National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bitu subbitu lignite

  1. Pelletizing lignite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goksel, Mehmet A.

    1983-11-01

    Lignite is formed into high strength pellets having a calorific value of at least 9,500 Btu/lb by blending a sufficient amount of an aqueous base bituminous emulsion with finely-divided raw lignite containing its inherent moisture to form a moistened green mixture containing at least 3 weight % of the bituminous material, based on the total dry weight of the solids, pelletizing the green mixture into discrete green pellets of a predetermined average diameter and drying the green pellets to a predetermined moisture content, preferrably no less than about 5 weight %. Lignite char and mixture of raw lignite and lignite char can be formed into high strength pellets in the same general manner.

  2. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was performed

  3. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger

    2007-03-31

    This 11th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from January 1st through March 31st of 2007. It summarizes the completion of the Prototype testing activity and initial full-scale dryer design, Budget Period 2 activity during that time period. The Design Team completed process design and layouts of air, water, and coal systems. Heyl-Patterson completed dryer drawings and has sent RFPs to several fabricators for build and assembly. Several meetings were held with Barr engineers to finalize arrangement of the drying, air jig, and coal handling systems. Honeywell held meetings do discuss the control system logic and hardware location. By the end of March we had processed nearly 300,000 tons of lignite through the dryer. Outage preparation maintenance activities on a coal transfer hopper restricted operation of the dryer in February and March. The Outage began March 17th. We will not dry coal again until early May when the Outage on Unit No.2 completes. The Budget Period 1 (Phase 1) final report was submitted this quarter. Comments were received from NETL and are being reviewed. The Phase 2 Project Management Plan was submitted to NETL in January 2007. This deliverable also included the Financing Plan. An application for R&D 100 award was submitted in February. The project received an award from the Minnesota Professional Engineering Society's Seven Wonders of Engineering Award and Minnesota ACEC Grand Award in January. To further summarize, the focus this quarter has been on finalizing commercial design and the layout of four dryers behind each Unit. The modification to the coal handling facilities at Coal Creek and incorporation of air jigs to further beneficiate the segregated material the dryers will reject 20 to 30 % of the mercury and sulfur is segregated however this modification will recover the carbon in that stream.

  4. ccpi-lignite | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lignite Fuel Enhancement - Project Brief [PDF-255KB] Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota PROJECT FACT SHEET Increasing Power Plant Efficiency: Lignite Fuel Enhancement [PDF-730KB] (April 2011) PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Report Lignite Fuel Enhancement [PDF-1.4MB] (June 2010) Quarterly Progress Reports April - June 2007 [PDF-65KB] (July 2007) January - March 2007 [PDF-65KB] (Apr 2007) October - December 2006 [PDF-60KB] (Jan 2007) July - September 2006 [PDF-8MB] (Nov 2006) April - June

  5. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT You are accessing a document from...

  6. Multiple-use marketing of lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudson, C.L.

    1993-09-01

    Marketing of lignite faces difficulties due to moisture and sulfur contents, as well as the sodium content, of the ash. The purpose of this study is to determine the economic viability of multiple-use marketing of lignite as a method to increase the use of North Dakota lignite by recapturing lost niche markets. Multiple-use marketing means using lignite and sulfur-capturing additives to clean agricultural wastewater followed by either direct steam and power generation or briquetting to produce a higher-Btu compliance fuel. Cooperative ownership of the resulting business by a coal company and an agriculture processing company helps ensure that lignite remains the coal of choice, especially when the ``good`` attributes of lignites are maximized, while the agricultural company obtains cleaner wastewater and a long-term supply of coal at a set price. The economic viabilities of the following scenarios were investigated: (1) Agriprocessing wastewater treatment using lignite and an additive followed by (2) the production of compliance fuel for resale or on-site cogeneration of steam and electricity. Laboratory tests were performed utilizing potato-processing plant wastewater with lignite and lime sludge.

  7. Lignite pellets and methods of agglomerating or pelletizing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Albert F.; Blaustein, Eric W.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.; Garvin, John P.; McKeever, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    The specification discloses lignite pellets which are relatively hard, dust resistant, of generally uniform size and free from spontaneous ignition and general degradation. Also disclosed are methods for making such pellets which involve crushing as mined lignite, mixing said lignite with a binder such as asphalt, forming the lignite binder mixture into pellets, and drying the pellets.

  8. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  9. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  10. NAFTA opportunities: Bituminous coal and lignite mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) secures and improves market access in Mexico and Canada for the United States bituminous coal and lignite mining sector. Canada is one of the United States' largest export markets for bituminous coal and lignite, with exports of $486.7 million in 1992. Conversely, the Mexican market is one of the smallest export markets for U.S. producers with exports of $1.8 million in 1992. Together, however, Canada and Mexico represent approximately 15 percent of total U.S. coal exports. The report presents a sectoral analysis.

  11. Survey of synfuel technology for lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The most important market for lignite will continue to be the electric utility industry, where it is used to fuel large pc-fired boilers serving major regional power grids. However, the growth of this market and thechnology is being challenged by new and more stringent environmental control requirements, including the international concern over acid rain. Environmental and economic issues could either encourage or limit the development of a synfuels market for lignite depending on the cost effectiveness of the technological solutions that are developed. Clearly the United States needs to develop its coal resources to reduce dependence on imported oil. However, demand for coal derived substitute petroleum will be constrained by cost for the forseeable future. Government policy initiatives and new technology will be the keys to removing these constraints in the decades ahead. A crossover point with respect to petroleum and natural gas will be reached at some point in the future, which will allow synthetic fuels to penetrate the markets now served by oil and gas. Those of us who are today concerned with the development of lignite resources can look forward to participating in the major synfuels market that will emerge when those economic conditions are realized.

  12. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POWDERED ACTIVATED...

  13. ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 02 PETROLEUM; 01 COAL, LIGNITE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report Hoffman, S. 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 02 PETROLEUM; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; PHILIPPINES; ECONOMIC...

  14. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M.; Ljubicic, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  15. The washability of lignites for clay removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U.

    2008-07-01

    In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

  16. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  17. Gidaspow, D.; Bezburuah, R.; Ding, J. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fluidized beds: Kinetic theory approach Gidaspow, D.; Bezburuah, R.; Ding, J. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 42 ENGINEERING; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUSMATHEMATICS,...

  18. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  19. Long term contracts, expansion, innovation and stability: North Dakota's lignite mines thrive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-08-15

    North Dakota's lignite coal industry is mainly located in three countries in the central part of the state. Its large surface lignite mines are tied through long-term (20-40 years) contracts to power plants. The article talks about operations at three of the most productive mines - the Freedom mine, Falkirk mine and Center Mine. 4 figs.

  20. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number

  1. Kinetics of flash hydrogenation of lignite and subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, B; Fallon, P T; Steinberg, M

    1980-01-01

    A reaction model, based on a single coal particle surrounded by H/sub 2/ gas, is developed for the hydrogenation of lignite and subbituminous coal. Conversion data from experiments conducted at various pressures, temperatures, particle residence times and gas residence times are correlated to calculate activation energies and to obtain one set of kinetic parameters. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process variables, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion, satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The conversion data obtained from hydrogenation experiments using subbituminous coal are correlated using similar techniques. The results obtained from data analysis of the two types of coals are compared. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  2. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  3. DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam March 10, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- A U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) team of regional partners has begun injecting CO2 into a deep lignite coal seam in Burke County, North Dakota, to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of geologic CO2 storage in the U.S. Great Plains region. Ultimately,

  4. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  5. Microbial desulphurization of Turkish lignites by White Rot Fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinar Aytar; Mesut Sam; Ahmet Cabuk

    2008-03-15

    Biodesulphurization experiments were carried out with Tuncbilek lignite, characterized by high sulfur content (2.59%) by using Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME 446. At fungal biomass studies, the effects of various parameters on fungal desulphurization of coals such as pH, temperature, pulp density, incubation time, and sterilization were investigated for both microorganisms. The maximum desulphurization (40%) was observed after 6 days of incubation at 35{sup o}C for T. versicolor. The optimum pH was measured at 6, and the agitation rate was fixed at 125 rpm. The pulp density was found as 5% (w/v) for the high extent of desulphurization. Also, calorific value did not change during this experiment. However, the ash and metal contents of coal were eliminated. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Co-combustion of pellets from Soma lignite and waste dusts of furniture works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deveci, N.D.; Yilgin, M.; Pehlivan, D.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, volatiles and char combustion behaviors of the fuel pellets prepared from a low quality lignite and the dusts of furniture works and their various blends were investigated in an experimental fixed bed combustion system through which air flowed by natural convection. Combustion data obtained for varied bed temperatures, mass of pellets, and blend compositions has showed that ignition times of the pellets decreased and volatiles combustion rates tended to increase with the burning temperature. It was concluded that some synergy had existed between lignite and lower ratios of furniture work dusts, which was indicated by a prompt effect on the volatiles combustion rates. Char combustion rates of blend pellets have depended predominantly on the amount of lignite in the blend. The amounts of combustion residues of the pellets were considerably higher than those calculated from individual ash contents of the raw materials and related to lignite ratio in the blends.

  7. DOE-Sponsored Field Test Finds Potential for Permanent Storage of CO2 in Lignite Seams

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A field test sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy has demonstrated that opportunities to permanently store carbon in unmineable seams of lignite may be more widespread than previously documented.

  8. Design features of first of its kind AFBC high pressure boiler for Kutch lignite fuel in Gujarat, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokashi, A.; Diwakar, K.W.

    1998-07-01

    Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Ltd. (GHCL) of Gujarat State in India is one of the largest manufacturers of Soda Ash with modern technology from Akzo of the Netherlands. GHCL with earlier experience in firing lignite on a travagrate boiler and with a converted fluidized bed boiler has very clearly identified the problem area for review, and with that rich experience awarded a contract to Thermax Babcock and Wilcox Ltd. (TBW), Pune, India. Accordingly, a boiler has been designed to suit Kutch Lignite and coal with AFBC technology. This paper discusses the complete design of the boiler, effects of Kutch Lignite, its composition, thermal efficiency on coal as well as lignite, various performance parameters and guarantees, sizing arrangements of pressure parts, feeding arrangement and specially designed fluidizing bed combustor, various instrumentation and control loops. This paper discusses all the above features of this high-pressure boiler which can be an ideal boiler for the Kutch lignite fuel.

  9. Bio-liquefaction/solubilization of lignitic humic acids by white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbeyli, I.Y.; Palantoken, A.; Piskin, S.; Peksel, A.; Kuzu, H.

    2006-08-15

    Humic acid samples obtained from lignite were liquefied/solubilized by using white-rot fungus, and chemical characterization of the products was investigated by FTIR and GC-MS techniques. Prior to the microbial treatment, raw lignite was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid separately, and then humic acids were extracted by alkali solution. The prepared humic acid samples were placed on the agar surface of the fungus and liquid products formed by microbial affects were collected. The products were analyzed and the chemical properties were compared. The results show that oxidation agent and oxidation degree affect composition of the liquid products formed by microbial attack.

  10. Co-liquefaction of the Elbistan Lignite and Poplar Sawdust. Part I: The Effect of the Liquefaction Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaca, H.; Acar, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Keklik, I.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust, and the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and the poplar sawdust in an inert atmosphere and in non-catalytic conditions have been examined. Also, the effects of solvent/coal ratio and stirring speed on the total conversion derived as the result of the liquefaction process was attempted to be determined. Based on the results, although the effects of the solvent/coal ratio and the stirring speed on total conversion are similar for both the Elbistan lignite and the poplar sawdust, it was also noted that, under similar conditions, the conversion for the poplar sawdust was higher, as compared to the conversion of the Elbistan lignite. As the result of the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust under inert atmospheric conditions, the total conversion was increased partially, depending on both solvent/coal ratio and the speed of stirring. However, it was also noted that the total conversion did not change to a significant extent in high solvent/coal ratios and in stirring speed. As the result of the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust under inert atmospheric conditions, total conversion was increased, based on the solvent/coal ratio. However, as in the case of the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust, it was noted that the high solvent/coal ratios (i.e., solvent/coal ratios of higher than 2/1) did not have a significant effect on the total conversion that was derived as the result of the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust.

