National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for biosphere atmosphere experiment

  1. On detecting biospheres from thermodynamic disequilibrium in planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Catling, David C

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric chemical disequilibrium has been proposed as a method for detecting extraterrestrial biospheres from exoplanet observations. Chemical disequilibrium is potentially a generalized biosignature since it makes no assumptions about particular biogenic gases or metabolisms. Here, we present the first rigorous calculations of the thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium in the atmospheres of Solar System planets, in which we quantify the difference in Gibbs free energy of an observed atmosphere compared to that of all the atmospheric gases reacted to equilibrium. The purely gas phase disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere, as measured by this available Gibbs free energy, is not unusual by Solar System standards and smaller than that of Mars. However, Earth's atmosphere is in contact with a surface ocean, which means that gases can react with water, and so a multiphase calculation that includes aqueous species is required. We find that the disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere-ocean system (in joules per mole o...

  2. A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere-atmospheric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere, carbon dioxide, biosphere, regional-scale modeling, missing sink, carbon dioxide fluxes Citation), A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere

  3. Biosphere reserves in action: Case studies of the American experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-26

    For nearly 20 years, biosphere reserves have offered a unique framework for building the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems. The 12 case studies in this volume chronicle many of the cooperative efforts to implement the biosphere reserve concept in the United States. Considered together, these efforts involve more than 20 types of protected areas, and the participation of all levels of government, and many private organizations, academic institutions, citizens groups, and individuals. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose areas that are nominated by the national committee of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to serve as demonstration areas for cooperation in building harmonious relationships between human activities and the conservation of ecosystems and biological diversity. Each biosphere reserve exemplifies the characteristic ecosystems of one of the worlds biogeographical regions. It is a land or coas%arine area involving human communities as integral components and including resources managed for objectives ranging from complete protection to intensive, yet sustainable development. A biosphere reserve is envisioned as a regional ''landscape for learning'' in which monitoring, research, education, and training are encouraged to support sustainable conservation of natural and managed ecosystems. It is a framework for regional cooperation involving government decisionmakers, scientists, resource managers, private organizations and local people (i.e., the biosphere reserve ''stakeholders''). Finally, each biosphere reserve is part of a global network for sharing information and experience to help address complex problems of conservation and development. The 12 case studies presented in this report represent only a few of the possible evolutions of a biosphere reserve in its efforts to reach out to the local and regional community. As you have read, some have had great success, while others consider their successes almost negligible. All document tremendous effort from many people to improve the communication among landowners, land managers, scientists, and any others interested in the health and well-being of the natural and human environment of the biosphere reserve.

  4. Greening the terrestrial biosphere: simulated feedbacks on atmospheric heat and energy circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowling, Sharon A.

    Greening the terrestrial biosphere: simulated feedbacks on atmospheric heat and energy circulation on atmospheric exchange of heat and moisture. Our CONTROL simulation had a mean global net primary production (NPP) of 56.3 GtCyr-1 which is half that of our scenario value of 115.1 GtCyr-1 . LAI and latent energy

  5. Geochemical determination of biospheric CO/sub 2/ fluxes to the atmosphere. Annual progress report, June 1, 1979-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuiver, M

    1981-03-24

    Research progress is reported - for an investigation of aspects of the carbon cycle through the use of C13/C12 and C14/C12 abundance ratios. The objective is to increase knowledge of past biospheric carbon reservoir changes that have resulted in increases or reductions of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels. C13 trends in trees from Kodiak Island, Alaska, and from Chile were determined. (ACR)

  6. Results from the Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Results from the Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment Paul Withers1 and David Catling2 (1 and atmospheric structure reconstruction for Phoenix · Highlight selected aspects of Phoenix reconstruction reconstruction for Phoenix · Highlight selected aspects of Phoenix reconstruction that offer lessons for future

  7. Solid phase evolution in the Biosphere 2 hillslope experiment as predicted by modeling of hydrologic and geochemical fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dontsova, K.; Steefel, C.I.; Desilets, S.; Thompson, A.; Chorover, J.

    2009-07-15

    A reactive transport geochemical modeling study was conducted to help predict the mineral transformations occurring over a ten year time-scale that are expected to impact soil hydraulic properties in the Biosphere 2 (B2) synthetic hillslope experiment. The modeling sought to predict the rate and extent of weathering of a granular basalt (selected for hillslope construction) as a function of climatic drivers, and to assess the feedback effects of such weathering processes on the hydraulic properties of the hillslope. Flow vectors were imported from HYDRUS into a reactive transport code, CrunchFlow2007, which was then used to model mineral weathering coupled to reactive solute transport. Associated particle size evolution was translated into changes in saturated hydraulic conductivity using Rosetta software. We found that flow characteristics, including velocity and saturation, strongly influenced the predicted extent of incongruent mineral weathering and neo-phase precipitation on the hillslope. Results were also highly sensitive to specific surface areas of the soil media, consistent with surface reaction controls on dissolution. Effects of fluid flow on weathering resulted in significant differences in the prediction of soil particle size distributions, which should feedback to alter hillslope hydraulic conductivities.

  8. Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Neutral Biosphere (NB) GFED NEP GFED Uncorrected Biomass2 (1) Best case = best ocean + GFED (NEP+best BB) + fossil2) Takahashi ocean + GFED (NEP+best BB) + fossil fuel (3)

  9. Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal and Interannual Variability in Atmospheric CO22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    1 Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal et al., 1989].18 Anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture drive most of the recent by deforestation, discussed below) over the last 50 years. The fossil fuel plus4 cement input, in contrast

  10. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP): A Model-Data Comparison System for Evaluation of Coupled Biosphere-Atmosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Thornton, Peter E; Mahowald, Natalie; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    The need to capture important climate feebacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in new efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results, suggesting that a more rigorous set of offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are warranted. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) provides a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). C-LAMP provides feedback to the modeling community regarding model improvements and to the measurement community by suggesting new observational campaigns. C-LAMP Experiment 1 consists of a set of uncoupled simulations of terrestrial carbon models specifically designed to examine the ability of the models to reproduce surface carbon and energy fluxes at multiple sites and to exhibit the influence of climate variability, prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land cover change on projections of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 20th century. Experiment 2 consists of partially coupled simulations of the terrestrial carbon model with an active atmosphere model exchanging energy and moisture fluxes. In all experiments, atmospheric CO{sub 2} follows the prescribed historical trajectory from C{sup 4}MIP. In Experiment 2, the atmosphere model is forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and corresponding sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre; prescribed CO{sub 2} is radiatively active; and land, fossil fuel, and ocean CO{sub 2} fluxes are advected by the model. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3) in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): The CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon-nitrogen (CN) model of Thornton. Comparisons against Ameriflus site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) site measurements, and other datasets have been performed and are described in Randerson et al. (2009). The C-LAMP diagnostics package was used to validate improvements to CASA and CN for use in the next generation model, CLM4. It is hoped that this effort will serve as a prototype for an international carbon-cycle model benchmarking activity for models being used for the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. More information about C-LAMP, the experimental protocol, performance metrics, output standards, and model-data comparisons from the CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN models are available at http://www.climatemodeling.org/c-lamp.

  11. Biosphere Process Model Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Schmitt

    2000-05-25

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor. Collectively, the potential human receptor and exposure pathways form the biosphere model. More detailed technical information and data about potential human receptor groups and the characteristics of exposure pathways have been developed in a series of AMRs and Calculation Reports.

  12. The Global Anthropogenic Lead Experiment Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    The Global Anthropogenic Lead Experiment Ed Boyle Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Reuer Rick Kayser Boyle Lab, arriving in Rio at the end of EN 367 #12;The Global Anthropogenic Lead Experiment Lead is a volatile element and it is emitted by high temperature industrial activities (smelting

  13. Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Turner, David P [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Stinson, Graham [Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Heath, Linda S. [USDA Forest Service; De Jong, Bernardus [ECOSUR; McConkey, Brian G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Birdsey, Richard A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Pan, Yude [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000 2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a 327 252 TgC yr1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (248 TgC yr1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (297 TgC yr1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated tobe a small net source (+18 TgC yr1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventorybased estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is 511 TgC yr1 and 931 TgC yr1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional 239 TgC yr1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.

  14. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative transfer calculations, will be acquired using the aircraft and surface facilities available to ARESE. This document outlines the scientific approach and measurement requirements of the project.

  15. O_3-N_2O correlations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    O_3-N_2O correlations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: revisiting a diagnostic. (2007) O_3-N_2O correlations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: revisiting a diagnostic outputs online #12;O3-N2O correlations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: Revisiting a diagnostic

  16. Soil-related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. J. Smith

    2003-07-02

    This analysis is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2003 [163602]). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development at the time this report is issued and therefore not available. This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this report. This report, ''Soil Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five analysis reports that develop input parameters for use in the ERMYN model. This report is the source documentation for the six biosphere parameters identified in Table 1-1. ''The Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. The purpose of this analysis was to develop the biosphere model parameters needed to evaluate doses from pathways associated with the accumulation and depletion of radionuclides in the soil. These parameters support the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in soil from on-going irrigation and ash deposition and, as a direct consequence, radionuclide concentration in resuspended particulate matter in the atmosphere. The analysis was performed in accordance with the technical work plan for the biosphere modeling and expert support (TWP) (BSC 2003 [163602]). This analysis revises the previous one titled ''Evaluate Soil/Radionuclide Removal by Erosion and Leaching'' (CRWMS M&O 2001 [152517]). In REV 00 of this report, the data generated were fixed (i.e., taking no account of uncertainty and variability) values. This revision incorporates uncertainty and variability into the values for the bulk density, elemental partition coefficients, average annual loss of soil from erosion, resuspension enhancement factor, and field capacity water content.

  17. Contamination of Dark Matter Experiments from Atmospheric Magnetic Dipoles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bueno; M. Masip; P. Snchez-Lucas; N. Setzer

    2013-10-14

    Dark matter collisions with heavy nuclei (Xe, Ge, Si, Na) may produce recoils observable at direct-search experiments. Given that some of these experiments are yielding conflicting information, however, it is worth asking if physics other than dark matter may produce similar nuclear recoils. We examine under what conditions an atmospherically-produced neutral particle with a relatively large magnetic dipole moment could fake a dark matter signal. We argue that a very definite flux could explain the signals seen at DAMA/LIBRA, CDMS/Si and CoGeNT consistently with the bounds from XENON100 and CDMS/Ge. To explore the plausibility of this scenario, we discuss a concrete model with 10-50 MeV sterile neutrinos that was recently proposed to explain the LSND and MiniBooNE anomalies.

  18. Transient climate change and net ecosystem production of the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Xiangming.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Wang, Chien.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.

    The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM version 4.1) is applied to assess the sensitivity of net ecosystem production (NEP) of the terrestrial biosphere to transient changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate in the ...

  19. United States Department Atmospheric and Biospheric Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , priorities for research on air pollution, forest fire effects, nutrient cycling, water resources century have caused a dramatic increase in global air pollution. This process has accelerated in the past. These changes, together with more severe droughts, forest fires, and air pollution (ozone, nitrogen or sulfur

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01)govCampaignsFIRE-Arctic-govCampaignsLower Atmospheric Boundary

  1. THE PHOENIX ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE EXPERIMENT (ASE): DATA PROCESSING AND SCIENTIFIC RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    THE PHOENIX ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE EXPERIMENT (ASE): DATA PROCESSING AND SCIENTIFIC RESULTS Paul (ASE) of the Phoenix Mars lander. This experiment presented some unique challenges because its hardware was essentially designed and built to fulfill engineering requirements be- fore the Phoenix mission began, meaning

  2. An international land-biosphere model benchmarking activity for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Randerson, James T [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Erickson III, David J [ORNL; Fung, Inez [University of California, Berkeley

    2009-12-01

    The need to capture important climate feedbacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, called Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results (Friedlingstein et al., 2006). This work suggests that a more rigorous set of global offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are needed. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) was designed to meet this need by providing a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). Recently, a similar effort in Europe, called the International Land Model Benchmark (ILAMB) Project, was begun to assess the performance of European land surface models. These two projects will now serve as prototypes for a proposed international land-biosphere model benchmarking activity for those models participating in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Initially used for model validation for terrestrial biogeochemistry models in the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM), C-LAMP incorporates a simulation protocol for both offline and partially coupled simulations using a prescribed historical trajectory of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Models are confronted with data through comparisons against AmeriFlux site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA Globalview flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site measurements. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the CLM version 3 in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): the CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon-nitrogen (CN) model of Thornton. Comparisons of the CLM3 offline results against observational datasets have been performed and are described in Randerson et al. (2009). CLM version 4 has been evaluated using C-LAMP, showing improvement in many of the metrics. Efforts are now underway to initiate a Nitrogen-Land Model Intercomparison Project (N-LAMP) to better constrain the effects of the nitrogen cycle in biosphere models. Presented will be new results from C-LAMP for CLM4, initial N-LAMP developments, and the proposed land-biosphere model benchmarking activity.

  3. The faculty and students in the Atmospheric Sciences Department use physics, chemistry, and mathematics to better understand the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    The faculty and students in the Atmospheric Sciences Department use physics, chemistry chemistry Atmospheric fluid dynamics Biosphere interactions Climate variability Clouds & storms Radiative, and mathematics to better understand the atmosphere and improve the prediction of its future state, both over

  4. The 2003 North American electrical blackout: An accidental experiment in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stehr, Jeffrey

    The 2003 North American electrical blackout: An accidental experiment in atmospheric chemistry 2004; published 15 July 2004. [1] The August 2003 North American electrical blackout provided a unique observations over central Pennsylvania on August 15, 2003, $24 h into the blackout, revealed large reductions

  5. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J. D.; Eller, A. S.D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; et al

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functionsmoreof these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.less

  6. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G.; Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K.

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  7. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G. ); Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  8. Studies of the terrestrial O{sub 2} and carbon cycles in sand dune gases and in biosphere 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinghaus, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Molecular oxygen in the atmosphere is coupled tightly to the terrestrial carbon cycle by the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and burning. This dissertation examines different aspects of this coupling in four chapters. Chapter 1 explores the feasibility of using air from sand dunes to reconstruct atmospheric O{sub 2} composition centuries ago. Such a record would reveal changes in the mass of the terrestrial biosphere, after correction for known fossil fuel combustion, and constrain the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}.

  9. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Rasmuson; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-14

    This analysis is one of 10 technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) (i.e., the biosphere model). It documents development of agricultural and environmental input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters.

  10. North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Michalak, Anna [University of Michigan; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Baker, Ian [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Chen, Jing M. [University of Toronto; Davis, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State University; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Liu, Shuguang [United States Geological Survey, Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS); Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Neilson, Ronald [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Poulter, Ben [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Tomelleri, Enrico [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Viovy, Nicolas [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000-2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. The TBM flux estimates are compared and evaluated over different spatial (1{sup o} x 1{sup o} and spatially aggregated to different regions) and temporal (monthly and annually) scales. The range in model estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for North America is much narrower than estimates of productivity or respiration, with estimates of NEP varying between -0.7 and 2.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, while gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration vary between 12.2 and 32.9 PgC yr{sup -1} and 5.6 and 13.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, respectively. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including the representation of photosynthesis, the source and of environmental driver data and the temporal variability of those data, as well as whether nutrient limitation is considered in soil carbon decomposition. The disagreement in current estimates of carbon flux across North America, including whether North America is a net biospheric carbon source or sink, highlights the need for further analysis through the use of model runs following a common simulation protocol, in order to isolate the influences of model formulation, structure, and assumptions on flux estimates.

  11. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  12. Forest Clearing Among Farm Households in the Maya Biosphere Reserve*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Carr, David

    Forest Clearing Among Farm Households in the Maya Biosphere Reserve* David L. Carr University, Peten, to agri- cultural settlement (Bilsborrow and Carr 2001). Since the southern half

  13. Observations of the Pulsar PSR B1951+32 with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kildea; J. Zweerink; J. Ball; J. E. Carson; C. E. Covault; D. D. Driscoll; P. Fortin; D. M. Gingrich; D. S. Hanna; A. Jarvis; T. Lindner; C. Mueller; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; K. Ragan; D. A. Williams

    2007-10-25

    We present the analysis and results of 12.5 hours of high-energy gamma-ray observations of the EGRET-detected pulsar PSR B1951+32 using the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE). STACEE is an atmospheric Cherenkov detector, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, that detects cosmic gamma rays using the shower-front-sampling technique. STACEE's sensitivity to astrophysical sources at energies around 100 GeV allows it to investigate emission from gamma-ray pulsars with expected pulsed emission cutoffs below 100 GeV. We discuss the observations and analysis of STACEE's PSR 1951+32 data, accumulated during the 2005 and 2006 observing seasons.

