates of CO2 adsorption and gas-induced strain for dry and native coal were indistinguishable and may be related to its low native moisture and minimal amount of created porosity upon drying.

S.R. Kelemen; L.M. Kwiatek

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Coal to methanol to gasoline by the hydrocarb process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HYDROCARB Process converts coal or any other carbonaceous material to a clean carbon fuel and co-product gas or liquid fuel. By directing the co-product to liquid methanol, it becomes possible to produce methanol at costs as low as $0.13 to $0.14/gal as shown in Table 1 for a Western Lignite and Table 2 for an Eastern Bituminous coal. In the case of Western lignite, it is assumed that the carbon black fuel product can be sold at $3.00/MMBtu ($18/Bbl FOE) and for the Eastern coal at $2.50/MMBtu ($15/Bbl FOE). A methanol market is expected to develop due to the need for an automotive fuel with reduced pollutant emissions. However, should the methanol market not materialize as expected, then methanol can be readily converted to conventional gasoline by the addition of an MTG, methanol to gasoline process step. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Investigation of Bonding Mechanism of Coking on Semi-coke from Lignite with Pitch and Tar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Bonding Mechanism of Coking on Semi-coke from Lignite with Pitch and Tar ... Study on the coking mechanism of coal and coal tar pitches. ...

Vedat Arslan

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

87

Techno-Economic Analysis of Lignite Fuelled IGCC with CO2 Capture: Comparing Fluidized Bed and Entrained Flow Gasifiers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For shell gasifier case, North Dakota lignite coal is milled ... wt.%, and fed into the Shell gasifier via lock-hopper pressurization using N2...as transport gas. The lignite coal is gasified in the presence of medium

Guangjian Liu; Zhen Wu; Haiying Zhang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

NETL - Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NETL - Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool NETL - Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool Agency/Company /Organization: National Energy Technology Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Website: www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/refshelf/results.asp?ptype=Models/Too References: Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool [1] Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool The Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool illustrates key data from the Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity report. The tool provides an

89

Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquification of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Technical report, July 1995--December 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1994 extensive tests were conducted in the Exxon Research and Engineering Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The work conducted in 1994 explored a variety of dispersed iron molybdenum promoted catalyst systems for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide subbituminus coal. The goal was to identify the preferred iron system. We learned that among the catalysts tested, all were effective; however, none showed a large process advantage over the others. In 1995, we tested dispersed molybdenum catalysts systems for direct coal liquefaction on a second subbituminous coal, Black Thunder. Catalyst properties are shown in Table 1. We also checked a molybdenum promoted iron case, as well as the impact of process variables, such as sulfur type, hydrogen treat rate, and catalyst addition rate, as shown in Table 2. In 1995, we ran 18 material balances over a 7 week period, covering 7 conditions. This report covers the 1995 operations and results.

Coless, L.A.; Poole, M.C.; Wen, M.Y.

1996-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

91

Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

Lili Huang; Schobert, H.H.; Chunshan Song

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Lignite Fuel Enhancement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This 11th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from January 1st through March 31st of 2007. It summarizes the completion of the Prototype testing activity and initial full-scale dryer design, Budget Period 2 activity during that time period. The Design Team completed process design and layouts of air, water, and coal systems. Heyl-Patterson completed dryer drawings and has sent RFPs to several fabricators for build and assembly. Several meetings were held with Barr engineers to finalize arrangement of the drying, air jig, and coal handling systems. Honeywell held meetings do discuss the control system logic and hardware location. By the end of March we had processed nearly 300,000 tons of lignite through the dryer. Outage preparation maintenance activities on a coal transfer hopper restricted operation of the dryer in February and March. The Outage began March 17th. We will not dry coal again until early May when the Outage on Unit No.2 completes. The Budget Period 1 (Phase 1) final report was submitted this quarter. Comments were received from NETL and are being reviewed. The Phase 2 Project Management Plan was submitted to NETL in January 2007. This deliverable also included the Financing Plan. An application for R&D 100 award was submitted in February. The project received an award from the Minnesota Professional Engineering Society's Seven Wonders of Engineering Award and Minnesota ACEC Grand Award in January. To further summarize, the focus this quarter has been on finalizing commercial design and the layout of four dryers behind each Unit. The modification to the coal handling facilities at Coal Creek and incorporation of air jigs to further beneficiate the segregated material the dryers will reject 20 to 30 % of the mercury and sulfur is segregated however this modification will recover the carbon in that stream.

Charles Bullinger

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

Fusibility Characteristics of Residual Ash from Lignite Fluidized-Bed Gasification To Understand Its Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite is an abundant resource, which accounts for approximately 40% of global coal reserves. ... The effects of leaching and floatation on the ash fusion temperatures of three selected lignites ...

Feng-hai Li; Jie-jie Huang; Yi-tian Fang; Quan-run Liu

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

94

Conventional coal preparation in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Processing of bituminous and anthracite coal is widely practiced in the United States and, as mentioned earlier, about 80 percent of the production of these coals is processed as clean coal in preparation plants. Subbituminous coal is not widely processed, primarily because these low rank raw coals are low in sulfur (0.5 to 1.0 percent) and relatively low in ash (8 to 15 percent). They are also relatively low in heat content due to their high inherent moisture. Lignite coals, to the best of the authors{close_quote} knowledge, are not presently being processed in Conventional Coal Preparation plants. This is due to their unstable nature and putting them in water in a coal preparation plant is likely to cause severe degradation in particle size and add to their already high inherent moisture content. The following are the benefits of clean coal processing: produces a uniform product which can be utilized more efficiently; produces a higher quality product which results in higher efficiency at the power station or the steel mill; reduces sulfur dioxide and other adverse stack emissions during coal firing which is a very important environmental consideration; reduces ash or slag handling costs by the user; reduces shipping costs; and reduces handling and storage costs. Processing any stable raw coal in a coal preparation plant will always produce a higher grade product which is a more efficient and a more environmentally acceptable fuel for use at power stations, steel mills, home heating or industrial boilers.

Beck, M.K.; Taylor, B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

The determination of the void structure of microporous coals by small?angle neutron scattering: Void geometry and structure in Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The access of solvents and reactants to the microvoid volume in porous materials such as coal plays an important role in determining the overall chemistry which takes place during a variety of chemical transformations including oxidation combustion and pyrolysis. The structure and surface composition of these voids were studied using small?angle neutron scattering techniques to examine selectively the subset of the overall void volume distribution which comprises the microvoid volume. Powdered Illinois No. 6 coal containing approximately 20% void volume was slurried in several different aqueous and cyclohexane solutions. The solutions used had various hydrogen?to?deuterium ratios in order to contrast match most of the open pore volume thereby making the microvoid volume visible. The microvoid volume observed is characterized as elongated voids having a fairly well?defined diameter and surface composition. The scattering intensity from the microvoid volume shows a well?defined Porod region indicating that the smallest void dimension is resolved by the instrumental configuration employed. A Guinier region exhibiting Q ? 1 behavior which is characteristic of elongated structures is also observed. The average radius of a circular cross section of these voids is found to be 25.4 Å. The microvoids are found to be completely filled by aqueous solutions so that the residual neutron scattering which is not eliminated by the contrast?matching aqueous solution is due to the organic matrix structure. Nonaqueous mixtures of cyclohexane cannot fill the entire microvoid volume as effectively as the aqueous mixtures. The scattering differences observed between the aqueous and nonaqueous filled coal indicates that the surface of the microvoids is predominantly aliphatic in character with the principal compositional variation being the presence or absence of acidic functionality on the surface.

Jon S. Gethner

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Effect of Upgraded Lignite Product Water Content on the Propensity for Spontaneous Ignition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At the end of 2005, worldwide lignite reserves were 207.4 billion tons and accounted for 17.7% of total coal. ... Therefore, there is still considerable interest in the propensity for spontaneous ignition of upgraded lignites products with different moisture contents and also the recommended water content for upgraded lignite products. ...

Kai Zhang; Changfu You

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

98

Coal upgrading program for Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic: Task 8.3. Topical report, October 1994--August 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal has been a major energy source in the Czech Republic given its large coal reserves, especially brown coal and lignite (almost 4000 million metric tons) and smaller reserves of hard, mainly bituminous, coal (over 800 million tons). Political changes since 1989 have led to the reassessment of the role of coal in the future economy as increasing environmental regulations affect the use of the high-sulfur and high-ash brown coal and lignite as well as the high-ash hard coal. Already, the production of brown coal has declined from 87 million metric tons per year in 1989 to 67 million metric tons in 1993 and is projected to decrease further to 50 million metric tons per year of brown coal by the year 2000. As a means of effectively utilizing its indigenous coal resources, the Czech Republic is upgrading various technologies, and these are available at different stages of development, demonstration, and commercialization. The purpose of this review is to provide a database of information on applicable technologies that reduce the impact of gaseous (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, volatile organic compounds) and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal in district and residential heating systems.

Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Behavior study of trace elements in pulverized lignite, bottom ash, and fly ash of Amyntaio power station, Greece  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greece is second among EU countries for lignite coal production. The indicated reserves are 6.7 billion tonnes with a ... of Greece are generated through the utilization of lignite, while the remaining percentage...

Pavlos Megalovasilis; Georgios Papastergios…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Lignite-based nitrogenous fertilizers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sample of lignite from Elbistan was oxidized by nitric acid in two stages, using relatively dilute acid in the first stage and concentrated acid in the second stage, and then the oxidized product was ammoniated so that a coal-based fertilizer could be produced. The experiments of all the stages were designed by a 1/2 X full factorial design. It was observed that base exchange capacity and nitrogen content of coal-based fertilizers produced in this work were as good as or better than those obtained by other investigators.

Baris, H.; Dincer, S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Microbial solubilization of lignites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biological solubilization and subsequent gasification of lignite samples from three of the largest reserves in this country, which are also characterized by high sulphur contents and low calorific values, were investigated in this project. Several white-rot fungi were screened for their ability to solubilize lignites and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was found to depolymerize Elbistan lignites with 60% efficiency. Acetate served perfectly as the primary carbon source. Whereas, Çan lignites could be depolymerized only after lengthy pre-treatment with 8N HNO3 while Beypazari lignites were completely inert to biological attack. Gasification tests with the solubilize material revealed 21% energy recovery through gaseous methane product.

Celal F Gokcay; Nazif Kolankaya; Filiz B Dilek

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Mitsubishi FGD plants for lignite fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to respond to the increasing electric energy demand for sustaining economic growth, construction of coal-fired thermal power plants worldwide is indispensable. As a countermeasure for environmental pollution which otherwise may reach a serious proportion from the operation of these plants, construction of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants is being promoted. Among these power stations where lignite fuel is burnt, the FGD plants concerned have to be designed to cope with high gas volume and SO{sub x} concentration as well as violent fluctuations in their values caused by such features of lignite as high sulfur content, low calorific volume, and unstable properties. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) has received construction awards for a total of seven (7) FGD plants for lignite-fired boilers in succession starting from that for CEZ as, Czech Republic followed by those for EGAT, Thailand in 1993. All these plants are presently operating satisfactorily since successful completion of their performance tests in 1996. Further, a construction award of three (3) more FGD plants for lignite-fired boilers was received from ENDESA (Spain) in 1995 which are now being outfitted and scheduled to start commercial operation in 1998. In this paper, the authors discuss the outline design of FGD plants for lignite-fired boilers based on experience of FGD plants constructed since 1970 for heavy oil--as well as black coal-fired boilers, together with items confirmed from the operation and design guideline hereafter.

Kotake, Shinichiro; Okazoe, Kiyoshi; Iwashita, Koichiro; Yajima, Satoru

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION--A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT, PHASE II: ELEMENT MODES OF OCCURRENCE FOR THE OHIO 5/6/7, WYODAK AND NORTH DAKOTA COAL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study reports on the second phase (Phase II) of USGS research activities in support of DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95101 ''Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion--A Comprehensive Assessment'', funded under DOE Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-95PC95145. The purpose of the study was to provide a quantitative and semi-quantitative characterization of the modes of occurrence of trace elements in coal samples investigated under Phase II, including (1) Ohio 5/6/7, an Ohio bituminous coal sample blended from the No.5, No.6, and No.7 beds; (2) North Dakota, a lignite sample from the Falkirk Mine, Underwood, ND, and (3) Wyodak, a sub-bituminous coal sample from the Cordero Mine, Gillette, WY. Samples from these coal beds were selected for their range in rank and commercial applicability. Results of this research provide basic information on the distribution of elements in Phase II coal samples, information needed for development of a commercial predictive model for trace-element behavior during coal combustion.

Allan Kolker; Stanley J. Mroczkowski; Curtis A. Palmer; Kristen O. Dennen; Robert B. Finkelman; John H. Bullock Jr.

2002-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

104

CO2-gasification of a lignite coal in the presence of an iron-based oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has the inherent property of separating the product CO2 from flue gases. Instead of air, it uses an oxygen carrier, usually in the form of a metal oxide, to provide oxygen for combustion. All techniques so far proposed for chemical looping with solid fuels involve initially the gasification of the solid fuel in order for the gaseous products to react with the oxygen carrier. Here, the rates of gasification of coal were compared when gasification was undertaken in a fluidised bed of either (i) an active Fe-based oxygen carrier used for chemical looping or (ii) inert sand. This enabled an examination of the ability of chemical looping materials to enhance the rate of gasification of solid fuels. Batch gasification and chemical-looping combustion experiments with a German lignite and its char are reported, using an electrically-heated fluidised bed reactor at temperatures from 1073 to 1223 K. The fluidising gas was CO2 in nitrogen. The kinetics of the gasification were found to be significantly faster in the presence of the oxygen carrier, especially at temperatures above 1123 K. A numerical model was developed to account for external and internal mass transfer and for the effect of the looping agent. The model also included the effects of the evolution of the pore structure at different conversions. The presence of Fe2O3 led to an increase in the rate of gasification because of the rapid oxidation of CO by the oxygen carrier to CO2. This resulted in the removal of CO and maintained a higher mole fraction of CO2 in the mixture of gas around the particle of char, i.e. within the mass transfer boundary layer surrounding the particle. This effect was most prominent at about 20% conversion when (i) the surface area for reaction was at its maximum and (ii) because of the accompanying increase in porosity and pore size, intraparticle resistance to gas mass transfer within the particle of char had fallen, compared with that in the initial particle. Excellent agreement was observed between the rates predicted by the numerical model and those observed experimentally.

Marco A. Saucedo; Jin Yang. Lim; John S. Dennis; Stuart A. Scott

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Transformation of Alkali Metals during Pyrolysis and Gasification of a Lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

North China has large reserves of low rank coal deposits such as lignite that are suitable to be used in fluidized-bed gasification. ... Influence of Temperature on the Release of Inorganic Species from Victorian Brown Coals and German Lignites under CO2 Gasification Conditions ...

Xiaofang Wei; Jiejie Huang; Tiefeng Liu; Yitian Fang; Yang Wang

2008-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

106

Forward and reverse combustion gasification of coal with production of high-quality syngas in a simulated pilot system for in situ gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This research focused on the feasibility and stability of applying the forward and reverse combustion approach to the in situ gasification of lignite and bituminous coal with oxygen or oxygen–steam mixtures as gasification agents, especially reverse combustion gasification. A high-quality syngas (H2 and CO) could be obtained using the reverse combustion gasification technique combined with forward combustion gasification in a pilot system for in situ gasification. The gasification time was extended more than 25% using the reverse combustion approach. The controlling conditions for reverse combustion gasification were obtained by comparing and analyzing experimental data. The results show the relationship between the inject gas flow within certain limits and velocity of the gasification flame was linear during reverse combustion. The underground conditions of the coal seam and strata were simulated in a pilot-scale underground gasifier during experiments. The combustion gasification of coal was carried out experimentally for over 5 days. The average effective content (H2 and CO) of syngas was in the range of 60–70%, meeting the requirement of synthesis gas. The optimal ranges of gasifying lignite and bituminous coal were found to be 1.5–2.0 and 1.3–1.75, respectively. The product gas flow was proportional to oxygen blast. These are expected to provide useful guidance on practical underground coal gasification operations and to give experimental evidence in support of theory.

Yong Cui; Jie Liang; Zhangqing Wang; Xiaochun Zhang; Chenzi Fan; Dongyu Liang; Xuan Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Characterization of Liquids Derived From Laboratory Coking of Decant Oil and Co-Coking of Pittsburgh Seam Bituminous Coal with Decant Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(41-43) Co-coking of decant oil/coal blend produced higher coke and gas yields but less liquid product than those of coking. ... When the same decant oil was blended with the Pittsburgh Seam coal and then delayed co-coked, the overhead liquid contained 2.1% gasoline, 3.6% jet fuel, 4.6% diesel, and 88.8% fuel oil on average. ... It is also possible that catalytic cracking reactions may occur via the coal mineral matter (e.g., clays, which are abundant minerals in coals, can serve as cracking catalysts) (Table 1). ...

Ömer Gül; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

108

EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

None

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

A study of pyrolysis of Texas lignites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating Values. 15 8 Tar Composition g Coal Properties, . 10 Theoretical Gasification Results 11 Chromatograph Program. Pa&ac 17 26 27 28 44 46 47 48 50 51 56 INTRODUCTION As national interest develops 1n fuels other than oil and natural... gasification of the lignite in-situ. The Soviet Union has studied this method and has built several facilities to burn lignite underground. The gases produced from this process are used to prov1de power for a steel m111 in the Urals. At various times 2...

Clark, Robert A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

110

Extraction of Lignite Coal Fly Ash for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Modified and Unmodified Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Enhanced-Fluidity Solvents, and Accelerated Solvent Extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......7440-44-0 Carbon | Carbon analysis chemistry Coal analysis Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...Hydrocarbons, Aromatic analysis chemistry Industrial Waste analysis Particulate...particles on the interaction of coal combustion stack ash with organic matter......

Donald V. Kenny; Susan V. Olesik

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012 Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 31. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Coal-Producing State Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Anthracite Total Alabama 106.57 - - - 106.57 Alaska - w - - w Arizona w - - - w Arkansas w - - - w Colorado w w - - 37.54 Illinois 53.08 - - - 53.08 Indiana 52.01 - - - 52.01 Kentucky Total 63.12 - - - 63.12 Kentucky (East) 75.62 - - - 75.62 Kentucky (West) 48.67 - - - 48.67 Louisiana - - w - w Maryland 55.67 - - - 55.67 Mississippi - - w - w Missouri w - - - w Montana w 17.60 w - 18.11 New Mexico w w - - 36.74 North Dakota - - 17.40 - 17.40 Ohio 47.80 - - - 47.80 Oklahoma 59.63 - - - 59.63 Pennsylvania Total 72.57

112

China Energy Databook - Rev. 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lignite Hydropower f Uranium U Unless otherwise noted, "reserves"Reserves * for Selected Countries Coal (Mt) Bituminous & Subbituminous Crude Oil Natural Gas Hydropower f Uranium H & Lignite (

Sinton Editor, J.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

NETL: News Release - More Electricity, Lower Emissions from Lignite Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

25, 2004 25, 2004 More Electricity, Lower Emissions from Lignite Plants Are Goals of New Clean Coal Project Fuel Enhancement System Expected to Boost Generating Capacities WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham today announced the testing of the Lignite Fuel Enhancement System, a new process that could dramatically reduce air emissions from certain coal-based power plants while boosting overall generating capacity. The project, conducted by Great River Energy, is expected to boost the generating capacity and efficiency of power plants that burn high-moisture lignite coal, thereby reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The new technology uses waste heat to dry nearly a quarter of the moisture in the coal before it is fed into the power plant boiler.

114

The use of NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute has conducted a study of different methods of coal drying as pretreatment steps before liquefaction. The objectives of this study were to develop a combined chemical dehydration/nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for measuring the moisture content of coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during drying, and to determine the effects of different drying methods on liquefaction reactivity of coals. Different methods of drying were investigated to determine whether coal drying can be accomplished without reducing the reactivity of coals toward liquefaction. Drying methods included thermal, microwave, and chemical dehydration. Coals of rank lignite to high volatile bituminous were studied. Coals that were dried or partially dried thermally and with microwaves had lower liquefaction conversions than coals containing equilibrium moisture contents. However, chemically dried coals had conversions equal to or greater than the premoisturized coals. The conversion behavior is consistent with changes in the physical structure and cross linking reactions because of drying. Thermal and microwave drying appear to cause a collapse in the pore structure, thus preventing donor solvents such as tetralin from contacting reactive sites inside the coals. Chemical dehydration does not appear to collapse the pore structure. These results are supported by the solvent swelling measurements in which the swelling ratios of thermally dried and microwave-dried coals were lower than those of premoisturized coals, indicating a greater degree of cross linking in the dried coals. The swelling ratios of the chemically dried coals were greater than those of the premoisturized coals because the pore structure remaining unchanged or increased when water was removed. These results are consistent with the NMR results, which did not show significant changes in coal chemical structure.

Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Wallace, J.C. Jr.; Butcher, C.H.; Mitzel, J.M.; Turner, T.F.; Hurtubise, R.J.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Evolution of Organic Sulfur in the Thermal Upgrading Process of Shengli Lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite the low price and rich reserves, lignite has not been widely used because of the problems in spontaneous combustion and difficulties in transportation and storage. ... Lignite in China, mainly distributed in the Inner Mongolia and Yunnan province, occupies about 13% of the total coal resource reserve. ... Koca, H.; Koca, H.; Kockar, O. M.Upgrading of Kutahya region lignites by mild pyrolysis and high intensity dry magnetic separation Miner. ...

Dong Li; Cheng Zhang; Ji Xia; Peng Tan; Li Yang; Gang Chen

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

ZINC CHLORIDE-CATALYZED REACTIONS OF OXYGEN- AND SULFUR-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WITH MODEL STRUCTURES IN COAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. H. , ed. , "Chemistry of Coal Utilization", Suppl. Vol. ,H. H. , ed. , "Chemistry of Coal Utilization", Suppl. Vol. ,Internat. Conf. Bituminous Coal, 3d Con£. , 2, 35 (1932);

Mobley, David Paul

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

THE CHEMISTRY OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS -CLEAVAGE OF ALIPHATIC BRIDGES BETWEEN AROMATIC NUCLEI CATALYSED BY LEWIS ACIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Background I. II. III. IV. II. Coal Liquefaction . •Coal Structure • • . Lewis Acid Catalysts. Scope andOrganic Structure of Bituminous Coal", Proceedings, Stanford

Taylor, Newell D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Lignite industry in Greece within a world context: Mining, energy supply and environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Today coal covers 38% of global production and roughly 30% of the EU-25 power output. In 2005 domestic lignite with a share of 60.5% in power generation and accounting about 30% of primary energy consumption is currently the most important indigenous fuel of Greece. Greece, mining 70 Mt annually, is the second lignite producer in the EU and fourth in the world. Approximately 97% of the lignite used to supply the existing lignite-fired power plants of Greece is mined by Public Power Corporation S.A. (PPC). Lignite as the base load fuel gives a competitive strength in PPC's and Greece's fuel mix. Due to lignite consumer prices in Greece are significantly below those in other comparable markets in EU-15. Extraction of lignite has a very long tradition. Significant achievements and large experience which has been gained during many years of mining operations place Greek lignite-mining industry in the leading position in Europe. The paper presents current state of Greek lignite industry, including operating mines, volume of production and other important production indicators as well as improvements in labor productivity and good results in industrial safety. The future of coal and specifically of Greek lignite will be crucially determined by environmentally compatible, i.e. low-CO2 generation of electricity. Investment in modernization and renewal of the power plant fleet are the key to securing electricity supply and progress in preventing climate change.

Konstantinos Kavouridis

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Preliminary Study on Design of Longwall Mining from Final Highwall at Mae Moh Lignite Mine in Thailand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The EGAT Mae Moh lignite mine is the largest open-pit coal ... in Thailand. The total geological and economical reserves of Mae Moh coal field are approximately...FLAC 3D producted by...

Shitoku Shibata; Nay Zarlin; Hideki Shimada…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Feasibility Studies of the Sequential Dewatering/Dry Separation of Chinese Lignite in a Vibration Fluidized-Bed Dryer: Effect of Physical Parameters and Operation Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite is an abundant raw energy material that is considered as a major component of global coal reserves. ... The process is being investigated as a means of lowering greenhouse gas emissions from existing lignite fired power stations by reducing the moisture content of lignites. ...

Pengfei Zhao; Yuemin Zhao; Zhenfu Luo; Zengqiang Chen; Chenlong Duan; Shulei Song; Liang Dong

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Formation Mechanism of Slag during Fluid-bed Gasification of Lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite is abundant and makes up approximately 40% of coal reserves in the world. ... Alkalies in lignites (principally Na) were volatilized and reacted with either SO2, to form sulfates, or with clay minerals (principally kaolinite) to form aluminosilicate slag droplets. ...