  11. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  12. Kinetics and mechanisms of hydroliquefaction and hydrogasification of lignite. [Cellulose, wood, manure, municipal waste, coal of various ranks, fuel oil and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, A.H.; Kranich, W.L.; Geureuz, K.

    1981-01-01

    A high pressure, continuous, stirred-tank reactor system has been constructed for the study of the catalytic liquefaction of North Dakota lignite slurried in anthracene oil. The conversion of lignite using a cobalt-molybdenum on alumina catalyst and the distribution of products as preasphaltenes, asphaltenes, oils and gases has been studied at the following conditions: temperature, 375 to 440/sup 0/C; pressure, 1000 to 1600 psig; agitator speed, 800 to 1500 rpm; catalyst concentration, 0 to 10% (based on lignite); initial lignite concentration, 5 to 30%; and space time, 16 to 52 minutes. At reactor pressures above 1500 psig and agitator speeds above 1000 rpm, reaction rate was essentially independent of pressure. At catalyst concentrations above 1% (based on lignite), the conversion of lignite was essentially independent of catalyst concentration. Experiments were conducted above these limits to find the effect on lignite conversion rate, of initial lignite concentration, and space time, or degree of conversion. The results at constant temperature were correlated by an equation which is given in the report. The relationship between the rate constant, K, and temperature, and between the maximum conversion and temperature was established. The effect of reaction conditions on the distribution of products was studied. In the presence of catalyst, the oil yield was increased, even under conditions where the catalyst did not affect overall lignite conversion. Under the most favorable conditions the oil yield was a little better than that obtained by Cronauer in the uncatalyzed hydroliquefaction of subbituminous coal at similar temperature and pressure.

  13. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and

  14. Lignite air-steam gasification in the fluidized bed of iron-containing slag catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Yu.

    1995-12-01

    The influence of fluidized bed of iron-containing slag particles on air-steam gasification of powdered Kansk-Achinsk lignite in entrained flow was studied in pilot installation with productivity about 60 kg per hour. Slag of Martin process and boiler slag were used as catalytic active materials until their complete mechanical attrition. Two following methods of catalytic gasification of lignite were compared: the partial gasification in stationary fluidized bed of slag particles with degree of fuel conversion 40-70% and complete gasification in circulating bed of slag particles. In the first case only the most reactive part of fuel is gasified with the simultaneously formation of porous carbon residue with good sorption ability. It was found the catalytic fluidized bed improves heat transfer from combustion to reduction zone of gas-generator and increases the rate of fuel conversion at the temperature range 900-1000{degrees}C. At these temperatures the degree of conversion is depended considerably on the duration time of fuel particles in the catalytic fluidized bed. The influence of catalytic fluidized bed height and velocity of reaction mixture on the temperature profiles in the gas-generator was studied. The optimal relationship was found between the fluidized bed height and velocity of flow which makes possible to produce the gas with higher calorific value at maximum degree of fuel conversion.

  15. JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

    2008-02-29

    Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and

  16. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  17. LARGE-SCALE MECURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY TESTING FOR LIGNITE-FIRED UTILITIES-OXIDATION SYSTEMS FOR WET FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Jeffrey S. Thompson

    2004-03-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a consortium-based effort directed toward resolving the mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. Specifically, the EERC team--the EERC, EPRI, URS, ADA-ES, Babcock & Wilcox, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, SaskPower, and the Mercury Task Force, which includes Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Otter Tail Power Company, Great River Energy, Texas Utilities (TXU), Montana-Dakota Utilities Co., Minnkota Power Cooperative, BNI Coal Ltd., Dakota Westmoreland Corporation, and the North American Coal Company--has undertaken a project to significantly and cost-effectively oxidize elemental mercury in lignite combustion gases, followed by capture in a wet scrubber. This approach will be applicable to virtually every lignite utility in the United States and Canada and potentially impact subbituminous utilities. The oxidation process is proven at the pilot-scale and in short-term full-scale tests. Additional optimization is continuing on oxidation technologies, and this project focuses on longer-term full-scale testing. The lignite industry has been proactive in advancing the understanding of and identifying control options for Hg in lignite combustion flue gases. Approximately 1 year ago, the EERC and EPRI began a series of Hg-related discussions with the Mercury Task Force as well as utilities firing Texas and Saskatchewan lignites. This project is one of three being undertaken by the consortium to perform large-scale Hg control technology testing to address the specific needs and challenges to be met in controlling Hg from lignite-fired power plants. This project involves Hg oxidation upstream of a system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The team involved in conducting the technical aspects of the project includes the EERC, Babcock & Wilcox, URS, and ADA-ES. The host sites include Minnkota Power Cooperative Milton R. Young

  18. Fly ash from Texas lignite and western subbituminous coal: a comparative characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, D. R.; Benson, S. A.; McCollor, D. P.; Miller, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    As examples, we use two Jackson group lignites from Atascosa and Fayette Counties, Texas, and a Green River Region subbituminous coal from Routt County, Colorado. The composition of individual fly ash particles was determined using scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe, with support from x-ray diffraction of bulk ash. Using particle sample populations large enough to permit statistical treatment, we describe the relationship of composition to particle size and the correlation between elemental concentrations, as well as particle size and composition distributions. Correlations are displayed as data maps which show the complete range of observed variation among these parameters, emphasizing the importance of coal variability. We next use this data to produce a population distribution of ash particle resistivities calculated with Bickelhaupt's model. The relationship between calculated resistivity and particle size is also displayed, and the results are compared with measured values. 7 figures.

  19. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  20. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

    2007-03-31

    Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

  2. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any balance

  3. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Mike J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang; Jill M. Zola

    2004-02-01

    North Dakota lignite-fired power plants have shown a limited ability to control mercury emissions in currently installed electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), dry scrubbers, and wet scrubbers (1). This low level of control can be attributed to the high proportions of Hg{sup 0} present in the flue gas. Speciation of Hg in flue gases analyzed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) information collection request (ICR) for Hg data showed that Hg{sup 0} ranged from 56% to 96% and oxidized mercury ranged from 4% to 44%. The Hg emitted from power plants firing North Dakota lignites ranged from 45% to 91% of the total Hg, with the emitted Hg being greater than 85% elemental. The higher levels of oxidized mercury were only found in a fluidized-bed combustion system. Typically, the form of Hg in the pulverized and cyclone-fired units was dominated by Hg{sup 0} at greater than 85%, and the average amount of Hg{sup 0} emitted from North Dakota power plants was 6.7 lb/TBtu (1, 2). The overall objective of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is to develop and evaluate advanced and innovative concepts for controlling Hg emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants by 50%-90% at costs of one-half to three-fourths of current estimated costs. The specific objectives are focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in wet and dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in ESPs and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The scientific approach to solving the problems associated with controlling Hg emissions from lignite-fired power plants involves conducting testing of the following processes and technologies that have shown promise on a bench, pilot, or field scale: (1) activated carbon injection (ACI) upstream of an ESP

  4. Industrial properties of lignitic and lignocellulosic fly ashes from Turkish sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.; Cetin, S.

    2006-01-21

    Fly ash is an inorganic matter from combustion of the carbonaceous solid fuels. More than half the electricity in Turkey is produced from lignite-fired power plants. This energy production has resulted in the formation of more than 13 million tons of fly ash waste annually. The presence of carbon in fly ash inducing common faults include adding unwanted black color and adsorbing process or product materials such as water and chemicals. One of the reasons for not using fly ash directly is its carbon content. For some uses carbon must be lower than 3%. Fly ash has been used for partial replacement of cement, aggregate, or both for nearly 70 years, and it is still used on a very limited scale in Turkey. The heavy metal content of industrial wastewaters is an important source of environmental pollution. Each of the three major oxides (SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in fly ash can be ideal as a metal adsorbent.

  5. JV Task 75 - Lignite Fuel Enhancement via Air-Jigging Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Lamb; Steven Benson; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-03-01

    Several North Dakota lignite coals from the Falkirk Mine were processed in a 5-ton-per-hour dry coal-cleaning plant. The plant uses air-jigging technology to separate undesirable ash constituents as well as sulfur and mercury. The results of this study indicate average ash, sulfur, and mercury reductions on a weight basis of 15%, 22%, and 28%, respectively. The average heating value was increased by 2% on a Btu/lb basis. Two computer models were used to understand the impact of a cleaned fuel on boiler performance: PCQUEST{reg_sign} and Vista. The PCQUEST model indicated improvements in slagging and fouling potential when cleaned coals are used over feed coals. The Vista model was set up to simulate coal performance and economics at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station. In all cases, the cleaned fuel performed better than the original feed coal, with economic benefits being realized for all fuels tested. The model also indicated that one fuel considered to be unusable before cleaning was transformed into a potentially salable product. While these data indicate full-scale implementation of air-jigging technology may be beneficial to the mine and the plant, complete economic analysis, including payback period, is needed to make the final decision to implement.

  6. STUDIES OF THE SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF LOW RANK COALS AND LIGNITES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph M. Okoh; Joseph N.D. Dodoo

    2005-07-26

    Spontaneous combustion has always been a problem in coal utilization especially in the storage and transportation of coal. In the United States, approximately 11% of underground coal mine fires are attributed to spontaneous coal combustion. The incidence of such fires is expected to increase with increased consumption of lower rank coals. The cause is usually suspected to be the reabsorption of moisture and oxidation. To understand the mechanisms of spontaneous combustion this study was conducted to (1) define the initial and final products during the low temperature (10 to 60 C) oxidation of coal at different partial pressures of O{sub 2}, (2) determine the rate of oxidation, and (3) measure the reaction enthalpy. The reaction rate (R) and propensity towards spontaneous combustion were evaluated in terms of the initial rate method for the mass gained due to adsorbed O{sub 2}. Equipment that was used consisted of a FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer), an accelerated surface area porosimeter (ASAP, Micromeritics model 2010), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, Cahn Microbalance TG 121) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, Q1000, thermal analysis instruments). Their combination yielded data that established a relation between adsorption of oxygen and reaction enthalpy. The head space/ gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer system (HS/GC/MS) was used to identify volatiles evolved during oxidation. The coal samples used were Beulah lignite and Wyodak (sub-bituminous). Oxygen (O{sub 2}) absorption rates ranged from 0.202 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.20 (Beulah pyrolyzed at 300 C) to 6.05 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.8 (wyodak aged and pyrolyzed at 300 C). Aging of coal followed by pyrolysis was observed to contribute to higher reaction rates. Reaction enthalpies ranged from 0.42 to 1580 kcal/gm/mol O{sub 2}.

  7. Design features of first of its kind AFBC high pressure boiler for Kutch lignite fuel in Gujarat, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diwakar, K.K.; Mokashi, A.H.

    1999-11-01

    Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Limited (GHCL) in Gujarat State in India is one of the largest manufacturers of Soda Ash with modern most technology from Akzo of Neitherland. GHCL with earlier experience of firing of kind of lignite on travagrate boiler and with converted fluidized bed boiler has very clearly identified the problem areas for review and with that rich experience awarded contract to Thermax Babcock and Wilcox Limited (TBW), Pune, India a joint venture company of Thermax Limited, Pune, India and Babcock and Wilcox, USA. Accordingly, boiler has been designed to suit Kutch Lignite and Coal with AFBC Technology, Single Drum Design, top supported with underbed feeding system. Capacity of boiler is 90 Ton/Hr with design pressure of 130 kg/cm{sup 2} with superheated steam temperature of 510 C. This is the first boiler in India with such a high pressure and temperature conditions for this capacity firing lignite. Other first of its kind features include single drum boiler convection bank made with headers and tubes, riffled inbed evaporator tubes, erosion protection by surface coating and not by studs, line bed system for inert material, no soot blowers, specially designed double hinged SS supports for inbed superheater coils etc. This boiler also has a provision of over fire air arrangement for better combustion split. Other unique features include the start-up arrangement by HSD burners which can take the boiler up to 30% load, provision for flue gas recirculation system, specially designed SS air distribution nozzles, separate compartments for under feed, ash drain and air cooled distribution plate with 1:5 turndown. The paper discusses all the above design features.