  14. Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. J. Smith

    2004-09-09

    This report presents one of the analyses that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the details of the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and the required input parameters. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A schematic representation of the documentation flow for the Biosphere input to TSPA is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the evolutionary relationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this report. This report, ''Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five analysis reports that develop input parameters for use in the ERMYN model. This report is the source documentation for the six biosphere parameters identified in Table 1-1. The purpose of this analysis was to develop the biosphere model parameters associated with the accumulation and depletion of radionuclides in the soil. These parameters support the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in soil from on-going irrigation or ash deposition and, as a direct consequence, radionuclide concentration in other environmental media that are affected by radionuclide concentrations in soil. The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) where the governing procedure was defined as AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses''. This analysis revises the previous version with the same name (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239]), which was itself a revision of one titled ''Evaluate Soil/Radionuclide Removal by Erosion and Leaching'' (CRWMS M&O 2001 [DIRS 152517]). In Revision 00 of this report, the data generated were fixed values (i.e., taking no account of uncertainty and variability). Revision 01 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239]) incorporated uncertainty and variability into the values for the bulk density, elemental partition coefficients, average annual loss of soil from erosion, resuspension enhancement factor, and field capacity water content. The current revision of this document improves the transparency and traceability of the products without changing the details of the analysis. This analysis report supports the treatment of six of the features, events, and processes (FEPs) applicable to the Yucca Mountain reference biosphere (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). The use of the more recent FEP list in DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760] represents a deviation from the detail provided in the TWP (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]), which referenced a previous version of the FEP list. The parameters developed in this report support treatment of these six FEPs addressed in the biosphere model that are listed in Table 1-1. Inclusion and treatment of FEPs in the biosphere model is described in the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460], Section 6.2).

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

  16. TIPPING THE BIOSPHERE Peter D. Roopnarine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roopnarine, Peter D.

    the biologicallybased carbon cycle controlled atmospheric levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Mass extinctions urbanized areas to remote stretches of the open ocean, and there can be no doubt that we are transforming

  17. High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oser, S; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gregorich, D T; Hanna, D S; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schuette, D R; Theoret, C G; Tumer, T O; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a new ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype experiment which uses 32 heliostat mirrors with a total mirror area of ~ 1200\\unit{m^2} has been constructed. This prototype, called STACEE-32, was used to search for high energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and Pulsar. Observations taken between November 1998 and February 1999 yield a strong statistical excess of gamma-like events from the Crab, with a significance of $+6.75\\sigma$ in 43 hours of on-source observing time. No evidence for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar was found, and the upper limit on the pulsed fraction of the observed excess was E_{th}) = (2.2 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{-10}\\unit{photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}}. The observed flux is in agreement with a continuation to lower energies of the power law spectrum seen at TeV energies...

  18. Simulation of Containment Atmosphere Mixing and Stratification Experiment in the ThAI Facility with a CFD Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babic, Miroslav; Kljenak, Ivo; Mavko, Borut [Reactor Engineering Division, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-07-01

    The CFD code CFX4.4 was used to simulate an experiment in the ThAI facility, which was designed for investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes during a severe accident inside a Light Water Reactor containment. In the considered experiment, air was initially present in the vessel, and helium and steam were injected during different phases of the experiment at various mass flow rates and at different locations. The main purpose of the proposed work was to assess the capabilities of the CFD code to reproduce the atmosphere structure with a three-dimensional model, coupled with condensation models proposed by the authors. A three-dimensional model of the ThAI vessel for the CFX4.4 code was developed. The flow in the simulation domain was modeled as single-phase. Steam condensation on vessel walls was modeled as a sink of mass and energy using a correlation that was originally developed for an integral approach. A simple model of bulk phase change was also included. Calculated time-dependent variables together with temperature and volume fraction distributions at the end of different experiment phases are compared to experimental results. (authors)

  19. A Lookup Table to Compute High Energy Cosmic Ray Effects on Terrestrial Atmospheric Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atri, Dimitra

    2009-04-27

    A variety of events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae may expose the Earth to an increased flux of high-energy cosmic rays, with potentially important effects on the biosphere. Existing atmospheric chemistry software does not have...

  20. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the studys results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by radionuclide releases) of waste disposal facilities and decommissioning sites.

  1. Exploring the Deep... Ocean-Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    and the transfer of energy among these systems. Global energy balance The Sun is the primary source of energy), and biosphere (living organisms) that are driven by solar energy. The ocean and the atmosphere have the greatest on the others. To fully understand the dynamics of our climate, we must examine the global energy balance

  2. The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx): Goals, platforms, and field operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, R.; Springston, S.; Mechoso, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; A.Weller, R.; Huebert, B.; Straneo, F.; Albrecht, B. A.; Coe, H.; Allen, G.; Vaughan, G.; Daum, P.; Fairall, C.; Chand, D.; Klenner, L. G.; Garreaud, R.; Grados, C.; Covert, D. S.; Bates, T. S.; Krejci, R.; Russell, L. M.; Szoeke, S. d.; Brewer, A.; Yuter, S. E.; Chaigneau, A.; Toniazzo, T.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Abel, S. J.; Brown, W. O. J.; Williams, S.; Fochesatto, J.; Brioude, J.; Bower, K. N

    2011-01-21

    The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was an international field program designed to make observations of poorly understood but critical components of the coupled climate system of the southeast Pacific. This region is characterized by strong coastal upwelling, the coolest SSTs in the tropical belt, and is home to the largest subtropical stratocumulus deck on Earth. The field intensive phase of VOCALS-REx took place during October and November 2008 and constitutes a critical part of a broader CLIVAR program (VOCALS) designed to develop and promote scientific activities leading to improved understanding, model simulations, and predictions of the southeastern Pacific (SEP) coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system, on diurnal to interannual timescales. The other major components of VOCALS are a modeling program with a model hierarchy ranging from the local to global scales, and a suite of extended observations from regular research cruises, instrumented moorings, and satellites. The two central themes of VOCALS-REx focus upon (a) links between aerosols, clouds and precipitation and their impacts on marine stratocumulus radiative properties, and (b) physical and chemical couplings between the upper ocean and the lower atmosphere, including the role that mesoscale ocean eddies play. A set of hypotheses designed to be tested with the combined field, monitoring and modeling work in VOCALS is presented here. A further goal of VOCALS-REx is to provide datasets for the evaluation and improvement of large-scale numerical models. VOCALS-REx involved five research aircraft, two ships and two surface sites in northern Chile. We describe the instrument payloads and key mission strategies for these platforms and give a summary of the missions conducted.

  3. Observed climate variability and change of relevance to the biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    . Karl, and Kevin P. Gallo1 NOAA National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina David AObserved climate variability and change of relevance to the biosphere David R. Easterling, Thomas R the current instrumental evidence regarding climate variations and change during the 20th century emphasizing

  4. Reply to comment by D. A. Hansen et al. on ``The 2003 North American electrical blackout: An accidental experiment in atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stehr, Jeffrey

    Reply to comment by D. A. Hansen et al. on ``The 2003 North American electrical blackout), Reply to comment by D. A. Hansen et al. on ``The 2003 North American electrical blackout: An accidental blackout: An accidental experiment in atmospheric chemistry'' and ap- preciate the opportunity to expand

  5. Evaluation of Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Wasiolek; P. Rogers

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of biosphere features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the corresponding technical basis for the excluded FEPs and the descriptions of how the included FEPs were incorporated in the biosphere model. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report concern characteristics of the reference biosphere, the receptor, and the environmental transport and receptor exposure pathways for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios considered in biosphere modeling. This revision provides the summary of the implementation of included FEPs in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included); for excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report is one of the 10 documents constituting the biosphere model documentation suite. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' describes in detail the biosphere conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters and their development. Outputs from these six reports are used in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis and Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' to generate the biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs), which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' analyzes the output of these two BDCF reports.

  6. Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters David L. Carr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Carr, David

    1 Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters David L. Carr Assistant-4060 Paper submitted to Human Organization Please do not cite without permission of the author Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters Abstract Virtually all migration research examines

  7. What is the Potential for Carbon Sequestration by the Terrestrial Biosphere?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlman, R. C.; Jacobs, Gary K.; Breshears, David; Metting, F. Blaine

    2002-12-31

    This paper is a summary discussion of technical information about carbon sequestration (CS) in terrestrial ecosystems that was presented in various Sessions of the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington D.C., May 14-17, 2001. The Earth's mantle of vegetation naturally removes CO2 from the atmosphere, and some of this carbon then becomes sequestered in biomass products and soil. As discussed at this National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, mechanisms of terrestrial biosphere carbon sequestration (TBCS) represent important options for sequestration of excess CO2 from combustion of fossil fuels. A number of studies suggest that the potential quantity of TBCS may be significant, and that economic aspects appear attractive; therefore we conclude the following points: ? Quantity of annual carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems can be measured at a reasonable accuracy; ? Median measure of current NEP or sequestration by forested ecosystems is 3 metric tons per hectare per year; ? Current calculated global TBCS for forests is ~3Gt C per yr; ? Estimated future TBCS capacity is 200-250 Gt C using available knowledge and current technology and management practice at nominal estimated cost of $10-20 per metric ton of C; ? It seems reasonable to assume that advanced science, technology, and management can double the capacity at low additional costs. ? TBCS option offers potential for sequestering more than 50 percent of projected excess CO2 that will have to be managed over the next century.

  8. Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Daly, Rebecca; Mouser, Paula J.; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Biddle , Jennifer F.; Denis, Elizabeth; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, T. C.; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2014-09-12

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundations Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  9. Lookup tables to compute high energy cosmic ray induced atmospheric ionization and changes in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitra Atri; Adrian L. Melott; Brian C. Thomas

    2010-05-03

    A variety of events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae may expose the Earth to an increased flux of high-energy cosmic rays, with potentially important effects on the biosphere. Existing atmospheric chemistry software does not have the capability of incorporating the effects of substantial cosmic ray flux above 10 GeV . An atmospheric code, the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center two-dimensional (latitude, altitude) time-dependent atmospheric model (NGSFC), is used to study atmospheric chemistry changes. Using CORSIKA, we have created tables that can be used to compute high energy cosmic ray (10 GeV - 1 PeV) induced atmospheric ionization and also, with the use of the NGSFC code, can be used to simulate the resulting atmospheric chemistry changes. We discuss the tables, their uses, weaknesses, and strengths.

  10. Atmospheric Test Models and Numerical Experiments for the Simulation of the Global Distributions of Weather Data Transponders III. Horizontal Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molenkamp, C.R.; Grossman, A.

    1999-12-20

    A network of small balloon-borne transponders which gather very high resolution wind and temperature data for use by modern numerical weather predication models has been proposed to improve the reliability of long-range weather forecasts. The global distribution of an array of such transponders is simulated using LLNL's atmospheric parcel transport model (GRANTOUR) with winds supplied by two different general circulation models. An initial study used winds from CCM3 with a horizontal resolution of about 3 degrees in latitude and longitude, and a second study used winds from NOGAPS with a 0.75 degree horizontal resolution. Results from both simulations show that reasonable global coverage can be attained by releasing balloons from an appropriate set of launch sites.

  11. Dynamic Chamber System to Measure Gaseous Compounds Emissions and Atmospheric-Biospheric Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    : Dynamic chamber, Emissions, Ammonia, Nitrogen oxide, Hydrogen sulphide, Hydrogen peroxide Abstract agricultural soils where nitrogen-rich fertilizers have been applied. Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) and reduced-liquid interface at swine waste treatment anaerobic storage lagoons, and agricultural fields. Similar chamber

  12. True Polar Wander: linking Deep and Shallow Geodynamics to Hydro-and Bio-Spheric Hypotheses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    True Polar Wander: linking Deep and Shallow Geodynamics to Hydro- and Bio-Spheric Hypotheses T. D on the bulk solid Earth over longer tirnescales 565 #12;566 Linking Deep and Shallow Geodynamics to Hydro

  13. Coupling of Integrated Biosphere Simulator to Regional Climate Model Version 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

    A description of the coupling of Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) to Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) is presented. IBIS introduces several key advantages to RegCM3, most notably vegetation dynamics, the ...

  14. The mean climate of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) in forced SST and fully coupled experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neale, Richard; Richter, Jadwiga; Park, Sungsu; Lauritzen, P. H.; Vavrus, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhang, Minghua

    2013-07-15

    The Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4) was released as the atmosphere component of the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) and is described. The finite volume dynamical core available in CAM3 is now the default due to its superior transport and conservation properties. Deep convection parameterization changes include a dilute plume calculation of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the introduction of a formulation for Convective Momentum Transport (CMT). For the cloud fraction an additional calculation is performed following macrophysical state updates that provides improved thermodynamic condistancy. A freeze-drying modification is further made to the cloud fraction calculation in very dry environments, such as arctic Winter, where cloud fractionand cloud water estimates were often inconsistant in CAM3. In CAM4 the finite volume dynamical core leads to a degradation in the excessive trade-wind simulation, but with an accompanying reduction in zonal stresses at higher latitudes. Plume dilution leads to a moister deep tropics alleviating much of the mid-tropospheric dry biases and reduces the persistant precipitation biases over the Arabian peninsular and the southern Indian ocean during the Indian Monsoon. CMT reduces much of the excessive trade-wind biases in eastern ocean basins. The freeze drying modification alleviates much of the high latitude, winter-time excessive cloud bias and improves the associated surface cloud-related energy budget, but the updated cloud macrophysical calculation generally leads to reduced cloud fraction and cloud forcing away from high latitudes. Although there are marginal improvements in time-averaged, large-scale hydrology there are signficant improvements in regional climate features such as the generation of tropical and propagation of stationary waves from the Pacific into mid-latitudes and in the seasonal frequency of Northern Hemisphere blocking events. A 1? versus 2? horizontal resolution of the finite volume 24 dynamical core exhibits signficiant improvements in model climate. Improvements in the fully coupled mean climate between CAM3 and CAM4 are also much more signficant than in forced Sea Surface Temperature (SST) simulations. Furthermore, improvements in the transient characteristics ofthe model climate, documented elsewhere, are substantial.

  15. Atmospheric Environment ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    that the influence of the urban region on wind patterns and atmospheric stability could be studied. HeightAtmospheric Environment ] (

  16. NEW ATLAS9 AND MARCS MODEL ATMOSPHERE GRIDS FOR THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT (APOGEE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meszaros, Sz.; Allende Prieto, C.; De Vicente, A.; Edvardsson, B.; Gustafsson, B.; Castelli, F.; Garcia Perez, A. E.; Majewski, S. R.; Plez, B.; Schiavon, R.; Shetrone, M.

    2012-10-01

    We present a new grid of model photospheres for the SDSS-III/APOGEE survey of stellar populations of the Galaxy, calculated using the ATLAS9 and MARCS codes. New opacity distribution functions were generated to calculate ATLAS9 model photospheres. MARCS models were calculated based on opacity sampling techniques. The metallicity ([M/H]) spans from -5 to 1.5 for ATLAS and -2.5 to 0.5 for MARCS models. There are three main differences with respect to previous ATLAS9 model grids: a new corrected H{sub 2}O line list, a wide range of carbon ([C/M]) and {alpha} element [{alpha}/M] variations, and solar reference abundances from Asplund et al. The added range of varying carbon and {alpha}-element abundances also extends the previously calculated MARCS model grids. Altogether, 1980 chemical compositions were used for the ATLAS9 grid and 175 for the MARCS grid. Over 808,000 ATLAS9 models were computed spanning temperatures from 3500 K to 30,000 K and log g from 0 to 5, where larger temperatures only have high gravities. The MARCS models span from 3500 K to 5500 K, and log g from 0 to 5. All model atmospheres are publicly available online.

  17. Atmospheric test models and numerical experiments for the simulation of the global distribution of weather data transponders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, A; Molenkamp, C R

    1999-08-25

    A proposal has been made to establish a high density global network of atmospheric micro transponders to record time, temperature, and wind data with time resolution of {le} 1 minute, temperature accuracy of {+-} 1 K, spatial resolution no poorer than {approx}3km horizontally and {approx}0.1km vertically, and 2-D speed accuracy of {le} 1m/s. This data will be used in conjunction with advanced numerical weather prediction models to provide increases in the reliability of long range weather forecasts. Major advances in data collection technology will be required to provide the proposed high-resolution data collection network. Systems studies must be undertaken to determine insertion requirements, spacing, and evolution of the transponder ensemble, which will be used to collect the data. Numerical models which provide realistic global weather pattern simulations must be utilized in order to perform these studies. A global circulation model with a 3{sup o} horizontal resolution has been used for initial simulations of the generation and evolution of transponder distributions. These studies indicate that reasonable global coverage of transponders can be achieved by a launch scenario consisting of the sequential launch of transponders at specified heights from a globally distributed set of launch sites.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In October 2010, the initial deployment of the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) took place at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX). The objective of this field campaign was to obtain data about liquid and mixed-phase clouds using AMF2 instruments in conjunction with Storm Peak Laboratory (located at an elevation of 3220 meters on Mt. Werner), a cloud and aerosol research facility operated by the Desert Research Institute. STORMVEX datasets are freely available for viewing and download. Users are asked to register with the ARM Archive; the user's email address is used from that time forward as the login name.

  19. Passive solar heated energy conserving biosphere home. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekarski, R.

    1985-01-01

    ''Warm Gold'' is an original design of a passive solar heated energy conserving biosphere home. It has been owner-built with financial help from the US Department of Energy through its Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program of 1980. The home incorporates the six major components of passive solar design: appropriate geometry and orientation, glazing, light levels and reflective surfaces, ventilation, thermal storage, and insulation. Warm Gold is an earth-sheltered home with earth cover on the roof as well as on the two opaque north leg walls. It is of durable and efficient masonry construction which included stone masonry with on-site materials and cement block and ready mix concrete. Excavation, backfill, and drainage were necessary aspects of earth sheltered construction together with the all-important Bentonite waterproofing system. Warm Gold is a house which meets all the national building code standards of HUD. The home has two bedrooms, one bathroom, living room, dining room-kitchen, greenhouse, and utility annex, all of which are incorporated with the earth-sheltered, passive solar systems to be a comfortable, energy-efficient living environment.