Fenghai Li; Jiejie Huang; Yitian Fang; Yang Wang

2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

122

Effect of co-precipitation and impregnation on K-decorated Fe2O3/Al2O3 oxygen carrier in Chemical Looping Combustion of bituminous coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) of coal is an innovative combustion technology for CO2 inherent capture, which uses oxygen carrier (OC) to transfer lattice oxygen to coal. However, coal gasification is the rate-limiting process for CLC of coal. Although carbon conversion and gasification rate are substantially improved with oxygen carriers in the presence of alkali additives, alkali loss in oxygen carrier is still a serious problem in the process of CLC of coal. The present work focuses on the OC–potassium interaction for two preparation methods of K-decorated OC. Different contents of catalyst (K2CO3) were added into the preparation of Fe-based oxygen carrier by both co-precipitation and impregnation. And the effect of K-decorated methods on oxygen carriers was investigated in a fluidized bed reactor. For co-precipitated oxygen carriers, CO2 gas yields (fCO2) were higher and CO gas yields (fCO) were lower than the ones for impregnated oxygen carriers. Total carbon conversions for co-precipitated oxygen carriers were also higher than those for impregnated oxygen carriers, and a shorter time of fast reaction stage always corresponded to co-precipitated oxygen carrier. 9 redox cycles were also conducted to investigate the stability of oxygen carrier reactivity and the potassium loss with cycle number. It was concluded that the reactivity of co-precipitated oxygen carriers was more stable during 9 redox cycles. Especially for K10-cp (oxygen carriers of 10% potassium content by co-precipitation), fCO2 increased slightly and fCO changed very little with cycle number. According to morphological features of oxygen carriers, co-precipitation was superior to impregnation in preventing oxygen carrier particle sintering. On the other hand, although potassium contents of all K-decorated oxygen carriers decreased with cycle number, the potassium loss for co-precipitated oxygen carriers was smaller. K10-cp performed the best characteristic in avoiding potassium loss: the potassium content decreased from 8.47% (fresh oxygen carrier) to 7.79% (after 9 cycles). X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis showed that the potassium ferrite, K2Fe22O34, was presented in K-decorated oxygen carriers. Based on the peak intensity ratio of I K 2 Fe 22 O 34 / I Fe 2 O 3 , the higher the content of \\{K2Fe22O34\\} in K-decorated Fe2O3/Al2O3 oxygen carrier was, the larger the conversion of CO to CO2 was, and the shorter the time of fast reaction stage was. Therefore, it was inferred that \\{K2Fe22O34\\} acted as a support with catalytic effect. In addition, the content of \\{K2Fe22O34\\} was higher in co-precipitated oxygen carriers than that in impregnation oxygen carriers. It can be used to explain that why a better reactivity was always found for co-precipitated oxygen carriers.

Huijun Ge; Laihong Shen; Haiming Gu; Shouxi Jiang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2012" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Bituminous",,"Subbituminous",,"Lignite",,"Anthracite",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Number...

124

Production of Oil from Coal in Germany  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... British Commonwealth there are cheaper supplies of coal than in Great Britain, as well as reserves of brown coal and ... of brown coal and lignite. Dr. Parker stated that bombing attacks between May and September 1944 caused a reduction ...

1947-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Roles of inherent mineral matters for lignite water slurry electrolysis in H2SO4 system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To understand roles of inherent mineral matters in lignite water slurry (LWS) electrolysis, lignite and demineralized lignite electrolyses were carried out in H2SO4 system. The results showed that cell voltage for LWS electrolysis was lower than that for demineralized lignite water slurry (DLWS) under constant current condition. Some inherent mineral matters changed into the corresponding metal ions which entered into electrolyte, and thus improved the electrolysis oxidation reactions for coal organic structure. Meanwhile, the relative amount of O-containing functional groups in demineralized lignite increased with electrolysis time, improving its pyrolysis reactivity. However, the pyrolysis reactivity of raw lignite decreased due to the removal of the inherent mineral matters from electrolysis.

Xuzhong Gong; Mingyong Wang; Zhi Wang; ZhanCheng Guo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Investigation on the sintering behaviors of low-temperature lignite ashes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The amount of lignite resource is over 1,290 million tons ... for 12.7 % of the total coal reserves in China. Traditionally, it is mainly...1]. Gasification, a promising technology for dealing with the commercial...

Shaohua Ji; Fenghai Li; Tao Wang; Zhenzhu Li…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The Acid Lakes of Lignite Mining District of the former German Democratic Republic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Large areas of central and eastern Europe have reserves of hard and brown coal. The map ... Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic. The reserves of lignite in Germany with 56 x 109 tons ... output correspond to 1...

M. Schultze; W. Geller

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Interlaboratory comparisons of petrography of liquefaction residues from three Argonne premium coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three Argonne Premium coal samples, the Beulah-Zap lignite (North Dakota), the high volatile A bituminous Stockton (West Virginia), and the low volatile Pocahontas No. 3 Virginia), were ground to three initial sizes: ?20 mesh, ?100 mesh, and “micronized”. The samples were each subjected to liquefaction at 673 K for 30 min at a 2:1 tetralin: coal ratio and in an H2 atmosphere at 13.79 \\{MPa\\} (?2000 psi). Polished pellets of the uncoverted residues were circulated to three laboratories for a study designed to determine, albeit on a limited scale, the interlaboratory consistency in constituent identification and the problem areas in maceral/neo-maceral/mineral recognition. Within broad categories, the agreement for the Beulah-Zap and Pocahontas No. 3 residues is good. The high volatile A bituminous Stockton coal was the most plastic and most altered, resulting in a residue lending itself to more subjective interpretations. The biggest discrepancy between the laboratories is in the distinction of granular residue and mineral matter and in the transitions between “partially reacted macerals” and “vitroplast” and between “vitroplast” and “granular residue”. The initial size of the feed coal appears to influence the recognition of material in the residue.

James C. Hower; Ken B. Anderson; Glenda Mackay; Henrique Pinheiro; Deolinda Flores; Manuel J. Lemos de Sousa

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Study of mercury oxidation by a selective catalytic reduction catalyst in a pilot-scale slipstream reactor at a utility boiler burning bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the cost-effective mercury control technologies in coal-fired power plants is the enhanced oxidation of elemental mercury in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) followed by the capture of the oxidized mercury in the wet scrubber. This paper is the first in a series of two in which the validation of the SCR slipstream test and Hg speciation variation in runs with or without SCR catalysts inside the SCR slipstream reactor under special gas additions (HCl, Cl{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 3}) are presented. Tests indicate that the use of a catalyst in a SCR slipstream reactor can achieve greater than 90% NO reduction efficiency with a NH{sub 3}/NO ratio of about 1. There is no evidence to show that the reactor material affects mercury speciation. Both SCR catalysts used in this study exhibited a catalytic effect on the elemental mercury oxidation but had no apparent adsorption effect. SCR catalyst 2 seemed more sensitive to the operational temperature. The spike gas tests indicated that HCl can promote Hg{sup 0} oxidation but not Cl{sub 2}. The effect of Cl{sub 2} on mercury oxidation may be inhibited by higher concentrations of SO{sub 2}, NO, or H{sub 2}O in real flue-gas atmospheres within the typical SCR temperature range (300-350{sup o}C). SO{sub 2} seemed to inhibit mercury oxidation; however, SO{sub 3} may have some effect on the promotion of mercury oxidation in runs with or without SCR catalysts. 25 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Yan Cao; Bobby Chen; Jiang Wu; Hong Cui; John Smith; Chi-Kuan Chen; Paul Chu; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Geochemistry of coal from Cretaceous Corwin and Chandler formations, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ninety coal samples from these formations within NPRA were collected and analyzed in order to evaluate coal quality and elemental distribution. Their apparent rank ranges from lignite A in the northern part of NPRA to high-volatile AS bituminous coal in the southern part. Mean vitrinite reflectance values range from 0.65 to 0.74%. Some Corwin Formation coal samples west of NPRA have coking potential with free-swelling indexes between 3.0 and 5.0. Compared to other western United States Cretaceous coal, NPRA coal is significantly lower in ash, volatile matter, O, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Ti, Cu, F, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, and Zn. Statistical comparisons of element concentrations indicate that the mean content of Si, Al, K, Li, Sc, Y, and Yb increases as the mean ash content increases (correlation coefficient at least 0.7). Sulfur values are extremely low (0.1%), and elements that normally show positive correlation with sulfur, such as Fe, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn, are also low. Therefore, coal from NPRA can be characterized by low ash and sulfur contents and low contents of elements of environmental concern, such as As, Be, Hg, Mo, Sb, and Se. The elements found to have positive correlations with ash content are probably present as aluminosilicate or stable oxide minerals. Variations in element content and quality of NPRA coal were probably influenced by the geochemical conditions that existed in the Corwin and Umiat delta systems.

Affolter, R.H.; Stricker, G.D.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

The structural alignment of coal and the analogous case of Argonne Upper Freeport coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has long been recognized that coal is somewhat aligned. Multiple techniques imply a structural alignment but its quantification has been challenging. Moreover, discrepancies exist among techniques as to whether low-rank coals are aligned. The extent of structural alignment for the rank range was quantified directly via image analysis of high-resolution transmission electron micrograph lattice fringes. Alignment was quantified, for each coal, by the contribution to the total fringe length within the prominent 45° of orientation over random orientation (1/4 of the possible orientations). It was evident that there is structural alignment across the rank range. Thus it is time for the community to desist from making the erroneous statement that: low-rank coals are randomly oriented. The slight orientation was similar for low-rank Beulah-Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coals (24% and 22%) with Pocahontas (lvb) coal showing slightly greater (39%) alignment with extensive alignment (65%) in the case of an anthracite coal. The degree of ordering is illustrated with the aid of false-color lattice fringe images and Rose diagrams. The fringe contribution 90° opposed to the maximum length contribution had the minimum or near minimum percentage length contribution for all coals except Upper Freeport and to a lesser degree Illinois No. 6. For the Upper Freeport coal the alignment is lower than expected given its mvb rank (14% over random) and is attributed to a variant of T-stacking for the small aromatic moieties sited perpendicular and between horizontal displaced fringes.

Jonathan P. Mathews; Atul Sharma

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......CFPPs installed in Turkey uses lignite, the catalagz CFPP uses the...basin, Turkey. The total reserve of the basin is estimated as...contents in feed coals from lignite-fired power plants in Western...equilibrium in the ashes produced in lignite-fired power plants. J......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Coal distribution, January-June 1985. [USA; January-June; 1981 to 1985; producing district; destination; transport means  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Energy Information Administration (EIA) report continues the quarterly series on coal distribution started in 1957 by the Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, as a Mineral Industry Survey, Distribution of Bituminous Coal and Lignite Shipments. The publication provides volume data on coal distribution by coal-producing district of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination necessary for EIA to fulfill its data colletion functions as authorized by the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974. All data for 1985 in this report are preliminary. Data for 1981-1984 are final. Coal shipments from mines in Appalachia were 10.2% lower, while shipments from western mines were up by 13.7%, reaching a record 6-month high. Export shipments moved ahead of their 1984 pace by 9.2% despite a 27.0% decline in shipments to Canada. Texas expanded its lead as the Nation's top State to receive coal, and North Dakota experienced an upsurge in coal receipts due to the startup of the Great Plains coal gasification project. Coal production and purchases totaled 438.4 million short tons, 2.2% below last year's level. 6 figs., 33 tabs.

McNair, M.B.

1985-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

134

SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR-ASSISTED SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 66.1% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

System Analysis of Nuclear-Assisted Syngas Production from Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via hightemperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Liquefaction of coal in a petroleum fraction under mild conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental studies on a mild coal liquefaction process for extending the petroleum fuel supply are presented. In this process, coal is dissolved in bottoms from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), a thermally stable, highly aromatic refinery stream, without added hydrogen and under mild conditions. After ash removal, the product mixture of coal liquid and FCC bottoms is a pumpable fluid and can be used as a boiler fuel. Further upgrading to turbine fuel may be possible. At 600–800°F, 0.1 to 5 h, and 0–1000 psig, conversion of a bituminous coal to pyridine soluble, gas and water was about 90%, while that of lignite was about 60%. Improved product quality was favored by increased reaction pressure. The operable solvent to coal ratio can be as low as 1.3. This ratio can be further reduced if provisions are made to recycle part of the solvent. However, the efficiency of the recovered solvent decreases with each recycle due to a gradual replacement of labile ? hydrogen by ? hydrogen.

T.Y. Yan; W.F. Espenscheid

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Weighted Average Cost of Fossil Fuels for the Electric Power Industry, 2002 through 2012 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Fossil Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite All Coal Ranks...

138

Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 3.5 wt % ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt % ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated subbituminous coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent. The study of bottoms processing consists of combining the ASCOT process which consists of coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking to maximize the production of coal-derived liquids while rejecting solids within the coke drum. The asphalt production phase has been completed; representative product has been evaluated. The solvent system for the deasphalting process has been established. Two ASCOT tests produced overall liquid yields (63.3 wt % and 61.5 wt %) that exceeded the combined liquid yields from the vacuum tower and ROSE process.

Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., (United States); Gutterman, C. [FWDC (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

FRAGMENTATION OF COAL AND IMPROVED DISPERSION OF LIQUEFACTION CATALYSTS USING IONIC LIQUIDS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal has been utilized for coal-to-liquid fuels and coal-to-chemical industries both historically in South Africa and recently in China. Abundant bituminous and low-rank coal reserves… (more)

Cetiner, Ruveyda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and P. Fugassi, Phenanthrene Extraction of Bituminous Coal,Coal Science, Advances in Chemistry Series No. 55, 448 C.Mechanism of High Volatile Coal, Coal Science, Advances in

Dorighi, G.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Estimation of lignite reserve in the Kalburcayiri field, Kangal basin, Sivas, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper addresses a case study on global estimation of lignite reserve in the Kalburcayiri field from the Sivas–Kangal basin, which is one of the most productive lignite basins in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The two lignite seams, which were developed in a fresh-water lacustrine depositional environment during the Pliocene time, are currently being exploited in the Kalburcayiri open-cast mine for feed coal to a power plant with 300-MW capacity. Tonnage, thickness and quality parameters (ash yield, total sulphur content, and calorific value) of the lignite are variables considered in this study. The global estimates of these variables together with 95% confidence limits are obtained using the approximation principle of global estimation. A random stratified grid is fitted to available boreholes; the variograms for thickness and lignite quality parameters are estimated and modeled. The models are used in calculating estimation error variances that will later be used in constructing 95% confidence intervals for the true values.

A.Erhan Tercan; Ali Ihsan Karayigit

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The washability of lignites for clay removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Lignite resources of Turkey: Geology, reserves, and exploration history  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This article aims to emphasize the importance of lignite, which is the mostly used domestic energy source in the Turkish energy mix, by briefly overviewing its geology, reserves, and exploration. Lignites are distributed in mostly continental sedimentary basins of Tertiary age all over the country. The lignite-bearing basins display the characteristics of different geological settings, of which grabens and half-grabens are the most common ones especially in western Anatolia. The geological and chemical characteristics of Turkish lignites do not only create some important problems during mining and coal preparation but also make them unfavorable for consumption. However, since they are the most valuable energy resource of the country they should benefit the economy in the most efficient and environmentally friendly way. Moreover, two most important conclusions of this study are as follows: firstly, reserve estimation practices in the country should definitely be revised to provide a more realistic evaluation of the country's lignite potential for developing medium- and long-term energy strategies and policies for decision- and policy-makers. Secondly, exploration and development activities should be coordinated by a single institution, most likely a government institution, as has been the case for some 50 years.

Volkan ?. Ediger; Istemi Berk; Ayhan Kösebalaban

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

The stratigraphy and environment of deposition of the Wilcox lignite deposit south of Hallsville, Harrison County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the resistivity log signatures. 102 Pocket Geologic Map INTRODUCTION As the United States oil and gas reserves decline, lignite will assume an increasingly greater role in meeting our rising energy de- mands. Although coal has contributed significantly... to the resistivity log signatures. 102 Pocket Geologic Map INTRODUCTION As the United States oil and gas reserves decline, lignite will assume an increasingly greater role in meeting our rising energy de- mands. Although coal has contributed significantly...

Watson, Joseph Quealy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

146

Flue Gas Emissions from the Burning of Asphaltite and Lignite in a Rotating Head Combustor with Secondary Air Delivery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1, 2) In this context, Turkey is rich in coal reserves, and it is among the biggest coal producers in the world with a production of about 76 million tons (Mt) in 2011, and a large portion of this production is lignite. ... (5) Turkey has also a high asphaltite reserve, which is mostly found in the southeastern part of Anatolia and used around the region for domestic heating. ... Modeling of NOx emissions from fluidized Bed combustion of high volatile lignites ...

Cengiz Öner; ?ehmus Altun

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ILLINOIS COAL ENTRY INTO THE TRANSPORTATION MARKET.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??High oil prices and nationalist desires to reduce foreign dependency create opportunities for Illinois bituminous coal to be involved in the transportation market. Using Illinois… (more)

Starkey, Darin Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Photochemical Dissolution of Turkish Lignites in Tetralin at Different Irradiation Power and Reaction Times  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of the power of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubles yield (the total soluble product) and the soluble product distribution of the dissolution of Turkish lignites (Beypazar? and Tunçbilek lignite) in tetralin at ambient temperatures has been investigated. ... Among them, coal has received special attention because of its large proven reserves as well as the similarity between the products obtained by its processing and crude oil. ...

F. Karacan; T. To?rul

2007-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

149

Ash Quality of a Beneficiated Lignite from Ptolemais Basin, Northern Greece  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash Quality of a Beneficiated Lignite from Ptolemais Basin, Northern Greece ... Knowing that oil and gas reserves are diminishing very fast, the beneficiation of coals is of most importance, since this energy source is widely distributed around the world. ... The present research was carried in collaboration with Public Power Corporation of Greece, which simultaneously conducted pilot plant tests for beneficiating Greek lignites, using the TRI-FLO technique. ...

D. Vamvuka; E. Mistakidou; S. Drakonaki; A. Foscolos; K. Kavouridis

2001-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

150

Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank The Argonne Premium Coal (APC) Sample Bank can supply  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The sample bank consists of eight coals, including lignite, subbituminous coal, high volatile, medium by a variety of techniques. Five-gallon carboys hold about 80% of the batch in reserve for filling more

Maranas, Costas

151

Rapid Coal Analysis. Part II: Slurry Atomization DCP Emission Analysis of NBS Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A McCrone Micronising Mill is used to wet grind NBS bituminous coal to a median particle diameter of 5.7 ?m within 10 min. The finely divided coal slurry is immediately nebulized...

McCurdy, D L; Wichman, M D; Fry, R C

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Investigation of the Gasification Performance of Lignite Feedstock and the Injection Design of a Cross-Type Two-Stage Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of the Gasification Performance of Lignite Feedstock and the Injection Design of a Cross-Type Two-Stage Gasifier ... Compared to the other fossil-fuel resources such as crude oil and natural gas, coal has the largest reserves and least expensive price for producing electricity. ... Since the feedstock price per unit syngas energy is cheaper for lignites, gasifying lignites is attractive for electricity production. ...

Yau-Pin Chyou; Ming-Hong Chen; Yan-Tsan Luan; Ting Wang

2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

153

Solvent–Coal–Mineral Interaction during Solvent Extraction of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solvent extraction of Poplar lignite coal was studied with three model solvents (tetralin, quinoline, and 1-naphtol) and one industrial coal liquid derived solvent. ... Thanks to its wide distribution and large reserves, coal is a feasible local substitute feed material for conventional crude oil in many countries. ... Physical dissolution dominates at lower temperature, around 200 °C and lower temperatures for lignites; the role of the solvent is to relax the coal matrix and drag soluble molecules from the coal into the bulk solvent phase. ...

Mariangel Rivolta Hernández; Carolina Figueroa Murcia; Rajender Gupta; Arno de Klerk

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

154

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

Not Available

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

155

Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500 deg. C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

Park, Sang-Woo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Cheol-Hyeon, E-mail: jangch@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

System analysis of nuclear-assisted syngas production from coal - article no. 042901  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. The results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

Harvego, E.A.; McKellar, M.G.; O'Brien, J.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 247 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Western Region of the United States. Although the Western Region includes Alaska, coal data from this state will often be cited apart from the Western Region data from the lower United States. This is the third of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties, and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Western Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, rank, and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 3 tabs.

Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Resource targets for advanced underground coal-extraction systems. [Identification of location and geology of deposit for which greatest savings can be realized by advanced mining systems in 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report identifies resource targets appropriate for federal sponsorship of research and development of advanced underground coal mining systems. In contrast to previous research, which focused on a particular resource type, this study made a comprehensive examination of both conventional and unconventional coals, with particular attention to exceptionally thin and thick seams, steeply dipping beds, and multiple seam geometry. The major thrust of the targeting analysis was forecasting which coals would be of clear commercial significance at the beginning of the 21st century under three widely different scenarios for coal demand. The primary measure of commercial importance was an estimate of the aggregate dollar savings realized by consumers if advanced technology were available to mine coal at prices at or below the price projected for conventional technology in the year 2000. Both deterministic and probabilistic savings estimates were prepared for each demand scenario. The results indicate that the resource of primary importance is flat-lying bituminous coal of moderate thickness, under moderate cover, and located within the lower 48 states. Resources of secondary importance are the flat-lying multiple seams and thin seams (especially those in Appalachia). The rather substantial deposits of bituminous coal in North Alaska and the deeply buried lignites of the Gulf Coast present transportation and ground control problems which appear to postpone their commercial importance well beyond 2000. Steeply dipping coals, abandoned pillars, and exceptionally thick western coals may be important in some regions or sub-regions, but the limited tonnage available places them in a position of tertiary importance.

Hoag, J.H.; Whipple, D.W.; Habib-Agahi, H.; Lavin, M.L.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The modifications of the existing bench scale reactor were completed in order to use it in the next phase of the project. In Phase II, the optimum looping medium was selected, and bench scale demonstrations were completed using them. Different types of coal char such as those obtained from bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite were tested. Modifications were made on the existing sub-pilot scale unit for coal injection. Phase III focused on integrated CDCL demonstration in the sub-pilot scale unit. A comprehensive ASPEN® simulations and economic analysis was completed by CONSOL t is expected that the CDCL process will be ready for further demonstrations in a scale up unit upon completion of the proposed project.

Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

160

Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry Feed for Pressurized Gasifiers: Slurry Preparation System Characterization and Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gasification-based plants with coal-CO[subscript 2] slurry feed are predicted to be more efficient than those with coal-water slurry feed. This is particularly true for high moisture, low rank coal such as lignite. ...

Botero, Cristina

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Chemicals from Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Mas-sachusetts Institute of Technology, 1974; J. B. Howard...Petras, in Coal Pro-cessing Technology (American Institute of Chem-ical...with the solidifcation of a fluid bituminous coal as it undergoes...Policy Analyst, Science and Technology Policy Office (Staff to the...

Arthur M. Squires

1976-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

162

A kinetic model for the liquefaction of Texas lignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-basin lig- nite is in situ comminution or liquefaction in which a solvent is pumped into the coal seam producing a high Btu liquid product. The shallow basin lignite can be strip-mined and converted to transportation fuels and chemicals by additional... taking product samples at the reaction temperature and pressure and extracting the sample with benzene and n-hexane to form three portions. Vacuum distillation was used to separate the hexane-soluble portion into two parts: the light oils and the coal...

Haley, Sandra Kay

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Problems of Expanding Coal Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...metallurgical or coking coal marketed widely here and abroad. Appalachian coal generally has a high...are characteristic of Appalachia, al-though there has also been extensive strip mining including destructive...Mid-western bituminous coal has a large market as...

John Walsh

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

164

Reclamation planning and operation at the Mae Moh Lignite Mine, Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mae Moh Mine is a large open cut lignite mine situated in Northern Thailand. The mine produces lignite for coal fired power stations located adjacent to the mine. Current mine production is approximately 9 Mtpa providing lignite to eight power stations with a total output of 1,125 MW. The power development plan for Mae Moh provides for 19 power stations by the year 1999 which will require lignite production to be increased to 30.5 Mtpa and overburden will be mined at a rate approaching 300 Mtpa. Environmental management and reclamation planning at Mae Moh are major issues due to water quality impact and land use conflicts. This paper presents the key elements of the reclamation master plan and works strategy for progressive reclamation and water pollution control.

Miller, S.D. [Stuart D. Miller & Associates, Balmain (Australia); Teparat, C. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Mae Moh (Thailand)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

165

Impacts of Inherent O-Containing Functional Groups on the Surface Properties of Shengli Lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

MHC was successfully correlated with the presence of O-containing functional groups and the quantity of surface area without oxygen groups, as follows: MHC = 2.655[?COOH] + 2.912[?OH] + 0.209[?OCH3] – 3.321Snon-O + 1.341, where Snon-O for the lignite is defined as Snon-O = Si(1 – Ci/C0), where Si is the surface area of the lignite and Ci and C0 are the total contents of O-containing functional groups in the heat-treatment or as-received lignites. ... The use of abundant lignite deposits has become increasingly important as the minable reserves of high-rank coal in China are rapidly becoming depleted with the development of more advanced emission control technologies. ...

Yonggang Wang; Jianlin Zhou; Lei Bai; Yanju Chen; Shu Zhang; Xiongchao Lin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Chemical comminution of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the present research is to study the chemical reactivity of a mixture of methyl alcohol and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in the temperature range 298 to 363 K, and a caustic concentration of 0 to 10 wt. %, on an Iowa bituminous coal. The sample studied was collected from coal zone 4, equivalent to most historical references to Laddsdale coal. The coals in this zone are typical high-sulfur, high-ash middle Pennsylvania Cherokee group coals. The apparent rank is high-volatile C bituminous coal. The relatively high content of sulfur and 23 other elements in these coals is related to near neutral (6-8) pH conditions in the depositional and early diagenetic environments, and to postdepositional sphalerite/calcite/pyrite/kaolinite/barite mineralization.

Mamaghani, A.H.; Beddow, J.K.; Vetter, A.F.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lb for anthracite. The reserves of lignite on a weight basisand reserves. Typical energy contents of coal range from about 7,000 for ligniteReserves of the United States, 1974 (Billion Tons). Underground Surface Total Energy Value (Quads) Subbituminous Lignite

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Iron Transformation and Ash Fusibility during Coal Combustion in Air and O2/CO2 Medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) The successful design and operation of oxy-fired pulverized coal boilers require comprehensive knowledge of ash deposition characteristics, which have a major impact on the safety and economic performance of the boilers. ... Two bituminous coals (Utah coal and Illinois coal) and one sub-bituminous coal (PRB coal) were burned on a down-fired combustor under both oxy- and air-firing. ...

Dunxi Yu; Liang Zhao; Zuoyong Zhang; Chang Wen; Minghou Xu; Hong Yao

2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

169

Application of TG–FTIR to the determination of organic oxygen and its speciation in the Argonne premium coal samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During rapid pyrolysis of coal, TG–FTIR (thermogravimetry – Fourier transform infrared) technique can be effectively used to simultaneously detect and measure the three main O-containing gases, namely H2O, CO and CO2. Their sum corresponds to the quantitative amount of oxygen in the coal and is, in general, inherently more accurate than the ‘by-difference’ values. In this paper, we first attempt to relate the ‘by-difference’ values for %O reported for the Argonne premium coal samples (lignite to bituminous rank) (Argonne Users Handbook) to those determined from a TG–FTIR examination of the pyrolysis gases evolved. Another objective of the work is to relate the pyrolysis gases (H2O, CO and CO2) evolved to oxygen-containing functional groups found in coals as well as the evolution of these functional groups as a function of rank. Correlations are also developed between the TG–FTIR oxygen values and other parameters determined for the Argonne Premium Coals. In particular, comparisons of our results using TG–FTIR with analyses carried out by other workers on functional group analysis of acidic groups are considered.