  8. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  9. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-09-30

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill{trademark}. The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  10. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  11. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

  12. Development of HUMASORB{trademark}, a lignite derived humic acid for removal of metals and organic contaminants from groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanjay, H.G.; Srivastave, K.C.; Walia, D.S.

    1995-10-01

    Heavy metal and organic contamination of surface and groundwater systems is a major environmental concern. The contamination is primarily due to improperly disposed industrial wastes. The presence of toxic heavy metal ions, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides in water is of great concern and could affect the safety of drinking water. Decontamination of surface and groundwater can be achieved using a broad spectrum of treatment options such as precipitation, ion-exchange, microbial digestion, membrane separation, activated carbon adsorption, etc. The state of the art technologies for treatment of contaminated water however, can in one pass remediate only one class of contaminants, i.e., either VOCs (activated carbon) or heavy metals (ion exchange). This would require the use of at a minimum, two different stepwise processes to remediate a site. The groundwater contamination at different Department of Energy (DOE) sites (e.g., Hanford) is due to the presence of both VOCs and heavy metals. The two-step approach increases the cost of remediation. To overcome the sequential treatment of contaminated streams to remove both organics and metals, a novel material having properties to remove both classes of contaminants in one step is being developed as part of this project.The objective of this project is to develop a lignite-derived adsorbent, Humasorb{sup TM} to remove heavy metals and organics from ground water and surface water streams.

  13. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  14. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  16. Subtask 4.4 - North Dakota Lignite Fuel Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swanson

    2009-03-15

    This project will add the capability for the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to conduct Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst testing at a scale consistent with the benchscale continuous fluid-bed reactor. This capability will enable various vendors to test their FT catalysts on actual coal-derived syngas. The project goals were to also develop some EERC expertise with issues associated with FT liquid production. A study by Dr. Calvin Bartholmew at Brigham Young University (BYU) is further apparent that it is possible to build a single reactor (rather than multiple reactors of different sizes) consisting of three 1-inch-diameter, 10 foot-long tubes to accommodate the anticipated range of catalytic activities and process conditions. However, this single reactor should ideally be designed to operate over a significant range of recycle ratio (e.g., 1-10), temperature (25-400 C), pressure (10-25 bar), flow rate (1-6 scfm), and cooling duty (0.2-1.5 kW). It should have the flexibility of flowing gas to one, two, or three tubes. Based on the recommended design specifications provided by BYU while staying within the approved budget, the EERC decided to build a two fixed-bed reactor system with the capability to add a third reactor at a later time. This system was constructed to be modular and sized such that it can fit into the area around the EERC continuous fluid-bed reactor or also be located in explosion-rated areas such as the gasification tower next to the EERC pilot-scale transport reactor or in the National Center for Hydrogen Technology building high-bay area.

  17. Potential products from North Dakota lignite fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, G R

    1980-06-01

    Four major areas where fly ash can be used are explored. Concrete building blocks with fly ash replacing 50% of the portland cement have proven to be successful using current ASTM standards. Results in the ceramics area show that a ceramic-like product using fly ash and crushed glass with a small amount of clay as a green binder. Some preliminary results using sulfur ash in building materials are reported and with results of making wallboard from ash. (MHR)

  18. Observations on test stockpiles of dried lignite and subbituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, S A; Paulson, L E; Ellman, R C

    1980-01-01

    Dried low rank coal stockpiles were monitored from 1974 to 1980. Moisture content, heating value, and pile temperature have shown little change since compaction. All indications are that dried coal can be stockpiled for extended periods.

  19. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy &...

  20. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National...

  1. EIA - Weekly U.S. Coal Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rounding. Bituminous and Lignite Total includes bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite, and Anthracite Total includes Pennsylvania anthracite. The States in...

  2. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  3. Recolonization patterns of ants in a rehabilitated lignite mine in central Italy: Potential for the use of Mediterranean ants as indicators of restoration processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ottonetti, L.; Tucci, L.; Santini, G.

    2006-03-15

    Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) assemblages were sampled with pitfall traps in three different habitats associated with a rehabilitated mine district and in undisturbed forests in Tuscany, Italy. The four habitats were (1) open fields (3-4 years old); (2) a middle-age mixed plantation (10 years); (3) an old-age mixed plantation (20 years); and (4) an oak woodland (40 years) not directly affected by mining activities. The aim of the study was to analyze ant recolonization patterns in order to provide insights on the use of Mediterranean ant fauna as indicators of restoration processes. Species richness and diversity were not significantly different among the four habitats. However, multivariate analyses showed that the assemblages in the different habitats were clearly differentiated, with similarity relationships reflecting a successional gradient among rehabilitated sites. The observed patterns of functional group changes along the gradient broadly accord with those of previous studies in other biogeographic regions. These were (1) a decrease of dominant Dolichoderinae and opportunists; (2) an increase in the proportion of cold-climate specialists; and (3) the appearance of the Cryptic species in the oldest plantations, with a maximum of abundance in the woodland. In conclusion, the results of our study supported the use of Mediterranean ants as a suitable tool for biomonitoring of restoration processes, and in particular, the functional group approach proved a valuable framework to better interpret local trends in terms of global ecological patterns. Further research is, however, needed in order to obtain a reliable classification of Mediterranean ant functional groups.

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (1) cements (1) co2 reservoirs (1) co2 thermodynamic properties (1) coal, lignite, and peat (1) coal, lignite, and peat carbon sequestration (1) cosub 2 flux (1) cosub 2 ...

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    Filter Results Filter by Subject coal, lignite, and peat (1) materials science (1) Filter ... Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Polyakov, Oleg ...

  6. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    J R Oswald W J COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT BIOMASS FUELS BIOMASS PRODUCTION CARBON DIOXIDE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL METABOLISM WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION ALGAE CULTIVATION COAL ECONOMIC...

  7. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    W.J. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOMASS; PRODUCTION; CARBON DIOXIDE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; METABOLISM; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; ALGAE; CULTIVATION; COAL;...

  8. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOMASS; PRODUCTION; CARBON DIOXIDE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; METABOLISM; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; ALGAE; CULTIVATION; COAL;...

  9. Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource? (Technical Report) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; AGRICULTURAL WASTES; ASH CONTENT; BAMBOO; BIOMASS; ENERGY RECOVERY ...

  10. Rajendran, N. 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ACI Committee 229 Rajendran, N. 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; FLY ASH; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; BACKFILLING; THERMAL...

  11. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CLSM reported by ACI Committee Rajendran N MATERIALS SCIENCE FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT FLY ASH WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION BACKFILLING THERMAL INSULATION SHOCK...

  12. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids Yang Shiyong Stock L M COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT CHEMISTRY COAL LIQUIDS HYDROGENATION...

  13. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 40 CHEMISTRY; COAL LIQUIDS;...

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter Results Filter by Subject coal, lignite, and peat (2) hydrogen (2) fossil-fueled ... which would reduce the cost of capture. Hydrogen separation membranes from Commonwealth ...

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter Results Filter by Subject coal, lignite, and peat (4) hydrogen (3) synthetic fuels ... - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Swanson, Michael ...

  16. Annual Energy Review 2006 - June 2007

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    culm, bitumi- nous gob, and lignite waste that are consumed by the electric power industrial sectors. Notes: * Production categories are estimated; other data are...

  17. Annual Energy Review 2007 - June 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    culm, bitumi- nous gob, and lignite waste that are consumed by the electric power industrial sectors. Notes: * Production categories are estimated; other data are...

  18. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; OPTIMIZATION; PARTICLE SIZE; PERFORMANCE; RESOLUTION; SEGREGATION Word Cloud More Like This Full...

  19. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL PREPARATION PLANTS; OPTIMIZATION; PERSONNEL; PLANNING; PROCUREMENT; VIRGINIA Word Cloud More Like This Full Text...

  20. Second Generation PFBC Systems R&D (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS; BURNERS; GAS TURBINES; PILOT PLANTS; STEAM GENERATION; SULFUR; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; DESIGN Word Cloud More Like This ...

  1. Second-Generation PFBC Systems R&D (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS; BURNERS; EFFICIENCY; GAS TURBINES; PILOT PLANTS; STEAM GENERATION; SULFUR; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; DESIGN Word Cloud More ...

  2. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

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    ... (2) mathematical models (2) solubility (2) sorptive properties (2) adsorbents (1) air pollution control (1) coal, lignite, and peat (1) computerized simulation (1) Filter by ...

  3. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Energy (US) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT;...

  4. An improved multiscale model for dilute turbulent gas particle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    as the scale-up in the design of circulating fluidized combustor and coal gasifications. ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND ...

  5. project information | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Georgia Tech Research Corporation Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids FE0005476 ...

  6. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Foster Wheeler Dev Corp Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; AMMONIA; BOILERS; COAL; ...

  7. Gasification of chars produced under simulated in situ processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; CHARS; GASIFICATION; COAL; PYROLYSIS; IN-SITU GASIFICATION; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; ...

  8. Technical and economic assessment on coal-fired power generation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; CHINA; FOSSIL-FUEL POWER PLANTS; SULFUR DIOXIDE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; FLUE GAS; DESULFURIZATION; WASTE ...

  9. The energy messiah (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COMBUSTION; BRIQUETS; COAL; AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT; CHINA; CARBON DIOXIDE; SOLID ...

  10. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOMASS; PRODUCTION; CARBON DIOXIDE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; METABOLISM; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; ALGAE; CULTIVATION; COAL; ...

  11. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Polyakov, Oleg 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from...

  12. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China Fletcher Jerald COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT The project currently is composed of six specific tasks three...

  13. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion of Low Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Polyakov Oleg COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from...

  14. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report",,,,"Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)","USDOE","01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Clean Coal Technology; Coal-Fuels;...

  15. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility Levasseur, Armand 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Clean Coal Technology; Coal-Fuels;...

  16. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Assessment of the petroleum coal and geothermal resources of the economic community of West African states ECOWAS region Mattick R E comp PETROLEUM COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT GEOTHERMAL...

  17. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON Gerald H Luttrell Chris J Barbee Peter J Bethell Chris J Wood COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT COAL DESIGN DIAMONDS DOLOMITE ECONOMICS EFFICIENCY EVALUATION...

  18. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    "NT0000749",,"Technical Report",,,,"Southern Company Services Incorporated","USDOE","01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES",,"The...

  19. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pittsburgh, PA (United States)","DOE; USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)","01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; CHEMICAL REACTORS; COST; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; METHANOL;...

  20. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Capture and Storage Development Project at West Virginia University Fletcher Jerald COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT COAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES COAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES The original...

  1. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (1) carbon dioxide (1) carcinogens (1) chemical properties (1) civil engineering (1) coal, lignite, and peat (1) disinfectants (1) dose-response relationships (1) drinking water...

  2. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of circulating fluidized beds Kinetic theory approach Gidaspow D Bezburuah R Ding J COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT ENGINEERING GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS MATHEMATICS COMPUTING AND...

  3. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OPTIMIZATON Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; DESIGN; DIAMONDS; DOLOMITE; ECONOMICS; EFFICIENCY;...

  4. Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China Fletcher, Jerald 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT The project currently is composed of six specific tasks - three...

  5. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fixed bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications Prakash A Bendale P G COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT CHEMICAL REACTORS COST COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS METHANOL SYNTHESIS...

  6. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Geothermal Tech Pgm)","Not Available","01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; BENTONITE; BROWN COAL; DRILLING; DRILLING...

  7. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report",,,,"Virginia Polytech Institute and State University","USDOE","01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; DESIGN; DIAMONDS; DOLOMITE; ECONOMICS; EFFICIENCY;...