  20. Observations of atmospheric tides on Mars at the season and latitude of the Phoenix atmospheric entry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Observations of atmospheric tides on Mars at the season and latitude of the Phoenix atmospheric atmospheric entry of NASA's Phoenix Mars probe using Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment (ASE) data atmospheric entry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24204, doi:10.1029/2010GL045382. 1. Introduction [2] Phoenix

  1. Applied Geography 26 (2006) 129152 Landscape change in the Calakmul Biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy Chowdhury, Rinku

    2006-01-01

    in protected areas can have socially detrimental impacts, including livestock/wildlife conflicts, displacementApplied Geography 26 (2006) 129152 Landscape change in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico This article uses remote sensing and spatial modeling to quantify and analyze land change in Mexico's largest

  2. Combined Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach terrestrial carbon cycle model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Combined Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach terrestrial carbon cycle model Kevin and physical processes to test our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle and to predict ecosystem biomass and carbon fluxes. We combine the photosynthesis and biophysical calculations in the Simple

  3. Coupling of Integrated Biosphere Simulator to Regional Climate Model version 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this thesis is a description of the coupling of Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) to Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3), and an assessment of the coupled model (RegCM3-IBIS). RegCM3 is a 3-dimensional, ...

  4. Impact of land cover uncertainties on estimates of biospheric carbon fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    carbon cycle [Schimel, 1995; Meir et al., 2006]. On average, around 30% of the carbon dioxide emitted- tance to know the properties and limitations of such maps for use in carbon flux calculations, and howImpact of land cover uncertainties on estimates of biospheric carbon fluxes T. Quaife,1,2 S. Quegan

  5. Attributing uncertainties in simulated biospheric carbon fluxes to different error sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, John Chun-Han

    sets (satellite indices, temperature, solar radiation, and land cover). Biases in downward shortwave to specific input variables. To date, few studies have examined uncertainties in biospheric models radiation accumulated to the most significant amount out of the driver data sets and accounted

  6. Free Air C02 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Oak Ridge FACE Site and Experiment on CO2 Enrichment of Sweetgum

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The facility was established with support from the ORNL Director's R&D Fund and the Biological and Environmental Research program of the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science. Additional support was provided by the Terrestrial Ecology and Global Change (TECO) program through the National Science Foundation. This project was part of the CO2 research network fostered by the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. Results from the experiment contributed to the Terrestrial Ecosystem Response to Atmospheric and Climatic Change (TERACC) project, a 5-year initiative integrating experimental data and global change modeling. Data from the ORNL FACE experiment are being used in an model benchmarking activity at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis. [Copied from http://face.ornl.gov/goals.html

  7. Agricultural green revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J.; West, Tristram O.; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 256N and 606N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 506N and 706 N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 0.027 percent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 20012010 than in 19611970, suggesting that human land use and management contribute to seasonal changes in the CO2 exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

  8. Fig. 7.1 Trees blown over by an intermediate intensity wind storm in 2007 in an old-growth European beech forest at the Uholka World Heritage Site, Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, Ukraine.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeton, William S.

    -growth European beech forest at the Uholka World Heritage Site, Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, Ukraine. Note

  9. Computer support to run models of the atmosphere. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, I.

    1996-08-30

    This research is focused on a better quantification of the variations in CO{sub 2} exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere and the factors responsible for these exchangers. The principal approach is to infer the variations in the exchanges from variations in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} distribution. The principal tool involves using a global three-dimensional tracer transport model to advect and convect CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The tracer model the authors used was developed at the Goddard institute for Space Studies (GISS) and is derived from the GISS atmospheric general circulation model. A special run of the GCM is made to save high-frequency winds and mixing statistics for the tracer model.

  10. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  11. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, Anna M.; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; et al

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO?) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-longmore(19012010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10? g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr? with a median value of 51 Pg C yr? during 20012010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 4065N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 19012010 ranges from 70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO? and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stockseven though the responses varied significantly among models. Model representations of temperature and moisture sensitivity, nutrient limitation, and land use partially explain the divergent estimates of global SOC stocks and soil C fluxes in this study. In addition, a major source of systematic error in model estimations relates to nonmodeled SOC storage in wetlands and peatlands, as well as to old C storage in deep soil layers.less

  12. Atmospheric Test Models and Numerical Experiments for the Simulation of the Global Distribution of Weather Data Transponders II. Vertical Transponder Motion Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, A.; Errico, R.M.

    1999-11-29

    The vertical motion of constant density atmospheric balloons has been considered via an equation of motion for the vertical displacement of a balloon, due to vertical air motion, which can be numerically solved for balloon positions. Initial calculations are made for a constant density atmosphere. Various vertical wind models with relatively large amplitudes are applied to the model to determine how tightly the balloons are coupled to the reference level and the time scale for the balloons to change to the wind driven reference altitude. A surface launch of a balloon to a 6 km reference altitude is modeled using a detailed atmospheric pressure-density-temperature profile in the equation of motion. The results show the balloons to be relatively tightly coupled ({approx} 50-100 m) to the reference altitude.

  13. Additional Research Needs to Support the GENII Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen

    2013-11-30

    In the course of evaluating the current parameter needs for the GENII Version 2 code (Snyder et al. 2013), areas of possible improvement for both the data and the underlying models have been identified. As the data review was implemented, PNNL staff identified areas where the models can be improved both to accommodate the locally significant pathways identified and also to incorporate newer models. The areas are general data needs for the existing models and improved formulations for the pathway models. It is recommended that priorities be set by NRC staff to guide selection of the most useful improvements in a cost-effective manner. Suggestions are made based on relatively easy and inexpensive changes, and longer-term more costly studies. In the short term, there are several improved model formulations that could be applied to the GENII suite of codes to make them more generally useful. Implementation of the separation of the translocation and weathering processes Implementation of an improved model for carbon-14 from non-atmospheric sources Implementation of radon exposure pathways models Development of a KML processor for the output report generator module data that are calculated on a grid that could be superimposed upon digital maps for easier presentation and display Implementation of marine mammal models (manatees, seals, walrus, whales, etc.). Data needs in the longer term require extensive (and potentially expensive) research. Before picking any one radionuclide or food type, NRC staff should perform an in-house review of current and anticipated environmental analyses to select dominant radionuclides of interest to allow setting of cost-effective priorities for radionuclide- and pathway-specific research. These include soil-to-plant uptake studies for oranges and other citrus fruits, and Development of models for evaluation of radionuclide concentration in highly-processed foods such as oils and sugars. Finally, renewed studies of radionuclide cleanup in various modern types of municipal water treatment facilities such as advanced filtration or reverse-osmosis processes may be performed without development of any new or costly experimental facilities.

  14. Remote Sensing and In-Situ Observations of Arctic Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds Acquired During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle Participation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, G.M.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; McCoy, R.; Bolton, W.

    2005-03-18

    The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for a new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs while supporting the climate community with valuable data sets. Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), obtaining unique data to help understand the interaction of clouds with solar and infrared radiation. Many measurements obtained using the Proteus were coincident with in-situ observations made by the UND Citation. Data from M-PACE are needed to understand interactions between clouds, the atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, critical interactions given large-scale models suggest enhanced warming compared to lower latitudes is occurring.

  15. Uncertainty analysis on the parameterization of processes at the biosphere and hydrosphere in atmospheric models scientific-technical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    : Mihailo Jankov Undergraduate student: Anne Cherry Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 903 Koyukuk Drive, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, email: molders@gi.alaska.edu Aim: The aim index, water potential at saturation, etc.) in predicted trace gas, energy and water fluxes for various

  16. THE CARBON-LAND MODEL INTERCOMPARISON PROJECT (C-LAMP): A PROTOTYPE FOR COUPLED BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While a number of terrestrial and ocean carbon models

  17. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-193. 2004. 101 Biosphere and Atmosphere Interactions in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    aerosol production. Impacts of ozone deposition and management practices on ecosystem health are also (anthropogenic) and through natural (biogenic) processes. For example, VOCs are typically produced by trees as to appropriately target pollution-reduction measures. During the summers of 1998 and 1999 continuous, hourly

  18. 150 G. Marland et al. / Climate Policy 3 (2003) 149157 Strategies to mitigate anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    2003-01-01

    anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere can reduce to create a system of credits and debits wherein emission or sequestration of carbon in the biosphere; Carbon sequestration; Land use change; Land surface change; Surface energy balance 1. Introduction Human

  19. Population, Rural Development, and Land Use Among Settler Households in an Agricultural Frontier in Guatemala's Maya Biosphere Reserve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Carr, David

    in Guatemala's Maya Biosphere Reserve David Carr Ph.D. University of California, Santa Barbara carr increasingly occurs on impoverished soils (Carr, Barbieri et al., 2006). Agricultural frontier1 This paper). This is especially true in Latin America (Rudel & Roper 1996; Carr & Bilsborrow, 2001). Political, economic

  20. ight-derived energy enters the biosphere through photosyn-thesis, and ultimately sustains virtually all living organisms.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarhan, Fathey

    L ight-derived energy enters the biosphere through photosyn- thesis, and ultimately sustains transformation of the light into reducing power (NADPH) and chemical energy (ATP) and its ultimate utilization and metabolism, exposure of plants to light energy that is in excess of that required for photosynthesis re

  1. Does aspartic acid racemization constrain the depth limit of the subsurface biosphere?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onstott, T. C.; Aubrey, A.D.; Kieft, T L; Silver, B J; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Van Heerden, E.; Opperman, D. J.; Bada, J L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of the subsurface biosphere have deduced average cellular doubling times of hundreds to thousands of years based upon geochemical models. We have directly constrained the in situ average cellular protein turnover or doubling times for metabolically active micro-organisms based on cellular amino acid abundances, D/L values of cellular aspartic acid, and the in vivo aspartic acid racemization rate. Application of this method to planktonic microbial communities collected from deep fractures in South Africa yielded maximum cellular amino acid turnover times of ~89 years for 1 km depth and 27 C and 1 2 years for 3 km depth and 54 C. The latter turnover times are much shorter than previously estimated cellular turnover times based upon geochemical arguments. The aspartic acid racemization rate at higher temperatures yields cellular protein doubling times that are consistent with the survival times of hyperthermophilic strains and predicts that at temperatures of 85 C, cells must replace proteins every couple of days to maintain enzymatic activity. Such a high maintenance requirement may be the principal limit on the abundance of living micro-organisms in the deep, hot subsurface biosphere, as well as a potential limit on their activity. The measurement of the D/L of aspartic acid in biological samples is a potentially powerful tool for deep, fractured continental and oceanic crustal settings where geochemical models of carbon turnover times are poorly constrained. Experimental observations on the racemization rates of aspartic acid in living thermophiles and hyperthermophiles could test this hypothesis. The development of corrections for cell wall peptides and spores will be required, however, to improve the accuracy of these estimates for environmental samples.

  2. Physics Potential of Future Atmospheric Neutrino Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2008-12-12

    The potential of future high statistics atmospheric neutrino experiments is considered, having in mind currently discussed huge detectors of various technologies (water Cerekov, magnetized iron, liquid Argon). I focus on the possibility to use atmospheric data to determine the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and the neutrino mass hierarchy. The sensitivity to the $\\theta_{23}$-octant of atmospheric neutrinos is competitive (or even superior) to long-baseline experiments. I discuss the ideal properties of a fictitious atmospheric neutrino detector to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  3. RESULTS FROM THE PHOENIX ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE PAUL WITHERS*,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    RESULTS FROM THE PHOENIX ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE EXPERIMENT PAUL WITHERS*,a AND DAVID C. CATLINGb through the atmosphere of Mars, Phoenix recorded acceleration and angular velocity data using the Experimental Data Records (EDRs) of the Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment (ASE), are available from

  4. HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

    2013-01-01

    HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

  5. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a client of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  6. Chicle harvesting and extractive reserves in the Maya Biosphere b: Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugelby, B.L.

    1995-12-31

    Chicle latex has been extracted from the forests of northern Guatemala for over 100 years and is a key element in the extractive reserve component of the Maya Biosphere Reserve. The carrying capacity of the reserve for chicle extraction can be estimated from a model incorporating ecological data (such as latex yields per tree and population structure of chicle trees, Manilkara zapota, Sapot.) with socio-ecological and political information concerning camp and chicle resource availability, harvester tapping behavior, and historical and present-day institutional organization. I estimate that chicle harvestors currently utilize and area larger than the multiple use zone of the reserve in a unsustainable manner. Simple reduction of harvestors numbers will not ensure sustainability; institutional reforms are also in order. Extractive reserves can play an important role in preserving tropical forests. However, their effectiveness is highly dependent on prevailing ecological, socio-economic, and political conditions. Wise planning and management of extractive reserves demands an understanding of the system`s carrying capacity. In addition, a strong institutional foundation is necessary to assure effective monitoring and enforcement of harvesting regulations.

  7. Investigations into the impact of astronomical phenomena on the terrestrial biosphere and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Fabo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the influence of astronomical phenomena on the Earth's biosphere and climate. I examine in particular the relevance of both the path of the Sun through the Galaxy and the evolution of the Earth's orbital parameters in modulating non-terrestrial mechanisms. I build models to predict the extinction rate of species, the temporal variation of the impact cratering rate and ice sheet deglaciations, and then compare these models with other models within a Bayesian framework. I find that the temporal distribution of mass extinction events over the past 550 Myr can be explained just as well by a uniform random distribution as by other models, such as variations in the stellar density local to the Sun arising from the Sun's orbit. Given the uncertainties in the Galaxy model and the Sun's current phase space coordinates, as well as the errors in the geological data, it is not possible to draw a clear connection between terrestrial extinction and the solar motion. In a separate study, I find that the...

  8. Developing Model Constraints on Northern Extra-Tropical Carbon Cycling Based on measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeling, Ralph

    2014-12-12

    The objective of this project was to perform CO2 data syntheses and modeling activities to address two central questions: 1) how much has the seasonal cycle in atmospheric CO2 at northern high latitudes changed since the 1960s, and 2) how well do prognostic biospheric models represent these changes. This project also supported the continuation of the Scripps time series of CO2 isotopes and concentration at ten baseline stations distributed globally.

  9. Solid phase evolution in the Biosphere 2 hillslope experiment as predicted by modeling of hydrologic and geochemical fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dontsova, K.

    2010-01-01

    complete dissolution of goethite, J. Appl. Chem. Biotechn. ,gibbsite, pyrolusite, and goethite, depending on conditions.+ 2 H 2 O (R9) (R10) Goethite: Dissolution rate constants (

  10. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D.

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  11. ChEAS Data: The Chequamegon Ecosystem Atmosphere Study

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Davis, Kenneth J. [Penn State

    The Chequamegon Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (ChEAS) is a multi-organizational research effort studying biosphere/atmosphere interactions within a northern mixed forest in Northern Wisconsin. A primary goal is to understand the processes controlling forest-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide and the response of these processes to climate change. Another primary goal is to bridge the gap between canopy-scale flux measurements and the global CO2 flask sampling network. The ChEAS flux towers participate in AmeriFlux, and the region is an EOS-validation site. The WLEF tower is a NOAA-CMDL CO2 sampling site. ChEAS sites are primarily located within or near the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest in northern Wisconsin, with one site in the Ottawa National Forest in the upper peninsula of Michigan. Current studies observe forest/atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide at canopy and regional scales, forest floor respiration, photosynthesis and transpiration at the leaf level and use models to scale to canopy and regional levels. EOS-validation studies quantitatively assess the land cover of the area using remote sensing and conduct extensive ground truthing of new remote sensing data (i.e. ASTER and MODIS). Atmospheric remote sensing work is aimed at understanding atmospheric boundary layer dynamics, the role of entrainment in regulating the carbon dioxide mixing ratio profiles through the lower troposphere, and feedback between boundary layer dynamics and vegetation (especially via the hydrologic cycle). Airborne studies have included include balloon, kite and aircraft observations of the CO2 profile in the troposphere.

  12. Response of Atmospheric Biomarkers to NOx-induced Photochemistry Generated by Stellar Cosmic Rays for Earth-like Planets in the Habitable Zone of M-Dwarf Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grenfell, John Lee; von Paris, Philip; Patzer, Beate; Lammer, Helmut; Stracke, Barbara; Gebauer, Stefanie; Schreier, Franz; Rauer, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Understanding whether M-dwarf stars may host habitable planets with Earth-like atmospheres and biospheres is a major goal in exoplanet research. If such planets exist, the question remains as to whether they could be identified via spectral signatures of biomarkers. Such planets may be exposed to extreme intensities of cosmic rays that could perturb their atmospheric photochemistry. Here, we consider stellar activity of M-dwarfs ranging from quiet up to strong flaring conditions and investigate one particular effect upon biomarkers, namely, the ability of secondary electrons caused by stellar cosmic rays to break up atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N2), which leads to production of nitrogen oxides in the planetary atmosphere, hence affecting biomarkers such as ozone. We apply a stationary model, that is, without a time-dependence, hence we are calculating the limiting case where the atmospheric chemistry response time of the biomarkers is assumed to be slow and remains constant compared with rapid forcing by t...