J.A. MacPhee; J.-P. Charland; L. Giroux

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Co-gasification of Biomass and Non-biomass Feedstocks: Synergistic and Inhibition Effects of Switchgrass Mixed with Sub-bituminous Coal and Fluid Coke During CO2 Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-gasification of biomass, namely, switchgrass, with coal and fluid coke was performed to investigate the availability of the gasification catalysts to the mixed feedstock, especially alkali and alkaline earth elements, naturally present on switchgrass. ...

Rozita Habibi; Jan Kopyscinski; Mohammad S. Masnadi; Jill Lam; John R. Grace; Charles A. Mims; Josephine M. Hill

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

171

Determination of performance characteristics of a one-cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu (lignite) gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

d = standard deviation INTRODUCTION The United States' vast lignite reserves' energy po- tential, while not commanding the public interest as much as the more "exotic" forms of energy conversion (solar, geothermal, wave energy, etc. ), has been... viewed with in- creasing interest by the technical community. Although a tremendous amount of energy is totalled in this country' s lignite coal reserves (Texas deposits alone are estimated at 100 billion tons [1] ), the energy is low-grade; i. e...

Blacksmith, James Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

172

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Notes Radioactivity of coals and ashes from catalagzi coal-fired...radioactivity contents in feed coals from lignite-fired power plants...Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report. 14 Aytekin...influence of an underground coal mine in Zonguldak basin, Turkey......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Production of Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids from Lignite by Alkali-Oxygen Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production of Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids from Lignite by Alkali-Oxygen Oxidation ... The oxidation of coal to produce high-valued benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), which are obtained currently from diminishing petroleum reserves, is a promising industrial process of the future. ...

Wenhua Wang; Yucui Hou; Weize Wu; Muge Niu; Weina Liu

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

174

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

Garrard, C. W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

177

Adsorption Behavior of CO2 in Coal and Coal Char  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coals of diverse characteristics have been chosen to provide a better understanding on the influence of various coal properties, such as maceral, volatile matter, and ash contents. ... In addition, char samples from two of these coals (a non-coking coal A and a coking coal B) were prepared by pyrolysis at 800 and 1000 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere and were tested for CO2 adsorption capacity. ... As stated earlier, virgin coal samples considered for the adsorption measurements include coals A, C, and D, which are of low-, high-, and medium-volatile sub-bituminous rank, respectively. ...

Shanmuganathan Ramasamy; Pavan Pramod Sripada; Md Moniruzzaman Khan; Su Tian; Japan Trivedi; Rajender Gupta

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

A compact XRF unit for determining total sulphur content in coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A microcomputer based x-ray fluorescence (XRF) unit was developed for off-line determination of total sulphur content in coal samples. The unit consisted of the x-ray exciting/measuring set and the microcomputer with a plug-in interface card, An Fe-55 radioisotope was used as the exciting source while a krypton-filled proportional counter was used to measure x-rays from the samples. The x-ray spectrum was simultaneously displayed on the microcomputer screen. For quantitative determination of sulphur, the intensities of sulphur K x-rays as well as calcium K x-rays and scattered x-rays were taken into account. The unit was tested with finely-ground, dried and compressed lignite, subbituminous and bituminous samples. It was found that for low-calcium coals the results were in good agreement with those obtained from the standard chemical analysis method within {+-}0.2 %S and within {+-}0.5 %S for high-calcium coals.

Sumitra, T.; Chankow, N.; Punnachaiya, S.; Srisatit, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

179

Pyrolysis of Hailar lignite in an autogenerated steam agent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite is an abundant and relatively inexpensive resource...1...]. China has about 211.8 billion tons-lignite reserve, in which ~200 billion tons are...2, 3]. The characteristics of lignite include low carbon co...

Haojie Gao; Yuezhao Zhu; Feng Fu; Hao Wu…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Experimental Study on Microwave Pyrolysis of an Indonesian Low-Rank Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microwave pyrolysis of an Indonesian lignite is investigated in this study. ... About half of the world’s coal reserves are low-rank coals. ... Considerable amts. of 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-naphthalenone (alpha-tetralone) were found in the oil fractions of lignites treated by microwave energy. ...

Nan Wang; Jianglong Yu; Arash Tahmasebi; Yanna Han; John Lucas; Terry Wall; Yu Jiang

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination with feedwater heating, would result in heat rate reductions of 7.43 percent for PRB coal and 10.45 percent for lignite.

Edward Levy

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

182

LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Design Team continued to conference this quarter. Their primary task during this timeframe was to finalize the dryer design based on information learned from the NDIC Pilot work and detailed design discussions at Barr offices in August. Heyl-Patterson was tasked with incorporating all comments and drafting drawings. They submitted a preliminary proposal which spawned detailed discussions about tube bundle, air locks, and fire suppression systems. The type of fire protection specified dictated the final structural arrangement. Three meetings were spent discussing the pro's and con's of suppression vs. ventilation systems. In the end, the dryer and bucket elevator will have suppression systems and the remaining equipment will be explosion vented. This is in agreement with GRE's current insurer, FM Global. Three inlet airlocks were reduced to two and four outlets were reduced to three. The inlet plenum was subdivided for greater flexibility and sparging air added in the outlet plenum. It was also decided to use bundles with varied material, diameter, and tube & fin spacing. This will be completed in an effort to identify for us which configuration has the best heat transfer characteristics using coal as the fluidizing medium. The dryer will also be delivered in four pieces. This will allow for installation through the current access door on the Air Heater deck. The Input/Output list and functional description was completed and forwarded to Honeywell to finalize controls. Major pieces of equipment received this quarter were the Bucket Elevator, Liewell Screen, conveyors, and Motor Control Center. ICI completed removal of the wall separating Silo 28 from the dryer area; handrail and grating between the two areas has also been removed. They relocated a blowdown line. They moved an Air Heater basket access hatch.

Charles Bullinger

2005-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

183

Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das Department of Civil Engineering IIT Kanpur Introduction The bituminous pavement rehabilitation alternatives are mainly overlaying, recycling and reconstruction. In the recycling process the material from deteriorated pavement, known as reclaimed asphalt

Das, Animesh

184

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Table 7.2 Coal Production, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Rank Mining Method Location Total 1 Bituminous Coal 1 Subbituminous Coal Lignite Anthracite 1...

185

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Table 7.9 Coal Prices, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton) Year Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite 1 Anthracite Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3...

186

Correlation of Paleocene Harmon and Hansen lignite beds, Adams, Billings, Bowman, Golden Valley, Hettinger, and Slope Counties, Williston Basin, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In southwestern North Dakota, minable lignite beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation include the Harmon and Hansen beds in the Bowman-Gascoyne area. Data from more than 700 drill holes penetrating these beds was used to construct stratigraphic cross sections. The Harmon and Hansen beds are the thickest and most laterally persistent lignites found under < 150 ft of overburden. The Harmon coal bed is as much as 34 ft thick, and is often split by claystone interbeds of variable thickness. The Hansen coal bed typically occurs 10--100 ft below the Harmon coal bed; it rarely attains a thickness of 15 ft, and averages 4 ft in thickness.

Keighin, C.W.; Flores, R.M.; Ochs, A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

Coal preparation: The essential clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter is a brief introduction to a broad topic which has many highly specialized areas. The aim is to summarize the essential elements of coal preparation and illustrate its important role in facilitating the clean use of coal. Conventional coal preparation is the essential first step in ensuring the economic and environmentally acceptable use of coal. The aim of coal preparation is to produce saleable products of consistent, specified quality which satisfy customer requirements while optimizing the utilization of the coal resource. Coal preparation covers all aspects of preparing coal for the market. It includes size reduction, blending and homogenization and, most importantly, the process of physical beneficiation or washing, which involves separation of undesirable mineral matter from the coal substance itself. Coal preparation can be performed at different levels of sophistication and cost. The degree of coal preparation required is decided by considering the quality of the raw coal, transport costs and, in particular, the coal quality specified by the consumer. However, the cost of coal beneficiation rises rapidly with the complexity of the process and some coal is lost with the waste matter because of process inefficiencies, therefore each situation requires individual study to determine the optimum coal preparation strategy. The necessary expertise is available within APEC countries such as Australia. Coals destined for iron making are almost always highly beneficiated. Physical beneficiation is mostly confined to the higher rank, hard coals, but all other aspects of coal preparation can be applied to subbituminous and lignitic coals to improve their utilization. Also, there are some interesting developments aimed specifically at reducing the water content of lower rank coals.

Cain, D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

Copyrolysis of Seyitömer?Lignite and Safflower Seed:? Influence of the Blending Ratio and Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Oil Characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of a variety of low-grade coal, as a primary energy source is becoming a subject of importance in some countries, such as Turkey, where there is a substantial reserve of such materials. ... Total lignite reserves are estimated with 8075 million tons, of which 7339 million tons are economically feasible. ... Upgrading of Kutahya region lignites by mild pyrolysis and high intensity dry magnetic separation ...

Özlem Onay; Evren Bayram; Ö. Mete Koçkar

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

189

Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-Wet FGD  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury control for Plants firing Mercury control for Plants firing texas lignite and equiPPed with esP-wet fgd Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. One promising mercury control technology involves the use of sorbents such as powdered activated carbon. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted for various combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance, and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. Sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite coal, which are responsible for about 10 percent of annual U.S. power plant

190

Two and three dimensional analysis of a slope failure in a lignite mine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With about 9.3 billion tons of reserve, lignite is a major source for energy production in Turkey. The Af?in–Elbistan lignite basin, containing 47% of the overall lignite reserve in Turkey, lies in the Af?in and Elbistan districts as a part of Kahramanmara?. The new Çöllolar opencast mine is in the Afsin–Elbistan lignite basin, and this mine will be the second mining activity in the basin after the active K??laköy opencast mine. The new mine will meet the coal consumption of the Elbistan B power plant. Input parameters for slope stability analysis are essential, and so they must be determined accurately and precisely. Field investigations, laboratory testing and back analyses are vital instruments for the input parameters. This study presents the results of slope stability analysis via finite difference code and a limit equilibrium software for the soil slopes of the Elbistan–Çöllolar lignite mine. The basic input parameters, cohesion and friction angle, were determined in the soil mechanics laboratory. By back analyses of a large scale slope failure, mobilized friction angles for a critical weak clay layer under the lignite seam were determined accurately by using the 2D limit equilibrium method and 3D finite difference models. Results of the friction angles were compared in order to check the effectiveness of commonly used 2D approaches in handling the slope problems. Differences in the results of the mobilized friction angles for the weak clay layer were more than 30%. The 3D models indicated that the mobilized friction angle during the major slope failure was substantially lower than the friction angle generated by the 2D limit equilibrium method.

Levent Tutluoglu; Ibrahim Ferid Öge; Celal Karpuz

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Use of POTW biosolids in bituminous concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although wastewater treatment helps alleviate water pollution, it creates residual by-products that can pose a disposal dilemma. Four main practices are presently employed to dispose of wastewater treatment plant sludge: land application, composting, incineration, and landfilling. A fifth disposal method that may help to alleviate the sludge disposal problem in future years is the incorporation of sludge into useful end products such as fertilizer or construction materials. This research was designed to evaluate the properties of bituminous concrete mixes that had anaerobically digested sewage sludge incorporated into their design. In doing so, it was desired to verify the work of Wells concerning sludge incorporation into bituminous concrete mixes using today`s asphalts. Hot mix and cold mix designs were studied.

Smith, R.C. [Jones and Henry Engineers, Ltd., Toledo, OH (United States); Angelbeck, D.I. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were achieved, a heating value very close to that needed to fire a gas turbine would be achieved; however, some operational issues associated with utilizing recycled syngas or carbon dioxide as the transport gas would also have to be resolved. Use of a coal with a quality similar to the core samples provided earlier in the test program would also improve the gasifier performance. Low cold-gas efficiencies on the order of 20% calculated for oxygen-blown tests resulted in part from specific difficulties experienced in trying to operate the pilot-scale TRDU on this very high-ash lignite. These low levels of efficiency are not believed to be representative of what could be achieved in a commercial KRB transport gasifier. Combustion tests were also performed in the EERC's circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) to evaluate this alternative technology for use of this fuel. It was demonstrated that this fuel does have sufficient heating value to sustain combustion, even without coal drying; however, it will be challenging to economically extract sufficient energy for the generation of steam for electrical generation. The boiler efficiency for the dried coal was 73.5% at 85% sulfur capture (21.4% moisture) compared to 55.3% at 85% sulfur capture (40% moisture). Improved boiler efficiencies for this coal will be possible operating a system more specifically designed to maximize heat extraction from the ash streams for this high-ash fuel. Drying of the coal to approximately 25% moisture probably would be recommended for either power system. Fuel moisture also has a large impact on fuel feedability. Pressurized gasifiers generally like drier fuels than systems operating at ambient pressures. The commercially recommended feedstock moisture for a pressurized transport reactor gasifier is 25% moisture. Maximum moisture content for a CFB system could be approximately 40% moisture as has been demonstrated on the Alstom CFB operating on Mississippi lignite. A preliminary economic evaluation for CO{sub 2} was performed on the alternatives of (1) precombustion separation of CO{sub 2} in

Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

193

Erroneous coal maturity assessment caused by low temperature oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Erroneous coal maturity assessment caused by low temperature oxidation Y. Copard J. R. Disnar, J. F on different outcrop coals from the French Massif Central revealed abnormally high Tmax values, which initially observed for medium to low volatile bituminous coals (Rr1.5%), was accompanied by a very clear exponential

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

Biological removal of organic constituents in quench waters from high-Btu coal-gasification pilot plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies were initiated to assess the efficiency of bench-scale, activated-sludge treatment for removal of organic constituents from coal-gasification process effluents. Samples of pilot-plant, raw-gas quench waters were obtained from the HYGAS process of the Institute of Gas Technology and from the slagging, fixed-bed (SFB) process of the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. The types of coal employed were Bituminous Illinois No. 6 for the HYGAS and Indian Head lignite for the SFB process. These pilot-plant quench waters, while not strictly representative of commercial condensates, were considered useful to evaluate the efficiency of biological oxidation for the removal of organics. Biological-reactor influent and effluent samples were extracted using a methylene chloride pH-fractionation method into acid, base, and neutral fractions, which were analyzed by capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Influent acid fractions of both HYGAS and SFB condensates showed that nearly 99% of extractable and chromatographable organic material comprised phenol and alkylated phenols. Activated-sludge treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Removal efficiency of base-fraction organics was generally good, except for certain alkylated pyridines. Removal of neutral-fraction organics was also good, except for certain alkylated benzenes, certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and certain cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes, especially at low influent concentrations.

Stamoudis, V C; Luthy, R G

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Characterization of Solid Emissions from Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Two Czech Lignites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In fluidized-bed combustion, particles of coal burn within the bed of vigorously moving smaller inert particles with bed temperatures between 1000 and 1300 K. Due to intense heat transfer from the burning particle to bed particles and percolating gas, the temperature of a particle is on average 200 K above that of the bed (29, 30). ... Two lignites from the Centrum mine and the Vršany open pit mine (North Bohemian Coal Basin) were used in this study. ... The reactor is equipped with a supplementary natural gas burner, a feeding system, and measuring and control peripherals. ...

Ji?í Smolík; Jaroslav Schwarz; Václav Veselý; Ivana Sýkorová; Jan Kuc?era; Vladimír Havránek

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base Gregory D. Croft1 and Tad W the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production of this highest-rank coal. The pro- duction of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

197

PREVENTTVE FACILITIES AND EMERGENCY OPERATIONS IN CASE OFFIRES IN CdF COAL MINES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). The upper group consists of a bituminous soft coal, the lower coke coal. The field is sharply folded alongPREVENTTVE FACILITIES AND EMERGENCY OPERATIONS IN CASE OFFIRES IN CdF COAL MINES J.P. AMARTIN HJSJL a stricl methodology. It has been possjble then to resume coal winning, which has cor.tmued until

Boyer, Edmond

198

Clean Fuels from Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...superheating and water-heating sections of the boiler...percent on a higher heating value basis. Conclusions...made historically by heating bitumi-nous coal in...heart of the anthracite district only about 5 years ago...energy, wind, and geothermal steam and brines, will...

Arthur M. Squires

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

199

Leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium from coal fly ash: role of calcium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the leaching behavior of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in coal fly ash is important in evaluating the potential environmental impact of coal fly ash. Batch experiments were employed to systematically investigate the leaching behavior of As and Se in two major types of coal fly ashes, bituminous coal ash and sub-bituminous coal ash, and to determine the underlying processes that control As and Se leaching. The effects of pH, solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, calcium addition, and leaching time on the release of As and Se were studied. Overall, bituminous coal ash leached significantly more As and Se than sub-bituminous coal ash, and Se was more readily leachable, in both absolute concentration and relative fraction, than As for both types of fly ashes. Adsorption/desorption played a major role on As and Se leaching from bituminous coal ashes. However, calcium precipitation played the most important role in reducing As and Se leaching from sub-bituminous coal ashes in the entire experimental pH range. The leaching of As and Se from bituminous coal ashes generally increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. However, for sub-bituminous coal ashes, the leaching of As was not detected under most experimental conditions, while the leaching of Se increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. As{sup V} and Se{sup IV} were found to be the major species in all ash leachates in this study. 46 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Tian Wang; Jianmin Wang; Yulin Tang; Honglan Shi; Ken Ladwig [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States). Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, and Environmental Research Center (ERC)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Detailed mining study executive summary: Saba Yoi lignite deposit. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study, conducted by John T. Boyd Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand. The report shows the results of a feasibility study conducted for the development of the Saba Yoi Coal Mine. The study gives an economic assessment of the project, as well as capital costs for mining and materials. This volume contains the Executive Summary and is divided into the following sections: (1) Project Setting; (2) Land Issues; (3) Geological Setting; (4) Lignite Resource Estimate; (5) Mine Design Parameters; (6) Lignite Reserve Estimate; (7) Annual Mine Output; (8) Phase 2: Conceptual Mining Systems Comparison; (9) Phase 3: Mining Plan Economic Assessment; (10) Recommendations; (11) Conclusion.

NONE

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Trace element analysis of Texas lignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or in the planning stages, Near surface lignite re- sources are estimated to be 21 billion metric tons in Texas, while deep basin reserves are estimated at 31 billion metric tons. Near (3] surface reserves alone could fulfill Texas' electrical needs for 100 years... or in the planning stages, Near surface lignite re- sources are estimated to be 21 billion metric tons in Texas, while deep basin reserves are estimated at 31 billion metric tons. Near (3] surface reserves alone could fulfill Texas' electrical needs for 100 years...

Mahar, Sean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

202

Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the Westinghouse 15 ton/day Coal Gasification Process Development Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two periods of in-plant exposures of candidate materials in the Westinghouse PDU have been completed. Coupons were exposed in the gasifier, hot-gas cyclone, quench scrubber, and gas cooler vessels. Corrosion monitoring of test materials is currently being conducted in the Westinghouse Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) coal gasification pilot plant. The corrosion data presented are from work during 1981 through 1984. During these two exposure periods, several coals ranging from lignites to bituminous coals and two petroleum cokes were gasified in the steam-oxygen mode. Fouling was observed on most corrosion racks. The effect of this process-related material was to promote corrosion. In the gasifier environment, alloys 6B, IN 671, and 18SR were the best performing alloys. Nickel-base alloys with Ni/Cr ratios >1.5, namely IN-617, IN-825, and alloy X, incurred severe corrosion attack in both exposures. Other alloys, although generally acceptable in corrosion performance, were not immune to solids-induced corrosion around coupon mounting holes. Several refractories such as Brickram 90, Harbison-Walker Ruby, and Chemal 85B showed little degradation in both gasifier exposures. Nitride bonded silicon carbon Refrax 20 had the greatest reduction in abrasion resistance as well as other properties. Single-phase structural ceramics including siliconized SiC, sintered ..cap alpha..-SiC, and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ did not suffer any noticeable damage. Materials evaluation in the hot-gas cyclone showed IN-671 and 26-1 to be more resistant than Type 310 and Type 310 aluminized. 18 refs., 23 figs., 24 tabs.

Yurkewycz, R.

1985-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Coal-to-Liquids in the U S Status and Activities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Choctaw Co., MS, Lignite 13. RentechAdams Co., Natchez, MS, 160020,000 Bpd, Coal PetcokeBiomass, 2011 Ph 1 3. Synfuel, Inc.GEHaldoe-Topsoe NACCExxonMobil, Ascension...

204

Organic compounds in water extracts of coal: links to Balkan endemic nephropathy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most of the world’s energy is provided by fossil fuels, and coal is the world’s most abundant fossil fuel with reserves substantially greater than those of oil and...2008). “Lignite” ranks in between peat and sub...

S. V. M. Maharaj; W. H. Orem; C. A. Tatu…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Simulation study on lignite-fired power system integrated with flue gas drying and waste heat recovery – Performances under variable power loads coupled with off-design parameters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignite is a kind of low rank coal with high moisture content and low net heating value, which is mainly used for electric power generation. However, the thermal efficiency of power plants firing lignite directly is very low. Pre-drying is a proactive option, dehydrating raw lignite to raise its heating value, to improve the power plant thermal efficiency. A pre-dried lignite-fired power system integrated with boiler flue gas drying and waste heat recovery was proposed in this paper. The plant thermal efficiency could be improved by 1.51% at benchmark condition due to pre-drying and waste heat recovery. The main system performances under variable power loads were simulated and analyzed. Simulation results show that the improvement of plant thermal efficiency reduced to 1.36% at 50% full load. Moreover, the influences of drying system off-design parameters were simulated coupled with power loads. The variation tendencies of main system parameters were obtained. The influence of pre-drying degree (including moisture content of pre-dried lignite and raw lignite) on the plant thermal efficiency diminishes gradually with the decreasing power load. The dryer thermal efficiency and dryer exhaust temperature are also main factors and the influences on system parameters have been quantitatively analyzed.

Xiaoqu Han; Ming Liu; Jinshi Wang; Junjie Yan; Jiping Liu; Feng Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and spray dryer absorbers combined with fabric filters (SDAs-FFs). The work focused on technology commercialization by involving industry and emphasizing the communication of results to vendors and utilities throughout the project.

Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

207

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium* Ljubisa R on the gasification in air and 3.1 kPa steam of North Dakota lignitic chars prepared under slow and rapid pyrolysis of calcium is related to its sintering via crystallite growth. (Keywords: coal; gasification; catalysis

208

Coal in the United States: A Status Report  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coal and lignite production, selected years...1981.(33). Production Year (thousands...192 1972 595,386 1973 591,000 1974 603...percent of total coal production (3). During the...years-from 15.6 tons per man-day in 1969 to a low...

Harry Perry

1983-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

209

Evaluation of an alternative bituminous material as a soil stabilizer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Asphalt cements, cutback asphalts, and emulsified asphalts are used as bituminous stabilizing agents in the pavement systems. The emulsified asphalts are increasingly used in lieu of cutback asphalts because of environmental regulations and safety...

Kim, Yong-Rak

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Portable stove intervention reduces lung cancer mortality risk in lifetime smoky coal users  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pattern that may be associated with household coal burning Howard D. Hosgood 1 William Pao...combustion, particularly from bituminous coal. To further explore the clinical and histological...all subjects with KRAS mutations burned coal indoors for heating and cooking, our findings...

H. Dean Hosgood; Min Shen; Robert Champan; Eric Chen; Tongzhang Zheng; Kyoung-mu Lee; Xingzhou He; Qing Lan

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Co-Gasification of Wood and Lignite in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixts. of coal and biomass were co-gasified in a jetting, ash-agglomerating, fluidized-bed, pilot scale-sized gasifier to provide steady-state operating data for numerical simulation verification. ... Downstream cleaning of gas by catalytic cracking and/or scrubbing is complex and/or expensive for small to medium gasification plants, so conversion of tar within the gasifier is preferred. ... Kern, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Hofbauer, H. Gasification of lignite in a dual fluidized bed gasifier - Influence of bed material particle size and the amount of steam. ...

Stefan Kern; Christoph Pfeifer; Hermann Hofbauer

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

NYMEX Coal Futures - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

NYMEX Coal Futures Near-Month Contract Final Settlement Price 2013 NYMEX Coal Futures Near-Month Contract Final Settlement Price 2013 Data as of: December 13, 2013 | Release Date: December 16, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 30, 2013 U.S. coal exports, chiefly Central Appalachian bituminous, make up a significant percentage of the world export market and are a relevant factor in world coal prices. Because coal is a bulk commodity, transportation is an important aspect of its price and availability. In response to dramatic changes in both electric and coal industry practices, the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) after conferring with coal producers and consumers, sought and received regulatory approval to offer coal futures and options contracts. On July 12, 2001, NYMEX began trading Central Appalachian Coal futures under the QL symbol.

214

An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. for Mining Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Microsoft Word - LB-Lignite.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Name Organization E-Mail Darin Damiani, U.S. Department of Energy, Darin.Damiani@netl.doe.gov Principal Investigator Edward Steadman Field Test Information: Field Test Name Lignite in North Dakota Field Validation Test Test Location Section 36-T159N-R90W in Burke County, North Dakota Amount and Source of CO 2 Tons Less than 500 tons for the project Source Commercial source - Praxair Flatland Exploration Company, subsidiary of Fischer Oil and Gas ND State Land Department Eagle Operating, Inc. Schlumberger Field Test Partners (Primary Sponsors) Praxair Summary of Field Test Site and Operations: CO 2 in an Unminable Lignite Seam - The site for the pilot-scale CO 2 sequestration-enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) project operated by the Energy & Environmental Research Center is

217

A study of uranium in South Texas lignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. First, a large proven reserve of lignites is known to exist, Secondly, lignites contain a high percentage of water, so that transportation over any distance is not cost efficient. Thus, it must be burned near the mine, and this is easily done.... First, a large proven reserve of lignites is known to exist, Secondly, lignites contain a high percentage of water, so that transportation over any distance is not cost efficient. Thus, it must be burned near the mine, and this is easily done...