  8. U.S. China Carbon Capture and Storage Development Project at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Capture and Storage Development Project at West Virginia University Fletcher, Jerald 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT COAL - ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES COAL - ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES The...

  9. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    University Research Corporation","USDOE; USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Clean Coal (FE-20)","01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT COAL - ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES",,"The original...

  10. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Task Testing in Alstom s MW sub th sub Boiler Simulation Facility Levasseur Armand COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Clean Coal Technology Coal Fuels Industrial and...

  11. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility None COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES The Power Systems...

  12. liquefaction applications Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G. 01 COAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; CHEMICAL REACTORS; COST; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; METHANOL;...

  13. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (United States); Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY (United States)","USDOE","01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT",,"Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from...

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (2) alaska (1) arctic ocean (1) atmospheric precipitations (1) attenuation (1) climatic change (1) coal, lignite, and peat (1) data analysis (1) detection (1) general and ...

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2014" "(dollars per short ton)" "Coal-Producing State","Bituminous","Subbituminous","Lignite","Anthracite","Total" ...

  16. Task 6.5 - Gas Separation and Hot-Gas Cleanup (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 08 HYDROGEN; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CERAMICS; COMBINED ...

  17. Potential trace element emissions from the gasification of Illinois...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; ASHES; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; COAL; COAL GASIFICATION PLANTS; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; ACTIVATION ANALYSIS; AIR POLLUTION...

  18. Reducing the environmental impact on solid wastes from a fluidized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; WASTE MANAGEMENT; AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; CALCIUM OXIDES; CHEMICAL ACTIVATION; COMPARATIVE ...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... fuels (4) combustion (3) combustors (3) -- coal, lignite, & peat-- combustion (2) air pollution control (2) chemical reactions (2) combined-cycle power plants (2) control (2) ...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lignite, and peat (8) cocombustion (8) biomass fuels (7) classical and quantum ... Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant ...

  1. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Fossil Energy Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; Flue Gas; Flue Gas; Mercury; Mercury; ...

  2. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND ...

  3. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (2) form factors (2) quantum chromodynamics (2) boson-exchange models (1) coal (1) coal, lignite, and peat (1) deep inelastic scattering (1) deposition (1) Filter by ...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (2) adsorption (1) alloys (1) basic biological sciences (1) climate change (1) coal, lignite, and peat (1) coatings (1) corrosion (1) deepwater viscosity standard (1) ...

  5. Ab initio thermodynamic approach to identify mixed solid sorbents...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 03 NATURAL GAS; 37 INORGANIC, ...

  6. Recent Developments in Geothermal Drilling Fluids (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-temperature mud consisting primarily of sepiolite, bentonite, and brown coal has ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND ...

  7. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... biological sciences (1) climate change (1) coal, lignite, and peat (1) coatings (1) ... membranes to H2S, a common contaminant in coal gasification streams, can cause membrane ...

  8. Sample Annual Report for SCC (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE transportation fuels, post-syngas production, coal-biomass to liquids, ...

  9. A Novel Theoretical Method to Search Good Candidates of Solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    many technologies have been developing to separate and capture CO2 from coal gasifier. ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND ...

  10. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... properties (3) absorption (2) alkaline earth metals (2) carbon capture (2) coal, lignite, and peat (2) density functional theory (2) energy accounting (2) engineering ...

  11. A Hybrid Gas Cleaning Process for Production of Ultraclean Syngas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a wide variety of carbonaceous feedstocks (coal, petcoke, resids, biomass, etc.) into ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND ...

  12. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter Results Filter by Subject materials science (9) environmental sciences (8) inorganic, organic, physical, and analytical chemistry (6) coal, lignite, and peat (5) phonons (5) ...

  13. DOE/EIA-M059(2010)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    lignite, and premium), sulfur content (compliancelow, medium, high), and mining type (deep, surface, above ground, underground). U.S. Energy Information Administration NEMS...

  14. APPENDIX B

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    lignite, and premium), sulfur content (compliancelow, medium, high), and mining type (deep, surface, above ground, underground). These curves are linked to 14 coal demand...

  15. PMMpart1.PDF

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    lignite, and premium), sulfur content (compliancelow, medium, high), and mining type (deep, surface, above ground, underground). These curves are linked to 14 coal demand...

  16. APPENDIX B

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    lignite, and premium), sulfur content (compliancelow, medium, high), and mining type (deep, surface, above ground, underground). U.S. Energy Information Administration NEMS...

  17. DOE/EIA-M059(2007)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    lignite, and premium), sulfur content (compliancelow, medium, high), and mining type (deep, surface, above ground, underground). These curves are linked to 14 coal demand...

  18. Energy Information Administration NEMS Petroleum Market Model...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    lignite, and premium), sulfur content (compliancelow, medium, high), and mining type (deep, surface, above ground, underground). These curves are linked to 14 coal demand...

  19. Characterization of suspended flue gas particle systems with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; CASCADE IMPACTORS; PERFORMANCE TESTING; FLUE GAS; PARTICLE SIZE; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; AIR FILTERS; DISTRIBUTION; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; ...

  20. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Philippines Asia Pacific energy series Country report Hoffman S ENERGY PLANNING POLICY AND ECONOMY PETROLEUM COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT PHILIPPINES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENERGY POLICY...

  1. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Center, Honolulu, HI (USA). Resource Systems Inst.","Not Available","29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 02 PETROLEUM; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; PHILIPPINES; ECONOMIC...

  2. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2008. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 02 PETROLEUM; 03 NATURAL GAS; 08 HYDROGEN; ALKENES; AMMONIA; CERAMICS; COAL ...

  3. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2010. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 02 PETROLEUM; 03 NATURAL GAS; 08 HYDROGEN; ALKENES; AMMONIA; CERAMICS; COAL ...

  4. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2009. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 02 PETROLEUM; 03 NATURAL GAS; 08 HYDROGEN; ALKENES; AMMONIA; CERAMICS; COAL ...

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Filter Results Filter by Subject hydrogen (2) coal, lignite, and peat (1) Filter ... Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - ...

  6. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range ... Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 03 NATURAL GAS; 08 HYDROGEN; AMBIENT TEMPERATURE; ...

  7. Light Absorption Properties and Radiative Effects of Primary...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and their uncertainties for the bulk POA emitted from biomassbiofuel, lignite, propane, and oil combustion sources. In particular, we parametrize the kOA of biomass...

  8. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; AMMONIA; BOILERS; COAL; COMBUSTION; COMBUSTORS; CONTROL SYSTEMS; DESIGN; FLUE GAS; POLLUTION CONTROL; NITROUS OXIDE Word Cloud More Like This ...

  9. bectno-recyclone | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Final Reports Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone ... NOx Control from Lignite-Fired Cyclone Boilers Appendix 4: ... Appendix 5: Balance of Plant Details Appendix 6 Test ...

  10. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility ... are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, ... Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 54 ...

  11. Liquefaction/solubilization of low-rank Turkish coals by white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbeyli, I.Y.; Palantoken, A.; Piskin, S.; Kuzu, H.; Peksel, A.

    2006-08-15

    Microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization of three low-rank Turkish coals (Bursa-Kestelek, Kutahya-Seyitomer and Mugla-Yatagan lignite) was attempted by using a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM No. 6909); chemical compositions of the products were investigated. The lignite samples were oxidized by nitric acid under moderate conditions and then oxidized samples were placed on the agar medium of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. FTIR spectra of raw lignites, oxidized lignites and liquid products were recorded, and the acetone-soluble fractions of these samples were identified by GC-MS technique. Results show that the fungus affects the nitro and carboxyl/carbonyl groups in oxidized lignite sample, the liquid products obtained by microbial effects are the mixture of water-soluble compounds, and show limited organic solubility.

  12. Search for: microbes OR Microbiomes | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (358) waste management (349) coal, lignite, and peat (343) chemical reactions (340) chemistry (327) Filter by Author Hazen, T.C. (57) Woyke, Tanja (45) Lapidus, Alla (39) Hazen, ...

  13. Word Pro - S7

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1949-1979, data are for gas turbine and internal combustion plant use of petroleum. ...

  14. Word Pro - S7

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite; excludes waste coal. b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2 and 4. For 1973-1979, data are for gas turbine and internal combustion plant stocks of petroleum. ...

  15. RECENT TRENDS IN EMERGING TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    world s population do not have access to modern cooking fuel and depend on wood or dung ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND ...

  16. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Interconnection Queue Practices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    500 MW installed hydro capacity * Lignite Coal - 4,000 MW installed capacity - Mine-mouth ... in up 2 Billion in reduced costs for consumers Conclusions * Resolving the North Dakota ...

  17. Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership PCOR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grand Forks, North Dakota Zip: 58202-9018 Product: North Dakota-based consortium researching CO2 storage options. PCOR is busy with the ECBM in the Unminable Lignite Research...

  18. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1131055","None","FE0000699",,"Technical Report",,,,"University Of Kentucky","USDOE","01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES",,"The U.S. is the largest producer of...

  19. Center for Advanced Separation Technology Honaker, Rick 01 COAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Advanced Separation Technology Honaker, Rick 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S....

  20. The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    None 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a state-of-the-art test center sponsored...

  1. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2 Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS The Mesaba Energy...

  2. Recent Developments in Geothermal Drilling Fluids Kelsey, J....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    M. J.; Clements, W. R.; Hilscher, L. W.; Remont, L. J.; Matula, G. W.; Balley, D. N. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; BENTONITE; BROWN COAL; DRILLING; DRILLING...

  3. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Mesaba Energy Project Clean Coal Power Initiative Round Stone Richard Gray Gordon Evans Robert COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS The Mesaba Energy Project is a...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electronic Full Text1 Citations0 Multimedia0 Datasets0 Filter Results Filter by Subject coal (1) coal, lignite, and peat (1) design (1) diamonds (1) dolomite (1) economics (1)...

  5. Assessment of the petroleum, coal, and geothermal resources of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the petroleum, coal, and geothermal resources of the economic community of West African states (ECOWAS) region Mattick, R.E. (comp.) 02 PETROLEUM; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 15...

  6. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Center for Advanced Separation Technology Honaker Rick COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES The U S is the largest producer of mining products in the world In U S mining...

  7. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    J R Rand P B Nevins M J Clements W R Hilscher L W Remont L J Matula G W Balley D N COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT GEOTHERMAL ENERGY BENTONITE BROWN COAL DRILLING DRILLING FLUIDS FIELD...

  8. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Everything18 Electronic Full Text7 Citations10 Multimedia0 Datasets0 Software1 Filter Results Filter by Subject coal (5) fossil-fueled power plants (5) coal, lignite, and peat (4) ...

  9. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... co2 reservoirs (1) co2 thermodynamic properties (1) co2-soluble surfactants (1) coal (1) coal, lignite, and peat (1) Filter by Author Guthrie, George (15) Guthrie, George D. (4) ...

  10. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Everything3 Electronic Full Text2 Citations1 Multimedia0 Datasets0 Software0 Filter Results Filter by Subject coal, lignite, and peat (1) environmental sciences (1) fossil-fueled ...

  11. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Text2 Citations0 Multimedia0 Datasets0 Software0 Filter Results Filter by Subject hydrogen (2) membranes (2) alloys (1) coal (1) coal, lignite, and peat (1) corrosion (1)...

  12. AEP Climate Change Strategy Bruce Braine

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Mountaineer Plant - New Haven, WV Northeastern Plant - Oologah, OK 2 CoalLignite 67% Nat. GasOil ... Demonstrations of CCS at Large Coal-Fired Power Plants National Standards ...