  13. Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, T.V.

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

  14. Atmospheric chemistry and global change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ

    1999-01-01

    and particles. Thus Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Changethe future of atmospheric chemistry. BROWSINGS Tornadothe complexity of atmospheric chemistry well, but trips a

  15. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  16. Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    be corrected by a net outgassing of $0.6 Pg C/yr from riverone of the major regions of oceanic CO 2 outgassing.El Nino conditions, outgassing is decreased by a thickening

  17. Eddy Covariance Fluxes of Nitrogen Oxides at Harvard Forest NOx deposition is important to both the biosphere and the atmosphere: the form of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Current estimates indicate that fossil fuel combustion and soil microbial emissions are the largest by smaller contributions from biomass burning, lightning, ammonia oxidation, the ocean, and the stratosphere. Oxidation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions produces intermediate products

  18. Treatment of soil, vegetation and snow in land surface models: a test of the BiosphereAtmosphere Transfer Scheme with the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    surface consists of soil, vegetation, snow, glaciers, inland waters, mountains, animals, human beings to study the complicated transfer or diffusion of energy, water and trace gases within each study object of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA b Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona

  19. Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementannual variations in fossil fuel emissions, J. Geophys.including land, ocean and fossil fuel surface fluxes, have

  20. Biosphere-atmosphere interactions over semi-arid regions : modeling the role of mineral aerosols and irrigation in the regional climate system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcella, Marc Pace

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes the role of land surface processes in shaping semi-arid climates, namely those of Southwest Asia and Northwest Africa. The interactions between dust emissions, irrigation, and climate processes ...

  1. Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Storhofdi Iceland Canary Islands Jubany Antarctica KeyGuam Halley Bay Antarctica Canary Islands Key Biscayne FL

  2. Eddy Covariance Fluxes of Nitrogen Oxides at Harvard Forest NOx deposition is important to both the biosphere and the atmosphere: the form of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cycling of NO-NO2, and does not contribute to net NOx flux. Net deposition velocity of NOx [Aneja et al., 2001]. NO is rapidly converted to NO2 via reaction with O3 (Reaction 3.1), with typical.2), regenerating O3 by the reaction of O(3 P) with molecular oxygen (R3.3): NO + O3 NO2 + O2 (R3.1) NO2 + h NO + O

  3. Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences 19592009 WayneBurt. #12;Oceanography and Atmospheric in Oceanography (TENOC). Wayne Burt immediately responds with proposal to President Strand of Oregon State College to start a graduate Department of Oceanography. 1959 Oregon State Board of Higher Education approves

  4. Can we learn something more on oscillations from atmospheric neutrinos?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2006-10-04

    We show that for long-baseline experiments using a Mt water Cerenkov detector atmospheric neutrino data provide a powerful method to resolve parameter degeneracies. In particular, the combination of long-baseline and atmospheric data increases significantly the sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy and the octant of $\\theta_{23}$. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility to use $\\mu$-like atmospheric neutrino data from a big magnetized iron calorimeter to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  5. The Response of Atmospheric Chemistry on Earthlike Planets around F, G and K Stars to Small Variations in Orbital Distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Lee Grenfell; Barbara Stracke; Philip von Paris; Beate Patzer; Ruth Titz; Antigona Segura; Heike Rauer

    2006-10-16

    One of the prime goals of future investigations of extrasolar planets is to search for life as we know it. The Earth's biosphere is adapted to current conditions. How would the atmospheric chemistry of the Earth respond if we moved it to different orbital distances or changed its host star? This question is central to astrobiology and aids our understanding of how the atmospheres of terrestrial planets develop. To help address this question, we have performed a sensitivity study using a coupled radiative-convective photochemical column model to calculate changes in atmospheric chemistry on a planet having Earth's atmospheric composition, which we subjected to small changes in orbital position, of the order of 5-10 per cent for a solar-type G2V, F2V, and K2V star. We then applied a chemical source-sink analysis to the biomarkers in order to understand how chemical processes affect biomarker concentrations. We start with the composition of the present Earth, since this is the only example we know for which a spectrum of biomarker molecules has been measured. We then investigate the response of the biomarkers to changes in the input stellar flux. Computing the thermal profile for atmospheres rich in H2 O, CO2 and CH4 is however a major challenge for current radiative schemes, due, among other things, to lacking spectroscopic data. Therefore, as a first step, we employ a more moderate approach, by investigating small shifts in planet-star distance and assuming an earthlike biosphere. To calculate this shift we assumed a criteria for complex life based on the Earth, i.e. the earthlike planetary surface temperature varied between zero to thirty degrees Centigrade which led to a narrow HZ width of (0.94-1.08)

  6. Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

    1999-03-01

    Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

  7. The Case for a Hot Archean Climate and its Implications to the History of the Biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartzman, David W

    2015-01-01

    The case for a much warmer climate on the early Earth than now is presented. The oxygen isotope record in sedimentary chert and the compelling case for a near constant isotopic oxygen composition of seawater over geologic time support thermophilic surface temperatures prevailing in the Archean, with some support for hot conditions lasting until about 1.5 billion years ago, aside from lower temperatures including glacial episodes at 2.1-2.4 Ga and possibly an earlier one at 2.9 Ga. Other evidence includes the following: 1) Melting temperatures of proteins resurrected from sequences inferred from robust molecular phylogenies give paleotemperatures at emergence consistent with a very warm early climate. 2) High atmospheric pCO2 levels in the Archean are consistent with high climatic temperatures near the triple point of primary iron minerals in banded iron formations, the formation of Mn-bicarbonate clusters leading to oxygenic photosynthesis and generally higher weathering intensities on land. These higher weat...

  8. Final report on "Modeling Diurnal Variations of California Land Biosphere CO2 Fluxes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, Inez

    2014-07-28

    In Mediterranean climates, the season of water availability (winter) is out of phase with the season of light availability and atmospheric demand for moisture (summer). Multi-year half-hourly observations of sap flow velocities in 26 evergreen trees in a small watershed in Northern California show that different species of evergreen trees have different seasonalities of transpiration: Douglas-firs respond immediately to the first winter rain, while Pacific madrones have peak transpiration in the dry summer. Using these observations, we have derived species-specific parameterization of normalized sap flow velocities in terms of insolation, vapor pressure deficit and near-surface soil moisture. A simple 1-D boundary layer model showed that afternoon temperatures may be higher by 1 degree Celsius in an area with Douglas-firs than with Pacific madrones. The results point to the need to develop a new representation of subsurface moisture, in particular pools beneath the organic soil mantle and the vadose zone. Our ongoing and future work includes coupling our new parameterization of transpiration with new representation of sub-surface moisture in saprolite and weathered bedrock. The results will be implemented in a regional climate model to explore vegetation-climate feedbacks, especially in the dry season.

  9. Ensemble Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addis, R.P.

    2002-06-24

    Prognostic atmospheric dispersion models are used to generate consequence assessments, which assist decision-makers in the event of a release from a nuclear facility. Differences in the forecast wind fields generated by various meteorological agencies, differences in the transport and diffusion models, as well as differences in the way these models treat the release source term, result in differences in the resulting plumes. Even dispersion models using the same wind fields may produce substantially different plumes. This talk will address how ensemble techniques may be used to enable atmospheric modelers to provide decision-makers with a more realistic understanding of how both the atmosphere and the models behave.

  10. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    address: Center for Atmospheric Chemistry Study, Departmenttween phytoplankton, atmospheric chemistry, and climate areno. 12 ? 4601 4605 CHEMISTRY Atmospheric aerosol deposition

  11. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  12. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  13. Autumn 2014 Atmospheric Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    to perform atmospheric chemistry measurements in this remote region of ubiquitous oil and gas drilling 30 days they raised $12,000, enough to support Maria's travel to Utah and to cover the costs

  14. 13, 1479714822, 2013 Atmospheric waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    .5194/acpd-13-14797-2013 Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Sciences ss Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics OpenAccess Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics OpenAccess Discussions Atmospheric Measurement s Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  15. The middle Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaquin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of scattered light above the planetary limb from 116 Viking Orbiter images are used to constrain the temporal and spatial behavior of aerosols suspended in the Martian atmosphere. The data cover a wide range of seasons, locations, and viewing geometry, providing information about the aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution. The typical atmospheric column contains one or more discrete, optically thin, ice-like haze layers between 30 and 90 km elevation whose composition is inferred to be water ice. Below the detached hazes, a continuous haze, interpreted to have a large dust component, extends from as much as 50 km to the surface. The haze distribution exhibits an annual variation that reflects a seasonally driven circulation in the middle atmosphere. The potential role of stationary gravity waves in modifying the middle atmosphere circulation is explored using a linear theory applied to a realistic Martian environment. Martian topography derived from radar observations is decomposed into Fourier harmonics and used to linearly superpose gravity waves arising from each component. The larger amplitude topography on Mars combined with the absence of extended regions of smooth topography like oceans generates larger wave amplitudes than on the Earth. The circulation of the middle atmosphere is examined using a two-dimensional, linearized, axisymmetric model successfully employed in the study of the terrestrial mesosphere. Illustrations of temperature and wind speeds are presented for the southern summer solstice and southern spring equinox.

  16. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossfield, Ian J M

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics & circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly-imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  17. North America's net terrestrial carbon exchange with the atmosphere 1990-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Anthony W.; Andres, Robert; Davis, Kenneth J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, Werner; McGuire, A. David; Vargas, Rodrigo; Wei, Yaxing; West, Tristram O.; Woodall, Chris W.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil-fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America over the period (1990-2009). This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North America land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the atmospheric inversion estimate forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land-sink) and the inventory-based estimate the upper (a smaller land sink). Integrating across estimates, a best estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil-fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. The continents CO2 source to sink ratio for this time period was likely in the range of 4:1 to 3:1.

  18. Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations for Earth Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can robustly measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of 4-5 percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.

  19. Autumn 2012 Atmospheric Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    wind, and accumulated precipitation at a designated city. Forecasts are made over a two-week period Department 1 The UW Atmospheric Sciences spring forecast contest has been an annual tradition there will be a marine push or a convergence zone wrecking their forecast for maximum temperature and precipitation

  20. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2013 University of Colorado at Boulder from the Naval Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  1. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2012 University of Colorado at Boulder from the Naval Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  2. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2008 University of Colorado at Boulder, Jet Propulsion Laboratory) LASP: A Brief History In 1946-47, a handful of American universities joined Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper

  3. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    1 Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2010 University of Colorado from the Na- val Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  4. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandenburg, Axel

    of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging components of the atmosphere, nitrogen, oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, and the noble gases. In the late

  5. On the Sensitivity of L/E Analysis of Super-Kamiokande Atmospheric Neutrino Data to Neutrino Oscillation Part~2 --- Four Possible L/E Analyses for the Maximum Oscillation by the Numerical Computer Experiment ---

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Konishi; Y. Minorikawa; V. I. Galkin; M. Ishiwata; I. Nakamura; N. Takahashi; M. Kato; A. Misaki

    2010-07-28

    In the previous paper (Part~1), we have verified that the SK assumption on the direction does not hold in the analysis of neutrino events occurred inside the SK detector. We have made four possible L/E analyses, L_nu/E_nu, L_nu/E_mu, L_mu/E_nu and L_mu/E_mu. Among four kinds of L/E analyses, we have shown that only L_nu/E_nu analysis can give the signature of maximum oscillations clearly, while the L_mu/E_mu analysis which are really done by Super-Kamiokande Collaboration cannot give the maximum oscillation at all. It is thus concluded that Super-Kamiokande type experiment cannot find the maximum oscillation from L/E analysis. Therefore, we would suggest Super-Kamiokande Collaboration to re-analyze the zenith angle distribution of the neutrino events which occur inside the detector carefully.

  6. A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

    2013-06-18

    In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

  7. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  8. Atmospheric contamination for CMB ground-based observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Errard, J; Akiba, Y; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Baccigalupi, C; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Cukierman, A; Delabrouille, J; Dobbs, M; Ducout, A; Elleflot, T; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Feeney, S; Gilbert, A; Goeckner-Wald, N; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Hill, C; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A H; Jeong, O; Katayama, N; Kaufman, J; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Jeune, M Le; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leon, D; Linder, E; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Miller, N J; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Okamura, T; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Poletti, D; Puglisi, G; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K M; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B D; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Tajima, O; Takakura, S; Tikhomirov, A; Tomaru, T; Whitehorn, N; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O

    2015-01-01

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3d-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive an analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the POLARBEAR-I project first season data set. We compare our results to previous st...

  9. Atmospheric Chemistry Theodore S. Dibble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibble, Theodore

    SYLLABUS FOR Atmospheric Chemistry FCH 511 Fall 2014 Theodore S. Dibble Professor of Chemistry 421 in Required Text Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution nineteenth year at ESF, and my seventeenth year teaching FCH 511 (Atmospheric Chemistry). I have done a lot

  10. Carbonyl sulfide: potential agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Kammlott, G.W.; Franey, J.P.

    1981-05-08

    Laboratory exposure experiments demonstrate that carbonyl sulfide in wet air corrodes copper at 22/sup 0/C at a rate that is approximately linear with total exposure (the product of exposure time and carbonyl sulfide concentration). The corrosion rate is similar to that of hydrogen sulfide, a widely recognized corrodant. The much greater average atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide compared with that of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide suggests that carbonyl sulfide may be a major agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion.

  11. Lifetimes and eigenstates in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, Michael J

    1994-01-01

    Perturbation dynamics in atmospheric chemistry. J. Geophys.isotopic variations in atmospheric chemistry. Geophys. Res.M. et al. 2001 Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases (

  12. Atmospheric chemistry of an Antarctic volcanic plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    L. , et al. (2010), Atmospheric chemistry results from theI. , et al. (2006), Atmospheric chemistry of a 33 34 hourvolcanic eruptions on atmospheric chemistry, Chem. Geol. ,

  13. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016Study (CHAPS)Archive CampaignListAtmospheric Heat

  14. ARM - Atmospheric Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016Study (CHAPS)Archive CampaignListAtmospheric

  15. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractor ofvarDOE PAGES11 PPPL-Atmospheric PSF

  16. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STACEE Collaboration; D. A. Williams; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. Gingrich; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; G. Mohanty; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; S. Oser; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; F. Vincent; J. A. Zweerink

    2000-10-17

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

  17. Rapid response of tree cellulose radiocarbon content to changes in atmospheric /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grootes, P.M.; Farwell, G.W.; Schmidt, F.H.; Leach, D.D.; Stuiver, M.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed radial profile for the /sup 14/C concentration in tree cellulose, covering growth rings for the years 1962-1964, was obtained for a Sitka spruce of the US Pacific Coast using accelerator mass spectrometry. The tree cellulose /sup 14/C closely follows atmospheric /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ concentrations, responding to changes with a delay of not more than a few weeks. The delay in response is mostly due to the addition of between 13 and 28% of biospheric CO/sub 2/ to the canopy-air CO/sub 2/ used by the tree for stem cellulose. Delayed incorporation and the use of stored photosynthate of the previous fall appear less important. 63 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Atmospheric Research at BNL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Daum

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven researcher Peter Daum discusses an international field experiment designed to make observations of critical components of the climate system of the southeastern Pacific. Because elements of this system are poorly understood and poorly represent

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomass and BiofuelsPhysicist47July 1999

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - 2013 Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012 [DataJulyMarch 27,5 Southern2

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Cross-Scale Land-Atmosphere Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? WeDatastreamstps DocumentationAtlanticENA ContactsProductsSACR26, 2015govCampaignsCross-Scale

  2. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate and it emits Note: heat balance Fvis( = Fout = Te 4 z #12;(simple Greenhouse cont.) 0 1 2 3 4 Ground Space Top

  3. Atmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric scientists apply physics, mathematics, and chemistry to understandAtmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric the atmosphere and its interactions with land and sea. One of the goals of atmospheric science is to understand

  4. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2001-11-15

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels.

  5. Digestion Experiments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1908-01-01

    STATION. ppp DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS G. S. FRAPS, PH. D., CHEMIST. POSTOFFICE COLLEGE SL'ATION, HRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. AUSTIN, TEXAS: \\'ON BOECKMANN-JONES CO., PRLNTEHP. 1908 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 8TArFIONS. OFFICERS. GOVERNING BOARD... OF CONTENTS . 1 . Digestibility of 1Caffir Corn. Milo Maize. and Molasses ....... G .................................... Ilcfinition of Terms 7 .................................. Method of Experiment 7 ............ Digestibility of Basal Ration of Meal...

  6. DIVISION OF MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyu, Mei-Ling

    DIVISION OF MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY The missions of the Division of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry (MAC) are to carry out broadly based research on the chemistry of the atmosphere and marine and stratosphere. Atmospheric Chemistry Research activities in atmospheric chemistry and modeling are diverse

  7. Localization of Deep Water Formation: Role of Atmospheric Moisture Transport and Geometrical Constraints on Ocean Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, John C.