Ilger, Wayne Arthur

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

218

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...made historically by heating bitumi-nous coal in...heart of the anthracite district only about 5 years ago...energy, wind, and geothermal steam and brines, will...15.7 Nuclear 3.1 Geothermal Negligible 1973, use...home and commercial heating, transporta-tion...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

219

APP, a new binder for briquetting lignites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Turkey has considerable lignite reserves that are mainly used as domestic fuel without processing. The lignite weathers and degrades easily and much is lost as dust before it reaches the consumer; furthermore, in combustion fine particles can cause air pollution. Since briquetting can eliminate many of these existing problems, it is of special importance. Binderless briquetting is always preferred when possible, since it is less complicated and less expensive, but Turkish lignites usually require a binder to obtain reasonable briquettes and various binders can be used for this purpose. In this work, atactic polypropylene (APP), a by-product of the polypropylene (PP) plant of Petkim Petrochemicals A.S. and emulsions of partially oxidized APP prepared by the research centre of the company, were used as binders, with different types of briquetting techniques. Studies on a laboratory scale were carried out to determine optimum parameters of briquetting; binder content, water content, pressure and temperature of heat treatment. Shatter and water resistance tests were carried out on briquettes obtained under different conditions. APP appears to have many advantages, and none of the disadvantages of other commercial binders such as tar, bitumen, molasses, sulphide liquor and clay. Furthermore, unlike other plastics that cause difficulties in briquetting and have high manufacturing costs, APP, particularly in emulsion, can easily be used as a binder and is relatively cheap. However, a production unit would be required to prepare the relevant modified APP emulsion for its extended usage.

O. Orhan Kural; Tunc Savasci; Sinasi Eskikaya

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Effect of experimental conditions on the yields during the copyrolysis of Mustafa Kemal Paa (MKP) Lignite (Turkey) with low-density polyethylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copyrolysis of a Turkish lignite with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is conducted in a tubular reactor. The effect of experimental conditions (temperature of 400-700{sup o}C, catalyst, LDPE contents of the mixture are 33, 50, and 67 wt %) on the formation of tar, gas, and char and their effects on the formation of phenol are investigated. The catalysts used are red mud (which is a waste product of an aluminum factory in Turkey), zeolite (Linde type A (LTA)), and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Tar evolution is determined to be increased significantly by increasing the LDPE content of the coal-LDPE mixture during the pyrolysis. The effect of adding LDPE to the coal on the gas generation is not remarkable. An increase in temperature leads to increased gas yields. Phenol and phenol derivatives are the obstacles for the complete conversion of lignite to tar and gas. To investigate this negative effect of phenols on the yields, the phenols found in tar from coal pyrolysis are detected by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and it is observed that phenolic structures detected in the tar obtained by individual pyrolysis of coal are dramatically decreased by adding polymer to the coal. The use of catalysts during the copyrolysis procedure leads to improved gas generation. The possible reasons of these variations are discussed. A remarkable synergetic effect between lignite and LDPE on the tar yields is also observed. 21 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Ali Sinag; Melike Sungur; Muammer Canel [Ankara University, Beevler-Ankara (Turkey). Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

The Geology and Mineral Resources of the Serb-Croat-Slovene State: Being the Report of the Geologist attached to the British Economic Mission to Serbia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... it is shown that true bituminous coal is very scarce, but that there are considerable reserves of ... of lignites, which amount probably to about 1900 millions of tons, whilst the possible ...

H. L.

1922-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

223

Preserved lignin structures in Miocene-aged lignite lithotypes, Bulgaria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preserved lignin structures in Miocene-aged lignite lithotypes, Bulgaria M. Stefanova, O. Maman, B, Orleans Cedex 2, France Abstract Contents of preserved lignin structures in Miocene-aged lignite lithotypes were determined. Phenol aldehydes, ketones and acids released from lignin by CuO oxidative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

Catalytic steam gasification reactivity of HyperCoals produced from different rank of coals at 600-775{degree}C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HyperCoal is a clean coal with ash content <0.05 wt %. HyperCoals were prepared from a brown coal, a sub-bituminous coal, and a bituminous raw coal by solvent extraction method. Catalytic steam gasification of these HyperCoals was carried out with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 775, 700, 650, and 600 {degree}C, and their rates were compared. HyperCoals produced from low-rank coals were more reactive than those produced from the high-rank coals. XRD measurements were carried out to understand the difference in gasification reactivity of HyperCoals. Arrhenius plot of ln (k) vs 1/T in the temperature range 600-825{degree}C was a curve rather than a straight line. The point of change was observed at 700{degree}C for HyperCoals from low-rank coals and at 775{degree}C for HyperCoals from high-rank coals. Using HyperCoal produced from low-rank coals as feedstock, steam gasification of coal may be possible at temperatures less than 650{degree}C. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group, Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

The distribution of ten trace elements and minerals in three lignite seams from the Mae Moh Mine, Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the association of major, minor and trace elements in lignites and their accompanying strata is important from a number of perspectives which include: potential health problems from environmental pollutants, rehabilitation after mining, combustion for power etc. The material which follows represents some preliminary observations on the mineralogy and distribution of 10 trace elements in lignites and accompanying sediments from the Mae Moh mine, Thailand. Samples collected from freshly exposed mine faces were air dried and analyzed for moisture and ash. Trace element concentrations were determined on {open_quotes}whole{close_quotes} coals and sediments by NAA and XRF. All chemical analyses are expressed as a fraction of the total dry sediment. Mineralogy of both LTA and sediments was determined by XRD. The chemistry and morphology of individual particles were examined by the Electron microprobe. The analyses are used to make some conclusions about the spatial occurrence of these elements within the seam and their partitioning between organic and inorganic phases.

Hart, B.; Powell, M.P.; Fyfe, W.S. [Univ. of Ontario (Canada)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

226

Two and three dimensional analysis of a slope failure in a lignite mine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With about 9.3 billion tons of reserve, lignite is a major source for energy production in Turkey. The Afsin-Elbistan lignite basin, containing 47% of the overall lignite reserve in Turkey, lies in the Afsin and Elbistan districts as a part of Kahramanmaras. ... Keywords: Lignite mine, Numerical modeling, Slope failures, Slope stability analysis

Levent Tutluoglu; Ibrahim Ferid ÖGe; Celal Karpuz

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Effect of Demineralization on Product Yield and Composition at Isothermal Pyrolysis of Eynez Lignites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Turkey has approximately 0.85% of the world’s lignite reserves. ... Turkey, especially in the Tuncbilek and Soma regions, has an estimated reserve of 8.4 billion tones. ... The effects of the treatment on certain structural components of the lignites varied from lignite to lignite. ...

Murat Sert; Levent Ballice; Mithat Yu?ksel; Mehmet Sag?lam

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

228

Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently necessary steps in making coal utilisation more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. Preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fuelled by pulverised coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper then coal) do not oblige to increase efficiency of the standing equipment applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalisation of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in near future.

Noskievic, P.; Ochodek, T. [VSB-Technical Univ., Ostrava (Czechoslovakia)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Hydrogeology of a reclaimed Central Texas lignite mine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Geographically, these occur in relatively long thin strips referred to as the lignite belt (fig, 1). Exploration has extended through this entire area, and most of the 1, 000, 000 acres, where known shallow lignite reserves are present, have already been... in Texas (after Kaiser, 1974). suggests that large areas of Texas will be affected by surface mining. Eighty percent of the surface mineable lignite reserves occur in the Wilcox Group, part of a major aquifer system in I'exas (fig. 2). In order...

Pepper, Gail Louise

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

231

Characterization of the liquid phase obtained by copyrolysis of Mustafa Kemal Pasa (M.K.P.) Lignite (Turkey) with low density polyethylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study describes the detailed hydrocarbon type characterization of the tar (liquid phase) obtained by copyrolysis of Mustafa Kemal Paa (M.K.P.) lignite (Turkey) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) and by pyrolysis of coal and LDPE individually. Various spectroscopic techniques (gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC)) are used for characterization, and the effect of the experimental conditions (temperature, lignite:low density polyethylene (LDPE) ratio, and catalyst) on the hydrocarbon distributions is discussed. The results show that the tars obtained by copyrolysis have similar properties with commercial gasoline (especially in the presence of Red mud). Red mud and bentonite used as catalysts make a positive effect on the production of olefins instead aromatics. Polyethylene acts as a hydrogenation medium for the coal product as revealed by FTIR results. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Ali Sinag; Melike Sungur; Mustafa Gullu; Muammer Canel [Ankara University, Beevler-Ankara (Turkey). Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Geotechnical characterization of lignite-bearing horizons in the Afsin–Elbistan lignite basin, SE Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Afsin–Elbistan lignite deposit, with its 3.4 billion metric tons of reserves, is the biggest lignite basin and one of the most important resources for electrical energy production in Turkey. Kislakoy mining field was selected as the first opencast mine to feed four power station blocks of 300 MW each. Slope instability has been a continuing problem in the Kislakoy opencast mine. Particularly complex failures along a noncircular failure surface appearing at the final slope stage and covering large areas in the mine increase the importance of slope stability. This study outlines the geotechnical characteristics of the lignite-bearing horizons and describes the causes and mechanisms of slope instabilities, which threaten the safety of the mine. Quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were carried out using an interactive data processing system (SIROQUANT™) based on Rietveld interpretation methods. Parametric slope stability analysis and backanalysis were carried out for the failure that occurred at the northwestern final slope stage of the mine. The Spencer–Wright limiting state equilibrium method was used in order to determine with confidence the most representative values of regional shear strength parameters, to explain the failure mechanism, and to assess the conditions at the time of failure. In the analysis, phreatic and piezometric surfaces were considered. Site observations and numerous backanalyses of the slope failure reveal that a compound slide occurred where gyttja (contact zone) layers rest directly on the lignite. Gyttja (contact zone) contains the weakest material within the system. The analysis showed that the main cause of the northwestern slope instability was the presence of the groundwater flow within a Quaternary aquifer (through buried valleys), reducing the effective shear strength of the slope materials. It is also noted from backanalysis that the gyttja (contact zone) layer presents a shear strength at, or approaching, the residual value at the time of failure.

Suphi Ural; Ferat Yuksel

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Particle and Gas Emissions from a Simulated Coal-Burning Household Fire Pit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particle and Gas Emissions from a Simulated Coal-Burning Household Fire Pit ... Chinese anthracite and bituminous coals produce different amounts of emissions when burned in a fire pit that simulates common rural household use of these fuels. ... Here we present emissions from burning 15 different fuels in a laboratory system designed to mimic the fire pits used in Xuan Wei County, China. ...

Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

234

Ground Water Basin Management at the Neyveli Lignite Mines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Neyveli lignite mines of India contain large reserves and represent a unique mining venture in...2...hydrogeological basin in which these mines lie contain multiple aquifers under hydrostatic pressure. There ...

V. Ravi Kumar; S. N. Sahay; N. Periasamy; S. Shiv Prasad…

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the ninth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, comparative analyses were performed for lignite and PRB coals to determine how unit performance varies with coal product moisture. Results are given showing how the coal product moisture level and coal rank affect parameters such as boiler efficiency, station service power needed for fans and pulverizers and net unit heat rate. Results are also given for the effects of coal drying on cooling tower makeup water and comparisons are made between makeup water savings for various times of the year.

Edward Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Wei Zhang

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

The effect of CO? on the flammability limits of low-BTU gas of the type obtained from Texas lignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. N. Heffington An experimental study was conducted to determine if relatively large amounts of CO in a low-BTU gas of the type 2 derived from underground gasification of Texas lignite would cause significant... ? Flammability limit data for three actual samples of low-BTU gas obtained from an in-situ coal gasification experiment (Heffington, 1981). The HHC are higher LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd) PAGE hydrocarbons orimarily C H and C H . ----- 34 I 2 6 3 8' TABLE 5...

Gaines, William Russell

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

237

Two plants to put ‘clean coal' to test  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... — to oil company Cenovus Energy of Calgary, Canada, which will pipe the compressed gas deep underground to flush out stubborn oil reserves. The project — meant to launch ... Atlanta, Georgia. That plant, which will turn the low-grade coal lignite into burnable gases, is designed to capture 3.5 million tonnes of CO2 each year, or about ...

Richard Van Noorden

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

238

Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Emissions mitigation of blended coals through systems optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For coal fired power stations, such as those located in the US, that have installed NOx and SOx emissions abatement equipment substantial carbon dioxide reduction could be achieved by shifting from pure PRB coal to blended coals with local bituminous coal. Don Labbe explains how. The article is based on a presentation at Power-Gen Asia 2009, which takes place 7-9 October in Bangkok, Thailand and an ISA POWID 2009 paper (19th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controlls and Instrumentation Conference, Chicago, Illinois, May 2009). 4 refs., 3 figs.

Don Labbe [IOM Invensys Operations Management (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Effect of environment atmosphere on the sintering of Thai lignite fly ashes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sintering of ash particles, related to deposit formation in a pulverized coal-fired boiler, was investigated for two lignite fly ashes obtained from Mae Moh and Bangpudum coal seams. The tests involved measuring the compressive strength of cold sintered pellets at varying sintering temperature, both under oxidizing (air) and non-oxidizing atmospheres (CO{sub 2}). Under ambient air condition, Mae Moh fly ash which contained higher amount of glassy phase gave significantly higher sinter strength than Bangpudum fly ash. The role of glassy phase was confirmed by the lowering of sinter strength when HF-extracted fly ash was tested. Sintering under CO{sub 2} environment resulted in larger strength development than sintering in air. Under this non-oxidizing condition, the pellet color turned black, indicating that most of the iron was in the reduced state and could form additional low melting-point glassy phase, hence facilitated sintering rate. In addition, blending of the two ashes yielded intermediate maximum strength, under both air and CO{sub 2} environments. This observation substantiates the important role of glassy phase in the sintering process and indicates the possibility of lowering deposit strength by judicious mixing of different raw coal feeds.

Tangsathitkulchai, C.; Tangsathitkulchai, M. [Suranaree Univ. of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

Kinetics of coal pyrolysis and devolatilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimentally based, conceptual model of the devolatilization of a HV bituminous coal is outlined in this report. This model contends that the relative dominance of a process type-chemical kinetic, heat transport, mass transport -- varies with the extent of reaction for a given set of heating conditions and coal type and with experimental conditions for a given coal type and extent of reaction. The rate of devolatilization mass loss process is dominated initially by heat transfer processes, then coupled mass transfer and chemical kinetics, and finally by chemical processes alone. However, the chemical composition of the initial tars are determined primarily by the chemical characteristics of the parent coal. Chemically controlled gas phase reactions of the initial tars and coupled mass transfer and chemically controlled reactions of heavy tars determine the bulk of the light gas yields. For a HV bituminous coal this conceptual model serves to quantify the Two-Component Hypothesis'' of volatiles evolution. The model postulates that the overall rates of coal devolatilization should vary with coal type insofar as the characteristics of the parent coal determine the potential tar yield and the chemical characteristics of the initial tars. Experimental evidence indicates chemical characteristics and yields of primary'' tars vary significantly with coal type. Consequently, the conceptual model would indicate a shift from transport to chemical dominance of rate processes with variation in coal type. Using the conceptual model, United Technologies Research Center has been able to correlate initial mass loss with a heat transfer index for a wide range of conditions for high tar yielding coals. 33 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and closer temperature control. The heat storage capacity of water per cubic foot is considerably greater than steam at equivalent saturation pressures, as shown in Table No. II (below). This inherent reserve or "fly wheel" effect permits closer... furnace and convection section. Coal ash fouling characteristics will have a bearing on the convection section tube spacing. Low grade coals should be reviewed for their slagging and fouling characteristics. For example, lignite and low grade coals...

Boushell, C. C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Hydrogeology of a proposed surface lignite mine, southwestern Harrison County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and supply mine-mouth electric generating stations (Kaiser, 1974). In addition, other large energy-consuming industries and industries that utilize lignite as a chemical raw material can also be expected to place opera- tions near lignite reserves (Hirsch... and supply mine-mouth electric generating stations (Kaiser, 1974). In addition, other large energy-consuming industries and industries that utilize lignite as a chemical raw material can also be expected to place opera- tions near lignite reserves (Hirsch...

Charles, Robert John

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

245

Ground-water hydrogeology and geochemistry of a reclaimed lignite surface mine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that generally parallels the Gulf Coast (Figure 1). Recent estimates place the total near-surface reserves at 11 billion short tons (Kaiser et al. , 1980). Energy companies are now developing lignite mines throughout the Texas lignite belt at a rapid... and accelerating rate. Surface mining of lignite could adversely affect another valuable Texas resource--ground water. Eighty percent of the near-surface lignite reserves are located within the Wilcox Group (Kaiser et al. , 1980), which is part of the Carrizo...

Pollock, Clifford Ralph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

246

Effect of Operational Variables on the Hydrogasification of Inner Mongolian Lignite Semicoke  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inner Mongolia has lignite reserves of more than 150 billion tons, which account for more than 70% of total lignite reserves in China. ... Two Turkish lignites are carbonized at 700 and 900°, and the methane formation rates of these chars and of the char prepd. ...

Xiaokuo Ding; Yongfa Zhang; Tiankai Zhang; Jian Tang; Ying Xu; Jing Zhang

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

247

Palynological evidence for the astronomical origin of lignite^detritus sequence in the Middle Pleistocene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Palynological evidence for the astronomical origin of lignite^detritus sequence in the Middle-order alternation of lignites and detrital muds and second-order alternation expressed by frequent intercalation's orbital forcing. All the lignite seams yield temperate oak forest whereas the detrital beds provide semi

Utrecht, Universiteit

248

Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been conducting research on gasification for six decades. One of the objectives of this gasification research has been to maximize carbon conversion and the water–gas shift process for optimal hydrogen production and syngas quality. This research focus and experience were a perfect fit for the National Center for Hydrogen Technology ® (NCHT®) Program at the EERC for improving all aspects of coal gasification, which ultimately aids in the production and purification of hydrogen. A consortia project was developed under the NCHT Program to develop an improved predictive model for ash formation and deposition under the project entitled “Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III: Development of the CABRE III Model.” The computer-based program is now applicable to the modeling of coal and ash behavior in both entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasification systems to aid in overall gasification efficiency. This model represents a significant improvement over the CABRE II model and runs on a Microsoft Windows PC platform. The major achievements of the CABRE III model are partitioning of inorganic transformations between various phases for specific gas cleanup equipment; slag property predictions, including standard temperature–viscosity curves and slag flow and thickness; deposition rates in gasification cleanup equipment; provision for composition analysis for all input and output streams across all process equipment, including major elements and trace elements of interest; composition analysis of deposit streams for various deposit zones, including direct condensation on equipment surfaces (Zone A), homogeneous particulate deposition (Zone B), and entrained fly ash deposition (Zone C); and physical removal of ash in cyclones based on D50 cut points. Another new feature of the CABRE III model is a user-friendly interface and detailed reports that are easily exportable into Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, or as pdf files. The user interface provides stepwise guides with built-in checks for efficient entry of required input data on fuels of interest to allow a successful execution of the model. The model was developed with data from several fuels selected by the sponsors, including bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, and petroleum coke (petcoke). The data from these fuels were obtained using small pilot-scale entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasifiers at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The CABRE III model is expected to further advance the knowledge base for the NCHT® Program and, more importantly, allow for prediction of the slagging and fouling characteristics of fuels in reducing environments. The information obtained from this program will potentially also assist in maintaining prolonged gasifier operation free from failure or facilitate troubleshooting to minimize downtime in the event of a problem.

Stanislowski, Joshua; Azenkeng, Alexander; McCollor, Donald; Galbreath, Kevin; Jensen, Robert; Lahr, Brent

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

Desulfurization of lignite using steam and air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW Sulfur Removal Using a Fixed Bed Reactor Sulfur Removal Using a Batch Fluidized Bed Reactor . . 9 Continuous Fluidized Bed Reactor Systems for Desulfurization of Coal Clean Coke Process IGT Process... . This study was aimed primarily at producing better metallurgical coke. The ef+ects of various gases on +he sulfur remova1 wo re measured 0 for coal samples at varying t mperatures up to 1273 K The sample was h ated. at a constant ra+ e until the t. st...

Carter, Glenn Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

250

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report.

Edward Levy

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM images showed a clearly marked boundary between the ash and the silica. Sodium and sulfur are the main culprits in the

Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

252

CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Co Co 2 SequeStration Potential of texaS low-rank CoalS Background Fossil fuel combustion is the primary source of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a major greenhouse gas. Sequestration of CO 2 by injecting it into geologic formations, such as coal seams, may offer a viable method for reducing atmospheric CO 2 emissions. Injection into coal seams has the potential added benefit of enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The potential for CO 2 sequestration in low-rank coals, while as yet undetermined, is believed to differ significantly from that for bituminous coals. To evaluate the feasibility and the environmental, technical, and economic impacts of CO 2 sequestration in Texas low-rank coal beds, the Texas Engineering Experimental Station is conducting a four-year study

253

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. low rank coals contain relatively large amounts of moisture, with the moisture content of subbituminous coals typically ranging from 15 to 30 percent and that for lignites from 25 and 40 percent. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit, for it can result in fuel handling problems and it affects heat rate, stack emissions and maintenance costs. Theoretical analyses and coal test burns performed at a lignite fired power plant show that by reducing the fuel moisture, it is possible to improve boiler performance and unit heat rate, reduce emissions and reduce water consumption by the evaporative cooling tower. The economic viability of the approach and the actual impact of the drying system on water consumption, unit heat rate and stack emissions will depend critically on the design and operating conditions of the drying system. The present project evaluated the low temperature drying of high moisture coals using power plant waste heat to provide the energy required for drying. Coal drying studies were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized bed dryer to gather data and develop models on drying kinetics. In addition, analyses were carried out to determine the relative costs and performance impacts (in terms of heat rate, cooling tower water consumption and emissions) of drying along with the development of optimized drying system designs and recommended operating conditions.

Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Hugo Caram

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Evaluating Mercury Concentrations in Midwest Fish in Relationship to Mercury Emission Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Given that: (1) coal use worldwide is increasing, (2) the US has abundant coal reserves (USDOE, 2007) and appears poised to embrace numerous energy sources including increased coal as a means to supplant foreign oil consumption, and (3) coal... primary types of coal (bituminous, anthracite, and lignite) all have various energy contents and mixtures of elements (World Coal Institute, 2005). In addition to the primary constituents of coal, numerous other elements exist in minute concentrations...

Robichaud, Jeffery

2008-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

255

The Role of Semifusinite in Plasticity Development for a Coking Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal rank is a factor of great importance in plasticity development during carbonization, since only some bituminous coals swell in a satisfactory manner and then resolidify to produce good commercial cokes. ... Diessel studied the carbonization behavior of the inertinite macerals in Australian coals by carrying out tests up to 1000 °C where the optical characteristics of the coked entities were correlated with their noncoked counterparts. ... For instance, large-scale coking experiments of some Australian coals containing more than 45% inertinite produced good quality coke, while a Carboniferous coal with that high of an inertinite content gave only a very poor coke. ...

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Darrell N. Taulbee; John M. Andrésen; James C. Hower; Colin E. Snape

1998-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

256

The British Association at Newcastle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... and widely prevalent coal-making conditions. For I find that of the actual and probable reserves of coal in the world, according to our present state of knowledge, about 43 ... of which is of Carboniferous age; while there are about 3 million million tons of lignites and sub-bituminous coals, mostly of Cretaceous and Tertiary age.

W. S. BOULTON

1916-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

257

Upgrading low-rank coals using the liquids from coal (LFC) process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three unmistakable trends characterize national and international coal markets today that help to explain coal`s continuing and, in some cases, increasing share of the world`s energy mix: the downward trend in coal prices is primarily influenced by an excess of increasing supply relative to increasing demand. Associated with this trend are the availability of capital to expand coal supplies when prices become firm and the role of coal exports in international trade, especially for developing nations; the global trend toward reducing the transportation cost component relative to the market, preserves or enhances the producer`s profit margins in the face of lower prices. The strong influence of transportation costs is due to the geographic relationships between coal producers and coal users. The trend toward upgrading low grade coals, including subbituminous and lignite coals, that have favorable environmental characteristics, such as low sulfur, compensates in some measure for decreasing coal prices and helps to reduce transportation costs. The upgrading of low grade coal includes a variety of precombustion clean coal technologies, such as deep coal cleaning. Also included in this grouping are the coal drying and mild pyrolysis (or mild gasification) technologies that remove most of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter, including organic sulfur, while producing two or more saleable coproducts with considerable added value. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) process falls into this category. In the following sections, the LFC process is described and the coproducts of the mild pyrolysis are characterized. Since the process can be applied widely to low rank coals all around the world, the characteristics of coproducts from three different regions around the Pacific Rim-the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, the Beluga Field in Alaska near the Cook Inlet, and the Bukit Asam region in south Sumatra, Indonesia - are compared.

Nickell, R.E.; Hoften, S.A. van

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

Hydroliquefaction of Big Brown lignite in supercritical fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Big Brown lignite was liquefied in a fixed bed tube reactor. Three solvents were used in the liquefaction studies, toluene, cyclohexane and methanol. Two co-solvents, tetralin and water were used with toluene. The effects of the solvents and co...