  13. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Wei Zhang

    2004-10-01

    This is the seventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. Coal drying experiments were performed with lignite and Powder River Basin coals to determine the effects of inlet air moisture level on the equilibrium relationship between coal moisture and exit air relative humidity and temperature. The results show that, for lignite, there is a slight dependence of equilibrium moisture on inlet humidity level. However, the equilibrium relationship for PRB coal appears to be independent of inlet air humidity level. The specific equilibrium model used for computing lignite coal dryer performance has a significant effect on the prediction accuracy for exit air relative humidity; but its effects on predicted coal product moisture, exit air temperature and specific humidity are minimal. Analyses were performed to determine the effect of lignite product moisture on unit performance for a high temperature drying system. With this process design, energy for drying is obtained from the hot flue gas entering the air preheater and the hot circulating cooling water leaving the steam condenser. Comparisons were made to the same boiler operating with lignite which had been dried off-site.

  14. Fossil fuel potential of Turkey: A statistical evaluation of reserves, production, and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korkmaz, S.; Kara-Gulbay, R.; Turan, M.

    2008-07-01

    Since Turkey is a developing country with tremendous economic growth, its energy demand is also getting increased. Of this energy, about 70% is supplied from fossil fuels and the remaining 30% is from renewable sources. Among the fossil fuels, 90% of oil, natural gas, and coal are imported, and only 10% is from domestic sources. All the lignite is supplied from domestic sources. The total share of renewable sources and lignite in the total energy production is 45%. In order for Turkey to have sufficient and reliable energy sources, first the renewable energy sources must be developed, and energy production from fossil fuels, except for lignite, must be minimized. Particularly, scarcity of fossil fuels and increasing oil prices have a strong effect on economic growth of the country.

  15. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Production, 1949-2011 Total By Rank By Mining Method By Location 200 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Anthracite Lignite¹ Subbituminous Coal¹ ¹ Subbituminous coal and lignite are included in bituminous coal prior to 1969. Source: Table 7.2. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 300 600 900 1,200 1,500 Million Short Tons Bituminous Coal¹ 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 200 400 600 800 Million Short Tons 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 300 600

  16. Geek-Up[11.05.10]: Quark Gluon Plasma, Solar-Power Generating Windows and CCS Field Studies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) first record-setting run of high-energy proton collisions, new transparent film capable of absorbing light and generating electrical charge developed, and field test finds that opportunities to permanently store carbon in unmineable seams of lignite may be more widespread than previously documented -- all in this week's Geek-Up.

  17. CX-005045: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Subtask 2.14 ? Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide for North Dakota Lignite-Fired PlantsCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6Date: 01/19/2011Location(s): Grand Forks, North DakotaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  18. Leonardite char adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.

    1993-10-19

    A process of preparing lignite (low rank) coal filter material, suitable for use in lieu of more expensive activated carbon filter materials, is disclosed. The process comprises size reducing Leonardite coal material to a suitable filtering effective size, and thereafter heating the size reduced Leonardite preferably to at least 750 C in the presence of a flow of an inert gas. 1 figure.

  19. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  20. Polish plant beats the odds to become model EU generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neville, A.

    2009-03-15

    Once a Soviet satellite, Poland is now transforming into a thoroughly modern nation. To support its growing economy, this recent European Union member country is modernizing its power industry. Exemplifying the advances in the Polish electricity generation market is the 460 MW Patnow II power plant - the largest, most efficient (supercritical cycle) and environmentally cleanest lignite-fired unit in the country. 3 photos.

  1. Filtering coal-derived oil through a filter media precoated with particles partially solubilized by said oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, Billy R.; Edwards, Michael S.

    1977-01-01

    Solids such as char, ash, and refractory organic compounds are removed from coal-derived liquids from coal liquefaction processes by the pressure precoat filtration method using particles of 85-350 mesh material selected from the group of bituminous coal, anthracite coal, lignite, and devolatilized coals as precoat materials and as body feed to the unfiltered coal-derived liquid.

  2. Role of char during reburning of nitrogen oxides. Ninth quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei-Yin; Lu, Te-Chang; Fan, L.T.; Yashima, Mutsuo

    1996-01-31

    During this quarter, we have investigated rates and product compositions of NO reduction on chars in gases. N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} internal surface areas of chars, selected from runs of various pyrolysis and reaction conditions have been measured to assist in interpreting the experimental results. Implications of Langmuir- Hinshelwood mechanisms and mass transfer limitations were examined. Oxidants suppress NO reduction on bituminous coal char more than on lignite char. Observations suggest that NO adsorption and desorption of stable surface oxygen complexes are potentially important rate- limiting steps and may be catalyzed by mineral matter during reburning with lignite char. Relative inert nature of lignite char to CO{sub 2} presence may have potential value in use of fuel system involving both solid and volatile fuels. Lignite char produced at 950 C and zero holding time has higher reactivity than that produced at 1100 C and 5 min holding time. Bituminous coal chars produced at these two conditions, however, have similar reactivity with NO. Internal surface areas of both type chars vary with pyrolysis conditions and gas composition in the subsequent reaction. When oxidants are introduced in the feed, internal surface areas of these two chars vary in opposite directions.

  3. Leonardite char adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.

    1993-01-01

    A process of preparing lignite (low rank) coal filter material, suitable for use in lieu of more expensive activated carbon filter materials, is disclosed. The process comprises size reducing Leonardite coal material to a suitable filtering effective size, and thereafter heating the size reduced Leonardite preferably to at least 750.degree. C. in the presence of a flow of an inert gas.

  4. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Eleventh quarterly report, [January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-09

    During this reporting period comparison was made between theoretical and actual biogas production in the upflow reactors, where Texas lignite (TxL) was loaded at 0% (control) and 10% solids loadings. Data for methane and total gas production from task 4 were used. Calculations were made on the assumption that Texas lignite contains 60% carbon and theoretically all of this carbon is converted to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. Analysis of the data obtained from the bioreactor experiments showed that higher biogas production is due to more efficient biogasification of Texas lignite in bioreactor with reethanol (Table 1) . As it was previously mentioned, methanol (at 0.5% concentration of the total volume of reactants) can be used as hydrogen donor for biogasification (data presented in the 10th Quarterly report). Data in Table 1 clearly indicates, that the theoretical CH{sub 4} and biogas production from methanol is negligible and net biomethanation of TxL is enhanced by the addition of methanol. Observation of high methane production in the reactor where Texas lignite was supplemented with methanol, supports our hypothesis that methanol acts as an additional hydrogen donor.

  5. Role of char during reburning of nitrogen oxides. Eighth quarterly report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei-Yin; Lu, Te-Chang; Fan, L.T.; Yashima, Mutsuo

    1995-11-05

    The investigation of this quarter focuses on the rates of NO reactions with chars in various gaseous environments. The results have revealed significant insights into the NO reduction mechanisms on char surface, particularly when the oxidants, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, are introduced into the feed. Indeed, evidences suggest that the formation of stable oxygen complexes is the major cause of differences in NO reactivity on chars of different origins. The oxidants retard the reactivity of char derived fro the bituminous coal more seriously than they affect the char derived from lignite. Furthermore, additions of these oxidants into the reacting stream produce additional yields of CO and CO{sub 2} during NO reaction with lignite char, suggesting gasification of carbon from lignite char. No excess CO and CO{sub 2} were observed when the bituminous coal char was used. These yields of CO and CO{sub 2} also imply that desorption of stable surface oxygen complex is a rate-limiting step which may be catalyzed by the mineral matters during reactions involving lignite char. Surface area evaluated by CO{sub 2} and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation is not a normalization factor of char reactivity during reburning. In the absence of oxidants, the bituminous coal char shows drastic increase in activation energy at about 950 {degrees}C indicating transition of desorption to adsorption controlled mechanisms. When CO{sub 2} is introduced, the transition temperature increases. When oxygen is also added, no such transition is observed up to 1100 {degrees}C. Lignite char reactivity increases smoothly over the temperature range 800 to 1100 {degrees}C. It is also observed that char reactivity decreases with increasing pyrolysis temperature which may be caused by closure of pores due to graphitization. The rate of NO reduction on the Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal char is then in good accord with that of a West Virginia coal char reported by De Soete (1980).

  6. Feedstock effects in coal flash pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatterson, D.F.; Robinson, K.K.; Guercio, R.; Marker, T.L.

    1990-10-01

    In this paper the impact of lower rank coals on yields and product qualities is examined in a large- scale flash pyrolysis reactor capable of achieving heating rates of 10{sup 6}{degrees}C/s and reactor times of 10 ms. A Montana lignite and a Minnesota peat were pyrolyzed and the results compared to those for Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The peat was found to be more reactive than the Illinois No. 6 coal and the lignite less reactive. Relatively high liquid yields were also obtained from the peat. This result demonstrates that high oxygen content in a feedstock does not necessarily correlate with low production of liquids. At high reactor severity, the peat is an excellent source of aromatics (benzene, toulene, and xylenes) and medium Btu gas, which could be converted to other chemical feedstocks.

  7. Progress in two major CCPI projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    Two projects under the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Clean Coal Power initiative have made significant progress in demonstrating new technologies to remove mercury from coal and enhance use of low-Btu lignite coals while increasing energy efficiency. The Wisconsin Electricity Power Company is demonstrating the TOXECON{trademark} mercury control process at its Presque Isle Power Plant near Marquette, Michigan, while Great River Energy (GRE) is showing the viability of lignite fuel enhancement at its Coal Creek Station in Underwood, North Dakota. Both projects were awarded in 2004 under Round I of the Clean Coal Power Initiative. Elsewhere in the program, six projects are in various phases of planning or operation. Plans for a third round under the CCPI were announced on May 23, 2007. 2 figs.

  8. Optimization of fossil fuel sources: An exergy approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camdali, U.

    2007-02-15

    We performed linear programming for optimization of fossil fuel supply in 2000 in Turkey. For this, an exergy analysis is made because the second law of thermodynamics takes into account the quality of energy as well as quantity of energy. Our analyses showed that the interfuel substitution between different fossil fuels will lead to a best energy mix of the country. The total retail price of fossil fuels can be lowered to 11.349 billion US$ from 13.012 billion US$ by increasing the domestic production of oil, lignite, and hard coal and by decreasing imports. The remaining demand can be met by natural gas imports. In conclusion, our analysis showed that a reduction of 1.663 billion US$ in fossil fuel cost can be made possible by giving more emphasis on domestic production, particularly of oil, lignite and hard coal.

  9. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  10. Economic evaluation of losses to electric power utilities caused by ash fouling. Final technical report, November 1, 1979-April 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, F.R.; Persnger, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Problems with convection ash fouling and wall slagging were considerable during our study. The Dakota lignites posed the greatest problems, particularly with fouling. The subbituminous coals had considerable problems, related mostly with wall slagging. The Texas lignites had few problems, and those were only associated with wall slagging. The generation losses were as follows: The Dakota lignite burning stations averaged an overall availability of 87.13%. Convection fouling outages were responsible for 57.75% of this outage time for a decrease in availability of 7.43%. Fouling was responsible for curtailment losses of 317,649 Mwh or 8.25% of the remaining available generation. Slagging was responsible for losses of 2732 megawatt hours or .07% of the remaining available generation. Total ash related losses amounted to 16.08% of the total available generation. The subbituminous burning stations averaged an overall availability of 78.36%. Total ash related losses amounted to 1.54% of the total available generation. The Texas lignite burning stations averaged an overall availability of 80.63%. No ash related outage losses occurred. Slagging curtailments accounted 0.08% of the total available generation. Costs due to ash fouling and slagging related curtailments are a tremendous sum. Seven power stations were studied for a six month period to assess costs. The total cost directly attributable to ash slagging and fouling condition was $20,638,113. Recommendations for reducing the problems involve soot blowers, control of furnace gas exit temperature, water blowers and more conservative boiler design.