    A series of coupled atmosphereoceanice aquaplanet experiments is described in which topological constraints on ocean circulation are introduced to study the role of ocean circulation on the mean climate of the coupled ...

  8. Carbon Dynamics in Aquatic Ecosystems in Response to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Altered Nutrients Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Chao

    2011-04-26

    Aquatic ecosystems will experience altered inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous availability in the future due to elevated atmospheric CO2, stronger stratification and anthropogenic activities. Despite its importance in modulating global...

  9. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY - RESPONSE TO HUMAN INFLUENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOGAN, J; PRATHER, M; WOFSY, S; MCELROY, M

    1978-01-01

    Trans. II 70, 253. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Clyne, M. A. A. &data for modelling atmospheric chemistry. NBS Technical NoteChem. 80, 2711. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Sanadze, G. A. 1963 On

  10. IMPROVED QUASISTEADYSTATEAPPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay, Laurent O.

    IMPROVED QUASISTEADYSTATEAPPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION # L. O. JAY QSSA are presented. Key words. atmospheric chemistry, sti# ordinary di#erential equations, quasi PII. S1064827595283033 1. Introduction. As our scientific understanding of atmospheric chemistry

  11. Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over fractional cloud cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neu, Jessica L; Prather, Michael J; Penner, Joyce E

    2007-01-01

    trace gases and atmospheric chemistry, in Climate Change2007 Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over2007), Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over

  12. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 19902009

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, Anthony W.; Andres, Robert; Davis, Kenneth J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, Werner; McGuire, A. David; Vargas, Rodrigo; et al

    2015-01-21

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net landatmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 19902009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North Americanmoreland surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, \\"best\\" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 19902009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr-1 and assuming the estimate of -472 Tg C yr-1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was 1720:472, or nearly 4:1.less

  13. Experiment Profile:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    their shapes, how galaxies cluster and the brightness of exploding stars called supernovae. WHY IS THIS EXPERIMENT NEEDED NOW? Research during the last decade using different...

  14. Infrared Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossfield, Ian James Mills

    2012-01-01

    However, atmospheres of cool planets can still be studiedvia outgassing as the planet cools (Rogers & Seager 2010).at low resolution) and the cool, low-mass planet GJ 1214b (

  15. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  16. Laser Atmospheric Studies with VERITAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Hui; for the VERITAS collaboration

    2007-09-25

    As a calibrated laser pulse propagates through the atmosphere, the amount of Rayleigh-scattered light arriving at the VERITAS telescopes can be calculated precisely. This technique was originally developed for the absolute calibration of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray fluorescence telescopes but is also applicable to imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In this paper, we present two nights of laser data taken with the laser at various distances away from the VERITAS telescopes and compare it to Rayleigh scattering simulations.

  17. Report of the Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Working Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, H.; Bahcall, J.N.; Bernabeu, J.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowles, T.; Calaprice, F.; Champagne, A.; Freedman, S.; Gai, M.; Galbiati, C.; Gallagher, H.; Gonzalez-Garcia, C.; Hahn, R.L.; Heeger, K.M.; Hime, A.; Jung, C.K.; Klein, J.R.; Koike, M.; Lanou, R.; Learned, J.G.; Lesko, K.T.; Losecco, J.; Maltoni, M.; Mann, A.; McKinsey, D.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Pena-Garay, C.; Petcov, S.T.; Piepke, A.; Pitt, M.; Raghavan, R.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Scholberg, K.; Sobel, H.W.; Takeuchi, T.; Vogelaar, R.; Wolfenstein, L.

    2004-10-22

    The highest priority of the Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Experiment Working Group is the development of a real-time, precision experiment that measures the pp solar neutrino flux. A measurement of the pp solar neutrino flux, in comparison with the existing precision measurements of the high energy {sup 8}B neutrino flux, will demonstrate the transition between vacuum and matter-dominated oscillations, thereby quantitatively testing a fundamental prediction of the standard scenario of neutrino flavor transformation. The initial solar neutrino beam is pure {nu}{sub e}, which also permits sensitive tests for sterile neutrinos. The pp experiment will also permit a significantly improved determination of {theta}{sub 12} and, together with other solar neutrino measurements, either a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} or a constraint a factor of two lower than existing bounds. In combination with the essential pre-requisite experiments that will measure the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux with a precision of 5%, a measurement of the pp solar neutrino flux will constitute a sensitive test for non-standard energy generation mechanisms within the Sun. The Standard Solar Model predicts that the pp and {sup 7}Be neutrinos together constitute more than 98% of the solar neutrino flux. The comparison of the solar luminosity measured via neutrinos to that measured via photons will test for any unknown energy generation mechanisms within the nearest star. A precise measurement of the pp neutrino flux (predicted to be 92% of the total flux) will also test stringently the theory of stellar evolution since the Standard Solar Model predicts the pp flux with a theoretical uncertainty of 1%. We also find that an atmospheric neutrino experiment capable of resolving the mass hierarchy is a high priority. Atmospheric neutrino experiments may be the only alternative to very long baseline accelerator experiments as a way of resolving this fundamental question. Such an experiment could be a very large scale water Cerenkov detector, or a magnetized detector with flavor and antiflavor sensitivity. Additional priorities are nuclear physics measurements which will reduce the uncertainties in the predictions of the Standard Solar Model, and similar supporting measurements for atmospheric neutrinos (cosmic ray fluxes, magnetic fields, etc.). We note as well that the detectors for both solar and atmospheric neutrino measurements can serve as multipurpose detectors, with capabilities of discovering dark matter, relic supernova neutrinos, proton decay, or as targets for long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments.

  18. Transformative Experiences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    Transformative Experiences Internships & Field Schools Honors & Research Faculty Notables Alumni have at least one poten- tially transformative experi- ence - an opportunity to de- sign and carry out to be transformational are study abroad, internships, service learning, research, student-led learning, and lead- ership

  19. Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Alexander Laskin,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Alexander Laskin,*, Julia Laskin,*, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov fraction of atmospheric aerosol and has profound effects on air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate of radiation through Earth's atmosphere. The cloud albedo effect, Special Issue: 2015 Chemistry in Climate

  20. A sparse reconstruction method for the estimation of multi-resolution emission fields via atmospheric inversion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ray, J.; Lee, J.; Yadav, V.; Lefantzi, S.; Michalak, A. M.; van Bloemen Waanders, B.

    2015-04-29

    Atmospheric inversions are frequently used to estimate fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases (e.g., biospheric CO2 flux fields) at Earth's surface. These inversions typically assume that flux departures from a prior model are spatially smoothly varying, which are then modeled using a multi-variate Gaussian. When the field being estimated is spatially rough, multi-variate Gaussian models are difficult to construct and a wavelet-based field model may be more suitable. Unfortunately, such models are very high dimensional and are most conveniently used when the estimation method can simultaneously perform data-driven model simplification (removal of model parameters that cannot be reliably estimated) and fitting.moreSuch sparse reconstruction methods are typically not used in atmospheric inversions. In this work, we devise a sparse reconstruction method, and illustrate it in an idealized atmospheric inversion problem for the estimation of fossil fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions in the lower 48 states of the USA. Our new method is based on stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), a method used to reconstruct compressively sensed images. Our adaptations bestow three properties to the sparse reconstruction procedure which are useful in atmospheric inversions. We have modified StOMP to incorporate prior information on the emission field being estimated and to enforce non-negativity on the estimated field. Finally, though based on wavelets, our method allows for the estimation of fields in non-rectangular geometries, e.g., emission fields inside geographical and political boundaries. Our idealized inversions use a recently developed multi-resolution (i.e., wavelet-based) random field model developed for ffCO2 emissions and synthetic observations of ffCO2 concentrations from a limited set of measurement sites. We find that our method for limiting the estimated field within an irregularly shaped region is about a factor of 10 faster than conventional approaches. It also reduces the overall computational cost by a factor of 2. Further, the sparse reconstruction scheme imposes non-negativity without introducing strong nonlinearities, such as those introduced by employing log-transformed fields, and thus reaps the benefits of simplicity and computational speed that are characteristic of linear inverse problems.less

  1. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  2. North American CO2 exchange: Inter comparison of modeled estimates with results from a fine scale atmospheric inversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gourdji, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    2009), High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 high-?resolution global fossil fuel CO 2 emission biospheric Prior fossil fuels Winds &

  3. Data quality monitoring in the presence of aerosols and other adverse atmospheric conditions with H.E.S.S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, J; Bernlhr, K; Krger, P; Lo, Y T E; Chadwick, P M; Daniel, M K; Deil, C; Gast, H; Kosack, K; Marandon, V

    2015-01-01

    Cherenkov telescope experiments, such as H.E.S.S., have been very successful in astronomical observations in the very-high-energy (VHE; E $>$ 100 GeV) regime. As an integral part of the detector, such experiments use Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter. For the calibration and energy determination, a standard model atmosphere is assumed. Deviations of the real atmosphere from the model may therefore lead to an energy misreconstruction of primary gamma rays. To guarantee satisfactory data quality with respect to difficult atmospheric conditions, several atmospheric data quality criteria are implemented in the H.E.S.S. software. These quantities are sensitive to clouds and aerosols. Here, the Cherenkov transparency coefficient will be presented. It is a new monitoring quantity that is able to measure long-term changes in the atmospheric transparency. The Cherenkov transparency coefficient derives exclusively from Cherenkov data and is quite hardware-independent. Furthermore, its positive correlation with indepe...

  4. Atmospheric sciences division. Annual report, fiscal year 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raynor, G.S. (ed.) [ed.

    1981-12-01

    The research activities of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of the Department of Energy and Environment for FY 1981 are presented. Facilities and major items of equipment are described. Research programs are summarized in three categories, modeling, field and laboratory experiments and data management and analysis. Each program is also described individually with title, principal investigator, sponsor and funding levels for FY 1981 and FY 1982. Future plans are summarized. Publications for FY 1981 are listed with abstracts. A list of personnel is included.

  5. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

  6. Critical phenomena in atmospheric precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Critical phenomena in atmospheric precipitation OLE PETERS1,2,3 * AND J. DAVID NEELIN3 1 convection and precipitation (the order parameter)--with correlated regions on scales of tens to hundreds the climatological mean by an order of magnitude or more. Moist convection and the accompanying precipitation have

  7. IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS & FACILITIES AT BNL: BLIP & NSLS II Peter Wanderer Superconducting MagnetV). Simultaneous irradiation and isotope production by increasing beam energy, placing irradiation target ahead of isotope production target 117 Mev 140, 160, 180, 202 MeV Irradiation at room temperature Alternative

  8. Space Science: Atmospheres Evolution of planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    ;Atmospheres / Evolution Heat Sources Compressional Energy Trapped Radioactive Material Tidal InteractionsSpace Science: Atmospheres Part- 7a Evolution of planets Out-Gassing/ Volcanoes Evolution Initial Species Solar abundance Solar wind composition? Carbonaceous chondrites? Variables Early sun

  9. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012) Published online in Wiley Online Library using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) concentrations and sea- surface temperatures (SSTs). These integrations enable the relative role of ozone

  10. Equilibration of an atmosphere by geostrophic turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansen, Malte F. (Malte Friedrich)

    2013-01-01

    A major question for climate studies is to quantify the role of turbulent eddy fluxes in maintaining the observed atmospheric mean state. It has been argued that eddy fluxes keep the mid-latitude atmosphere in a state that ...

  11. Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK 20142015 WELCOME Welcome to the Graduate Program in Land and Atmospheric Science at the University of Minnesota. It is a sciencebased interdisciplinary program focused on the fundamentals of Earth system processes related

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemoreand peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.less

  13. On the Cool Side: Modeling the Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Giant Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marley, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    The atmosphere of a brown dwarf or extrasolar giant planet controls the spectrum of radiation emitted by the object and regulates its cooling over time. While the study of these atmospheres has been informed by decades of experience modeling stellar and planetary atmospheres, the distinctive characteristics of these objects present unique challenges to forward modeling. In particular, complex chemistry arising from molecule-rich atmospheres, molecular opacity line lists (sometimes running to 10 billion absorption lines or more) multiple cloud-forming condensates, and disequilibrium chemical processes all combine to create a challenging task for any modeling effort. This review describes the process of incorporating these complexities into one-dimensional radiative-convective equilibrium models of sub-stellar objects. We discuss the underlying mathematics as well as the techniques used to model the physics, chemistry, radiative transfer, and other processes relevant to understanding these atmospheres. The revi...

  14. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  15. Earth and Atmospheric Sciences | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Nuclear Forensics Climate & Environment Sensors and Measurements Chemical & Engineering Materials Computational Earth Science Systems Modeling...

  16. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  17. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plazas, Andrs Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed themorestatistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.less

  18. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plazas, Andrs Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed the statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.

  19. A Recognized Leader in Marine & Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    D/Masters Applied Marine Physics Marine & Atmospheric Chemistry Marine Affairs & Policy (Masters Only) MarineA Recognized Leader in Marine & Atmospheric Studies Our graduate program has over 250 students University of MiaMi rosenstiel school of Marine & atMospheric science #12;Miami Ranks #5: fDi Magazine's Top

  20. Atmospheric evolution on Venus Bruce Fegley, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Atmospheric evolution on Venus Bruce Fegley, Jr. Planetary Chemistry Laboratory Department by Hunten et al. (1983), of Magellan results by Bougher et al. (1997), and atmospheric chemistry on Venus and Ancient Environments Edited by Vivien Gornitz January 2004 #12;2 ATMOSPHERIC EVOLUTION ON VENUS Overview

  1. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  2. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  3. Atmospheric inversion of surface carbon flux with consideration of the spatial distribution of US crop production and consumption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, J. M.; Univ. of Toronto, ON; Fung, J. W.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.; West, T. O.

    2015-01-19

    In order to improve quantification of the spatial distribution of carbon sinks and sources in the conterminous US, we conduct a nested global atmospheric inversion with detailed spatial information on crop production and consumption. County-level cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, soil carbon change, and human and livestock consumption data over the conterminous US are used for this purpose. Time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversions are conducted based on CO? observations at 210 stations to infer CO? fluxes globally at monthly time steps with a nested focus on 30 regions in North America. Prior land surface carbon fluxes are first generated usingmorea biospheric model, and the inversions are constrained using prior fluxes with and without adjustments for crop production and consumption over the 20022007 period. After these adjustments, the inverted regional carbon sink in the US Midwest increases from 0.25 0.03 to 0.42 0.13 Pg C yr?, whereas the large sink in the US southeast forest region is weakened from 0.41 0.12 to 0.29 0.12 Pg C yr?. These adjustments also reduce the inverted sink in the west region from 0.066 0.04 to 0.040 0.02 Pg C yr? because of high crop consumption and respiration by humans and livestock. The general pattern of sink increases in crop production areas and sink decreases (or source increases) in crop consumption areas highlights the importance of considering the lateral carbon transfer in crop products in atmospheric inverse modeling, which provides a reliable atmospheric perspective of the overall carbon balance at the continental scale but is unreliable for separating fluxes from different ecosystems.less

  4. Atmospheric inversion of surface carbon flux with consideration of the spatial distribution of US crop production and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J. M.; Fung, J. W.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.; West, T. O.

    2015-01-19

    In order to improve quantification of the spatial distribution of carbon sinks and sources in the conterminous US, we conduct a nested global atmospheric inversion with detailed spatial information on crop production and consumption. County-level cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, soil carbon change, and human and livestock consumption data over the conterminous US are used for this purpose. Time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversions are conducted based on CO? observations at 210 stations to infer CO? fluxes globally at monthly time steps with a nested focus on 30 regions in North America. Prior land surface carbon fluxes are first generated using a biospheric model, and the inversions are constrained using prior fluxes with and without adjustments for crop production and consumption over the 20022007 period. After these adjustments, the inverted regional carbon sink in the US Midwest increases from 0.25 0.03 to 0.42 0.13 Pg C yr?, whereas the large sink in the US southeast forest region is weakened from 0.41 0.12 to 0.29 0.12 Pg C yr?. These adjustments also reduce the inverted sink in the west region from 0.066 0.04 to 0.040 0.02 Pg C yr? because of high crop consumption and respiration by humans and livestock. The general pattern of sink increases in crop production areas and sink decreases (or source increases) in crop consumption areas highlights the importance of considering the lateral carbon transfer in crop products in atmospheric inverse modeling, which provides a reliable atmospheric perspective of the overall carbon balance at the continental scale but is unreliable for separating fluxes from different ecosystems.

  5. Atmospheric inversion of the surface carbon flux with consideration of the spatial distributions of US crop production and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J. M.; Fung, J. W.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.; West, Tristram O.

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve quantification of the spatial distribution of carbon sinks and sources in the conterminous USA, we conduct a nested global atmospheric inversion with consideration of the spatial information of crop production and consumption. Spatially distributed 5 county-level cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, soil carbon change, and human and livestock consumption data over the conterminous USA are used for this purpose. Time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversions are conducted based on CO? observations at 210 stations to infer CO? fluxes globally at monthly time steps with a nested focus on 30 regions in North America. Prior land surface carbon 10 fluxes are first generated using a biospheric model, and the inversions are constrained using prior fluxes with and without adjustments for crop production and consumption over the 20022007 period. After these adjustments, the inverted regional carbon sink in the US Midwest increases from 0.25 0.03 Pg C yr? to 0.42 0.13 Pg C yr?, whereas the large sink in the US Southeast forest region is weakened from 0.410.12 Pg C yr? 15 to 0.29 0.12 Pg C yr?. These adjustments also reduce the inverted sink in the West region from 0.066 0.04 Pg C yr? to 0.040 0.02 Pg C yr?1 because of high crop consumption and respiration by humans and livestock. The general pattern of sink increase in crop production areas and sink decreases (or source increases) in crop consumption areas highlights the importance of considering the lateral carbon transfer in crop 20 products in atmospheric inverse modeling, which provides an atmospheric perspective of the overall carbon balance of a region.