Chen, Hui

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

259

The methods of steam coals usage for coke production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

Richard Troiano

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Sedimentary regimes of upper Midway and lower Wilcox lignite in Alabama  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paleoenvironments favorable for lignite deposition existed in sedimentary regimes of the Naheola Formation (upper Midway Group) and in Midway-Wilcox transition sediments apparently assignable to the Nanafalia Formation (Wilcox Group). In addition, lignite horizons are recognized in the Tuscahoma Sand (Wilcox Group). Lignite of potential economic significance occurs within the Naheola Formation west of Butler County and within the Nanafalia Formation east of Butler County. Lignite horizons in the Naheola Formation west of Butler County probably are not stratigraphically or time equivalent to lignite horizons east of Butler County. Depositional environments of the Naheola west of Butler County were favorable for development of lignite deposits with extensive lateral continuity, whereas lignite depositional environments east of Butler County apparently favored variability in thickness and lateral continuity. Estuarine and back-barrier coastal marsh environments are suggested for the lignite. Carbonaceous silt and clay in varying proportions are commonly associated with lignite in the Naheola Formation. Lithologic associations of lignite related to the Nanafalia Formation include quartzarenite, carbonaceous silt and clay, oyster beds, and limestone of the Clayton Formation (Midway Group).

Smith, W.E.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Coal Gasification  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE's Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically via the process of coal gasification with sequestration. DOE anticipates that coal...

263

Performance of Low Energy Crumb Rubber Modified Bituminous Mixes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Rising energy costs and increased awareness of emission problems in the production of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) have brought attention to the potential benefits of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) in India. Warm-mix asphalt is the generic term for a variety of technologies that allow the producers of hot-mix asphalt pavement material to lower the temperatures at which the material is mixed and placed on the road. Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen (CRMB) is a popular binder in India. CRMB is composed of bitumen binder and tyre rubber. Tyre rubber, at various percentages, is added to the binder, addition of tyre rubber into binder results in a new product, which requires higher mixing temperatures compared to the conventional one, as well as increased mixing time, so as to get the uniformity of the product. A laboratory study was conducted at CSIR-Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) to investigate, how a commercially available chemical additive can be used to bring down the mixing and compaction temperature of CRMB mix as compared to the hot mix CRMB. Four different temperature ranges were considered in this study viz 1000C to 1050C, 1100C to 1150C, 1200C to 1250C and 1300C to 1350C to determine the various performance characteristics. The CRMB bituminous mix was prepared in these four temperature ranges and various mix tests were carried out to indicate to how the lower production and compaction temperatures affect the properties and performance characteristics of the mixes. After the laboratory evaluation it was found that CRMB Warm mix can be successfully produced at temperature as low as 110 °C and can be compacted at 80- 900C as compared to CRMB hot mix (155 °C). Full scale performance study indicate that process is highly energy efficient and environment friendly, warm mixes performed equivalent to “Hot Bituminous Mixes” and indicated encouraging results. After laboratory evaluation, a test track was successfully laid using low energy Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen.

Ambika Behl; Gajendra Kumar; Girish Sharma

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock and a valuable economic resource. During the Pennsylvanian Period  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tons in reserve. These reserves could last another 585 years at the current rate of production://IGS.indiana.edu Analyzing the Past to Provide for the Future Ro (%) Coal Rank 0.25 0.38 peat lignite subbituminous high

Polly, David

265

Productivity change of coal-fired thermal power plants in India: a Malmquist index approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......coal are taken into consideration and power plants which use lignite as primary fuel are excluded from the study. Power plants...REDDY, Y. V. (2006) Importance of productivity in India. Reserve Bank India Bulletin, 6572. REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE OF THERMAL......

S. K. Behera; J. A. Farooquie; A. P. Dash

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

Transformation of alkali metals during pyrolysis and gasification of a lignite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transformation of Na and K in a lignite was investigated during pyrolysis and gasification in a fixed-bed by using a serial dissolution method with H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}, and HCl solutions. The evolution of the fractions of four forms in solid and alkali volatilization during pyrolysis and gasification was determined. The results show that a different mode of occurrence between Na and of K in coal existed. Na in coal can be nearly completely dissolved by H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}, and HCl solution. However, K in coal exists almost in the stable forms. Both H{sub 2}O soluble and CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4} soluble Na and K fractions decline during pyrolysis and early gasification stage and increase a little with the process of char gasification. The stable form Na in the char produced during pyrolysis is transferred to other forms during char gasification via the pore opening and a series of chemical reactions. Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) may play an important role in producing stable forms such as Na{sub 2}O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}2SiO{sub 2} and K{sub 2}O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2} during pyrolysis. The fraction of HCl soluble K increases during pyrolysis but decreases markedly during the early gasification stage. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs.

Xiaofang Wei; Jiejie Huang; Tiefeng Liu; Yitian Fang; Yang Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Characteristics of airborne coal mine dust and its implication to coal workers' pneumoconiosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Size selective airborne dust samples were collected using 4-stage cassette impactors at nine different locations in continuous mining sections in each of five coal seams located in the Appalachian bituminous coal field. These coal seams were the Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Kittanning, Coalburg, and Pocahontas. Mineralogical analyses were performed by an x-ray powder diffraction photographic technique. The distributions of total and respirable dust concentrations were fit best by a log-normal distribution. The effects of the coal seam and the sampling location on dust levels were significant. The results of the particle size distribution analyses suggest that coal mine dust has a multi-modal distribution. The effects of the coal seam and the sampling locations were significant. The distributions obtained were often affected by such mine-related variables as ventilation rate, relative humidity, and the section dimensions. Nine minerals commonly found in the coal mine dust samples collected from the coal seams studied were illite, calcite, kaolinite, quartz, dolomite, siderite, gypsum, anhydrite, and pyrite in descending order of magnitude. Relative abundance of all mineral species except siderite and gypsum was coal seam specific and suggests that existence of coal seam variability of mineral content. Although mineral content was affected by sampling locations and the sections within a mine, the magnitude was small when compared with that of cal seams. Mineral content also appears to be affected by particle size, although no particular pattern was observed.

Kim, H.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-burning power generation area of southern Greece  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Megalopolis Lignite Centre (MLC), located in the center ... mining fields of the country with total mineable lignite reserves of about 434 Mt. The lignite deposits cover a total area of 40,...2 and are exploi...

G. Argyropoulos; Th. Grigoratos…

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

coking coal [A caking coal suitable for the production of coke for metallurgical use] ? Kokskohle f, verkokbare Kohle

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

factor of bituminous coal, coking coal, and coke consumed inprice of Bituminous coal, coking coal, and coke consumed in

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Thermo-Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic-Viscodamage-Healing Modeling of Bituminous Materials: Theory and Computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time- and rate-dependent materials such as polymers, bituminous materials, and soft materials clearly display all four fundamental responses (i.e. viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, viscodamage, and healing) where contribution of each response...

Darabi Konartakhteh, Masoud

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

273

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Rashid Khan, M.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

274

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Co-gasification of Biomass with Coal and Oil Sand Coke in a Drop Tube Furnace  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From this work, a synergistic effect was observed for blends of coal with petcoke and an increase in the production of H2 and CO was obtained. ... Finally, blending biomass with coal?petcoke blends did not produce any significant change in H2 production, although slight variations were observed in the production of CO and CO2. ... In addn., co-gasification tests of binary blends of a bituminous coal with different types of biomass (up to 10%) and petroleum coke (up to 60%), as well as ternary blends of coal-petcoke-biomass (45-45-10%) were conducted to study the effect of blending on gas prodn. ...

Chen Gao; Farshid Vejahati; Hasan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

276

Matrix endor studies of the carbonization of West Canadian coking coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cretaceous bituminous coals of known rank R?0 max vitrinite reflectance) have been examined by ESR (electron spin resonance) and ENDOR (electron nuclear double resonance) techniques. Both highly oxidised (outcrop) and unoxidised mine?run Balmer coal from the Crowsnest field have been subjected to heat treatment (200?900°C) and the matrix proton ENDOR signal studied as a function of applied microwave and rf power. Changes in ENDOR line shape and intensity are described with particular emphasis on the presoftening region of the unoxidised coal. A comparative study of the carbonization of hvb and 1vb coking coal from the Crowsnest is reported.

P. R. West; S. E. Cannon

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Delayed Coking of Decant Oil and Coal in a Laboratory-Scale Coking Unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fact that coke quality varies with the chemical composition of the precursor feedstock creates a significant incentive to examine the process of coking and how it relates to the composition of the feedstock. ... (7)?Derbyshire, F. J.; Odoerfer, G. A.; Rudnick, L. R.; Varghese, P.; Whitehurst, D. D. Fundamental studies in the conversion of coals to fuels of increased hydrogen content. ... Bituminous coal/petroleum co-cokes were produced by coking 4:1 blends of vacuum resid (VR)/coal and decant oil (DO)/coal at temperatures of 465 and 500 °C for reaction times of 12 and 18 h, under autogenous pressure in microautoclave reactors. ...

Ömer Gül; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

278

The Dust Explosion Characteristics of Coal Dust in an Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability to mix pulverised coal with oxygen at concentrations greater than the currently applied 21% may well provide advantages for burner design in oxy/coal fired systems. However the risk of dust explosions increases significantly with increasing oxygen concentration and temperature. In this study the influence of enriched oxygen concentrations is researched on the dust explosion characteristics of Indonesian (Sebuku) high volatile bituminous coal dust and on Pittsburgh Coal n¡8. Both ignition sensitivity characteristics (minimum ignition energy and minimum ignition temperatures) and explosion severity characteristics (maximum explosion pressure, Pmax, and maximum rate of pressure rise, Kst) are investigated.

Frederik Norman; Jan Berghmans; Filip Verplaetsen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for U.S. Coal by Origin and Destination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In-ground coal quality data, including C, S, ash, fixed carbon, and heating values, are from COALQUAL (11), IGS (12), and Keystone (13, 14). ... For example, examination of 2082 bituminous Kentucky coals led Sakulpitakphon et al. (28) to reject the notion that a single CO2 emission factor can “be used as typical for any given rank of coal.” ... Quick, J. C.; Tabet, D. E.; Wakefield, S.; Bon, R. L. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants: A GIS Study of Coal Chemistry, ...

Jeffrey C. Quick

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

280

Status of the Development of EDS Coal Liquefaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...commercial plant and their...vacuum bottoms) back to...petroleum gas. Ash ence ofgaseous...to relate performance to donor...subjecting the mixture to pressures...commercial plant. Of all...showing that bituminous coal quickly...increased the laboratory's ability...Early in the investigation of the donor...structural characteristics of a good...consisted of material boiling in...atmospheric bottoms are pumped...

G. K. Vick; W. R. Epperly

1982-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Utilization of Lignite Reserves and Simultaneous Improvement of Dust Emissions and Operation Efficiency of a Power Plant by Controlling the Calcium (Total and Free) Content of the Fed Lignite. Application on the Agios Dimitrios Power Plant, Ptolemais, Greece  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Utilization of Lignite Reserves and Simultaneous Improvement of Dust Emissions and Operation Efficiency of a Power Plant by Controlling the Calcium (Total and Free) Content of the Fed Lignite. ... Using the technique mentioned above, by determining the lignite recoverable blocks and progressively improving the mixing of the lignites with different qualities, the solid particle emissions were generally stabilized and reduced (lower than 150 mg m-3), with the best improvement observed around April 1999 and afterward (Figures 2?5). ...

Nestoras Kolovos; Andreas Georgakopoulos; Anestis Filippidis; Constantinos Kavouridis

2002-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

282

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State / Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143 Arkansas 13 - 13 Colorado 32,427 894 33,321 Illinois 33,997 285 34,283 Indiana 36,714 - 36,714 Kansas 176 - 176 Kentucky Total 131,546 2,821 134,367 East 107,000 2,707 109,706 West 24,547 114 24,660 Louisiana 3,746 - 3,746 Maryland 4,671 319 4,990 Mississippi 475 - 475 Missouri 366 - 366 Montana 38,459 485 38,944 New Mexico 28,949 - 28,949 North Dakota 30,449 - 30,449 Ohio 25,463 12 25,475 Oklahoma 1,710 - 1,710 Pennsylvania Total 64,392 6,005 70,397 Anthracite 2,852 205 3,057 Bituminous 61,540 5,800 67,340 Tennessee 3,346 28 3,374 Texas 45,019 31 45,050 Utah 24,761 2,144 26,905 Virginia 25,685 7,071 32,756 Washington 4,623 - 4,623 West Virginia Total 144,584

283

Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knowledge of the thermodynamic and morphological properties of coal associated with rapid heating decomposition pathways is essential to progress in coal utilization technology. Specifically, knowledge of the heat of devolatilization, surface area and density of coal as a function of rank characteristics, temperature and extent of devolatilization in the context of rapid heating conditions is essential to the fundamental determination of kinetic parameters of coal devolatilization. These same properties are also needed to refine existing devolatilization sub-models utilized in large-scale modeling of coal combustion systems. The objective of this research is to obtain data on the thermodynamic properties and morphology of coal under conditions of rapid heating. Specifically, the total heat of devolatilization, external surface area, BET surface area and true density will be measured for representative coal samples. The coal ranks to be investigated will include a high volatile A bituminous (PSOC 1451 D) and a low volatile bituminous (PSOC 1516D). An anthracite (PSOC 1468) will be used as a non-volatile coal reference. In addition, for one coal, the contribution of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization will be measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars.

Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

FEM and LEM stability analyses of the fatal landslides at Çöllolar open-cast lignite mine in Elbistan, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Afsin-Elbistan lignite basin, located in the Kahramanmaras province (...1), has nearly half of the lignite reserves in Turkey (Ural and Yuksel 2004...). It is a closed basin formed by the rising Taurus Mountains ...

A. Ozbay; A. F. Cabalar

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Computer-aided examination and forecast of strength properties of heterogeneous coal-beds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present paper movable cellular automata (MCA) method was applied for investigation of features of damages generation and fracture process of the lignite. The computer-aided simulation of standard experimental tests – uniaxial loading – was carried out. Cylindrical specimens with standard size were tested. Results of calculations show that mechanism of fracture of different coal categories turns from purely brittle to quasi-plastic. On the base of obtained data an analysis of the influence of lignite composition on fracture and strength of cylindrical specimens was carried out.

S.G Psakhie; S Zavshek; J Jezershek; E.V Shilko; A.I Dmitriev; A.Yu Smolin; S Blatnik

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Adsorption and Diffusion of Alcohol Vapors by Argonne Premium Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption and Diffusion of Alcohol Vapors by Argonne Premium Coals ... Adsorption of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol by Pocahontas No. 3, Upper Freeport, Illinois No. 6, and Beulah-Zap Argonne premium coals was investigated to clarify the effect of alkyl group bulk on adsorption and to evaluate the micropore and cross-linked structure of coals. ... Coals are thought to have a large surface area with an interconnected network of slitlike pores.1 However, Larsen et al.2 measured the adsorption of various gases on five Argonne Premium coals and, except for Beulah-Zap lignite, found that the very steep dependence of BET surface area was related to the molecular volume of the gas. ...

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Yuki Terao; Takahiro Yoshida; Masashi Iino

2000-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

287

Co-coking of Hydrotreated Decant Oil/Coal Blends: Effect of Hydrotreatment Severity on the Yield Distribution and Quality of Distillate Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coke yield from delayed co-coking of hydrotreated DOs and coal blends was observed to be in the range of 15.9–24.4%. ... The coal used in this study (EI-106) was a 50:50 blend of the Powellton and Eagle seams, both very similar coals of high-volatile A bituminous rank from West Virginia. ... One of the hydrotreated DOs (EI-133) was coked alone. ...

Ömer Gül; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert

2013-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

288

Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

Katamine, N.M.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Comparative risk analysis of development of the lignite basins in Serbian part of the Danube region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper gives an overview of the global business risks and risks in the mining development in the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins in the area of the Danube river in Serbia. An identification of main risks is undertaken by application of a comprehensive ... Keywords: danube region, lignite basin, mining and energetics, strategic business risks, sustainable development

Slavka Zekovi?; Tamara Mari?i?

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Selective mining of multiple-layer lignite deposits. A fuzzy approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the development and the application of a fuzzy expert system for the evaluation of the exploitable reserves of multiple-layer lignite deposits, mined by continuous surface methods, is presented. The exploitable reserves are determined decisively ... Keywords: Expert, Exploitable, Fuzzy, Lignite, Mining, Reserves, System

Michael Galetakis; Anthoula Vasiliou

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012" 1. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012" "(dollars per short ton)" "Coal-Producing State","Bituminous","Subbituminous","Lignite","Anthracite","Total" "Alabama",106.57,"-","-","-",106.57 "Alaska","-","w","-","-","w" "Arizona","w","-","-","-","w" "Arkansas","w","-","-","-","w" "Colorado","w","w","-","-",37.54 "Illinois",53.08,"-","-","-",53.08 "Indiana",52.01,"-","-","-",52.01

292

Present situation and prospects for lignite in the Polish power-generation industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Poland, lignite is mined in open pits and four deep mines, producing totally about 60–65 million tons a year. Extracted lignite constitutes a fuel for power plants with a total installed capacity of 8833 MW, which generate some 35% of electric energy nationally. This energy is cheaper compared with that from other sources. Poland, with its huge deposits of lignite, is placed in a privileged position, for apart from at present mined deposits, which constitute only about 15% of workable reserves, some abundant areas exist, where mining working can be started. At present, the mined deposits allow us to maintain a current yearly output for the forthcoming 15 years, whereas through the subsequent 30 years, it will decline. In order to maintain supplies of lignite, which is a significant fuel in Poland, it is necessary to fully utilize deposits in the existing areas, and develop new zones where lignite occurs.

Zbigniew Koz?owski

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Experimental studies on hydrophobic flocculation of coal fines in aqueous solutions and flotation of flocculated coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrophobic flocculation of fine bituminous coal particles in aqueous solutions under mechanical conditioning and without any surfactants has been experimentally studied through the measurements of aggregative efficiency, zeta potential and contact angle in this work. The results have shown that the hydrophobic coal fines strongly aggregated in a wide pH range (3.5â??9.5), even though the particle surfaces were highly charged. This hydrophobic flocculation closely correlated with particle hydrophobicity, having a stronger aggregation for more hydrophobic coal fines. It reaches the maximum degree only if a sufficient kinetic energy is applied to the coal slurry. Also, it has been found that the hydrophobic flocculation could be greatly enhanced by adding a little amount of nonpolar oil. In addition, the flotation of flocculated coal fines was tested on the fine Prince coal for the deep elimination of ash and pyrite from coals in this work. An ultraclean coal with 1.3% ash remaining was produced with 87% combustible recovery. The ash rejection and pyritic sulfur rejection were about 93% and 66%, respectively.

Shaoxian Song

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Fluidized bed combustion of low-rank coals: (Task 4. 1)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results obtained in the second year of a second three-year program are described. Two 1000-hour tests were completed to evaluate corrosion/erosion effects on boiler materials. The coals tested were Kentucky {number sign}9 from the Pyro mine and Gibbons Creek, Texas, lignite. Of the variety of stainless and carbon steels tested, several meet commercial requirements despite a wide range in ash compositions of the test coals. In Fluidized Bed Combustion characterization, the River King Illinois {number sign}6 and Jacobs Ranch, Wyoming, subbituminous coals were extensively tested under a wide range of operating conditions and with and without limestone addition. The Jacobs Ranch coal was also successfully and satisfactorily fired as a coal/water fuel slurry. The low-rank coal slurry provided excellent ignition and combustion efficiency, and without ash agglomeration or accumulation. Continued progress was made in expanding the data base on FBC of low- rank coals. 11 refs., 59 figs., 22 tabs.

Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Zobeck, B.J.; Kalmanovitch, D.P.; Potas, T.A.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Wide angle X-ray scattering study of the layering in three of the Argonne premium coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using wide angle X-ray scattering methods, the phase interference curves and the inter-layer structure curves of thee of the Argonne Premium Coals were measured. These analyses indicate the inter-layer structuring is rank dependent. In the sub-bituminous coal (Wyodak–Anderson), the number of layers in the average short-range structural domain is ca. 2.3, with the average inter-layer distance being 4.1 Å. For Pittsburgh #8 coal, the average inter-layer distance decreases slightly, to 4.0 Å, while the number of layers in the average short-range structural domain increases to ca. 3. For the more mature Pocahontas #3, a low-volatile bituminous coal, the inter-layer distance decreases to 3.7 Å, and the average short-range structural domain contains 4.5–5 layers.

D.L. Wertz; J.L. Quin

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

The fractionation and characterization of two North American lignites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assignments for the TMSI Reaction Page TI Product of the Gascoyne Bitumen LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE I, Extraction and Fractionation Scheme for the Page Gascoyne Lignite 24 2. X-Ray Diffractogram of the Low-Temperature Ash of the Demineralized Wilcox... the required data by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emissions spectrometry, which was essential in the completion of the thesis. Many thanks goes out to Ahmad Moini for performing the X-ray diffraction on the samples submitted. Finally, I wish...

Garcia Juan Manuel

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

298

NETL: Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

use of our domestic energy resources and infrastructure. Gasification Systems | Advanced Combustion | Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids | Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Turbines CO2...

299

Coal rank trends in western Kentucky coal field and relationship to hydrocarbon occurrence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive oil and gas development has occurred in the high volatile C bituminous region north of the Rough Creek fault zone, but few pools are known within the Webster syncline south of the fault zone. The rank of the Middle Pennsylvanian coals can be used to estimate the level of maturation of the Devonian New Albany Shale, a likely source rock for much of the oil and gas in the coal field. Based on relatively few data points, previous studies on the maturation of the New Albany Shale, which lies about 1 km below the Springfield coal, indicate an equivalent medium volatile bituminous (1.0-1.2% R{sub max}) rank in the Fluorspar district. New Albany rank decreases to an equivalent high volatile B/C (0.6% R{sub max}) north of the Rough Creek fault zone. Whereas the shale in the latter region is situated within the oil generation window, the higher rank region is past the peak of the level of maturation of the New Albany Shale. The significance of the New Albany reflectancy is dependent on the suppression of vitrinite reflectance in organic-rich shales. The possibility of reflectance suppression would imply that the shales could be more mature than studies have indicated.

Hower, J.C.; Rimmer, S.M.; Williams, D.A.; Beard, J.G. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

APEC experts` group on clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings are the result of a Technical Seminar of the APEC Experts Group on Clean Coal Technology, held in Thailand, September 6-10, 1993. The National Energy Policy Council of Thailand requested the seminar in response to growing public, government and private sector environmental concerns related to increased use of lignite for electricity generation in Thailand. The core of the seminar was a two-day series of 25 technical papers contained in these proceedings. The goals were: (1) to inform government officials and electric utility managers on the range of CCTs, their commercial status, environmental performance, and suitability for various types of coal, including lignite; and (2) to hold a public seminar to inform the public about the same issues set in the context of energy policy concerns that were articulated by the National Energy Policy Council. Sixty people participated in the technical seminar held in Chiang Mai, and approximately 170 people attended the public seminar in Bangkok, Thailand. All papers have been abstracted and indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

303

Caking and coking properties of the thermal dissolution soluble fraction of a fat coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the coal blending for coke-making, fat coal has a very important role for the caking and coking properties of the coal blends. In this study, a fat coal was thermally dissolved, and the caking and coking properties of the thermal dissolution soluble factions (TDSFs) from different solvents and temperatures were characterized. It was found that the caking properties of \\{TDSFs\\} were better than that of fat raw coal. The \\{TDSFs\\} obtained from non-polar solvents have a higher caking property than those obtained from polar solvents at the same thermal dissolution (TD) temperature. During TD process, polar solvents can thermally dissolve more polyaromatic compounds into TDSF, thus increasing the softening temperature and decreasing the caking property of the TDSF. For the same TD solvent, the \\{TDSFs\\} obtained from higher temperatures have a lower caking property compared to those obtained from lower temperatures because of more aromatic components and oxygen functional groups entering them. Crucible coking determinations were carried out to evaluate the coking property of the TDSFs. The result suggests that when 5% of TDSF and 5% of non-caking sub-bituminous coal were used instead of the same amount of fat coal and gas coal, respectively in the coal blends, the quality of the coke obtained could get to the level of the coke obtained from the standard coal blends (i.e. without TDSF and sub-bituminous coal). Therefore, the use of TDSF in coal blending for coke-making is one of the effective methods for opening the coking coal resources.

Hengfu Shui; Wenjuan Zhao; Chuanjun Shan; Tao Shui; Chunxiu Pan; Zhicai Wang; Zhiping Lei; Shibiao Ren; Shigang Kang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

The status of coal briquetting technology in Korea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthracite is the only indigenous fossil fuel resource produced in Korea and is an important main source of residential fuel. Due to its particular characteristics, the best way to use Korean coal is in the form of briquettes, called {open_quotes}Yontan.{close_quotes} The ability to use this coal as briquettes was a great discovery made nearly 50 years ago and since then, has made a great contribution to the energy consumption of low and middle income households. Korean anthracite in coal briquette form has been used widely for household heating purposes. Collieries in Korea produced no more than one million tons of anthracite annually in the 1960s. Production, however, increased substantially up to about 17 million tons per year in the mid-1970s. In 1986, Korea succeeded in raising its coal production to 24.2 million tons, which was the maximum production level achieved by the Korean coal industrial sector. Since then, anthracite production has fallen. In 1991, coal output dropped to 15.1 million tons, a decrease of 12.2 percent from the 17.2 million tons produced in 1990, due to falling coal demand and rising labor costs. The role of coal as an energy source will be more important in the future to meet projected economic growth in Korea. While the production of indigenous Korean anthracite is expected to decrease under a coal mining rationalization policy, imports of bituminous coal will increase rapidly and will be used as an oil substitute in industry and power generation. In this chapter, general aspects of the Korean coal industry and coal utilization for residential uses, especially the Yontan coal briquetting techniques, are discussed. In addition, coal briquetting technology applications suitable for the APEC region will be presented.

Choi, Woo-Zin

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Production of Medium BTU Gas by In Situ Gasification of Texas Lignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The necessity of providing clean, combustible fuels for use in Gulf Coast industries is well established; one possible source of such a fuel is to perform in situ gasification of Texas lignite which lies below stripping depths. If oxygen (rather...

Edgar, T. F.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The Importance of Geological Features in Designing Open-Pit Lignite Exploitations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greece covers today 50 per cent of its electric power generation by burning low grade lignite extracted from open pits. Greece or more correctly the Greek Public ... year 1990. To achieve it, new open pits will b...