  11. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Prices and Expenditures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Coal prices are developed for the following three categories: coking coal; steam coal (all noncoking coal); and coal coke imports and exports. Coking coal, used in the industrial sector only, is a high-quality bituminous coal that is used to make coal coke. Steam coal, which may be used by all sectors, includes anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite. In the industrial sector, coal consumption is the sum of coking coal and steam coal. The industrial coal price is the

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Bituminous",,"Subbituminous",,"Lignite",,"Anthracite",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of

  13. bectno-recyclone | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NOx Control - Project Brief [PDF-320KB] The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Cassville, WI Program Publications Final Reports Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NOx Control, Final Project Report [PDF-14.4MB] (Feb 1994) Appendices 1 - 5 [PDF-2.6MB] (Feb 1994) Appendix 1: Small Boiler Simulator Description Appendix 2: Statement of Work by Task and Subtask Appendix 3: Evaluation of Reburning for NOx Control from Lignite-Fired Cyclone Boilers Appendix

  14. NBP RFI: Communications Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cleco Corporation greatly appreciates the opportunity to provide information to the Department of Energy (DOE) on the communications needs of utilities. Cleco is an energy services company based in central Louisiana, serving approximately 276,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers since 1934. Cleco manages over 3,000 megawatts of electric capacity through its regulated Cleco Power LLC and unregulated Cleco Midstream Resources LLC businesses, utilizing a diverse fuel mix of lignite,

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Weighted Average Cost of Fossil Fuels for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Fossil Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite All Coal Ranks Period Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu)

  16. project information | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Information Biomass Feed and Gasification Archived Projects Agreement Number Project Title Performer Name Technology Area FE0023577 Advanced Gasifier and Water Gas Shift Technologies for Low Cost Coal Conversion to High Hydrogen Syngas Aerojet Rocketdyne Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids, Gasification Systems Recently Completed FE0005339 Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Georgia Tech Research Corporation Coal

  17. An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H.

    2008-07-01

    Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

  18. Latest status of the Rheinbraun High-Temperature Winkler (HTW) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teggers, H.; Theis, K.A.; Tonnesmann, A.; Fabianek, G.

    1981-01-01

    In 1981, the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG (Rheinbraun) started constructing the first commercial-scale plant applying the High-Temperature Winkler (HTW) Process in the Federal Republic of Germany, at the site of Rheinbraun's Ville plant (Hurth-Berrenrath). This demonstration plant represents the consequent continuation of the company's R and D efforts regarding development and testing of new lignite gasification and liquefaction processes up to industrial-scale operational maturity. Rhenish lignite is particularly suited for conversion purposes due to its favourable mining conditions and high reactivity. In addition to further developing the Winkler process, up to the so-called High-Temperature Winkler (HTW) process for the production of synthesis gases rich in CO and H/sub 2/, a second gassification process based on the fluidized-bed principle, the lignite hydrogasification process (HUV) for the production of SNG is being developed. Operational result of a small-scale test plant are presented and the HTW process of SNG production for methanol production is described.

  19. Novel Sorbent-Based Process for High Temperature Trace Metal Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhan Alptekin

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel sorbent can effectively remove trace metal contaminants (Hg, As, Se and Cd) from actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams at high temperature (above the dew point of the gas). The performance of TDA's sorbent has been evaluated in several field demonstrations using synthesis gas generated by laboratory and pilot-scale coal gasifiers in a state-of-the-art test skid that houses the absorbent and all auxiliary equipment for monitoring and data logging of critical operating parameters. The test skid was originally designed to treat 10,000 SCFH gas at 250 psig and 350 C, however, because of the limited gas handling capabilities of the test sites, the capacity was downsized to 500 SCFH gas flow. As part of the test program, we carried out four demonstrations at two different sites using the synthesis gas generated by the gasification of various lignites and a bituminous coal. Two of these tests were conducted at the Power Systems Demonstration Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama; a Falkirk (North Dakota) lignite and a high sodium lignite (the PSDF operator Southern Company did not disclose the source of this lignite) were used as the feedstock. We also carried out two other demonstrations in collaboration with the University of North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) using synthesis gas slipstreams generated by the gasification of Sufco (Utah) bituminous coal and Oak Hills (Texas) lignite. In the PSDF tests, we showed successful operation of the test system at the conditions of interest and showed the efficacy of sorbent in removing the mercury from synthesis gas. In Test Campaign No.1, TDA sorbent reduced Hg concentration of the synthesis gas to less than 5 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and achieved over 99% Hg removal efficiency for the entire test duration. Unfortunately, due to the relatively low concentration of the trace metals in the lignite feed and as a result of the

  20. EERC pilot-scale CFBC evaluation facility Project CFB test results. Topical report, Task 7.30

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Henderson, A.K.; Moe, T.A.

    1992-09-01

    Project CFB was initiated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in May 1988. Specific goals of the project were to (1) construct a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) facility representative of the major boiler vendors` designs with the capability of producing scalable data, (2) develop a database for use in making future evaluations of CFBC technology, and (3) provide a facility for evaluating fuels, free of vendor bias for use in the - energy industry. Five coals were test-burned in the 1-MWth unit: North Dakota and Asian lignites, a Wyoming subbituminous, and Colorado and Pennsylvania bituminous coats. A total of 54 steady-state test periods were conducted, with the key test parameters being the average combustor temperature, excess air, superficial gas velocity, calcium-to-sulfur molar ratio, and the primary air-to-secondary air split. The capture for a coal fired in a CFBC is primarily dependent upon the total alkali-to-sulfur ratio. The required alkali-to ratio for 90% sulfur retention ranged from 1.4 to 4.9, depending upon coal type. While an alkali-to-ratio of 4.9 was required to meet 90% sulfur retention for the Salt Creek coal versus 1.4 for the Asian lignite, the total amount of sorbent addition required is much less for the Salt Creek coal, 4.2 pound sorbent per million Btu coal input, versus 62 pound/million Btu for the Asian lignite. The bituminous coals tested show optimal capture at combustor temperatures of approximately 1550{degree}F, with low-rank coals having optimal sulfur capture approximately 100{degree}F lower.

  1. Task 4.0 -- Advanced fuel forms and co-products. Semi-Annual report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Young, B.C.; Timpe, R.C.; Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

    1993-07-01

    Summarized below is the work carried out over a six-month period on the subtasks Beneficiation for Advanced Systems, Co-Products, and Low-Rank Coal Liquefaction. Hydrothermal drying (hot-water drying and saturated-steam drying) was determined to be an effective method of causing a permanent reduction in the equilibrium moisture of low-rank coals and removing sodium. The development of improved methods is continuing for assessing the propensity of coals to dust generation. Carbonic acid treatment of lignites and subbituminous coals reduced the sodium contents of these coals by 60 to 70 wt%. Float/sink washability testing of low-sulfur subbituminous coals produced ash reductions of 30 to 40 wt% at +95 wt% moisture and ash-free (maf) coal recovery. Ineffective agglomerants were induced to agglomerate low-rank coals by mixing with a polar oil or polar alcohol. Effective agglomeration promoters were crude phenol, m-cresol, cresylic acid, methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol. Three coals, a North Dakota Lignite, a North Dakota Leonardite, and an Alaskan subbituminous coal, were pyrolyzed. Proximate analysis showed that the subbituminous char was typically lower in volatiles than the lignite. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide by the chars were indistinguishable from one another. Coal can be effectively solubilized by treatment with CO reductant in an aqueous solvent (CO steam process). In this report, the catalytic hydrotreatment of the solubilized low-severity products from sodium aluminate-catalyzed and uncatalyzed CO/H{sub 2}O reactions of a Wyodak subbituminous coal are compared. Liquefaction with the Co-Me catalyst gave 68% conversion to heptane solubles for both the sodium aluminate and the uncatalyzed low-severity reaction intermediates.

  2. Reactivity of pulverized coals during combustion catalyzed by CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Guo, Zhancheng; Wang, Zhi

    2010-02-15

    Effects of CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on combustion reactivity of several fuels, including three ranks of coals, graphite and anthracite chars, were investigated using thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The results indicated that the combustion reactivity of all the samples except lignite was improved with CeO{sub 2} or Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. It was interesting to note that the ignition temperatures of anthracite were decreased by 50 C and 53 C, respectively, with CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition and that its combustion rates were increased to 15.4%/min and 12.2%/min. Ignition temperatures of lignite with CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition were 250 C and 226 C, and the combustion rates were 12.8% and 19.3%/min, respectively. When compared with those of lignite without catalysts, no obvious catalytic effects of the two catalysts on its combustion reactivity were revealed. The results from the combustion of the three rank pulverized coals catalyzed by CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} indicated significant effects of the two catalysts on fixed carbon combustion. And it was found that the higher the fuel rank, the better the catalytic effect. The results of combustion from two kinds of anthracite chars showed obvious effects of anthracite pyrolysis catalyzed by CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on its combustion reactivity. (author)

  3. Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noskievic, P. Ochodek, T.

    1998-07-01

    Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently, necessary steps in making coal utilization more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fueled by pulverized coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper than coal) do not result in an increased efficiency of the standing equipment by applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalization of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in the near future.

  4. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  5. Role of char during reburning of nitrogen oxides. Seventh quarterly progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Yin Chen; Te-Chang Lu; Fan, L.T.; Yashima, M.

    1995-08-11

    The progress in this quarter includes four parts. In the first segment, the implications of our data reported in the List quarter are discussed further. BET N{sub 2} surface area does not seems to be the only contributing factor to the remarkable activity of lignite char during reburning, and chars of different origins probably have different controlling steps in the overall surface reaction mechanisms. Unlike NO reduction in the gas phase, oxygen inhibits the heterogeneous mechanisms. The second part of this report justifies the use of our laminar flow reactor system for the measurement of reaction rate. Dispersion model is used in the analysis. An expression relating the rate constant with the experimentally obtainable NO conversion for our flow reactor have been derived. Rates of NO/char reaction for six series of experiments have been measured over the temperature range 800 to 1100{degrees}C. These six series of experiments have been conducted with two different chars, one bituminous coal char and one lignite char, and three different levels of feed NO concentrations, 200, 400 and 1000 ppm. Results from the comparison of char activities suggest that, in the absence of O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, the origin of char is not a significant factor for NO reduction. The CO/CO{sub 2} ratio in the products is higher than one under all test conditions, but the ratio increases with increasing feed NO concentrations. Recoveries of oxygen form the lignite char at temperatures above 1050{degrees}C is higher than 1 indicating gasification of organic oxygen in the char. Surface areas of selected chars after devolatilization and after reburning have been analyzed by BET in N{sub 2}. Results indicated char surface area changes after reburning, which is caused either by the higher temperature of reburning or by surface reaction.

  6. Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of Coal/Corn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Huffman, Gerald; Shah, Naresh; Honaker, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The thermal evolution profiles and kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of two Montana coals (DECS-38 subbituminous coal and DECS-25 lignite coal), one biomass sample (corn stover), and their blends (10%, 20%, and 30% by weight of corn stover) have been investigated at a heating rate of 5°C/min in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, using thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal evolution profiles of subbituminous coal and lignite coal display only one major peak over a wide temperature distribution, ~152–814°C and ~175–818°C, respectively, whereas the thermal decomposition profile for corn stover falls in a much narrower band than that of the coals, ~226–608°C. Themore » nonlinearity in the evolution of volatile matter with increasing percentage of corn stover in the blends verifies the possibility of synergistic behavior in the blends with subbituminous coal where deviations from the predicted yield ranging between 2% and 7% were observed whereas very little deviations (1%–3%) from predicted yield were observed in blends with lignite indicating no significant interactions with corn stover. In addition, a single first-order reaction model using the Coats-Redfern approximation was utilized to predict the kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis reaction. The kinetic analysis indicated that each thermal evolution profile may be represented as a single first-order reaction. Three temperature regimes were identified for each of the coals while corn stover and the blends were analyzed using two and four temperature regimes, respectively.« less

  7. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2014 (dollars per short ton) Coal-Producing State Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Anthracite Total Alabama 87.17 - - - 87.17 Alaska - w - - w Arizona w - - - w Arkansas w - - - w Colorado w w - - 38.64 Illinois 47.11 - - - 47.11 Indiana 48.41 - - - 48.41 Kansas w - - - w Kentucky Total 57.62 - - - 57.62 Kentucky (East) 66.97 - - - 66.97 Kentucky (West) 49.58 - - - 49.58 Louisiana - - w - w Maryland 50.62 - - - 50.62 Mississippi - - w - w

  8. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2014 (thousand short tons) Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Anthracite Total Coal-Producing State and Region 1 Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Alabama 36 16,363 - - - - - - 36 16,363 Alaska - - 1 1,502 - - - - 1 1,502 Arizona 1 8,051 - - - - - - 1 8,051 Arkansas 2 94 - - - - - - 2 94 Colorado 8 19,582 2 4,425 - - - - 10 24,007

  9. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Coal Prices Total, 1949-2011 By Type, 1949-2011 By Type, 2011 214 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 20 40 60 80 Real (2005) Dollars¹ per Short Ton 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 30 60 90 120 Real (2005) Dollars¹ per Short Ton 70.99 57.64 19.38 15.80 36.91 Anthracite Bituminous Lignite Subbituminous Total 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Nominal Dollars² per Short Ton Bituminous Coal Anthracite

  10. The place of hard coal in energy supply pattern of Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, A.O.; Aydiner, K.