  6. Atmospheric inversion of surface carbon flux with consideration of the spatial distribution of US crop production and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J. M. [Nanjing Univ., Jiangsu (China); Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Fung, J. W. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Mo, G. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Deng, F. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); West, T. O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve quantification of the spatial distribution of carbon sinks and sources in the conterminous US, we conduct a nested global atmospheric inversion with detailed spatial information on crop production and consumption. County-level cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, soil carbon change, and human and livestock consumption data over the conterminous US are used for this purpose. Time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversions are conducted based on CO? observations at 210 stations to infer CO? fluxes globally at monthly time steps with a nested focus on 30 regions in North America. Prior land surface carbon fluxes are first generated using a biospheric model, and the inversions are constrained using prior fluxes with and without adjustments for crop production and consumption over the 20022007 period. After these adjustments, the inverted regional carbon sink in the US Midwest increases from 0.25 0.03 to 0.42 0.13 Pg C yr?, whereas the large sink in the US southeast forest region is weakened from 0.41 0.12 to 0.29 0.12 Pg C yr?. These adjustments also reduce the inverted sink in the west region from 0.066 0.04 to 0.040 0.02 Pg C yr? because of high crop consumption and respiration by humans and livestock. The general pattern of sink increases in crop production areas and sink decreases (or source increases) in crop consumption areas highlights the importance of considering the lateral carbon transfer in crop products in atmospheric inverse modeling, which provides a reliable atmospheric perspective of the overall carbon balance at the continental scale but is unreliable for separating fluxes from different ecosystems.

  7. Atmospheric composition change - global and regional air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    in urban air. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 2881deep convective system. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4,processes in atmospheric chemistry. Chemical Society Review

  8. Coupling of nitrous oxide and methane by global atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Hsu, J

    2010-01-01

    supported by NSFs Atmospheric Chemistry program (grant ATM-Methane by Global Atmospheric Chemistry Michael J. Prathergas, through atmospheric chemistry that en- hances the

  9. Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew Waite

    2010-01-01

    and J. Viidanoja, Atmospheric chemistry of c 3 -c 6organic nitrates, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9 (4),organic aerosol yields, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  10. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  11. Development of Atmospheric Monitoring System at Akeno Observatory for the Telescope Array Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Yamamoto; M. Teshima; M. Chikawa; N. Hayashida; S. Kawakami; N. Minagawa; Y. Morizane; M. Sasano; K. Yasui

    2002-08-09

    We have developed an atmospheric monitoring system for the Telescope Array experiment at Akeno Observatory. It consists of a Nd:YAG laser with an alt-azimuth shooting system and a small light receiver. This system is installed inside an air conditioned weather-proof dome. All parts, including the dome, laser, shooter, receiver, and optical devices are fully controlled by a personal computer utilizing the Linux operating system. It is now operated as a back-scattering LIDAR System. For the Telescope Array experiment, to estimate energy reliably and to obtain the correct shower development profile, the light transmittance in the atmosphere needs to be calibrated with high accuracy. Based on observational results using this monitoring system, we consider this LIDAR to be a very powerful technique for Telescope Array experiments. The details of this system and its atmospheric monitoring technique will be discussed.

  12. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Design and Engineering of most components in the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed System was completed prior to September 1992. The components remaining to be designed at that time were: Aerovalves for the Pulse Combustor; Gas and coal injectors for the Pulse Combustor; Lines for PC tailpipes; Air plenum and inlet silencer; Refractory lined hot gas duct connecting outlet hot cyclone to boiler; Structure and platforms, and ladders around PAFBC vessel access and major equipment. Design work is currently in progress on all of the above components. Items 1, 2, 3 and 4 are 50% completed, and items 5 6 are 75% complete.

  13. Natalie Marie Mahowald Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing, Atmospheric Chemistry, Atmospheric Chemistry and 1 1 Natalie Marie Mahowald Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Professor Director

  14. Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

    2007-03-07

    Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are captured. Influence functions, derived using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model driven by the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and nudged to NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, are used to determine source regions for the towers. The influence functions are combined with satellite vegetation observations to interpret the observed trends in CO2 concentration. Full inversions will combine these elements in a more formal analytic framework.

  15. Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder: Experiments with Tropopause-Based Climatology and Optimal Estimation Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Laura

    Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder: Experiments with Tropopause for retrieving atmospheric ozone profile information from advanced satellite infrared sounders, this study investigates various methods to optimize ozone retrievals. A set of retrieval experiments has been performed

  16. Study of the Role of Terrestrial Processes in the Carbon Cycle Based on Measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piper, Stephen C; Keeling, Ralph F

    2012-01-03

    The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic ratios 13C/12C, 18O/16O, and 14C/12C. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to study long-term change in the interhemispheric gradients in CO2 and 13C/12C to assess the magnitude and evolution of the northern terrestrial carbon sink, to study the increase in amplitude of the seasonal cycle of CO2, to use isotopic data to refine constraints on large scale changes in isotopic fractionation which may be related to changes in stomatal conductance, and to motivate improvements in terrestrial carbon cycle models. The original proposal called for a continuation of the new time series of 14C measurements but subsequent descoping to meet budgetary constraints required termination of measurements in 2007.

  17. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The design of the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) as described in the Quarterly Report for the period April--June, 1992 was reviewed and minor modifications were included. The most important change made was in the coal/limestone preparation and feed system. Instead of procuring pre-sized coal for testing of the PAFBC, it was decided that the installation of a milling system would permit greater flexibility in the testing with respect to size distributions and combustion characteristics in the pulse combustor and the fluid bed. Particle size separation for pulse combustor and fluid bed will be performed by an air classifier. The modified process flow diagram for the coal/limestone handling system is presented in Figure 1. The modified process flow diagrams of the fluidized bed/steam cycle and ash handling systems are presented in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  18. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01

    mesoscale oceanic features are current coarse resolutionmesoscale r current variability associated with oceanic ringthe TIW- currents. These mesoscale oceanic and atmospheric

  19. Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01

    mesoscale oceanic features are current coarse resolutionmesoscale r current variability associated with oceanic ringthe TIW- currents. These mesoscale oceanic and atmospheric

  20. 4, 497545, 2011 atmosphere-wildland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandel, Jan

    by the coupling of a mesoscale weather 498 #12;GMDD 4, 497545, 2011 Coupled atmosphere-wildland model WRF-Fire 3

  1. Impacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Bess

    discharges from wastewater treatment, atmospheric deposition, and so forth, resulting in increasing), including oxidized and reduced inorganic and organic forms. The availability of Nr limits primary pro

  2. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth...

  3. Atmospheric chemistry of an Antarctic volcanic plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    ET AL. : EREBUS PLUME CHEMISTRY Horrocks, L. A. , C.et al. (2010), Atmospheric chemistry results from the ANTCI2007), Reactive halogen chemistry in volca- nic plumes, J.

  4. Motion characteristics of long ac arcs in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu Shanqiang; He Jinliang; Zeng Rong; Zhang Bo; Xu Guozheng; Chen Weijiang

    2007-01-29

    Experiments on the motion of long alternating current arcs in atmospheric air show that the anode and cathode arc roots have different motion characteristics because of different formation mechanisms. During a half cycle of the arc current, the anode arc root moves towards the direction of magnetic force and occasionally has a jumping motion, while the cathode arc root moves sufficiently slow to consider it stationary and hardly has any jump. The arc column has a complex shape and moves under the drive of the magnetic force and is also quickened by the lower arc root.

  5. Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating the atmospheric CH4 budget, next to the dominant loss mechanism involving reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Here we used a ...

  6. The impact of atmospheric aerosols on trace metal chemistry in open ocean surface seawater 3. Lead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maring, H.B.; Duce, R.A. )

    1990-04-15

    Atmospheric aerosols collected at Enewetak Atoll in the tropical North Pacific were exposed to seawater in laboratory experiments to assess the impact of atmospheric aerosols on lead chemistry in surface seawater. The net atmospheric flux of soluble lead to the ocean is between 16 and 32 pmol cm{sup {minus}2}/yr at Enewetak. The stable lead isotopic composition of soluble aerosol lead indicates that it is of anthropogenic origin. Anthropogenic aerosol lead from Central and North America appears to be less soluble and/or to dissolve less rapidly than that from Asia. Dissolved organic matter and possibly lower pH appear to increase the nonaluminosilicate aerosol lead solubility and/or dissolution rate. The isotopic composition of lead in air, seawater and dry deposition suggests that after deposition in the ocean, nonaluminosilicate particulate lead can be reinjected into the atmosphere during sea salt aerosol production.

  7. Experience Report for WOPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, G

    2010-04-06

    One of the purposes of the SQA effort at LLNL is to attempt to determine the 'goodness' of the research codes used for various scientific applications. Typically these are two and three dimensional multi-physics simulation and modeling codes. These legacy research codes are used for applciations such as atmospheric dispersion modeling and analysis and prediction of the performance of engineered systems. These codes are continually subjected to automated regression test suites consisting of verified and validated expected results. Code is managed in repositories. Experience level of developers is high in the knowledge domain, platforms, and languages used. Code size of the multi-physics code used in this study was 578,242 lines excluding comment and blank lines or 5538.7 function points. Languages were 70% C++, 20% C, and 10% Fortran. The code has 130 users and a development team of 14 and an embedded SQE. The code has achieved 100% prime feature test coverage, 73.6% functional test coverage, and 71.5% statement test coverage. The average cyclomatic complexity of the code was 6.25. The codes have evolved over 10 years. Research codes are challenging because there is a desire to balance agility with discipline as well as compliance with DOE standards. Agility is important to allow experimentation with new algorithms and addition of the latest physics features. Discipline is important to increase the quality of the codes. Automation of processes and defect prevention/detection are deployed throughout the software development process. Since resarch codes are a small segment of the software industry, not much information exists in terms of reliability studies on these types of codes. This paper describes attempts to determine the goodness of these research codes. Goodness defined as both correctness of the codes and their fault densities. Correctness is determined by user interviews, peer review; feature based automated testing, and coverage measurement. This paper focuses on the fault density aspect of goodness and reliability of the codes in particular. The approach taken was to use multiple fault density prediction methods and compare results to actual experimentation and other industry studies on fault density. As a result of the predictions and experiments our confidence in the prediction methods was increased and our confidence in the goodness of the code from a fault density perspective was given more context. A large unintended benefit of these experiments was to find defects hidden for years in the codes when using the Monte Carlo reliability testing results to develop heuristic based bug driven tests.

  8. Experiment to Characterize Tropical Cloud Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, Jim H.; Jakob, Christian

    2005-08-02

    A major experiment to study tropical convective cloud systems and their impacts will take place around Darwin, Northern Australia in early 2006. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) is a collaboration including the DOE ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) and ARM-UAV programs, NASA centers, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, and universities in the USA, Australia, Japan, the UK, and Canada. TWP-ICE will be preceded in November/December 2004 by a collaborating European aircraft campaign involving the EU SCOUT-O3 and UK NERC ACTIVE projects. Detailed atmospheric measurements will be made in the Darwin area through the whole Austral summer, giving unprecedented coverage through the pre-monsoon and monsoon periods.

  9. Stable microwave coaxial cavity plasma system at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Hong, J. M.; Lee, K. H. [Plasma Systems and Materials (PSM) Inc., Sungnam-Si, Gyonggi-Do 190-1 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. J. [Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 447-1 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    We present a systematic study of the development of a novel atmospheric microwave plasma system for material processing in the pressure range up to 760 torr and the microwave input power up to 6 kW. Atmospheric microwave plasma was reliably produced and sustained by using a cylindrical resonator with the TM{sub 011} cavity mode. The applicator and the microwave cavity, which is a cylindrical resonator, are carefully designed and optimized with the time dependent finite element Maxwell equation solver. The azimuthal apertures are placed at the maximum magnetic field positions between the cavity and the applicator to maximize the coupling efficiency into the microwave plasma at a resonant frequency of 2.45 GHz. The system consists of a magnetron power supply, a circulator, a directional coupler, a three-stub tuner, a dummy load, a coaxial cavity, and a central cavity. Design and construction of the resonant structures and diagnostics of atmospheric plasma using optical experiments are discussed in various ranges of pressure and microwave input power for different types of gases.

  10. VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wood, Robert [VOCALS-REx PI, University of Washington; Bretherton, Christopher [GEWEX/GCSS Representative, University of Washington; Huebert, Barry [SOLAS Representative, University of Hawaii; Mechoso, Roberto C. [VOCALS Science Working Group Chair, UCLA; Weller, Robert [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) is an international CLIVAR program the major goal of which is to develop and promote scientific activities leading to improved understanding of the Southeast Pacific (SEP) coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system on diurnal to inter-annual timescales. The principal program objectives are: 1) the improved understanding and regional/global model representation of aerosol indirect effects over the SEP; 2) the elimination of systematic errors in the region of coupled atmospheric-ocean general circulation models, and improved model simulations and predictions of the coupled climate in the SEP and global impacts of the system variability. VOCALS is organized into two tightly coordinated components: 1) a Regional Experiment (VOCALSREx), and 2) a Modeling Program (VOCALS-Mod). Extended observations (e.g. IMET buoy, satellites, EPIC/PACS cruises) will provide important additional contextual datasets that help to link the field and the modeling components. The coordination through VOCALS of observational and modeling efforts (Fig. 3) will accelerate the rate at which field data can be used to improve simulations and predictions of the tropical climate variability [Copied from the Vocals Program Summary of June 2007, available as a link from the VOCALS web at http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/vocals/]. The CLIVAR sponsored program to under which VOCALS falls is VAMOS, which stands for Variability of the American Monsoon Systems.

  11. Atmosphere contamination following repainting of a human hyperbaric chamber complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillo, R.S.; Morris, J.W.; Caldwell, J.M.; Balk, D.M.; Flynn, E.T. )

    1990-09-01

    The Naval Medical Research Institute currently conducts hyperbaric research in a Man-Rated Chamber Complex (MRCC) originally installed in 1977. Significant engineering alterations to the MRCC and rusting of some of its interior sections necessitated repainting, which was completed in 1988. Great care was taken in selecting an appropriate paint (polyamide epoxy) and in ensuring correct application and curing procedures. Only very low levels of hydrocarbons were found in the MRCC atmosphere before initial pressurization after painting and curing. After pressurization, however, significant chemical contamination was found. The primary contaminants were aromatic hydrocarbons: xylenes (which were a major component of both the primer and topcoat paint) and ethyl benzene. The role that pressure played in stimulating off-gassing from the paint is not clear; the off-gassing rate was observed to be similar over a large range in chamber pressures from 1.6 to 31.0 atm abs. Scrubbing the chamber atmosphere with the chemical absorbent Purafil was effective in removing the contaminants. Contamination has been observed to slowly decline with chamber use and is expected to continue to improve with time. However, this contamination experience emphasizes the need for a high precision gas analysis program at any diving facility to ensure the safety of the breathing gas and chamber atmosphere.

  12. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sukyoung

    2013-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013) Published online in Wiley Online Library Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea *Correspondence to: C. Yoo, Center for Atmosphere). A number of studies have shown that the MJO plays an important role in modulating the extratropical cir

  13. Stellar Atmospheres, Ht 2007 Problem Set 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korn, Andreas

    Stellar Atmospheres, Ht 2007 Problem Set 1 Due date: Monday, 24 September 2007 at 10.15 1. LTE of how temperature is defined. (b) Where in the solar atmosphere would you expect the strongest for the photosphere? (c) How does the relation between matter and radiation differ between LTE and NLTE? What must

  14. Geochemistry of Surface-Atmosphere Interactions on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    , T, and atmospheric composition ...Kinetics What are the major minerals? What is the oxidation of terrestrial alkaline igneous rocks #12;Oxidation State of the Surface 2CO + O2 = 2CO2 controls O2 Lack. S in lower atmosphere is kinetically controlled CaCO3 + SO2 = CaSO4 + CO removes SO2 , deposits CaSO4 Fe

  15. Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (CLM 4.0) for improved prediction of carbon cycle processes and net energy balance feedbacks on Earth and subsurface systems #12;Properties and Processes are Important #12;Thawing Thermokarst Thermal erosion Surface mechanisms that underlie the processes that control carbon and energy transfer in the biosphere

  16. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  17. Global surface cooling: the atmospheric fast feedback response to a collapse of the thermohaline circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    Global surface cooling: the atmospheric fast feedback response to a collapse of the thermohaline thermohaline circulation results in a global surface cooling of 0.72 K. The mechanisms that are responsible for this cooling are investigated. Additional experiments were performed with a one-dimensional radiative

  18. The contributions of atmosphere and ocean to North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water volume anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The formation of Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) in the western North Atlantic has been attributed to both are the subject of a study, the CLIvar MOde Water Dynamics Experiment (CLIMODE), which includes a large fieldThe contributions of atmosphere and ocean to North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water volume anomalies

  19. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Perna, Rosalba; Heng, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup 1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption signatures.