J. Tanakakis

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Water table recovery in a reclaimed surface lignite mine, Grimes County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water table recovery in four reclaimed mine blocks containing replaced overburden has been monitored at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas since 1986. Recovery analysis was conducted based on data recorded at 27 wells installed...

Peace, Kelley H.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Evaluation of the Impact of Texas Lignite Development on Texas Water Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel shortages and resultant rising fuel costs as well as federal policies prompting energy independence have served to encourage power companies to exploit available lignite deposits of the western states as a viable fuel source. Large reserves...

Mathewson, C. C.; Cason, C. L.

309

NOx Formation of Co-combustion of Sweet Sorghum – Lignite (Orhaneli) Mixtures in Fluidised Beds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Turkey currently imports over 70% of its energy needs from other countries [4...]. Turkey has to turn towards its own natural sources. The most important reserve is the lignites, unfortunately low quality exertin...

M. Handan Çubuk; Derya B. Özkan; Özlem Emanet

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

A method to calculate the cumulative energy demand (CED) of lignite extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the utilisation of an energy carrier such as lignite, the whole life cycle including necessary energy supply processes have to be considered. Therefore using the ‘Cumulative Energy Demand’ (CED) is especially...

Michael Röhrlich; Mark Mistry…

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Upgrading of low-rank coals for conventional and advanced combustion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-rank coals, subbituminous, lignitic, and brown coals, have a ubiquitous presence in the world, being found in all continents. Close to half of the world`s estimated coal resources are low- rank coals. Many countries have no alternative economic source of energy. In the lower 48 states of the United States, there are 220 billion tons of economically recoverable reserves of lignite and subbituminous coal. Add to this quantity 5 trillion tons of predominantly subbituminous coal in Alaska, and the combined amount represents the largest supply of the lowest-cost fuels available for generating electric power in the United States. However, to use these coals cost-effectively and in an environmentally acceptable way, it is imperative that their properties and combustion/gasification behavior be well understood. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) takes a cradle-to-grave approach (i.e., mining, precleaning, combustion/gasification, postcleaning, and reuse and disposal of residues) for all aspects of coal processing and utilization. The environmental impact of these activities must be matched with the appropriate technologies. Experience over many years has shown that variations in coal and ash properties have a critical impact on design, reliability and efficiency of operation, and environmental compliance when low-rank coals are burned in conventional systems. This chapter reviews the significant technical issues of beneficiation, which includes reduction in moisture as well as ash (including sulfur), in relation to low-rank coal properties and their impact on conventional and advanced power systems. Finally, the development and utilization of low-rank coal resources are briefly discussed in view of policy, economic, and strategic issues.

Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A.; Jones, M.L.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

312

Adequacy of low-sulfur coal supplies for meeting acid rain requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As we have shown, acid rain legislation would create a large demand for low-sulfur bituminous coals. These coals are primarily found in Central Appalachia and in parts of the West, and would displace much of the highersulfur coal production now coming from the Midwest and Northern Appalachia. The magnitude of the related shifts in coal production are potentially huge. Previously, it has been assumed that these shifts in demands could be met by the industry. This paper has tried to highlight possible difficulties in actually meeting such demands. In the near-term, these difficulties concern the ability of the industry to develop mines and of the transportation industry to ship the coal. In the longer-term, questions can be raised regarding the amount, the quality, and the mineability of low-sulfur bituminous coal reserves. These potential difficulties in coal supply could affect attainment of the legislative goals. If not addressed and resolved in a timely fashion, the results could be a higher cost to meeting legislative goals and/or a longer time required to meet them.

Klein, D.E.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

314

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

315

Correlation of stratigraphy with revegetation conditions at the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine, Grimes County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Correlation of Geochemistry with Environments of Deposition . Cross-Sections and Maps . GIBBONS CREEK LIGNITE MINE . 1 5 7', 7 8: 8 8 9'' 10 Location and Geologic Setting . Previous Studies 11, ' 13 High-wall Stability Hydrogeology... of each of these environments. As a result of her geologic study, she named the four lignite seams as 1, 2, 3 and 4 from oldest to youngest (Figure 5). This knowledge of the environment of deposition gave her a better understanding of the units...

Parisot, Laurence D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Engineering geologic feasibility of lignite mining in alluvial valleys by hydraulic dredging methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENGINEERING GEOLOGIC FEASIBILITY OF LIGNITE MINING IN ALLUVIAL VALLEYS BY HYDRAULIC DREDGING METHODS A Thesis by CYNTHIA LYNN CASON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Niajor Subject: Geology ENGINEERING GEOLOGIC FEASIBILITY OF LIGNITE MINING IN ALLUVIAL VALLEYS BY HYDRAULIC DREDGING METHODS A Thesis by CYNTHIA LYNN CASON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

Cason, Cynthia Lynn

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Cofiring Lignite with Hazelnut Shell and Cotton Residue in a Pilot-Scale Fluidized Bed Combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The absence of studies on cofiring of indigenous lignite with hazelnut shell/cotton residue blends in fluid bed combustors on one hand and the recent trend in utilization of biomass with local reserves in industry and utility boilers on the other necessitate investigation of combustion and emission characteristics of these fuel blends. ... However, the effect of recycle on gaseous emissions from combustion of Turkish lignites with high ash, volatile matter, and sulfur contents has not been investigated to date. ...

Zuhal Gogebakan; Nevin Selçuk

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

318

Artificial weathering of siderite (FeCO3) taken from lignite overburden  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the experimental design used in the artificial weathering study. 101 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Texas has large reserves of near surface lignite. Many hectares of land have already been surface mined and nearly half a million hectares are possible future sites... of the experimental design used in the artificial weathering study. 101 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Texas has large reserves of near surface lignite. Many hectares of land have already been surface mined and nearly half a million hectares are possible future sites...

Frisbee, Nellie Mae

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

319

An environment friendly and efficient lignite-fired power generation process based on a boiler with an open pulverizing system and the recovery of water from mill-exhaust  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper advances a novel lignite-fired power generation process based on a OPSB (boiler with an open pulverizing system) and the recovery of water from mill-exhaust after the comprehensive analysis of the open pulverizing system used for high-moisture coals and heat/water recovery from boiler exhaust. Then, the thermal calculation method that applies to OPSB is presented based on heat and mass balance analyses of the boiler. Finally, an efficient unit applying the OPSB process is compared with a conventional 600 MW lignite-fired power unit, and the performance of the efficient unit is calculated and discussed in detail. The results show that the efficient unit not only yields a notable increase in the boiler's (2.6%) and the power plant's (1.3%) thermal efficiency but also provides a remarkable advantage in water recovery due to the mass of water vapor concentrated in mill-exhaust. In the efficient unit, the volume fraction of water vapor in mill-exhaust reaches 34%, the water reclaimed from mill-exhaust is so much that a lignite-fired power plant with zero water consumption can be expected, while the pollutant emissions can be reduced in proportion to the increase in boiler thermal efficiency.

Youfu Ma; Yichao Yuan; Jing Jin; Hua Zhang; Xiaohong Hu; Dengyu Shi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Lignite-fired thermal power plants and SO2 pollution in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

About 80% of the electric energy production in Turkey is provided by thermal power plants which use fossil fuels. Lignite, the most abundant domestic energy source, is consumed in most of these plants. Turkey has approximately 0.85% of the world's lignite reserves; however, the Turkish lignites have low calorific value and contain relatively higher amounts of ash, moisture, and sulfur. Nearly 80% of the lignite mined in Turkey is consumed in the thermal power plants since it is not appropriate for use in other types of industry and heating. In Turkey, 13 large-scale lignite-fired thermal power plants are responsible for a considerable amount of air pollution. Therefore, it is crucial to decide on the optimal place and technology for the future thermal power plants, and to equip the currently operating plants with newer technologies that will reduce amount of contaminants released into the air. In this study, the effects of the lignite-fired thermal power plants which have an important place in the energy politics in Turkey on the air pollution are investigated. We focused on SO2 pollution and the regions in which the SO2 emissions were concentrated and diffused. The pollutant diffusion areas were projected and mapped based on parameters such as wind data, isotherm curves, population density, and topographic features by using Geographical Information System (GIS) software, ArcView. The contribution of the thermal power plants to SO2 pollution was also examined.

Nuriye Peker Say

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

PriceTechNotes2011.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

prices prices are developed for the following three categories: coking coal; steam coal (all noncoking coal); and coal coke imports and exports. Coking coal, used in the industrial sector only, is a high-quality bitumi- nous coal that is used to make coal coke. Steam coal, which may be used by all sectors, includes anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite. In the industrial sector, coal consumption is the sum of cok- ing coal and steam coal. The industrial coal price is the quantity- weighted average price of these two components. Imports and exports of coal coke are available only on the national level and are accounted for in the industrial sector. Coal coke imports and ex- ports are reported separately and are not averaged with other coal prices and expenditures. Coking Coal Coking coal is generally more expensive than steam coal; therefore, it is identified separately

322

Coal pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R. [Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of West Macedonia, Department of Pollution Control Technologies, Koila, Kozani, 50100 (Greece)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

324

Muffle furnace evaluation of FGD sludge-coal-clay mixtures as potential synthetic aggregates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reserve locations as they are utilized for housing and industrial requirements of land (8) . Space that was once available for aggregate mining, handling and storage is becoming more and more limited. Lastly and perhaps more important, synthetic...), High-lime fl, y ashes (those resulting from the combustion of lignite or other subbi tuminous coals) may contain up to 30 percent calcium oxide. Total alkalies (sodium and potassium oxides) approach 5 percent. Particles may range in size from 2 x 10...

Pettit, Jesse William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

325

Deep coal resources in the Cherokee Group (middle Pennsylvanian) in eastern Kansas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaluation of over 800 gamma-ray/density and gamma-ray/neutron logs run for oil and gas tests in eastern Kansas shows a wide distribution of coal in the Cherokee Group in this area. With nearly 300 million tons (270 million metric tons) of high-volatile bituminous coal produced in southeastern Kansas, this group was important for further evaluation. Studies of the coals in the Cherokee Group too deep to strip mine in the Cherokee basin and the Forest City basin indicate a coal resource of nearly 50 billion tons (45 billion metric tons). This figure represents coal from 27 different coal beds in the three reliability categories of measured, indicated, and inferred. Most of the coal is recognized as thin bedded (< 28 in. or < 70 cm) like most of the coal beds in the outcrop belt in southeastern Kansas. Six coals beds with a total of over 1.4 billion tons (1.3 billion metric tons) of resources are present where coal thicknesses exceed 42 in. (105 cm) in parts of 12 different counties. Resource quantities of the Cherokee Group coal beds were made using Pacer and Garnet software developed for the National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS) of the US Geological Survey.

Brady, L.L.; Livingston, N.D.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Solar aided power generation of a 300 MW lignite fired power plant combined with line-focus parabolic trough collectors field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nowadays, conventional coal or gas fired power plants are the dominant way to generate electricity in the world. In recent years there is a growth in the field of renewable energy sources in order to avoid the threat of climate change from fossil fuel combustion. Solar energy, as an environmental friendly energy source, may be the answer to the reduction of global CO2 emissions. This paper presents the concept of Solar Aided Power Generation (SAPG), a combination of renewable and conventional energy sources technologies. The operation of the 300 MW lignite fired power plant of Ptolemais integrated with a solar field of parabolic trough collectors was simulated using TRNSYS software in both power boosting and fuel saving modes. The power plant performance, power output variation, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions were calculated. Furthermore, an economic analysis was carried out for both power boosting and fuel saving modes of operation and optimum solar contribution was estimated.

G.C. Bakos; Ch. Tsechelidou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Desulfurization of Texas lignite using steam and air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Coal Sulfur Removal From Coal By Pyrolysis EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Experimental Apparatus Experimental Procedure Analyses of the Products RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Temperature Effect Upon Desulfurization Pressure Effect Upon Desulfurization... . Treatment Composition Effect Pyrolysis Conditions vs. Addition of' Air V1 V111 ix 10 15 20 24 31 31 35 39 43 45 49 52 53 V11 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) PAGE Pyrolysis Conditions vs. Addition of Steam and Air . . 53 Sulfur Removal...

Stone, Robert Reginald

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Methods for Characterization of Composition of Fly Ashes from Coal-Fired Power Stations:? A Critical Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

HTA and LTA are laboratory-produced coal ashes that are originated at (i) regulated temperatures, commonly at 500?815 °C in air (after the spontaneous coal combustion), and (ii) oxygen plasma ashing (normally at 150?200 °C), respectively. ... The wet disposal of ash, from the coal-fired thermal power plants, involves its mixing with water and its impoundment in the ash ponds or lagoons. ... The fabric, mineralogy, and chem. of high-calcium ash deposits from the Agios Dimitrios pulverized-lignite power plant in northern Greece were investigated as a key to the ability to improve the performance of the power plant. ...

Stanislav V. Vassilev; Christina G. Vassileva

2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

329

Western fuels symposium. 19th international conference on lignite, brown, and subbituminous coals. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topics covered at the conference include: advanced power systems; environmental issues and control technologies - multipollutants and mercury; power plant systems performance; fuel by-products utilization; fuel properties and upgrading; coalbed methane and water minimization; and carbon sequestration. A few of the papars only consist of a printout of the overheads/viewgraphs. The proceedings are also available on CD-ROM.

NONE

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

les jabots des abeilles taient beaucoup plus remplis et la dissection et l'analyse ont t  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of tar of brown coal and19 million tons of mineral oil have been processed into the final-products bitumin, paraffine, fuel, petrol and coke in the tar factory Rositz (Altenburger Land) from 1917 1990, 19 millions de tonnes de goudron de lignite ont été tranformés en coke, bitume et paraffine, et19

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Carnegie Mellon University A Technical and Economic Assessment of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

develops a general modeling framework to provide tools for assessing gasification-based energy conversion systems with various CO2 capture options on a systematic and consistent basis. Many factors influence other factors). For low rank coals (sub-bituminous and lignite) costs increased significantly relative

332

Sorption of the monoterpenes ?-pinene and limonene to carbonaceous geosorbents including biochar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The sorption of two monoterpenes, ? pinene and limonene to the carbonaceous geosorbents graphite, bituminous coal, lignite coke, biochar and Pahokee peat was quantified. Polyethylene (PE) passive samplers were calibrated for the first time for these compounds by determining the PE-water partitioning coefficients and used as a tool to determine sorption to the carbonaceous geosorbents. Log KPE-water values were 3.49 ± 0.58 for ? pinene and 4.08 ± 0.27 for limonene. The sorption of limonene to all materials was stronger than that for ? pinene (differences of 0.2–1.3 log units between distribution coefficients for the monoterpenes). Placing Kd values in increasing order for ? pinene gave biochar ? Pahokee peat ? bituminous coal ? lignite coke < graphite. For limonene the order was: Pahokee peat ? biochar ? bituminous coal < graphite ? lignite coke. Micropore (defined as pores <1.5 nm) and nanopore surface area (defined as pores 1.5 nm to 50 nm) normalised carbonaceous geosorbent-water distribution coefficients were also calculated. There was no clear correlation of these distribution coefficients with SA. Elemental composition was used to assess the degree of condensation (or alteration) of the carbonaceous geosorbents. The degree of carbonisation increased in the order; Pahokee peat < lignite coke < bituminous coal < biochar < graphite, however this was not correlated with an increase in the experimental distribution coefficients.

Sarah E. Hale; Satoshi Endo; Hans Peter H. Arp; Andrew R. Zimmerman; Gerard Cornelissen

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Washington Briefs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An assured and abundant source of fuel will be available when needed to supply synthetic fuel plants, according to a recent appraisal made by the U. S. Geological Survey of coal reserves in Montana. More than 28 billion tons of lignite and sub-bituminous ...

1949-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

334

Exploratory study of some potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production, using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). A high volatile bituminous coal, Pittsburgh No. 8, was reacted with synthetic produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40°C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilisation of toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction and chemical analysis of the synthetic produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilising toxic trace elements from coal beds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Y.; Jones, R.J.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; White, C.M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Site clean up of coal gasification residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coal gasification plant residues tested in this research consists of various particle sizes of rock, gravel, tar-sand agglomerates, fine sand and soil. Most of the soils particles were tar free. One of the fractions examined contained over 3000 ppM polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The residues were subjected to high pressure water jet washing, float and sink tests, and soil washing. Subsequent PAH analyses found less than 1 ppM PAHs in the water jet washing water. Soils washed with pure water lowered PAH concentrations to 276 ppM; the use of surfactants decreased PAHs to 47, 200, and 240 ppM for different test conditions. In the 47 ppM test, the surfactant temperature had been increased to 80 C, suggesting that surfactant washing efficiency can be greatly improved by increasing the solution temperature. The coal tar particles were not extracted by the surfactants used. Coke and tar-sand agglomerates collected from the float and sink gravimetric separation were tested for heating value. The tar exhibited a very high heating value, while the coke had a heating value close to that of bituminous coal. These processes are believed to have the potential to clean up coal gasification plant residues at a fairly low cost, pending pilot-scale testing and a feasibility study.

Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

Injury experience in coal mining, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

Low-Rank Coal Grinding Performance Versus Power Plant Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intent of this project was to demonstrate that Alaskan low-rank coal, which is high in volatile content, need not be ground as fine as bituminous coal (typically low in volatile content) for optimum combustion in power plants. The grind or particle size distribution (PSD), which is quantified by percentage of pulverized coal passing 74 microns (200 mesh), affects the pulverizer throughput in power plants. The finer the grind, the lower the throughput. For a power plant to maintain combustion levels, throughput needs to be high. The problem of particle size is compounded for Alaskan coal since it has a low Hardgrove grindability index (HGI); that is, it is difficult to grind. If the thesis of this project is demonstrated, then Alaskan coal need not be ground to the industry standard, thereby alleviating somewhat the low HGI issue (and, hopefully, furthering the salability of Alaskan coal). This project studied the relationship between PSD and power plant efficiency, emissions, and mill power consumption for low-rank high-volatile-content Alaskan coal. The emissions studied were CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and Hg (only two tests). The tested PSD range was 42 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. Within the tested range, there was very little correlation between PSD and power plant efficiency, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}. Hg emissions were very low and, therefore, did not allow comparison between grind sizes. Mill power consumption was lower for coarser grinds.

Rajive Ganguli; Sukumar Bandopadhyay

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

Coal geology of the U.S. Gulf Coastal region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a comprehensive assessment of the major coal regions of the country. In this program, known as the National Coal Resource Assessment, the quantity and quality of coals that are expected to be mined during the next 30 years will be characterized. For the Gulf Coast region, the evaluation will include reviews of the stratigraphic setting, resource potential, and the quality of the lignites in four coal-producing areas. These areas are: the Sabine Uplift (including parts of Texas and Louisiana), Northeast Texas, Central Texas, and South Texas. The results of these efforts will be a series of digital Geographic Information System (GIS) maps, text, and tables that will be published in a CD-ROM format. These products, along with a national summary CD-ROM, are expected to be completed in 1999. This paper is to present a review of Gulf Coast coal geology and to outline the USGS assessment efforts for the Gulf Coast region. Most coal in the Gulf Coast area is produced from the Paleocene Wilcox Group, and minor amounts of coal are produced from the Ecocene Jackson and Claiborne Groups. Initial results indicate that for coals being mined in the Sabine Uplift, Northeast, and Central Texas areas mean moisture values are about 34%, mean ash yields range from 12 to 15%, and mean calorific values range from about 5,800 to 6,900 Btu/lb (all data are on an as-received basis). Detailed bed and zone analysis in all areas indicate that resource figures will be greater than previous estimates that have usually combined multiple coal horizons to estimate cumulative coal thicknesses for a formation. Ongoing research in the Sabine Uplift and Northeast study areas suggests that coal zones in both the upper and lower Wilcox may be more laterally extensive than previous studies indicate.

Warwick, P.D.; Aubourg, C.E.; Crowley, S.S. [and others

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Effects of Surface Chemistry on the Porous Structure of Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, 129 Xe nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of xenon gas adsorbed in coal is used to describe some poorly understood features of coal microporous structure, particularly in establishing that a connected network exists, the type of connectivity, and its changes with the rank of coal. Micropore size scale and distribution are also considered. Two methods are developed which are new and versatile tools for the investigation of porous structure. Both utilize xenon gas that is in motion, while undergoing diffusion or exchange in coal, to describe the connectivity of the micropore structure of coal. Time tracking of the adsorption process by NMR, selective saturation, and saturation transfer techniques were used to obtain new information on the coal rank dependence of porous structure. In addition, an existing 129 Xe chemical shift-pore diameter model was used to calculate micropore diameters for coals, as well as for a microporous carbon, before and after pore-size alteration. In the initial study performed, straightforward 129 Xe NMR spectra at equilibrium xenon adsorption at a series of pressures were acquired for a rank-varied set of six coals. Acquisition of the NMR signal as an echo was tested and found to improve spectral quality. The spectra were used to calculate micropore diameters for the six coals. These range from 5.6 to 7.5 ? and exhibit a minimum value for the intermediate coal rank. The smallest pores occur in coals of about 82-85% carbon; at both lower and higher coal ranks, the average micropore size tends to be larger. The changes in the spectra with coal rank and surface area were explored. Signal linewidths were found to decrease with increasing coal rank and were interpreted in terms of increasing chemical or physical homogeneity of the coal as rank increases. The packing density of powdered coal was found to alter the spectral appearance in a high volatile bituminous coal, which is preliminary evidence that exchange affects the chemical shift of xenon in this coal.

Ljubisa R. Radovic; Patrick G. Hatcher

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Major ion chemistry and identification of hydrogeochemical processes controlling groundwater in and around Neyveli Lignite Mines, Tamil Nadu, South India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The lignite resources in Tamil Nadu State accounts for ... more than 80 % of India’s known lignite reserves of 39 billion tonnes (as of 1...2010a). The Neyveli hydrogeological basin covers an area of 3,500 km2......

S. Chidambaram; P. Anandhan; M. V. Prasanna…

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Evaluation of an On-Line Ash Analysis System for Low-Grade and Inhomogeneous Greek Lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. ... The remaining lignite reserves that are suitable for electricity generation are 3.2 billion tonnes (as of 12/31/2005). ...

Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis

2007-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

342

Influence of Lignite Mining and Utilization on Organic Matter Budget in the Alfeios River Plain, Peloponnese (South Greece)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The remaining reserves are estimated approximately at 237 Mt.37 The Megalopolis lignite belongs to the mineral-rich and matrix lithotypes. ... cycles comprising first-order alternation of lignites and detrital muds and second-order alternation expressed by frequent intercalation of org. ...

G. Siavalas; S. Kalaitzidis; G. Cornelissen; A. Chatziapostolou; K. Christanis

2007-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

343

China Energy Primer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reserves, 54.4% were bituminous (including anthracite), 29.4% were sub-bituminous, and 16.2% were lignite.

Ni, Chun Chun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Look taken at coal mining costs and trends for the 1980s  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author examines the trends in US bituminous coal production and consumption over the past 40 years, and then looks at the growth rates than can be expected for the rest of the 1980s. Increases are likely to be substantial in absolute terms, although nominal when expressed as a percentage. Surface minable reserves in the eastern US are rapidly being depleted, so that underground mining will gain in importance in these regions. A significant contribution to supplying increased domestic coal consumption will eventually come from new longwall mines in the Illinois Basin and northern Appalachia.

Weir, J.P.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microautoclave tests confirmed that first-stage subbituminous coal conversions were greater in a more aromatic first-stage solvent. First-stage liquefaction tests with hydride ion `E` showed that high coal conversions can be obtained with a number of different first-stage water-gas-shift catalysts. Eight one-liter autoclave tests were completed. All tests used Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal and Reilly Industries anthracene oil. Differences among the tests were the hydride ion reagent used, the post-run flash of water, and the shift catalyst. Filtration tests were conducted with five one-liter autoclave products of subbituminous coal. The filtration rates were slower than those that had been obtained with North Dakota lignite products, but were still within a commercially acceptable range. The influence of the first-stage shift catalyst on filtration rates is being investigated. Second-stage hydrotreating of products of tests made to simulate the British coal LSE process and the Wilsonville pilot plant preheaters had lower resid conversion and higher hydrogen uptake than the products of the hydride ion liquefaction reaction. The 300 mL second-stage reactor system went on line this quarter. Refinements in the experimental procedures are under way. A conceptual commercial plant design for the hydride ion reagent `A` case was completed. Evaluations of hydride ion reagent `D` and `E` cases were initiated, and an integrated liquefaction system balance for the hydride ion reagent `E` case was begun. A preliminary review of the final technical and economic reports from the Alberta Research Council study of low-rank coal conversion using the CO-steam process generated a number of questions on the published reports; further analysis of the reports is planned.

Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

1997-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

347

Characterization of Texas lignite and numerical modeling of its in-situ gasification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHARACTERIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ITS IN-SITU GASIFICATION A Thesis by YIH-JY WANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Geophysics CHARACTERIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ITS IN-SITU GASIFICATION A Thesis by YIH-JY WANG Approved as to style and content by: James E. Russell (Chairman of Committee) M. Caputo...

Wang, Yih-Jy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

348

Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates that, in fact, there are both old and young sources of potential contamination. It is concluded that radiocarbon samples from Babeldaob need to be tested for appropriate carbon content rather than relying solely upon material identification.