    2009-07-01

    Lignite and hard coal are the major sources of domestic energy sources of Turkey. Hard coal is produced at only one district in the country. Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin is the major power for development of the Turkish steel-making industry. It is the only hard coal basin in the country and it has, to date, supplied approximately 400 million tons of run-of-mine hard coal. This article investigates the potential of hard coal as an energy source and discusses the measures to activate the region for the future energy supply objectives of the country.

  11. Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium.

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Receipts and Quality of Coal Delivered for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Period Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight 2004 470,619 1.52 10.4 445,603 0.36 6.0 78,268 1.05 14.2 2005 480,179 1.56 10.5 456,856 0.36 6.2 77,677

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Carbon Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel EIA Fuel Code Factor (Kilograms of CO2 Per Million Btu)*** Notes Bituminous Coal BIT 93.3 Distillate Fuel Oil DFO 73.16 Geothermal GEO 7.71 Jet Fuel JF 70.9 Kerosene KER 72.3 Lignite Coal LIG 97.7 Municipal Solid Waste MSW 41.69 Natural Gas NG 53.07 Petroleum Coke PC 102.1 Propane Gas PG 63.07 Residual Fuel Oil RFO 78.79 Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas SGC 53.07 Assumed to have emissions similar to Natural Gas Synthesis Gas from Petroleum Coke SGP

  14. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  15. Fuel NOx production during the combustion of low caloric value fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colaluca, M.A.; Caraway, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this investigation is to identify and qualify physical mechanisms and parameters that affect the combustion of low caloric value gases (LCVG) and the formation of NOx pollutants produced form fuel bound nitrogen. Average physical properties of a low caloric value gas were determined from the products of several industrial coal gasifiers. A computer model was developed, utilizing the PHOENICS computational fluid dynamics software to model the combustion of LCVG. The model incorporates a 3-dimensional physical design and is based on typical industrial combustors. Feed stock to the gasifier can be wood, feed stock manure, cotton gin trash, coal, lignite and numerous forms of organic industrial wastes.

  16. Catalytic gasification of graphite or carbon. Quarterly report, January 1, 1986-March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinemann, H.

    1986-03-01

    Steam gasification of five chars has been carried out in the presence of a mixture of potassium and nickel oxides as catalyst. The steady state rate of hydrogen production after 60 minutes at 620/sup 0/C is highest for a N. Dakota Husky lignite and is twice as high as the next char, Western Kentucky. The order is N. Dakota > W. Kentucky > Illinois number 6, low temp. > number 6, high temp. > Montana. All chars gasified at a rate at least one order of magnitude greater than graphite.

  17. Slide 1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cost and Economic Impacts of Pending EPA Regulations Bruce Braine Vice President, Strategic Policy Analysis EIA Energy Conference April 2011 2 AEP's Generation Fleet ~39,000 MW Capacity ~80% of coal is in AEP-East Coal/Lignite 66% Gas/Oil 22% Nuclear 6% Pumped Storage/ Hydro/Wind 6% 5.2 million customers in 11 states Industry-leading size and scale of assets: Asset Size Industry Rank Domestic Generation ~39,000 MW # 2 Transmission ~39,000 miles # 1 Distribution ~214,000 miles # 1 AEP -

  18. High-pressure gasification of Montana subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, A.; Bryan, B.; Rehmat, A.

    1991-01-01

    A data base for the fluidized-bed gasification of different coals at elevated pressures has been developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with different ranks of coal at pressures up to 450 psig and at temperatures dictated by the individual coals. Adequate data have been obtained to characterize the effect of pressure on the gasification of Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite. The results obtained with Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal are presented here. This program was funded by the Gas Research Institute. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Supercritical plants to come online in 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spring, N.

    2009-07-15

    A trio of coal-fired power plants using supercritical technology set to enter service this year. These are: We Energies is Elm Road Generating Station in Wisconsin, a two-unit, 1,230 MW supercritical plant that will burn bituminous coal; a 750 MW supercritical coal-fired power plant at the Comanche Generating Station in Pueblo, Colo., the third unit at the site; and Luminant's Oak Grove plant in Texas which will consist of two supercritical, lignite-fueled power generation units. When complete, the plant will deliver about 1,6000 MW. Some details are given on each of these projects. 2 photos.

  20. A case study of PFBC for low rank coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansson, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Combined-Cycle (PFBC) technology allows the efficient and environmentally friendly utilization of solid fuels for power and combined heat and power generation. With current PFBC technology, thermal efficiencies near 46%, on an LHV basis and with low condenser pressures, can be reached in condensing power plants. Further efficiency improvements to 50% or more are possible. PFBC plants are characterized by high thermal efficiency, compactness, and extremely good environmental performance. The PFBC plants which are now in operation in Sweden, the U.S. and Japan burn medium-ash, bituminous coal with sulfur contents ranging from 0.7 to 4%. A sub- bituminous {open_quotes}black lignite{close_quotes} with high levels of sulfur, ash and humidity, is used as fuel in a demonstration PFBC plant in Spain. Project discussions are underway, among others in Central and Eastern Europe, for the construction of PFBC plants which will burn lignite, oil-shale and also mixtures of coal and biomass with high efficiency and extremely low emissions. This paper will provide information about the performance data for PFBC plants when operating on a range of low grade coals and other solid fuels, and will summarize other advantages of this leading new clean coal technology.

  1. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-11-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC22, the first test campaign using a high moisture lignite from Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC22 was conducted from March 24 to April 17, 2007. The gasification process was operated for 543 hours, increasing the total gasification operation at the PSDF to over 10,000 hours. The PSDF gasification process was operated in air-blown mode with a total of about 1,080 tons of coal. Coal feeder operation was challenging due to the high as-received moisture content of the lignite, but adjustments to the feeder operating parameters reduced the frequency of coal feeder trips. Gasifier operation was stable, and carbon conversions as high as 98.9 percent were demonstrated. Operation of the PCD and other support equipment such as the recycle gas compressor and ash removal systems operated reliably.

  2. Chemical and physical characterization of western low-rank-coal waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Carol May

    1981-03-01

    Evaluations of disposal requirements for solid wastes from power stations burning low-rank western coals is the primary objective of this program. Solid wastes to be characterized include: fly ashes, sludges from wet scrubbers, solids from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) processes and solids from dry scrubbing systems. Fly ashes and sludges to be studied will be obtained primarily from systems using alkaline fly ashes as significant sources of alkalinity for sulfur dioxide removal. Fluidized bed combustion wastes will include those produced by burning North Dakota lignite and Texas lignite. Dry scrubbing wastes will include those from spray drying systems and dry injection systems. Spray dryer wastes will be from a system using sodium carbonate as the scrubbing reagent. Dry injection wastes will come from systems using nahcolite and trona as sorbents. Spray dryer wastes, dry injection wastes, and FBC wastes will be supplied by the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Sludges and other samples will be collected at power stations using fly ash to supply alkalinity to wet scrubbers for sulfur dioxide removal. Sludges will be subjected to commercial fixation processes. Coal, fly ashes, treated and untreated sludges, scrubber liquor, FBC wastes, and dry scrubbing wastes will be subjected to a variety of chemical and physical tests. Results of these tests will be used to evaluate disposal requirements for wastes frm the systems studied.

  3. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  5. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in

  6. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing

  7. The fate of alkali species in advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.

    1991-11-01

    The fate of species during coal combustion and gasification was determined experimentally in a fluidized bed reactor. A molecular-beam sampling mags spectrometer was used to identify and measure the concentration of vapor phase sodium species in the high temperature environment. Concurrent collection and analysis of the ash established the distribution of sodium species between gas-entrained and residual ash fractions. Two coals, Beulah Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous, were used under combustion and gasification conditions at atmospheric pressure. Steady-state bed temperatures were in the range 800--950[degree]C. An extensive calibration procedure ensured that the mass spectrometer was capable of detecting sodium-containing vapor species at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. In the temperature range 800[degree] to 950[degree]C, the concentrations of vapor phase sodium species (Na, Na[sub 2]O, NaCl, and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]) are less than 0.05 ppm under combustion conditions with excess air. However, under gasification conditions with Beulah Zap lignite, sodium vapor species are present at about 14 ppm at a temperature of 820[degree]. Of this amount, NaCl vapor constitutes about 5 ppm and the rest is very likely NAOH. Sodium in the form of NaCl in coal enhances the vaporization of sodium species during combustion. Vapor phase concentration of both NaCl and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] increased when NaCl was added to the Beulah Zap lignite. Ash particles account for nearly 100% of the sodium in the coal during combustion in the investigated temperature range. The fine fly-ash particles (<10 [mu]m) are enriched in sodium, mainly in the form of sodium sulfate. The amount of sodium species in this ash fraction may be as high as 30 wt % of the total sodium. Sodium in the coarse ash particle phase retained in the bed is mainly in amorphous forms.

  8. The fate of alkali species in advanced coal conversion systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.

    1991-11-01

    The fate of species during coal combustion and gasification was determined experimentally in a fluidized bed reactor. A molecular-beam sampling mags spectrometer was used to identify and measure the concentration of vapor phase sodium species in the high temperature environment. Concurrent collection and analysis of the ash established the distribution of sodium species between gas-entrained and residual ash fractions. Two coals, Beulah Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous, were used under combustion and gasification conditions at atmospheric pressure. Steady-state bed temperatures were in the range 800--950{degree}C. An extensive calibration procedure ensured that the mass spectrometer was capable of detecting sodium-containing vapor species at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. In the temperature range 800{degree} to 950{degree}C, the concentrations of vapor phase sodium species (Na, Na{sub 2}O, NaCl, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) are less than 0.05 ppm under combustion conditions with excess air. However, under gasification conditions with Beulah Zap lignite, sodium vapor species are present at about 14 ppm at a temperature of 820{degree}. Of this amount, NaCl vapor constitutes about 5 ppm and the rest is very likely NAOH. Sodium in the form of NaCl in coal enhances the vaporization of sodium species during combustion. Vapor phase concentration of both NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} increased when NaCl was added to the Beulah Zap lignite. Ash particles account for nearly 100% of the sodium in the coal during combustion in the investigated temperature range. The fine fly-ash particles (<10 {mu}m) are enriched in sodium, mainly in the form of sodium sulfate. The amount of sodium species in this ash fraction may be as high as 30 wt % of the total sodium. Sodium in the coarse ash particle phase retained in the bed is mainly in amorphous forms.

  9. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  10. Energy-conserving, pollution-free extraction process for the recovery of lead from lead sulfide concentrates. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Y.K.

    1981-09-01

    Research concerned with the development of a new process for the extraction of lead from lead sulfide concentrates is described. The process consists of smelting lead sulfide concentrates with lime and carbon to produce liquid lead. The sulfur in the concentrates is tied up as solid calcium sulfide residue which can be further processed to regenerate lime. No sulfur oxides are generated during the process. The off-gases consist of CO and CO/sub 2/. Coke, coal, coal-char or lignite-char may be used as reducing agents. The reduction process can be catalyzed to an appreciable degree by the addition of small concentrations of catalysts. For the most part, these catalytic substances are either pure or mixed alkali-metal salts. The present process can be applied for extracting zinc from zinc sulfide concentrates and also for the recovery of copper and nickel from their respective sulfide concentrates.