  20. Studying atmosphere-dominated hot Jupiter Kepler phase curves: Evidence that inhomogeneous atmospheric reflection is common

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shporer, Avi

    2015-01-01

    We identify 3 Kepler transiting planet systems, Kepler-7, Kepler-12, and Kepler-41, whose orbital phase-folded light curves are dominated by planetary atmospheric processes including thermal emission and reflected light, while the impact of non-atmospheric (i.e. gravitational) processes, including beaming (Doppler boosting) and tidal ellipsoidal distortion, is negligible. Therefore, those systems allow a direct view of their atmospheres without being hampered by the approximations used in the inclusion of both atmospheric and non-atmospheric processes when modeling the phase curve shape. Here we analyze Kepler-12b and Kepler-41b atmosphere based on their Kepler phase curve, while the analysis of Kepler-7b was presented elsewhere. The model we used efficiently computes reflection and thermal emission contributions to the phase curve, including inhomogeneous atmospheric reflection due to longitudinally varying cloud coverage. We confirm Kepler-12b and Kepler-41b show a westward phase shift between the brightest...

  1. Range gated imaging experiments using gated intensifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Yates, G.J.; Cverna, F.H.; Gallegos, R.A.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Numkena, D.M.; Payton, J.; Pena-Abeyta, C.R.

    1999-03-01

    A variety of range gated imaging experiments using high-speed gated/shuttered proximity focused microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPII) are reported. Range gated imaging experiments were conducted in water for detection of submerged mines in controlled turbidity tank test and in sea water for the Naval Coastal Sea Command/US Marine Corps. Field experiments have been conducted consisting of kilometer range imaging of resolution targets and military vehicles in atmosphere at Eglin Air Force Base for the US Air Force, and similar imaging experiments, but in smoke environment, at Redstone Arsenal for the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). Wavelength of the illuminating laser was 532 nm with pulse width ranging from 6 to 12 ns and comparable gate widths. These tests have shown depth resolution in the tens of centimeters range from time phasing reflected LADAR images with MCPII shutter opening.

  2. THREE-DIMENSIONAL CLOUD STRUCTURE OBSERVED DURING DOE ARM'S 2009 CLOUD TOMOGRAPHY FIELD EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THREE-DIMENSIONAL CLOUD STRUCTURE OBSERVED DURING DOE ARM'S 2009 CLOUD TOMOGRAPHY FIELD EXPERIMENT on Cloud Physics, Portland, OR June 28-July 2, 2010 Environmental Sciences Department/Atmospheric Sciences Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)'s cloud tomography Intensive Observation Period (IOP

  3. Relative role of changes in CO? and climate to equilibrium responses of net primary production and carbon storage of the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Xiangming.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.

    In a partial factorial model experiment, we used the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, version 4.0) to assess the relative roles of changes in CO2, temperature, precipitation and cloudiness in equilibrium responses of ...

  4. Global and regional emissions of HFC-125 (CHF[subscript 2]CF[subscript 3]) from in situ and air archive atmospheric observations at AGAGE and SOGE observatories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Doherty, S.

    High-frequency, in situ observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and System for Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe (SOGE) networks for the period 1998 to 2008, combined ...

  5. Chemistry of atmospheres formed during accretion of the Earth and other terrestrial planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, L

    2009-01-01

    We used chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetic calculations to model chemistry of the volatiles released by heating different types of carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondritic material as a function of temperature and pressure. Our results predict the composition of atmospheres formed by outgassing during accretion of the Earth and other terrestrial planets. Outgassing of CI and CM carbonaceous chondritic material produces H2O-rich (steam) atmospheres in agreement with the results of impact experiments. However, outgassing of other types of chondritic material produces atmospheres dominated by other gases. Outgassing of ordinary (H, L, LL) and high iron enstatite (EH) chondritic material yields H2-rich atmospheres with CO and H2O being the second and third most abundant gases. Outgassing of low iron enstatite (EL) chondritic material gives a CO-rich atmosphere with H2, CO2, and H2O being the next most abundant gases. Outgassing of CV carbonaceous chondritic material gives a CO2-rich atmosphere with ...

  6. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS...

  7. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Environment 44 (2010) 46784734 Brunner, D. , Staehelin,Environment 44 (2010) 46784734 Vedantham, A. , Wuebbles,Environment 44 (2010) 46784734 global atmosphere. In:

  8. Optical Intensity Interferometry through Atmospheric Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Kian Tan; Aik Hui Chan; Christian Kurtsiefer

    2015-12-29

    Conventional ground-based astronomical observations suffer from image distortion due to atmospheric turbulence. This can be minimized by choosing suitable geographic locations or adaptive optical techniques, and avoided altogether by using orbital platforms outside the atmosphere. One of the promises of optical intensity interferometry is its independence from atmospherically induced phase fluctuations. By performing narrowband spectral filtering on sunlight and conducting temporal intensity interferometry using actively quenched avalanche photon detectors (APDs), the Solar $g^{(2)}(\\tau)$ signature was directly measured. We observe an averaged photon bunching signal of $g^{(2)}(\\tau) = 1.693 \\pm 0.003$ from the Sun, consistently throughout the day despite fluctuating weather conditions, cloud cover and elevation angle. This demonstrates the robustness of the intensity interferometry technique against atmospheric turbulence and opto-mechanical instabilities, and the feasibility to implement measurement schemes with both large baselines and long integration times.

  9. Uraninite and Fullerene in Atmospheric Particulates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    incineration, uranium mining, and atmospheric testing of nuclearweapons-burning power plants typically contain very small amounts of uranium ( concentrations, the form of the uranium has been unknown. Using a variety of advanced electron microscopy

  10. Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963....

  11. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  12. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  13. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  14. Basalt-Atmosphere Interactions on Venus -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treiman, Allan H.

    Atmosphere? · CaAl2Si2O8 + SO3 CaSO4 + Al2SiO5 + SiO2 ­ Anhydrite + andalusite + quartz !!! · Does this reaction proceed? ­ Venus atmosphere est'd 0.2 - 0.3 ppt SO3. #12;Reaction Position · From this, very possible that SO3 is buffered! · But ... SO3 value is not known very well - who knows what is really going

  15. Simulation of Aerosol Behavior in a Saturated Atmosphere With the CONTAIN Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kljenak, Ivo; Mavko, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2002-07-01

    Experiments on aerosol behavior in an atmosphere containing saturated vapor, which were performed in the KAEVER experimental facility and proposed for the OECD International Standard Problem No. 44, were simulated with the CONTAIN thermal-hydraulic computer code. The purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the CONTAIN code to model aerosol condensation and deposition in a containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. Results of dry and wet aerosol concentrations in the test vessel atmosphere are presented and analyzed. (authors)

  16. Sintering atmosphere effects on the ductility of W-Ni-Fe heavy metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, R.M.; Churn, K.S.

    1984-04-01

    Residual porosity has a strong negative effect on the ductility of tungsten-nickel-iron heavy metals. This investigation examined the sintering atmosphere role in stabilizing detrimental residual pore structures. Experiments are reported on alloys containing 93, 95, or 97 wt pct W with Ni:Fe ratios of 7:3. The negative effect of prolonged sintering is attributed to pore coarsening involving trapped gas. Calculated pore growth rates for hydrogen filled pores suggest that pore coarsening involves both ripening and coalescence driven by tungsten grain growth. A change in sintering atmosphere from hydrogen to argon midway through the sintering cycle can aid pore degassing and increase ductility and strength.

  17. Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howcroft, Caius L.F.

    2004-12-01

    The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

  18. PROBING THE DARK AGES AT z ? 20: THE SCI-HI 21cm ALL-SKY SPECTRUM EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voytek, Tabitha C.; Natarajan, Aravind; Peterson, Jeffrey B. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Juregui Garca, Jos Miguel; Lpez-Cruz, Omar, E-mail: tcv@andrew.cmu.edu [Instituto Nacional de Astrofsica, Optica y Electrnica (INAOE), Coordinacin de Astrofsica, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1 Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla, 72840 Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-02-10

    We present first results from the SCI-HI experiment, which we used to measure the all-sky-averaged 21cm brightness temperature in the redshift range 14.8 < z < 22.7. The instrument consists of a single broadband sub-wavelength size antenna and a sampling system for real-time data processing and recording. Preliminary observations were completed in 2013 June at Isla Guadalupe, a Mexican biosphere reserve located in the Pacific Ocean. The data was cleaned to excise channels contaminated by radio frequency interference, and the system response was calibrated by comparing the measured brightness temperature to the Global Sky Model of the Galaxy and by independent measurement of Johnson noise from a calibration terminator. We present our results, discuss the cosmological implications, and describe plans for future work.

  19. Neutrino Oscillation Experiments at Nuclear Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giorgio Gratta

    1999-05-06

    In this paper I give an overview of the status of neutrino oscillation experiments performed using nuclear reactors as sources of neutrinos. I review the present generation of experiments (Chooz and Palo Verde) with baselines of about 1 km as well as the next generation that will search for oscillations with a baseline of about 100 km. While the present detectors provide essential input towards the understanding of the atmospheric neutrino anomaly, in the future, the KamLAND reactor experiment represents our best opportunity to study very small mass neutrino mixing in laboratory conditions. In addition KamLAND with its very large fiducial mass and low energy threshold, will also be sensitive to a broad range of different physics.

  20. Strategies for Future Neutrino Experiments: Remarks on Neutrino Sources and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments Rich follow-up physics at accelerators and reactors. Parameter Atmos. Solar Accel. Reactor Decay M2 23 ID PM 23 ID PM M2 12 ID PM PM Sign(M2 12) ID (neutrino flux) (detector mass). Cost optimization Source cost Detector cost. Cost of 4 MW proton source

  1. The coupling of winds, aerosols and chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hourdin, Chez Frdric

    REVIEW The coupling of winds, aerosols and chemistry in Titan's atmosphere BY SEBASTIEN LEBONNOIS 1'Aeronomie, IPSL, CNRS, BP3, 91371 Verrie`res le Buisson, France The atmosphere of Titan is a complex system, where the observed atmospheric structure of Titan's lower atmosphere (mainly in the stratosphere and troposphere

  2. Phase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects its reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the reactivity of atmospheric SOM particles. atmospheric chemistry chemical aging organic aerosol collectionPhase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects its reactivity Mikinori Kuwata and Scot T of atmospheric organic particles among solid, semisolid, and liquid phases is of keen current scientific interest

  3. ATM401, ATM601, CHEM601 Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    as atmospheric chemistry. You should be able to read and analyze weather maps or climate diagrams, interpret as atmospheric chemistry. Fundamental goals are that you develop skills to think as an atmospheric scientistATM401, ATM601, CHEM601 Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences Fall 2013 Class time: TR 11:30am

  4. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Yan

    Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces Douglas J in the atmosphere influences air quality and climate. Molecular dy- namics simulations are becoming increasingly in the atmosphere. Here we review simulation studies of atmospherically relevant aqueous liquid-air interfaces

  5. Experimental studies on atmospheric Stirling engine NAS-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, Hiroichi; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Ohtomo, Michihiro

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric hot air Stirling engine NAS-1 and 2 have a simple flat rubber sheet diaphragm as their power piston, and they have been experimentally studied at Nihon University for several years continuously, with the target of to get more than 100 watts shaft power by atmospheric air with simple construction and cheap material. The first NAS-1 was intended to be a solar heated engine using television glass and wood for cheap cost, but it failed by thermal break of glass, so the improved NAS-2 is changed to be heated by gas burner, using metallic materials in all parts except rubber power piston. Other than this rubber sheet diaphragm, NAS-2 has many features as using James Watt crank mechanism, high finny copper tube for conventional commercial heat exchanger, and two kinds of hot gas heaters, etc. About the rubber sheet for the power piston, the thickness of the sheet was changed from 2 mm to 6 mm gradually to known what thickness is best, and it is found that about 5 mm is best for this engine. After trying many improvements on this engine, NAS-2 has produced about 130 watt shaft power with indicated power of 350 watt at 1994. In this paper detail of many features, history, results and experiments of these NAS engines are reported.

  6. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  7. Magnetized Atmospheres around Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Zane; R. Turolla; A. Treves

    2000-02-01

    We present a detailed investigation of atmospheres around accreting neutron stars with high magnetic field ($B\\gtrsim 10^{12}$ G) and low luminosity ($L\\lesssim 10^{33}$ erg/s). We compute the atmospheric structure, intensity and emergent spectrum for a plane-parallel, pure hydrogen medium by solving the transfer equations for the normal modes coupled to the hydrostatic and energy balance equations. The hard tail found in previous investigations for accreting, non-magnetic neutron stars with comparable luminosity is suppressed and the X-ray spectrum, although still harder than a blackbody at the star effective temperature, is nearly planckian in shape. Spectra from accreting atmospheres, both with high and low fields, are found to exhibit a significant excess at optical wavelengths above the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the X-ray continuum.

  8. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  9. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

  10. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.; Woods, R.W.

    1998-08-11

    A process is disclosed for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750 C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5--3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite. 2 figs.

  11. Potential Impact of Atmospheric Releases at Russian Far East Nuclear Submarine Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, F.; Mahura, A.; Compton, K.; Brown, K.; Takano, M.; Novikov, V.; Soerensen, J. H.; Baklanov, A.

    2003-02-25

    An ''Assessment of the Impact of Russian Nuclear Fleet Operations on Far Eastern Coastal Regions'' is being performed as part of the Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Project (RAD) of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) of Laxenburg, Austria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive unclassified analysis of the potential impact of accidents at the Russian Far East nuclear submarine sites near Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk. We have defined the situation there based upon available information and studies commissioned by RAD in collaboration with Russian research institutes including Russian Research Center-''Kurchatov Institute'', Institute of Northern Environmental Problems and Lazurit Central Design Bureau. Further, in our original work, some in collaboration with the staff of the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) and members of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, we have calculated the nuclide trajectories from these sites in the atmospheric boundary layer, less than 1.5 kilometers high, and determined their probability of crossing any of the nearby countries as well as Asiatic Russia. We have further determined the concentrations in each of these crossings as well as the total, dry and wet depositions of nuclides on these areas. Finally, we have calculated the doses to the Japanese Island population from typical winter airflow patterns (those most likely to cross the Islands in the minimum times), strong north winds, weak north winds and cyclonic winds for conditions similar to the Chazhma Bay criticality accident (fresh fuel) and for a criticality accident for the same type of reactor with fuel being withdrawn (spent fuel). The maximum individual committed dosages were less than 2 x 10-7 and 2 x 10-3 mSv, respectively. The long-term external doses by radionuclides deposited on the ground and the internal doses by consumption of foods were not evaluated as it is believed that such doses can be avoided by social controls. In other calculations taking these longer term doses into account and determining the sum of the maximum individual committed dosages (SMICD), we found for each of the surrounding countries to be less than 1 mSv. In that part of Russia the (SMICD) is less than 6 mSv. For releases from the Petropavlovsk sites the (SMICD) for each of the surrounding countries is less than 0.3 mSv. In that part of Russia the (SMICD) is less than 6 mSv.

  12. Introducing Research College of Oceanic & Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Jack

    WECOMA Coll ege of Oceanic & Atmospheric Scie nces OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY in the O cean currents introduced by man (e.g., pollutants). Knowledge of upper-ocean currents is important for navigation and for search and rescue. The ocean currents off Oregon vary seasonally and can also vary from year to year

  13. Introducing Research College of Oceanic & Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Stephen

    .coas.oregonstate.edu WECOMA WECOMA Coll ege of Oceanic & Atmospheric Scie nces OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY in the O cean currents, to the south in summer and generally to the north in winter, create ocean currents. The strong summertime and the topography of the ocean floor influence the east-west cross-shelf currents. Understanding and being able

  14. Quantifying chaos in the atmosphere Richard Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington, Richard

    , Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB, UK Abstract: The atmosphere is known to be forced by a variety of energy sources, including radiation and heat fluxes emanating from the boundary layer associated with sea as the competing champions controlling process in the physical world. With or without Einstein, there can

  15. The mean molecular mass of Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    , Mars, Mars #12;Science Questions Mean molecular mass () -> Chemical composition How did Titan form? Current reservoirs of volatiles Ethane/methane puddles/ocean Thermal structure of atmosphere #12, delicate, etc T/p sensors are simple, cheap, reliable Is it possible to know based on simple

  16. Characterizing Titan's Upper Atmosphere Using the Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    methane chemical losses. INMS Data T-GITM Bell et al. [2010b] #12;Constraints on Escape Parameter Sweep-Thermosphere Model (GITM) 3-D, non-hydrostatic, altitude-based atmospheric model Compressible Navier (TVD) MUSCL Scheme. Block-based Massively Parallel Framework Updating with 4th order Runge

  17. Methane present in an extrasolar planet atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark R. Swain; Gautam Vasisht; Giovanna Tinetti

    2008-02-07

    Molecules present in exoplanetary atmospheres are expected to strongly influence the atmospheric radiation balance, trace dynamical and chemical processes, and indicate the presence of disequilibrium effects. Since molecules have the potential to reveal the exoplanet atmospheric conditions and chemistry, searching for them is a high priority. The rotational-vibrational transition bands of water, carbon monoxide, and methane are anticipated to be the primary sources of non-continuum opacity in hot-Jovian planets. Since these bands overlap in wavelength, and the corresponding signatures from them are weak, decisive identification requires precision infrared spectroscopy. Here we report on a near-infrared transmission spectrum of the planet HD 189733b showing the presence of methane. Additionally, a resolved water-vapour band at 1.9 microns confirms the recent claim of water in this object. On thermochemical grounds, carbon-monoxide is expected to be abundant in the upper atmosphere of hot-Jovian exoplanets; thus the detection of methane rather than carbon-monoxide in such a hot planet could signal the presence of a horizontal chemical gradient away from the permanent dayside, or it may imply an ill-understood photochemical mechanisms that leads to an enhancement of methane.