Anderson, A.; Chappell, J.; Clark, G.; Phear, S. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Characterization of fly ashes from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boilers cofiring coal and petroleum coke  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemistry, mineralogy, morphology, and particle size distribution were investigated in fly ashes from the burning of Datong (ShanXi, China) bituminous coal and the cofiring of Mideast high-sulfur petroleum coke (PC) with 30:70 (cal %) and 50:50 (cal %) blends of Datong bituminous coal in two commercial CFBC boilers. With the exception of CaO, the amounts of major oxides in the fly ashes from cofiring PC and coal were close to those of the common coal fly ashes. The PC-coal fly ashes were enriched in Ni, V, and Mo, implying these trace elements were mainly derived from PC. Ni and V, along with several other elements, such as Cr, Cu, Se, Pb, U, Th, and possibly As and Cd, increased in content with a decrease in temperature of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The results of chemistry, mineralogy, and morphology studies suggested that the desulfurization rate of the CFBC boilers at current conditions was low, and the PC tends to coarsen the fly ash particles and increase the loss on ignition (LOI) values, making these fly ashes unsuitable for use as a cement additive or a mineral admixture in concrete. Further studies on the combustion status of the CFBC boilers are needed if we want to be able to increase the desulfurization rate and produce high-quality fly ashes for broader and full utilization. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Feihu Li; Jianping Zhai; Xiaoru Fu; Guanghong Sheng [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China). State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, School of the Environment

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

351

JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

Robert Patton

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

Investigate the effectivness of calcium-treated coals in the capture of sulfur gases generated in staged fired combustors. Third quarterly technical progress report, May 1-July 31, 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this quarter's work, a new procedure was developed to add calcium to pulverized coal. The method has been found to increase the calcium content of bituminous coal to 12% calcium by weight, which corresponds to a Ca/S ratio of greater than 2. Progress was also made on the combustion test facility this quarter. A new modification of the low-flow coal feeder has made that system steady and reliable. With the furnace wired and plumbed, and the other subsystems complete, the facility is almost ready to burn the treated coals.

Porter, J. H.; Manning, M. P.; Benedek, K. R.; Sharma, P. K.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Price of Coal by State and Underground Mining Method, 2012 Sales Price of Coal by State and Underground Mining Method, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 29. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Underground Mining Method, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Coal-Producing State Continuous 1 Conventional and Other 2 Longwall 3 Total Alabama w - w 107.73 Arkansas w - - w Colorado w - 37.18 w Illinois 48.08 - 59.51 54.18 Indiana 52.94 - - 52.94 Kentucky Total w w - 62.24 Kentucky (East) w w - 79.23 Kentucky (West) 50.18 - - 50.18 Maryland w - - w Montana - - w w New Mexico - - w w Ohio w - w 49.39 Oklahoma w - - w Pennsylvania Total 94.53 w 65.01 w Pennsylvania (Anthracite) w w - 82.71 Pennsylvania (Bituminous) w - w 72.67 Tennessee w - - w Utah w - 34.99

355

Pilot-scale study of the effect of selective catalytic reduction catalyst on mercury speciation in Illinois and Powder River Basin coal combustion flue gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur (S) and chlorine (Cl)) and one Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal with very low S and very low Cl were tested in a pilot-scale combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for controlling nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The SCR catalyst induced high oxidation of elemental Hg (Hg{sup 0}), decreasing the percentage of Hg{sup 0} at the outlet of the SCR to values <12% for the three Illinois coal tests. The PRB coal test indicated a low oxidation of Hg{sup 0} by the SCR catalyst, with the percentage of Hg{sup 0} decreasing from {approximately} 96% at the inlet of the reactor to {approximately} 80% at the outlet. The low Cl content of the PRB coal and corresponding low level of available flue gas Cl species were believed to be responsible for low SCR Hg oxidation for this coal type. The test results indicated a strong effect of coal type on the extent of Hg oxidation. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, C.W.; Srivastava, R.K.; Ghorishi, S.B.; Karwowski, J.; Hastings, T.H.; Hirschi, J.C. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

Huffman, G.P. [ed.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

NONE

1995-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

358

Evaluation of Oxy-coal Combustion Modelling at Semi-industrial Scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Duringthe oxy-fuelcombustion processpulverizedcoalisburntinan atmosphere consistingofpureO2mixedwith recycled ?uegas whereas during the conventional process air serves as the only oxidant. This entails speci?c conditions regarding thermo-physical properties which impact both combustion characteristics and heat transfer. Accordingly, adjustments within CFD codes are required in order to maintain accuracyand prediction quality criteria within simula–tions of oxy-coal combustion. The CFD code AIOLOS was used to evaluate recent oxy-coal speci?c implementations concerning the global chemistry mechanism and the heat transfer. For validation purposes extensive tests have been carried out at IFK's semi-industrial scale furnace (500kWth). Simulations have been performed for both, conventional air-?ring and oxy-coal combustion conditions with US bituminous coal, and a comparison of simulation results and corresponding experimental data is given. In general, satisfactory agreement is observed.

Michael Müller; Uwe Schnell; Simon Grathwohl; JörgMaier; Günter Scheffknecht

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

KINETIC STUDY OF COAL AND BIOMASS CO-PYROLYSIS USING THERMOGRAVIMETRY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this study are to investigate thermal behavior of coal and biomass blends in inert gas environment at low heating rates and to develop a simplified kinetic model using model fitting techniques based on TGA experimental data. Differences in thermal behavior and reactivity in co-pyrolysis of Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal and pelletized southern yellow pine wood sawdust blends at low heating rates are observed. Coal/wood blends have higher reactivity compared to coal alone in the lower temperature due to the high volatile matter content of wood. As heating rates increase, weight loss rates increase. The experiment data obtained from TGA has a better fit with proposed two step first order reactions model compared single first order reaction model.

Wang, Ping; Hedges, Sheila; Chaudharib, Kiran; Turtonb, Richard

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

360

Correlation method for chemical communication of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In spite of many experimental studies of the chemical comminution of coal, there have been only a few reported attempts to correlate experimental data and mathematically model the process. This paper presents a strain energy model based on the thermodynamic analysis. The capillary-imbibition number is proposed as an important parameter for characterization of chemicals used in comminution. The authors discuss the development of a phenomenological model for chemical comminution to study the relative effects of the governing process. Sensitivity studies carried out with this model indicated that the mechanism of chemical transfer into bedding planes and comminution of coal is dominantly a capillary-imbibition-induced flow phenomenon and to a lesser extent a diffusion-controlled process. The authors also tested this hypothesis using experimental data. As reported, the maximum comminution rates for the middle Pennsylvania Cherokee C-bituminous coal with NaOH solutions were within the range of 6-8% caustic concentration. Hence, it is concluded that this contradicts the author's earlier work (1988), which reported that capillary-imbibition number (reciprocal of the surface-tension number) decreases with increasing caustic concentration. This conclusion is misleading because the authors simply present a set of data on capillary-imbibition number vs NaOH concentration, and it alone cannot determine the caustic concentration for the maximum comminution rate.

Civan, F.; Knapp, R.M. (School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (US))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Cofiring lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, cofiring of high ash and sulfur content lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue was investigated in 0.3 MWt METU Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig in terms of combustion and emission performance of different fuel blends. The results reveal that cofiring of hazelnut shell and cotton residue with lignite increases the combustion efficiency and freeboard temperatures compared to those of lignite firing with limestone addition only. CO{sub 2} emission is not found sensitive to increase in hazelnut shell and cotton residue share in fuel blend. Cofiring lowers SO{sub 2} emissions considerably. Cofiring of hazelnut shell reduces NO and N{sub 2}O emissions; on the contrary, cofiring cotton residue results in higher NO and N{sub 2}O emissions. Higher share of biomass in the fuel blend results in coarser cyclone ash particles. Hazelnut shell and cotton residue can be cofired with high ash and sulfur-containing lignite without operational problems. 32 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

Zuhal Gogebakan; Nevin Selcuk [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Soil microbial biomass: an estimator of soil development in reclaimed lignite mine soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A two-year study was conducted at the Big Brown lignite mine in Fairfield, Texas, to determine the rate and extent of recovery of the soil microbial biomass (SMB) in mixed overburden. The relationships between SMB carbon (SMBC), basal respiration...

Swanson, Eric Scott

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Selective mining of multiple-layer lignite deposits. A fuzzy approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the development and the application of a fuzzy expert system for the evaluation of the exploitable reserves of multiple-layer lignite deposits, mined by continuous surface methods, is presented. The exploitable reserves are determined decisively by the structure of these deposits, as well as by the limitations of the used mining systems. In practice, thin layers of lignite and interbedded waste layers are grouped under specified assumptions regarding thickness and ash content, to form the exploitable blocks. Moreover, the decision for excavating such a block is made under subjective constraints of different importance, or by using uncertain data. Advances in fuzzy inference systems (FIS) have provided a new approach to the evaluation of multiple-layer lignite deposits. FIS have the ability to handle imprecise, incomplete or linguistically ambiguous information and incorporate them into decision-making processes. In the developed FIS (Mamdani type) new linguistic variables, related to working conditions, operators’ experience and production were involved. The FIS was used for the estimation of the exploitable reserves of the Southern Field lignite deposit, located in the area of Ptolemais (Greece).

Michael Galetakis; Anthoula Vasiliou

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

NETL: Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) - Round 2  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NOx Control Technologies NOx Control Technologies Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NOx Control - Project Brief [PDF-320KB] The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Cassville, WI Program Publications Final Reports Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NOx Control, Final Project Report [PDF-14.4MB] (Feb 1994) Appendices 1 - 5 [PDF-2.6MB] (Feb 1994) Appendix 1: Small Boiler Simulator Description Appendix 2: Statement of Work by Task and Subtask Appendix 3: Evaluation of Reburning for NOx Control from Lignite-Fired Cyclone Boilers Appendix 4: Nelson Dewey In-Furnace gas Species and Temperature Measurements Appendix 5: Balance of Plant Details Appendix 6: Test Report - Nelson Dewey Cyclone Reburn Optimization and Performance Environmental Tests [PDF-6.2MB] (Feb 1994)

365

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGas process): 12th Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several experiments were conducted to study the efficiency of granulated sludge consortium (GSC) on the biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL). With an aim of obtaining a better culture than Mic-1, GSC was used as inoculum at different concentrations. The first experiment was conducted under anaerobic conditions in 60-mL vials containing 40 mL 0.01% SNTM + 1% TxL + 10% GSC. Methane production was measured periodically in the vial headspace and after 20 days of incubation, methane was found to be up to 67 mole%. The second experiment was conducted to determine whether methane production was from biogasification of coal or from substrates used for growing the GSC. The effect of two different anaerobic conditions on biomethanation of Texas lignite was also studied.

Not Available

1993-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

366

The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage Transmission Line Route, and Natural Gas Pipeline Route Permits for a Large Electric Power Generating Plant to be located in Taconite, Minnesota. In addition, major pre-construction permit applications have been filed requesting authorization for the Project to i) appropriate water sufficient to accommodate its worst case needs, ii) operate a major stationary source in compliance with regulations established to protect public health and welfare, and iii) physically alter the geographical setting to accommodate its construction. As of the current date, the Water Appropriation Permits have been obtained.

Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Stratigraphy and environment of deposition of the San Miguel lignite deposit northern McMullen and southeastern Atascosa counties, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

deposits. Coastal swamp deposits occur within the lignite interval, a zone of lignite and clay of 3. 7 m (12 ft) ave age thickness. The 1'g. . ite interval has an overall strike-trend with local dip-trending segments. The lignite represents accumulation...). . . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~ 26 12 ~2 f ' ' 2~2'6' 2 ~l f* MK-26, 14. 2 m (46. 75 ft) . 26 13 Regional stratigraphic correlation of the upper and middle Eocene of the Gulf Coast. 28 Electric log correlations in Atascosa and Live Oak counties of Texas. 29 15 Interpretation...

Snedden, John William

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Evaluation of the long-term environmental performance of Greek lignite-fired power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract At national, regional and global level, there is no doubt that the electric generation from fossil fuel-fired power plants is one of the greatest causes of air pollution and climate change. However, fossil fuels contribute more than 70% in the planet electricity generation during the last 30 years. In Greece, lignite is the only proved significant indigenous fossil fuel source, currently representing about 50% of the national electricity generation (a situation which is not expected to change dramatically in the near future). As a result, owed to the use of local lignite reserves (poor quality lignite), the Greek Lignite Thermal Power Stations (LTPSs) are responsible for the production of significant airborne emissions and particle releases (e.g. CO2, SO2, NOX, PM). At the same time, Greece, on top of the Kyoto Protocol, has accepted specific obligations and incorporated into its national legislation several air quality Directives concerning the reduction of various harmful gases and particle releases attributed to fossil fuel combustion. Thus, wide scrutiny of concentration time series of all these airborne emissions constitutes an important indicator of the current technology used, considering at the same time that any violation noted should be the object of serious national concern. Under this argument, the current work presents and evaluates the long-term environmental performance of the Greek lignite-based electricity generation system as far as CO2, NOX, SO2 and PM are concerned up to the year 2011. According to the results obtained, one may rank the operating \\{LTPSs\\} according to their environmental performance giving to the Greek society the necessary tools to determine their utilisation factor on top of the techno-economic criteria used up to now.

J.K. Kaldellis; M. Kapsali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

An evaluation of Substitute natural gas production from different coal gasification processes based on modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal and lignite will play a significant role in the future energy production. However, the technical options for the reduction of CO2 emissions will define the extent of their share in the future energy mix. The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) from solid fossil fuels seems to be a very attractive process: coal and lignite can be upgraded into a methane rich gas which can be transported and further used in high efficient power systems coupled with CO2 sequestration technologies. The aim of this paper is to present a modeling analysis comparison between substitute natural gas production from coal by means of allothermal steam gasification and autothermal oxygen gasification. In order to produce SNG from syngas several unit operations are required such as syngas cooling, cleaning, potential compression and, of course, methanation reactors. Finally the gas which is produced has to be conditioned i.e. removal of unwanted species, such as CO2 etc. The heat recovered from the overall process is utilized by a steam cycle, producing power. These processes were modeled with the computer software IPSEpro™. An energetic and exergetic analysis of the coal to SNG processes have been realized and compared.

S. Karellas; K.D. Panopoulos; G. Panousis; A. Rigas; J. Karl; E. Kakaras

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Chemistry and petrology of fly ash derived from the co-combustion of western United States coal and tire-derived fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inorganic ash chemistry and petrology was investigated in coal-combustion by-products from the burning of tire-derived fuel (TDF) with a 1:1 blend of Colorado and Utah high volatile C bituminous coal and Powder River Basin subbituminous coal. Both coal components had high vitrinite contents. With the exception of Sr and Ba, the trace-element contents of the coals were not high. The fly ash was enriched in Zn, known to be a constituent of both the rubber and the wire in tires. Cu, also a constituent of the brass coatings of bead wire, was enriched in the same fractions with high Zn concentrations. Zn and Cu, along with several other elements, increased in concentration in the back, cooler row of the electrostatic precipitator. The enrichment of other elements, such as Se, As, and Pb, was more problematical. It is possible that the latter elements have more of a coal source than a tire source.

James C. Hower; J.David Robertson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Applying clean coal technologies in the Asian Pacific Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy-technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin (APB). The US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program, spearheaded, stewarded, and managed by the US Department of Energy in full partnership with US industry, provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies. Its precombustion, combustion, postcombustion, and conversion technologies, once tested and proven at the demonstration level, are expected to be applicable to coal-burning facilities in the APB (and elsewhere), in both the utility and industrial sectors. These technologies and concepts are expected to allow for increased utilization of the vast coal and lignite resources in the APB in an efficient, economic, and environmentally acceptable manner. They also could provide the opportunity for increased sales of US coals. Specific, potential applications in the APB will be presented, highlighting possibilities in Indonesia, Japan, the Peoples' Republic of China, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. 4 refs., 1 tab.

Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Surles, T.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Modelling fly ash generation for UK power station coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An in-depth characterization has been made of three UK bituminous coals and the combustion products from these coals when burned at a power station and on a range of experimental combustion facilities. The coals were chosen to represent the range of ash compositions and slagging propensities found at UK power stations. CCSEM analysis of the pulverized coals has been performed to provide quantitative data on the size and chemical composition of individual mineral occurrences, and to determine the nature of the mineral-mineral and mineral-organic associations in the pulverized fuel. In a similar way the size and chemical composition of individual fly ash particle has been determined. The mineral-mineral association information has been used to predict the effects of mineral coalescence, the dominant mineral transformation process for UK power station coals. The CCSEM information correctly identifies the types of mineral-mineral association and hence the predicted effects of coalescence. The limitations of the information are inherent in the analysis of a cross-section, but useful information for the modelling of ash generation may still be obtained.

Wigley, F.; Williamson, J. [Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Research and development of CWM technology toward clean coal use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this chapter, three subjects were presented from among our technical efforts to develop clean coal applications to improve environmental quality. The three subjects are briefly summarized as follows: development of technology aimed at producing and utilizing exclusively low ash CWM; development of technology to produce CWM from various pond coals; development of technology to upgrade LRC and utilize CWM for both a boiler fuel and a gasification feedstock. We are fully convinced that the first and second of the above technologies have reached the level of practical use through demonstration tests. As to the third, we have almost finished a 10 kg/h coal slurry bench-scale test and have a plan to construct an upgrading pilot plant of 350 kg/h which will be completed in the fall 1994. We will hopefully establish upgrading technology through pilot-scale demonstration testing in 1995. With this technology, not just utilization of LRCs will be expanded, but also highly efficient use of coal will be accelerated. Thus, C0{sub 2} emission will also be strongly reduced. In ending, we would like to stress our efforts on research and development of environmentally friendly technologies as well as COM and CWM technologies based on bituminous and steaming coals.

Shibata, Kazuhiro

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Effects of Steam and CO2 in the Fluidizing Gas when Using Bituminous Coal in Chemical-Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology where an oxygen carrier is used to transfer oxygen from the combustion air to the fuel in order to...2 is inherently separated from the flue gases with...

H. Leion; A. Lyngfelt; T. Mattisson

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Life cycle considerations of the flue gas desulphurization system at a lignite-fired power plant in Thailand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) system has been installed at the biggest lignite-fired power generation plant in Thailand to reduce the large...2...emission. In order to understand the costs and benefits, bot...

Sate Sampattagul; Seizo Kato…

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Experimental forward and reverse in situ combustion gasification of lignite with production of hydrogen-rich syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This research focused on the feasibility of applying the forward and reverse combustion approach to the in situ gasification of lignite with the production of hydrogen-rich syngas (H2 and CO). The so-called forwa...

Yong Cui; Jie Liang; Zhangqing Wang…

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Ground Water Control Techniques for Safe Exploitation of the Neyveli Lignite Deposit, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neyveli, a remote hamlet in Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India, occupies a prominent place in the industrial and power map of India. The Neyveli lignite field extends over an area of 470...2 with a geological reserve

K. S. Anandan; S. N. Sahay; T. K. Ramabadran…

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

An investigation of changes in groundwater quality caused by in-situ gasification of East Texas lignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES IN GROUNDWATER QUALITY CAUSED BY IN-SITU GASIFICATION OF EAST TEXAS LIGNITE A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUE LEACH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AGM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES IN GROUNDWATER QUALITY CAUSED BY IN-SITU GASIFICATION OF EAST TEXAS LIGNITE A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUE LEACH Approved as to style and content by...

Leach, Kimberly Sue

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

380

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The configuration of the subscale combustor has evolved during the six years of this program from a system using only an impact separator to remove particulates to a system which also included a slagging cyclone separator before the lean-quench combustor. The system also now includes active slag tapping after the impact separator rather than a bucket to collect the slag. The subscale 12 MM Btu/hr (higher heating value, HHV) slagging combustor has demonstrated excellent coal-fired operation at 6 atm. The combustor has fired both coal-water mixtures (CWM) and pulverized coal (PC). Three Wyoming subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals have been successfully fired in the TVC. As a result of this active testing, the following conclusions may be drawn: (1) it was possible to achieve the full design thermal capacity of 12 MM Btu/hr with the subscale slagging combustor, while burning 100% pulverized coal and operating at the design pressure of 6 atm; (2) because of the separate-chamber, rich-lean design of the subscale slagging combustor, NO{sub x} emissions that easily meet the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) limits were achieved; (3) carbon burnout efficiency was in excess of 99% when 100% coal-fired; (4) ninety percent of the ash can be separated as slag in the impact separator, and a total 98 to 99% removed with the addition of the slagging cyclone separator; (5) Objectives for third-stage exit temperature (1850{degrees}F), and exit temperature pattern factor (14%) were readily achieved; (6) overall pressure loss is currently an acceptable 5 to 6% without cyclone separator and 7 to 9% with the cyclone; and (7) feeding pulverized coal or sorbent into the combustor against 6 atm pressure is achievable.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

382

Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy {gamma}-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the bunker of Kardia mine, Ptolemais. According to the obtained results, the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not adequate and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The deterioration of the on-line measurements' accuracy, compared to previous applications in other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the lignite ash content and ash composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average atomic number of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of this method to low-grade lignites that exhibit large variation in ash content and composition. 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis [Public Power Corporation SA, Athens (Greece). General Division of Mines

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

The effect of wood biomass blending with pulverized coal on combustion characteristics under oxy-fuel condition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, combustion from the co-firing of coal and wood biomass, and thermal characteristics such as ignition temperature, burn-out temperature, and activation energy were discussed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). We investigated the effects of biomass blending with two kinds of pulverized coal (bituminous Shenhua, and sub-bituminous Adaro) under air and oxy-fuel conditions. The coal fraction in the blended samples was set to 1, 0.8, and 0.5. The oxygen fraction in the oxidant was set to 0.21, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8. The ignition temperature was governed by the fuel composition, particularly in the blended biomass which has a much higher content of volatile matter comparing to coal. However, the burnout temperature, which shows a strong relationship with char combustion, depended on the oxidant ingredients rather than on the fuel components. Thermal characteristics such as ignition, burnout temperature, reaction region, and heat flow were very similar between air and a 0.3 oxygen concentration under oxy-fuel conditions with Shenhua coal.

Seongyool Ahn; Gyungmin Choi; Duckjool Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. [Final] technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquefaction of an Illinois bituminous and a caustic lignin was studied in an initial hydrogen pressure of 140 psig. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 325-375{degree}C in tetralin. The addition of lignin to coal was found to be synergistic in that it significantly improves the quality and yield of the liquid products obtained. Kinetic data for coal conversion enhancement due to lignin addition were obtained. A mathematical model describing the reaction chemistry, using lignin, has been proposed and developed. The analysis of the results indicates that the intermediates produced from lignin were responsible for enhancement in coal depolymerization rate, however, the intermediates are short-lived as compared to the time needed for a significant coal conversion yield. Coal depolymerization rate was found to be a function of time; compared to processing coal alone, it doubled upon reacting coal with lignin at 375{degree}C and after 67 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. Overall mass recoveries of 95--98% of the total mass charged to the reactor were obtained. A careful statistical analysis of the data shows that coal depolymerization yield is enhanced by 11.9% due to the lignin addition. The liquids obtained were examined for their elemental composition, and molecular weight determination by size exclusion chromatography. The stability of liquid products was characterized by determining their solubility in pentane and benzene, and by evaluating the molecular weight.

Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Koropchak, J.A.; Kim, Jong Won [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

385

Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaing for Premium Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel? column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications -- Less than 2 pounds of ash per million Btu (860 grams per gigajoule) and

Frank J. Smit; Gene L. Schields; Mehesh C. Jha; Nick Moro

1997-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

386

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration.

Croft, Gregory D. [University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Patzek, Tad W. [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)], E-mail: patzek@mail.utexas.edu

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Low-grade coals: a review of some prospective upgrading technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a growing need of using low-grade coals because of higher quest for power generation. In the present carbon-constrained environment, there is a need of upgrading these coals in terms of moisture, ash, and/or other trace elements. The current paper reviews technologies used mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal and related harmful constituents, such as sulfur and mercury. The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. Drying technologies consist of both evaporative and non-evaporative (dewatering) types. The conventional coal cleaning used density separation in water medium. However, with water being a very important resource, conservation of water is pushing toward the development of dry cleaning of coal. There are also highly advanced coal-cleaning technologies that produce ultra-clean coals and produce coals with less than 0.1% of ash. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash, and other pollutant components. It also attempts to present the current status of the technologies in terms of development toward commercialization and highlights on problems encountered. It is obvious that still the upgrading goal has not been realized adequately. It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. 68 refs., 7 figs.

Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Production of a nitrogeneous humic fertilizer by the oxidation-ammoniation of lignite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two lignite samples were oxidised with HNO/sub 3/ (20% wt) at 75 C and treated afterwards with NH/sub 3/ in a fluidised-bed reactor in a temperature range 100-375 C. The effects of temperature, NH/sub 3/ flow rate, and reaction time on the total N/sub 2/ content of the product are reported. The product contained 7-13% wt of total N/sub 2/ which increased as the ammoniation temperature increased. Soil nitrification measurements of the N/sub 2/-enriched lignites showed that the maximum conversion to nitrates and rate of nitrification are exhibited by the product obtained at the lowest ammoniation temperature, i.e. 100 C. Maximum conversion to nitrates at that temperature was 45%, which compares well with similar products such as ammoniated peat (35%) and ammonium nitrohumates (45%).

Coca, J.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Determination of the Effects Caused by Different Polymers on Coal Fluidity during Carbonization Using High-Temperature 1H NMR and Rheometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The bituminous coal (K6) used throughout this work and the light fraction of a plastic waste in the form of shredder fluff that is used in car interiors were supplied by Voestalpine Stahl GmbH. ... The car shredder fluff is basically a shredded polyurethane waste, and its ultimate composition is shown in Table 2. ... Thus, the fraction C17-C31 showed a higher increase of n-alkenes/n-alkanes ratio than other fractions. ...

Miguel Castro Díaz; Lucky Edecki; Karen M. Steel; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

391

Coal in National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA): framework geology and resources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The North Slope of Alaska contains huge resources of coal, much of which lies within NPRA. The main coal-bearing units, the Corwin and Chandler Formations of the Nanushuk Group (Lower and Upper Cretaceous), underlie about 20,000 mi/sup 2/ (51,800 km/sup 2/) of NPRA. They contain low-sulfur, low-ash, and probable coking-quality coal in gently dipping beds as thick as 20 ft (6.1 m) within stratigraphic intervals as thick as 4500 ft (1370 m). Lesser coal potential occurs in other Upper Cretaceous units and in Lower Mississippian and Tertiary strata. The river-dominated Corwin and Umiat deltas controlled the distribution of Nanushuk Group coal-forming environments. Most organic deposits formed on delta plains; fewer formed in alluvial plain or delta-front environments. Most NPRA coal beds are expected to be lenticular and irregular, as they probably accumulated in interdistributary basins, infilled bays, or inland flood basins, whereas some blanket beds may have formed on broad, slowly sinking, delta lobes. The major controls of coal rank and degree of deformation were depth of burial and subsequent tectonism. Nanushuk Group coal resources in NPRA are estimated to be as much as 2.75 trillion short tons. This value is the sum of 1.42 trillion short tons of near-surface (< 500 ft or 150 m of overburden) bituminous coal, 1.25 trillion short tons of near-surface subbituminous coal, and 0.08 trillion shorts tons of more deeply buried subbituminous coal. These estimates indicate that the North Slope may contain as much as one-third of the United States coal potential.