  11. Compilation of air-pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary-point and area sources, Fourth Edition. Supplement A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyner, W.M.

    1986-10-01

    In the supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42, new or revised emissions data are presented for Bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion; Anthracite coal combustion; Fuel oil combustion; Natural gas combustion; Wood waste combustion in boilers; Lignite combustion; Sodium carbonate; Primary aluminum production; Coke production; Primary copper smelting; Ferroalloy production; Iron and steel production; Primary lead smelting; Zinc smelting; Secondary aluminum operations; Gray iron foundries; Secondary lead smelting; Asphaltic concrete plants; Bricks and related clay products; Portland cement manufacturing; Concrete batching; Glass manufacturing; Lime manufacturing; Construction aggregate processing; Taconite ore processing; Western surface coal mining; Chemical wood pulping; Appendix C.1, Particle-size distribution data and sized emission factors for selected sources; and Appendix C.2, Generalized particle size distributions.

  12. Energy-conserving, pollution-free extraction process for the recovery of lead from lead sulfide concentrates. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Y.K.

    1981-09-01

    Research concerned with the development of a new process for the extraction of lead from lead sulfide concentrates is described. The process consists of smelting lead sulfide concentrates with lime and carbon to produce liquid lead. The sulfur in the concentrates is tied up as solid calcium sulfide residue which can be further processed to regenerate lime. No sulfur oxides are generated during the process. The off-gas consist of CO and CO/sub 2/. Coke, coal, coal-char or lignite-char may be used as reducing agents. The reduction process can be catalyzed to an appreciable degree by the addition of small concentrations of catalysts. For the most part, these catalytic substances are either pure or mixed alkali-metal salts. The present process can be applied for extracting zinc from zinc sulfide concentrates and also for the recovery of copper and nickel from their respective sulfide concentrates.

  13. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  14. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  15. PURPA and solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Speaking before the FERC during the Spring, 1987 PURPA Hearings, Dr. Thomas A.V. Cassel, president of the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania-based Reading Energy Group, testified on the role PURPA has played in the development of the nation's solid fuel resource. Reading's Energy Group has in excess of $150 million of cogeneration assets under construction. These projects represent more than 65 MW and are fired by solid fuels which, prior to PURPA's enactment, were considered to be valueless waste and were overlooked by the electric utility industry. These plants will burn lignite and culm. Because of PURPA, culm will soon be eliminated as an eyesore and source of river pollution, and, at the same time, will help revitalize depressed mining areas.

  16. Table 4.8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons) Region and State Anthracite Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Total Underground Surface Underground Surface Underground Surface Surface 1 Underground Surface Total Appalachian 4.0 3.3 68.2 21.9 0.0 0.0 1.1 72.1 26.3 98.4 Alabama .0 .0 .9 2.1 .0 .0 1.1 .9 3.1 4.0 Kentucky, Eastern .0 .0 .8 9.1 .0 .0 .0 .8 9.1 9.8 Ohio .0 .0 17.4 5.7 .0 .0 .0 17.4 5.7 23.1 Pennsylvania 3.8 3.3 18.9 .8 .0 .0 .0 22.7 4.2 26.9 Virginia .1

  17. Table 7.2 Coal Production, 1949-2011 (Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production, 1949-2011 (Short Tons) Year Rank Mining Method Location Total 1 Bituminous Coal 1 Subbituminous Coal Lignite Anthracite 1 Underground Surface 1 East of the Mississippi 1 West of the Mississippi 1 1949 437,868,000 [2] [2] 42,702,000 358,854,000 121,716,000 444,199,000 36,371,000 480,570,000 1950 516,311,000 [2] [2] 44,077,000 421,000,000 139,388,000 524,374,000 36,014,000 560,388,000 1951 533,665,000 [2] [2] 42,670,000 442,184,000 134,151,000 541,703,000 34,632,000 576,335,000

  18. Table 7.9 Coal Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton) Year Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite 1 Anthracite Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 1949 4.90 [4] 33.80 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.37 16.35 [R] 8.90 61.38 [R] 5.24 36.14 [R] 1950 4.86 [4] 33.16 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.41 16.44 [R] 9.34 63.73 [R] 5.19 35.41 [R] 1951 4.94 [4] 31.44 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.44 15.53 [R] 9.94 63.26 [R] 5.29 33.67 [R] 1952 4.92 [4] 30.78 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.39 14.95 [R] 9.58 59.94 [R]

  19. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Table 7.2 Coal Production, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Rank Mining Method Location Total 1 Bituminous Coal 1 Subbituminous Coal Lignite Anthracite 1 Underground Surface 1 East of the Mississippi 1 West of the Mississippi 1 1949 437.9 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 42.7 358.9 121.7 444.2 36.4 480.6 1950 516.3 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 44.1 421.0 139.4 524.4 36.0 560.4 1955 464.6 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 26.2 358.0 132.9 464.2 26.6 490.8 1960 415.5 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 18.8 292.6 141.7 413.0 21.3 434.3 1965 512.1 2 ( ) 2 ( )

  20. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, K.W.

    1991-12-31

    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  1. Heterogeneous Reburning By Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson Hall

    2009-03-31

    Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

  2. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. [Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  3. Molecular-beam sampling/mass spectrometric studies of the primary pyrolysis mechanisms of biomass, fossil organic matter, and synthetic polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R.J.; Milne, T.A.; Soltys, M.N.

    1984-04-01

    To accomplish the determination of primary product composition, the flash pyrolysis of samples in 900/sup 0/C steam/He has been coupled with a molecular-beam sampling system for a mass spectrometer that permits real-time sampling and rapid quenching from ambient hot environments, while preserving reactive and condensible species. The major emphasis of this report is on the determination of the primary pyrolysis mechanisms of the fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and its major constituents: cellulose, hemicellulose (particularly the pentoses, xylan and arabinan), and lignin. Other carbonaceous materials are also included for the purposes of comparison and demonstrating the technique, but pyrolysis mechanisms will not be discussed. These materials include Texas lignite, Pittsburgh number8 coal, Utah tar sand, Colorado oil shale, high-moor and low-moor peat, polyethylene, and polystyrene. The plastics are included because they are an important component of municipal solid waste and refuse-derived fuel.

  4. EA-1616: National Carbon Research Center Project at Southern Company Services' Power Systems Development Facility near Wilsonville, Alabama

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates and updates the potential environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed continued operations of the NCCC Project at the PSDF plant. The NCCC is designed to test and evaluate carbon dioxide (CO2) control technologies for power generation facilities, including CO2 capture solvents and sorbents, mass-transfer devices, lower cost water-gas shift reactors, and scaled-up membrane technologies. Additionally, the NCCC evaluates methods to integrate CO2 capture technologies with other coal-based power plant systems by testing both pre-combustion and post-combustion technologies. The NCCC provides the capability to test these systems under a wide range of fuels, including bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, lignites and biomass/coal mixtures. The goal of the NCCC project is to accelerate the development, optimization, and commercialization of viable CO2 control technologies.

  5. Mechanical engineers' handbook, energy and power. 3rd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer Kutz

    2005-12-15

    In addition to chapters on thermophysical properties of fluids, fundamentals of fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, combustion, and furnaces, Book 4 of the Handbook features coverage of both conventional (gaseous and liquid fuels, coal, and nuclear) and alternative (solar, geothermal, and fuel cells) energy sources, plus chapters on power machinery, refrigeration and cryogenics, environmental issues, and thermal systems optimization. Much of the material in this book is new or extensively revised, including coverage of such topics as: Heat pipes; Wind turbines; Fuel cells; Thermal systems optimization; Combustion; Fans, blowers, compressors, and pumps; Indoor environmental control; and Fluid power. Chapters of particular interest are: Combustion by Eric Eddings; Furnaces by Carroll Cone; Gaseous fuels by Richard J. Reed; Coals, lignite, peat by James Keppeler; and Air pollution-control technologies by C.A. Miller.

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Stocks of Coal by Coal Rank: Electric Power Sector, 2004 - 2014 Electric Power Sector Period Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Coal Total End of Year Stocks 2004 49,022 53,618 4,029 106,669 2005 52,923 44,377 3,836 101,137 2006 67,760 68,408 4,797 140,964 2007 63,964 82,692 4,565 151,221 2008 65,818 91,214 4,556 161,589 2009 91,922 92,448 5,097 189,467 2010 81,108 86,915 6,894 174,917 2011 82,056 85,151 5,179 172,387 2012 86,437 93,833 4,846 185,116 2013 73,113 69,720 5,051 147,884

  7. Materials performance at the Wilsonville Coal Liquefaction Facility, 1989--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R. ); Patko, A.J. . Southern Clean Fuels Div.)

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama, is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Amoco Corporation. On behalf of these organizations, Southern Company Services manages and Southern Clean Fuels Division of Southern Electric International operates the Wilsonville facility. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) receives funding from DOE to provide materials technical support to the Wilsonville operators. For the period July 1987 through November 1990 the plant was operated with two reactors a thermal reactor and a catalytic reactor in a close-coupled integrated two-stage liquefaction mode. Coal processed was obtained from several seams including Ohio No. 6, Illinois No. 6, and Pittsburgh No. 8, as well as Texas lignite and several subbituminous coals. Corrosion samples which were removed for examination at the end of this period were exposed in the vacuum distillation tower, the atmospheric distillation tower, the high pressure separator, and first stage reactor.

  8. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC25

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-12-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC25, the second test campaign using a high moisture lignite coal from the Red Hills mine in Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC25 was conducted from July 4, 2008, through August 12, 2008. During TC25, the PSDF gasification process operated for 742 hours in air-blown gasification mode. Operation with the Mississippi lignite was significantly improved in TC25 compared to the previous test (TC22) with this fuel due to the addition of a fluid bed coal dryer. The new dryer was installed to dry coals with very high moisture contents for reliable coal feeding. The TC25 test campaign demonstrated steady operation with high carbon conversion and optimized performance of the coal handling and gasifier systems. Operation during TC25 provided the opportunity for further testing of instrumentation enhancements, hot gas filter materials, and advanced syngas cleanup technologies. The PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane with syngas from the Transport Gasifier.

  9. Critical studies of the rapid pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of coal. Final project report, January 1, 1977-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.A.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes major findings from a study of the effects of reaction conditions on the rapid pyrolysis behavior of coal in inert and hydrogen atmospheres. The independent effects of final temperature (150 to 1100/sup 0/C), reaction time at final temperature (0 to 30 s), heating rate (10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 4/ /sup 0/C/s), total pressure (0.0001 to 100 atm), hydrogen partial pressure (0 to 69 atm), and particle size (45 to 1000 ..mu..m), on product yields and compositions were determined for a Montana lignite and a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam bituminous coal. Kinetic data were obtained for formation of specific pyrolysis products from each coal. A new mass transfer model for rapid hydrogasification of softening coal was also formulated. Effects of native mineral matter and selected inorganic additives on the pyrolysis behavior of the Pittsburgh Seam coal and of a Wyodak subbituminous coal were also studied. Detailed project findings are included in papers appended to the main body of the report. Important results include: (1) temperature and residence time are major parameters in determining pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis behavior; (2) coal type is also important, since major differences are observed in the yields, compositions, and evolution kinetics of products from rapid pyrolysis of the bituminous coal and of the lignite; (3) hydrogen can react rapidly with decomposing coal during the early stages of pyrolysis and, under conditions minimizing the elevated temperature contacting of hydrogen and pyrolysis tars, methane accounts for most of the resulting increased conversion; (4) secondary reactions of tar have a major role in determining product yields, compositions, and evolution kinetics in pyrolysis of the bituminous coal; and (5) increased CO production and decreased tar evolution are obtained by treating the bituminous coal with lime or calcite before pyrolysis.

  10. Fly ash quality and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B.; Beer, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.