Sable, E.G.; Stricker, G.D.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Potential for selenium migration at a lignite power plant solid waste disposal facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

may also adsorb selenite, although in relatively minor amounts. In general, clays serve as an inert substrate for media of higher sorbic potential. Selenium leached from lignite ash initially occurs as selenite or selenate. Redox and p...H measurements suggest selenite and elemental selenium are the only forms of inorganic selenium stable at the study site, Selenate is reduced to selenite or converted to selenide by biosynthesis. Selenite is either adsorbed by the soil or converted...

Hall, Steven Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

393

Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Investigation of lignite and firewood co-combustion in a furnace for tobacco curing application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-combustion of lignite and firewood was investigated for an application in tobacco curing industry in Northern Thailand. Extensive experiments have been carried out in a newly developed furnace suitable for small curing unit, in place of locally made furnace. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the performance of the combustion chamber in the required thermal output range for tobacco curing and to examine the influence of fuel feed rate, fuel mixture ratio and air staging on the combustion and emission characteristics of the furnace during steady state operation. Their effects are characterized in terms of the observed variations of temperature distributions, emissions of CO, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and combustion efficiency. Co-firing of firewood and lignite has been found to exhibit acceptable temperature distribution, high combustion efficiency and low emissions over a wide thermal output span. Stable operation at low (50 kW) and high (150 kW) thermal output was achieved with average CO and SO{sub 2} content in flue gas typically below 1400 and 100 ppm, respectively. Under the conditions considered, it was showed that the fuel feed rate had greater influence on combustion and emissions than firewood and lignite mixture ratio and air staging.

Nakorn Tippayawong; Chutchawan Tantakitti; Satis Thavornun

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Polygeneration-IGCC concepts for the production of hydrogen rich fuels based on lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents three IGCC-power plant concepts for central production of a hydrogen-rich fuel (methanol, hydrogen, synthetic natural gas â?? SNG) from lignite. Each concept contains a CO2-separation, which produces a sequestration-ready CO2-rich stream. Thus, CO2-emissions caused by use of lignite are considerably reduced. Furthermore, the produced low-carbon fuels are converted in decentralised Combined Heat and Power Plants (CHPP). CHPP leads to high efficiencies of fuel utilisation between 54 and 62%, which exceed the efficiencies of single power generation. Regarding to the CO2-emissions of a natural gas fired CHPP, heat and power can be generated by lignite as clean as by natural gas. The specific CO2-emissions are even much lower in the case of hydrogen production. Costs for the centrally produced methanol and hydrogen are with 29 and 19 EUR/MWh(LHV) already within an economic range. Synthetic natural gas can be produced for 23 EUR/MWh(LHV).

Bernd Meyer; Katrin Ogriseck

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Production scheduling of a lignite mine under quality and reserves uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of uncertainty sources to the stochastic optimization of the combined project of a new surface lignite mine exploitation and power plant operation for electricity generation is investigated. Major sources of uncertainty that were considered are the reserves and the quality of the lignite. Since probability distribution functions for these uncertainties were estimated during the detailed exploration phase of the deposit, the overall goal is then to determine the optimal capacity of the power plant and consequently the optimal production rate of the mine over the time. The optimization objective that was selected is the maximization of the net present value of the project. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity analysis for the investigation of the effect of quality and reserves uncertainty on project optimization, on the mathematical formulation of risk attitude strategy and on increasing the efficiency of the optimization process by creating a limited set of feasible solutions applying empirical rules. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of the optimal annual production rate of a new surface lignite mine in the area of Ptolemais–Amynteon in Northern Greece.

Michael Galetakis; Christos Roumpos; George Alevizos; Despina Vamvuka

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Reprint of: Production scheduling of a lignite mine under quality and reserves uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of uncertainty sources to the stochastic optimization of the combined project of a new surface lignite mine exploitation and power plant operation for electricity generation is investigated. Major sources of uncertainty that were considered are the reserves and the quality of the lignite. Since probability distribution functions for these uncertainties were estimated during the detailed exploration phase of the deposit, the overall goal is then to determine the optimal capacity of the power plant and consequently the optimal production rate of the mine over the time. The optimization objective that was selected is the maximization of the net present value of the project. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity analysis for the investigation of the effect of quality and reserves uncertainty on project optimization, on the mathematical formulation of risk attitude strategy and on increasing the efficiency of the optimization process by creating a limited set of feasible solutions applying empirical rules. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of the optimal annual production rate of a new surface lignite mine in the area of Ptolemais–Amynteon in Northern Greece.

Michael Galetakis; Christos Roumpos; George Alevizos; Despina Vamvuka

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

The application of spectrum standardization method for carbon analysis in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of carbon content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is limited by its low measurement precision and accuracy. A spectrum standardization method was proposed to achieve both reproducible and accurate results for the quantitative analysis of carbon content in coal with LIBS. The proposed method utilized the molecular carbon emissions to compensate the diminution of atomic carbon emission caused by matrix effect. The compensated carbon line intensities were further converted into an assumed standard state with fixed plasma temperature, electron density, and total number density of elemental carbon, which is proportional to its concentration in the coal samples. In addition, in order to obtained better compensation for total carbon number density fluctuations, an iterative algorithm was applied, which is different from our previous standardization calculations. The modified spectrum standardization model was applied to the measurement of carbon content in 24 bituminous coal sa...

Li, Xiongwei; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Liu, Jianming; Ni, Weidou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Microsoft PowerPoint - ACC032503_V2_1.PPT  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council Mercury & Multi- Emissions Compliance: Strategies & Tactics March 26-27, 2003 Charlotte, NC Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory TJF_ACC_March2003 Presentation Outline * Regulatory drivers * Program objectives * Current program * Future plans TJF_ACC_March2003 Power Plant Mercury Emissions Coal Plants Emit ~ 48 tons/year NETL Boiler Database 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 10 20 30 Lignite SubB Bituminous Lignite SubB Bituminous Total US Hg Emissions (tons per year) 0 10 20 30 0 2 4 6 8 10 Hg Emission Rate (lb per TBtu) TJF_ACC_March2003 Potential Mercury Regulations MACT Standards * Likely high levels of Hg reduction * Compliance: Dec. 2007 Clean Power Act of 2003 * Re-introduced in Senate (S.

400

Elements of environmental concern in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments: A perspective of Fort Union coals in northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The elements of environmental concern (EECs) named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments include 12 trace elements consisting of antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium. Although all these trace elements are potentially hazardous, arsenic, mercury, lead, and selenium may be targeted in forthcoming Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Fort Union coals contain all the trace elements named in the Clean Air Act Amendments; however, the presence and amounts of individual trace elements vary from basin to basin. In the Powder River Basin, the major producing Fort Union coals (Wyodak-Anderson and equivalent coal beds, and Rosebud coal bed) contain the lowest (or statistically as low) amounts of EECs of any of the coal producing basins (i.e., Williston, Hanna, and Green River) in the region. In addition, when the arithmetic means of these trace elements in Powder River Basin coals are compared to other regions in the conterminous US, they are lower than those of Cretaceous coals in Colorado Plateau, Tertiary lignites in the Gulf Coast, and Pennsylvanian coals in the Illinois and Appalachian Basins. Thus, elements of environmental concern are generally low in Fort Union coals in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, and particularly low in the Powder River Basin. Projected increase in production of Powder River Basin coals will, therefore, be of greater benefit to the nation than an increase in development and production of coals in other basins.

Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.E.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Elements of environmental concern in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments: A perspective of Fort Union coals in northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The elements of environmental concern (EECs) named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments include 12 trace elements consisting of antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium. Although all these trace elements are potentially hazardous, arsenic, mercury, lead, and selenium may be targeted in forthcoming Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Fort Union coals contain all the trace elements named in the Clean Air Act Amendments; however, the presence and amounts of individual trace elements vary from basin to basin. In the Powder River Basin, the major producing Fort Union coals (Wyodak-Anderson and equivalent coal beds, and Rosebud coal bed) contain the lowest (or statistically as low) amounts of EECs of any of the coal producing basins (i.e. Williston, Hanna, and Green River) in the region. In addition, when the arithmetic means of these trace elements in Powder River Basin coals are compared to other regions in the conterminous U.S., they are lower than those of Cretaceous coals in Colorado Plateau, Tertiary lignites in the Gulf Coast, and Pennsylvanian coals in the Illinois and Appalachian Basins. Thus, elements of environmental concern are generally low in Fort Union coals in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, and particularly low in the Powder River Basin. Projected increase in production of Powder River Basin coals will, therefore, be of greater benefit to the nation than an increase in development and production of coals in other basins.

Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.E.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Coal Ash and Clean Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is the normal view that the incombustible part of coal is not only a useless but even objectionable diluent. At times in the past, ... , familiar with the theory of contact catalysis of gas reactions, have speculated that the ash constituents might well play an active role in the processes of carbonisation and combustion. ...

H. J. HODSMAN

1926-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

403

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Chang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Utilization of Partially Gasified Coal for Mercury Removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) developed a novel mercury (Hg) control technology in which the sorbent for gas-phase Hg removal is produced from coal in a gasification process in-situ at a coal burning plant. The main objective of this project was to obtain technical information necessary for moving the technology from pilot-scale testing to a full-scale demonstration. A pilot-scale gasifier was used to generate sorbents from both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Once the conditions for optimizing sorbent surface area were identified, sorbents with the highest surface area were tested in a pilot-scale combustion tunnel for their effectiveness in removing Hg from coal-based flue gas. It was determined that the highest surface area sorbents generated from the gasifier process ({approx}600 m{sup 2}/g) had about 70%-85% of the reactivity of activated carbon at the same injection rate (lb/ACF), but were effective in removing 70% mercury at injection rates about 50% higher than that of commercially available activated carbon. In addition, mercury removal rates of up to 95% were demonstrated at higher sorbent injection rates. Overall, the results of the pilot-scale tests achieved the program goals, which were to achieve at least 70% Hg removal from baseline emissions levels at 25% or less of the cost of activated carbon injection.

Chris Samuelson; Peter Maly; David Moyeda

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

406

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

407

Modeling the behavior of selenium in Pulverized-Coal Combustion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The behavior of Se during coal combustion is different from other trace metals because of the high degree of vaporization and high vapor pressures of the oxide (SeO{sub 2}) in coal flue gas. In a coal-fired boiler, these gaseous oxides are absorbed on the fly ash surface in the convective section by a chemical reaction. The composition of the fly ash (and of the parent coal) as well as the time-temperature history in the boiler therefore influences the formation of selenium compounds on the surface of the fly ash. A model was created for interactions between selenium and fly ash post-combustion. The reaction mechanism assumed that iron reacts with selenium at temperatures above 1200 C and that calcium reacts with selenium at temperatures less than 800 C. The model also included competing reactions of SO{sub 2} with calcium and iron in the ash. Predicted selenium distributions in fly ash (concentration versus particle size) were compared against measurements from pilot-scale experiments for combustion of six coals, four bituminous and two low-rank coals. The model predicted the selenium distribution in the fly ash from the pilot-scale experiments reasonably well for six coals of different compositions. (author)

Senior, Constance; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost O.L.; Sarofim, Adel [Reaction Engineering International, 77 W. 200 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Petrological evolution of the Paleogene coal deposits of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed macro- and micro-petrological investigation of 8 coal seam profiles of Eocene age from the sub-Himalayan zone of Jammu was undertaken in order to characterize them petrographically and to focus on their evolution. The quantitative data suggest that these coals are vitrinite rich, with low concentrations of inertinite and rare occurrences of liptinite. According to microlithotype concentration these coals may be characterized as vitrinite rich, with minor amounts of clarite, vitrinertite and trimacerite. The dominant minerals are clays, siderite and pyrite (occurring mostly as disseminations, cavity filling and in framboidal state). These coals are vitric in type, low volatile bituminous in rank and ashy in grade. The petrographic character and the presence of teleutospores suggest that, similar to other Tertiary coal deposits in the world, the angiosperm flora contributed chiefly to the development of coal facies in the area. The maceral and microlithotype composition shows that these coals originated from the low forest and undisturbed (in situ) peat in foreland basins under limno-telmatic depositional conditions. The water was brackish with regular influxes of fresh water.

Mahendra P. Singh; G.P. Singh

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

412

Appalachian coal awareness conference: promoting Eastern coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Promoting the development and use of coal, especially coal from the Appalachian region, was the focus of introductory and keynote speeches and a discussion by representatives of the Virginia Coal Council, mining engineers, industry, and the Edison Electric Institute. Governor Dalton's keynote address noted that both producers and consumers attending the conference should work together to promote coal as a solution to the US energy future, and reported the impact that a commitment to coal has had on Virginia's economic growth. Participants in the coal consumers panel discussion raised various economic and regulatory issues.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Examination of Kinetics of Non-catalytic Steam Gasification of Biomass/Lignite Chars and Its Relationship with the Variation of the Pore Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Examination of Kinetics of Non-catalytic Steam Gasification of Biomass/Lignite Chars and Its Relationship with the Variation of the Pore Structure ... Biomass and lignite are attractive as feedstocks in light of the renewable nature and large reserves, respectively. ...

Shinji Kudo; Yasuyo Hachiyama; Hyun-Seok Kim; Koyo Norinaga; Jun-ichiro Hayashi

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

414

Effect of High-Pressure Impregnation on Structure Variation and Desulfurization Property of a Zn-Based Sorbent Prepared Using Lignite as a Support  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of High-Pressure Impregnation on Structure Variation and Desulfurization Property of a Zn-Based Sorbent Prepared Using Lignite as a Support ... Lignite reserves are relatively abundant in China; however, its utilization is significantly limited because of its high water content and low calorific value. ...

Xiurong Ren; Qiang He; Yurong Dong; Meijun Wang; Liping Chang; Weiren Bao

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

415

Blending high sulfer coal with refuse derived fuel to make SO{sub 2} compliant slurry fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need for a better method of disposing of the international community`s garbage hardly needs emphasizing. In 1993, the United States alone generated approximately 207 million ton per year of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), with 62% landfilled, 220/6 recycled, and 16% combusted for energy recovery. Despite strenuous efforts to make these disposal methods meet present needs, the cost of disposal is rising dramatically. Concurrently, the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have severely restricted the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired boilers. Medium and high sulfur coals will not comply with the Phase II CAAA regulation limit of 1.2 lb SO{sub 2}/MM Btu, without advanced coal cleaning technologies or flue gas desulfurization, including the majority of the North Dakota lignite reserves. Utility power plants have attempted to burn refuse derived fuel (RDF), a heterogeneous solid fuel produced from MSW, with coal in utility scale boilers (generally referred to as co-firing). Co-firing of RDF with coal has been attempted in sixteen different boilers, five commercially. While lower SO{sub 2} emissions provided the impetus, co-firing RDF with coal suffered from several disadvantages including increased solids handling, increased excess air requirements, higher HCI, CO, NO{sub x} and chlorinated organic emissions, increased slag formation in the boiler, and higher fly ash resistivity. Currently, only two of the sixteen boilers are still regularly used to co-fire RDF. The overall objective of this research program was to assess the feasibility of blending RDF with lignite coal to form SO{sub 2} Compliant slurry fuels using EnerTech`s SlurryCarb{trademark} process. In particular, the objective was to overcome the difficulties of conventional co-firing. Blended slurry fuels were produced with the Energy & Environmental Research Center`s (EERC) bench-scale autoclave and were combusted in a pressurized fluidized-bed reactor (PFBR).

Klosky, M. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Anderson, C. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

416

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

417

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

"Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants.

418

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

419

Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Plastic wastes as modifiers of the thermoplasticity of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plastic waste recycling represents a major challenge in environmental protection with different routes now available for dealing with mechanical, chemical, and energy recycling. New concepts in plastic waste recycling have emerged so that now such wastes can be used to replace fossil fuels, either as an energy source or as a secondary raw material. Our objective is to explore the modification of the thermoplastic properties of coal in order to assess the possibility of adding plastic waste to coal for the production of metallurgical coke. Two bituminous coals of different rank and thermoplastic properties were used as a base component of blends with plastic wastes such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and acrilonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS). In all cases, the addition of plastic waste led to a reduction in Gieseler maximum fluidity, the extent of the reduction depending on the fluidity of the base coal, and the amount, the molecular structure, and the thermal behavior of the polymer. As a consequence, the amount of volatile matter released by the plastic waste before, during, and after the maximum fluidity of the coal and the hydrogen-donor and hydrogen-acceptor capacities of the polymer were concluded to be key factors in influencing the extent of the reduction in fluidity and the development of anisotropic carbons. The incorporation of the plastic to the carbon matrix was clearly established in semicokes produced from blends of a high-fluid coal and the plastic tested by SEM examination. 42 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

M.A. Diez; C. Barriocanal; R. Alvarez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bituminous coal lignite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Microsoft Word - Subject Categories Booklet  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Descriptions 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT Information on coal and coal products, including lignite and peat, as energy sources. Reserves, geology and exploration; surface and...

422

American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum Dallas, Texas May 17-19, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Presentation Outline * Background * Power plant-water issues * DOE/NETL R&D program * Conclusion/future plans ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Global Water Availability Ocean 97% Fresh Water 2.5% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ice Groundwater Lakes and Rivers ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumption Mgal / Day Irrigation 81,300 Irrigation 81,300 Thermoelectric 3,310 Consumption Sources: "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995," USGS Circular 1200, 1998

423

Coal Characterization in Relation to Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most coals are used worldwide for combustion today. Generally all kinds of coals are applicable for combustion. The major methods of burning are fixed bed firing, fluidized bed firing and suspension firing. Th...

Harald Jüntgen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal 101 Lesson 2: The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada decided that something had to be done about the "acid rain" that was believed to be damaging rivers, lakes, forests, and buildings in both countries. Since many of the pollutants that formed "acid rain" were coming from big coal-burning power plants in the United States, the U.S. Government took the lead in finding a solution. One of the steps taken by the U.S. Department of Energy was to create a partnership program between the Government, several States, and private companies to test new methods developed by scientists to make coal burning much cleaner. This became the "Clean Coal Technology Program."

425

Coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2] Crude oil, naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2] Crude oil, naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2] Crude oil, natural

Fridley, Ed., David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

China Energy Databook - Rev. 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal, lignite, peat, and oil shale, Crude oil and naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale, Crude oil and naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. Crude oil and natural

Sinton Editor, J.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Impacts of stripmining lignite on net returns for agricultural enterprises in East Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Southern Methodist University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr, Lonnie L. Jones The study aims to determine whether or not returns to typical pare-time and full-time farms in Preestone County change after lignite mining. Net returns used are to land... pieces of mined and unmined land. The general opinion of experts is that forage yields on reclaimed land are not less than before mining. Although the carrying capacity for unmined and reclaimed pasture is the same in the study, the mined farm cases...

Morris, Christina

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Effect of potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent in the production of lignite-based fertilizers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this work was to observe the effect of potassium permanganate oxidation of lignites from Elbistan for end use as fertilizers, after being ammoniated. The experiments at each stage were designed by a 1/2 x full factorial design. The oxidation was carried out by three different methods. In the first two methods potassium permanganate in neutral or basic medium was used. In the other method two stages of oxidation were used: nitric acid followed by potassium permanganate in acidic medium. The latter proved to be more successful.

Baris, S.; Dincer, S.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

Polyakov, Oleg

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

Study of ash deposition during coal combustion under oxyfuel conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparative study on ash deposition of two selected coals, Russian coal and lignite, under oxyfuel (O2/CO2) and air combustion conditions. The comparison is based on experimental results and subsequent evaluation of the data and observed trends. Deposited as well as remaining filter ash (fine ash) samples were subjected to XRD and ICP analyses in order to study the chemical composition and mineral transformations undergone in the ash under the combustion conditions. The experimental results show higher deposition propensities under oxyfuel conditions; the possible reasons for this are investigated by analyzing the parameters affecting the ash deposition phenomena. Particle size seems to be larger for the Russian coal oxy-fired ash, leading to increased impaction on the deposition surfaces. The chemical and mineralogical compositions do not seem to differ significantly between air and oxyfuel conditions. The differences in the physical properties of the flue gas between air combustion and oxyfuel combustion, e.g. density, viscosity, molar heat capacity, lead to changes in the flow field (velocities, particle trajectory and temperature) that together with the ash particle size shift seem to play a role in the observed ash deposition phenomena.

L. Fryda; C. Sobrino; M. Glazer; C. Bertrand; M. Cieplik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberto forecast coal demand, supply, and prices from now to

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Coal Market Module This  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

51 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2012, DOE/EIA-M060(2012) (Washington, DC, 2012). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

434

Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 153 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2011, DOE/EIA-M060(2011) (Washington, DC, 2011). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

435

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

436

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A "Bed" for Burning Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 4: A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with government and college officials on the campus of Georgetown University to celebrate the completion of one of the world's most advanced coal combustors. It was a small coal burner by today's standards, but large enough to provide heat and steam for much of the university campus. But the new boiler built beside the campus tennis courts was unlike most other boilers in the world. A Fluidized Bed Boiler A Fluidized Bed Boiler In a fluidized bed boiler, upward blowing jets of air suspend burning coal, allowing it to mix with limestone that absorbs sulfur pollutants.

437

The natural radioactivity contents in feed coals from the lignite-fired power plants in Western Anatolia, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......consumption of electric energy. In the last 30 y, energy consumption per person, which...of the electric energy production is provided...their products. The average activity concentrations...consumed domestically for home use, but, today......

N. Füsun Çam; Günseli Yaprak; Elif Eren

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

439

Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

Srivastava, K.C.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Identification of organonitrogen compounds from thermally dissolved Huolinguole lignite in ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal dissolution of Huolinguole lignite (HL) in ethanol was conducted at 330°C for 2 h. The soluble fraction was sequentially eluted with petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA)/PE mixed solvents with increased EA to PE ratio, and EA to afford five eluted fractions (EF1-EF5) through a silica gel-packed column. In total, 49 organonitrogen compounds (ONCs), including N-heterohexacyclic compounds (NHHCCs), N-heteropentacyclic compounds, nitrogen-containing group-substituted benzenes (NCGSBs), condensed N-heterocyclic compounds, and amides were detected in EF2 and EF3 with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer. Among the ONCs, NHHCCs are dominant and most of them are alkyl pyridines (APs), suggesting that APs are the main existing modes of ONCs in HL. As the main NCGSBs, anilines may originally exist in HL or were released by HL ethanolysis. This investigation provides an effective approach for understanding the modes of ONC occurrences in lignites. [Received: April 11, 2013; Accepted: February 20, 2014

Yu-Gao Wang; Xian-Yong Wei; Hong-Lei Yan; Zhi-Min Zong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Correlation of lignites in the midway and Wilcox groups of southern Alabama and eastern Mississippi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gulf Coast Paleogene section represents one of the world's most continuous records of cyclic nonmarine through marine sedimentation. Microfossil research has demonstrated the completeness of downdip marine sections; however, the continuity of updip, nonmarine, and marginal marine sections remains relatively uncertain. Lignites occur throughout the Gulf Coast low Paleogene, but to date have not been adequately characterized with the detail necessary for high-resolution correlation. Lignite characteristics, stratigraphic position within Paleogene depositional cycles, and their mode of origin can be used in correlating nonmarine deposits (highstand system tract) to downdip marine deposits (transgressive system tract). Samples were collected for east-central Mississippi and west-central Alabama and analyzed. Principle constituents, comprising over 50%, are inaperturate forms in Midway Group samples and tricolporate forms in Wilcox Group samples. Secondary components, 10-20%, of triporate and monolete/trilete forms occur in both groups. Triporate forms are approximately 25% more abundant in the Wilcox Group samples, whereas monolete/trilete forms remain relatively constant in both groups. Minor components ([le]5%) of bivesticulate, tricolpate, polycolpate, polyporate, and polycolporate forms are present, but show distinct percentage variations between each group. Inaperature forms are present only in the Midway Group and monoporate forms exist only in the Wilcox Group. These group-specific forms, combined with the differences in primary and secondary forms and abundances, allow samples to be formationally assigned base on palynomorpbic signature.

Harrison, D.W. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Overview of the potential for clean coal technology in the Asia-Pacific region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Asia-Pacific economies consume substantial amounts of coal for electricity generation and are potential important markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs). CCTs are defined as those technologies that can substantially reduce emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} resulting from the combustion of coal and lignite in electricity generating power plants. The rate of introduction of CCTs into Asia-Pacific economies varies widely and is broadly related to the level of economic development and environmental problems resulting from coal burning in individual economies. An overview is presented of the trends in electricity generation in the Asia-Pacific region and estimates of the market for CCTs in electricity generation plants to 2010. There are other important markets for CCTs, such as in the iron and steel industry, that are not covered. Governments in all coal-consuming Asia-Pacific economies are examining options for maintaining high levels of economic growth and reducing environmental impacts associated with increased energy consumption. There is a correlation between the expansion in economic activity, commonly measured as the gross domestic product (GDP), and the growth in electricity consumption. In low-income economies the growth rate of electricity consumption usually exceeds the growth rate of GDP. However, in higher income, mature economies (such as Japan) the increase in electricity consumption is often substantially lower than the GDP growth rate. The expansion in coal consumption for electricity generation is the dominant factor in the large increase in coal consumption. Without effective control measures, the projected increase in coal consumption will have a serious impact on environmental quality in many countries in the region. Therefore, there is a need to develop sound policies and strategies at both national and regional levels to reduce the negative environmental effects of increased coal use in Asia.

Johnson, C.J.; Binsheng Li

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z