  18. Connectivity To Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-02-26

    To establish DOE and NNSA connectivity to Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for sites and facilities that have the potential for releasing hazardous materials sufficient to generate certain emergency declarations and to promote efficient use of resources for consequence assessment activities at DOE sites, facilities, operations, and activities in planning for and responding to emergency events. No cancellations.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, Roger; Nicholson, Phil; Jaumann, Ralf

    2009-09-10

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  20. Atmospheric Chemistry, Modeling, and Biogeochemistry of Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activities that release mercury to the atmosphere include coal burning, industrial processes, waste incine and climate projections; critically and quantitatively analyze environmental management and policy proposals mercury research. Global Budget of Mercury Prior to the onset of human industrial activities, the amount

  1. Azores Global Atmosphere Monitoring Complex 1. INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honrath, Richard E.

    observations. Prior to the advent of satellite observations, they provided weather data critical to the accuracy of European weather forecasts. Today, they provide a unique base for studies of atmospheric Monitoring Complex (AGAMC) is a set of ground-based measurement stations for use in sampling the marine

  2. MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS AT707 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    .8 Static Stability Structure 9.9 Gravity Wave Generation in Unbalanced JetFront Systems 10. Equatorial, T. G., 2007: Transport in the Middle Atmosphere. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 85B, 165191. 1 #12. Vertically Propagating Waves 2.1 Extratropical (Planetary) Rossby Waves 2.2 Extratropical Gravity Waves 2

  3. Atmospheric aerosol light scattering and polarization peculiarities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patlashenko, Zh I

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers environmental problems of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric aerosol pollution and its global and regional monitoring. Efficient aerosol investigations may be achieved by spectropolarimetric measurements. Specifically second and fourth Stokes parameters spectral dependencies carry information on averaged refraction and absorption indexes and on particles size distribution functions characteristics.

  4. THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    over large fields, long times and many wave- lengths (heights) simultaneously -- Judge and Peter (1998THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN Sterrekundig Instituut, Postbus 80 000, NL­3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract. This "rapporteur" report discusses the solar photosphere and low

  5. Modeling of Alpine Atmospheric Dynamics II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohm, Alexander

    Modeling of Alpine Atmospheric Dynamics II 707.424, VU 2, SS2005 Unit 7: Model code structure: mesoscale convective system 17-18 April 2004: Sierra hydraulic jump case 21 January 2005: the "Universiade) Introduction (brief description of the phenomenon and a description of the model and of the measurements

  6. Dynamics of Jupiter's Atmosphere Andrew P. Ingersoll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Dowling University of Louisville Peter J. Gierasch Cornell University Glenn S. Orton Jet Propulsion no topography, i.e., no con- tinents or oceans; its atmosphere merges smoothly with the planet's fluid interior with falling ice and rain. On Jupiter, the separation mechanism is still to be determined. The winds of Jupiter

  7. JournalofGeophysicalResearch: Atmospheres RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raible, Christoph C.

    MAR 2015 The influence of absorbed solar radiation by Saharan dust on hurricane genesis Sebastian, Bern, Switzerland Abstract To date, the radiative impact of dust and the Saharan air layer (SAL the atmosphere due to absorption of solar radiation but thus shifts convection to regions more conducive

  8. INTRODUCTION Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunderle, Stefan

    , scattering, and absorbing solar electromagnetic radiation and by modifying cloud properties due to their roleINTRODUCTION Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's radiation budget by reflecting to maximum cover a region once in the daytime. In contrary, up-to-date geostationary instruments like

  9. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2015)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    of the monsoon forecasting models, which many times do not represent the heat energy available to the atmosphere, have a great demand for accurate, long range forecast (LRF) of mon- soon rainfall, which has always. We studied the impacts of ocean mean temperature (OMT), representing the heat energy of the upper

  10. SUPPLEMENTARY Submitted to: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    S1 SUPPLEMENTARY Submitted to: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Title: Quantifying/fuels/emission control devices for coal-fired power plants by province. Table S4. The uncertainties of unabated emission Ratio of biomass burning Normal (Province dependent) Questionnaire: Wang and Zhang (2008) B 1 A

  11. Portable controls experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Richard Winston

    2012-01-01

    Experiments for controls classes like MIT's 2.004 require large lab setups and expensive equipment such as oscilloscopes and function generators. We developed a series of controls experiments based on National Instruments' ...

  12. Internal solitary waves in the Coastal Mixing and Optics 1996 experiment: Multimodal structure and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    and resuspension D. J. Bogucki Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami in sediment resuspension during the Coastal Mixing and Optics 1996 (CMO 96) experiment are reported. The largest resuspension events observed in the experiment can be related to retarded flow under the wave

  13. Total Solar Irradiance Calibration Transfer Experiment/TIM Frequently Asked Questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    TCTE Total Solar Irradiance Calibration Transfer Experiment/TIM Frequently Asked Questions What is the purpose of the TCTE mission? The Total Solar Irradiance Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE to monitor changes in solar irradiance at the top of the Earth's atmosphere. TCTE will launch as one of five

  14. Cloud water contents and hydrometeor sizes during the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    Cloud water contents and hydrometeor sizes during the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment Matthew D a 35-GHz cloud radar and the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program operated a suite Clouds Experiment took place during AprilJuly 1998, with the primary goal of investigating cloud

  15. Experiments: Preparation and Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    the experimental setup und the results of performing the experiment. Again, this is part of human cultureExperiments: Preparation and Measurement by Arnold Neumaier, Vienna March 1996 Abstract Introduction Experiments, properly arranged, provide information about a physical system by suitable

  16. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. I. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS VIA THE SHALLOW WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin; Workman, Jared E-mail: jworkman@coloradomesa.edu

    2014-08-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  17. 0-7803-XXXX-X/06/$20.00 2009 IEEE 25th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium Sub-Atmospheric Pressure Pool Boiling of Water on a Screen-Laminate Enhanced Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Richard A.

    structures having wide ranging porosity and pore size. When deployed as a surface enhancement in a boiling pool-boiling experiments at one atmosphere and sub-atmospheric pressure assess the utility of fine factor of lamination [dimensionless] CHF = critical heat flux [W/cm2 ] Dh = pore hydraulic diameter [m

  18. Ernest S. Colantonio College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    ) and document imaging and workflow processing system (Nolij); developed data warehouse queries; identifiedErnest S. Colantonio College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences Oregon State University State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences Faculty Research Assistant Conduct

  19. BIOSIGNATURE GASES IN H?-DOMINATED ATMOSPHERES ON ROCKY EXOPLANETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, Sara

    Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency and some will be able to retain stable H2-dominated atmospheres. We study biosignature gases on exoplanets with thin H2 atmospheres and habitable surface ...

  20. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. and furnace temperature versus timein air-based atmospheres and furnace temperature versus time2 -based atmospheres and furnace temperature versus time for

  1. Author's Accepted Manuscript ORBIT-CENTERED ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    solar and geomagnetic activities and different prediction windows. Compar- ison with previouslyAuthor's Accepted Manuscript ORBIT-CENTERED ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL Shoemaker, Riccardo Bevilacqua, ORBIT-CENTERED ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL

  2. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in boundary current systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putrasahan, Dian Ariyani

    2012-01-01

    Isolating Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere in the KuroshioSST coupler . . . . Chapter 3 Mesoscale Ocean-Atmosphere4.2 Impact of Mesoscale SST on Precipitation Chapter 4 vi

  3. A Temperature and Abundance Retrieval Method for Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhusudhan, Nikku

    We present a new method to retrieve molecular abundances and temperature profiles from exoplanet atmosphere photometry and spectroscopy. We run millions of one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere models in order to cover the large ...

  4. U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Coastal Data Area Network) Project Description: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA consists of four separate components, an administrative local area network (LAN) component; a public access

  5. EPS 22 The Fluid Earth: Oceans, Atmosphere, Climate & Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    . Students are requested not to use laptops or cell phones during class. Textbook: The Atmospheric Balance 02 Feb Atmospheric radiation. Demonstration: Invisibility at 1800 K. Spectra and Planck's Nobel

  6. ATMOS 5000: Intro to Atmospheric Science Fall Term 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, John Chun-Han

    allows: Atmospheric boundary layer Carbon cycle, CO2 Ozone hole, stratospheric chemistry Air on the atmospheric controls on the weather (beach volleyball versus a rainy day indoors, skiing on a sunny day

  7. Atmospheric rivers as Lagrangian coherent structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garaboa, Daniel; Huhn, Florian; Perez-Muuzuri, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We show that filamentous Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) over the Northern Atlantic Ocean are closely linked to attracting Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) in the large scale wind field. LCSs represent lines of attraction in the evolving flow with a significant impact on all passive tracers. Using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE), we extract LCSs from a two-dimensional flow derived from water vapor flux of atmospheric reanalysis data and compare them to the three-dimensional LCS obtained from the wind flow. We correlate the typical filamentous water vapor patterns of ARs with LCSs and find that LCSs bound the filaments on the back side. Passive advective transport of water vapor from tropical latitudes is potentially possible.

  8. Measuring Magnetic Fields in the Solar Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Wijn, A G

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery by Hale in the early 1900s that sunspots harbor strong magnetic field, magnetism has become increasingly important in our understanding of processes on the Sun and in the Heliosphere. Many current and planned instruments are capable of diagnosing magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. Photospheric magnetometry is now well-established. However, many challenges remain. For instance, the diagnosis of magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona is difficult, and interpretation of measurements is harder still. As a result only very few measurements have been made so far, yet it is clear that if we are to understand the outer solar atmosphere we must study the magnetic field. I will review the history of solar magnetic field measurements, describe and discuss the three types of magnetometry, and close with an outlook on the future.

  9. Improved detection of atmospheric turbulence with SLODAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Goodwin; Charles Jenkins; Andrew Lambert

    2007-06-19

    We discuss several improvements in the detection of atmospheric turbulence using SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR). Frequently, SLODAR observations have shown strong ground-layer turbulence, which is beneficial to adaptive optics. We show that current methods which neglect atmospheric propagation effects can underestimate the strength of high altitude turbulence by up to ~ 30%. We show that mirror and dome seeing turbulence can be a significant fraction of measured ground-layer turbulence, some cases up to ~ 50%. We also demonstrate a novel technique to improve the nominal height resolution, by a factor of 3, called Generalized SLODAR. This can be applied when sampling high-altitude turbulence, where the nominal height resolution is the poorest, or for resolving details in the important ground-layer.

  10. Thermalisation of electrons in a stellar atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Chevallier

    2006-01-23

    We are interested in electrons kinetics in a stellar atmosphere to validate or invalidate the usually accepted hypothesis of thermalisation of electrons. For this purpose, we calculate the velocity distribution function of electrons by solving the kinetic equation of these particles together with the equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium. We note that this distribution can deviate strongly from a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution if non-LTE effects are important. Some results and astrophysical consequences are examined.

  11. Atmospheric structure determined from satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Keith Shelburne

    1978-01-01

    Subject: Meteorology ATM)SPHERIC STRUCTURE DETEiUIINED FRDM SATELLITE DATA A Thesis XEITH SHELBURNE KNIGHT Approved as to style and content. hyi (Chairman of Cor ' iee) C. (Head of Department) (Miemher) ABSTRACT Atmospheric Structure Determined... from Satellite Data. (August 1978) Keith Shelburne Knight, B. A. , University of California at Los Angeles Chairman of Advisory Conmittee: Dr. James R. Scoggins The capabilities of the Nimbus-6 satellite sounding data for use in synoptic analysis...

  12. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-10-26

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  13. Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-04-19

    Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environment-friendly. The author method has two working versions: (1) the first variant the warm (hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric steam is condenced into freswater: (2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version (2) wind and propeller are used for causing air movment. The first method does not need energy, the second needs a small amount. Moreover, in variant (1) the freshwater has a high pressure (>30 or more atm.) and can be used for production of energy such as electricity and in that way the freshwater cost is lower. For increasing the productivity the seawater is injected into air and solar air heater may be used. The solar air heater produces a huge amount of electricity as a very powerful electricity generation plant. The offered electricity installation in 100 - 200 times cheaper than any common electric plant of equivalent output. Key words: Extraction freshwater, method of getting freshwater, receiving energy from atmosphere, powerful renewal electric plant.

  14. Shipboard Atmospheric O2 Measurements in the Southern Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    outgassing on the atmospheric gradients at this latitude and time of year. This CO2 outgassing is in contrast

  15. Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environment-friendly. The author method has two working versions: (1) the first variant the warm (hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric steam is condenced into freswater: (2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version (2) wind and propeller are used for causing air movment. The first method...

  16. Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. [Annotated bibligraphy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    Atmospheric scavenging research conducted by the Illinois State Water Survey under contract with the Department of Energy has been a significant factor in the historical development of the field of precipitation scavenging. Emphasis of the work during the 1980's became focused on the problem of acid rain problem with the Survey being chosen as the Central Analytical Laboratory for sample analysis of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). The DOE research was responsible for laying the groundwork from the standpoint of sampling and chemical analysis that has now become routine features of NADP/NTN. A significant aspect of the research has been the participation by the Water Survey in the MAP3S precipitation sampling network which is totally supported by DOE, is the longest continuous precipitation sampling network in existence, and maintains an event sampling protocol. The following review consists of a short description of each of the papers appearing in the Study of Atmospheric Scavenging progress reports starting with the Eighteenth Progress Report in 1980 to the Twenty- Third Progress Report in 1989. In addition a listing of the significant publications and interviews associated with the program are given in the bibliography.

  17. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  18. Rapid Fluctuations in the Lower Solar Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, J K; Christian, D J; Jess, D B; Mathioudakis, M

    2011-01-01

    The Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument reveals solar atmospheric fluctuations at high frequencies. Spectra of variations of the G-band intensity (IG) and CaII K-line intensity (IK) show correlated fluctuations above white noise to frequencies beyond 300 mHz and 50 mHz, respectively. The noise-corrected G-band spectrum for f = 28 - 326 mHz shows a power law with exponent -1.21 \\pm, 0.02, consistent with the presence of turbulent motions. G-band spectral power in the 25 - 100 mHz ("UHF") range is concentrated at the locations of magnetic bright points in the intergranular lanes and is highly intermittent in time. The intermittence of the UHF G-band fluctuations, shown by a positive kurtosis {\\kappa}, also suggests turbulence. Combining values of IG, IK, UHF power, and {\\kappa}, reveals two distinct states of the solar atmosphere. State 1, including almost all the data, is characterized by low IG, IK, and UHF power and {\\kappa} \\approx 6. State 2, including only a very small fraction of...

  19. Atmospheric and combustion chemistry of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.; Sehested, J.; Wallington, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that dimethyl ether (DME) is an ideal diesel fuel alternative. DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, combines good fuel properties with low exhaust emissions and low combustion noise. Large scale production of this fuel can take place using a single step catalytic process converting CH{sub 4} to DME. The fate of DME in the atmosphere has previously been studied. The atmospheric degradation is initiated by the reaction with hydroxyl radicals, which is also a common feature of combustion processes. Spectrokinetic investigations and product analysis were used to demonstrate that the intermediate oxy radical, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}O, exhibits a novel reaction pathway of hydrogen atom ejection. The application of tandem mass spectrometry to chemi-ions based on supersonic molecular beam sampling has recently been demonstrated. The highly reactive ionic intermediates are sampled directly from the flame and identified by collision activation mass spectrometry and ion-molecule reactions. The mass spectrum reflects the distribution of the intermediates in the flame. The atmospheric degradation of DME as well as the unique fuel properties of a oxygen containing compound will be discussed.

  20. Axisymmetric Hurricane in a Dry Atmosphere: Theoretical Framework and Numerical Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy through a positive feedback between the wind speed and the surface fluxes. He also argued for axisymmetric hurricanes is directly applicable to the maintenance of a balanced vortex sustained by a combination of surface energy and mo- mentum flux, even in the absence of water vapor. This theoretical

  1. A model for eastward and westward jets in laboratory experiments and planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus, Philip S.

    ; accepted 21 October 1997 Flows in a rotating annular tank J. Sommeria, S. D. Meyers, and H. L. Swinney of the laboratory flow that is based on a Bickley jet; this raises concerns about previous calculations of Physics. S1070-6631 98 01405-6 I. INTRODUCTION In laboratory flows in rotating annuli that were designed

  2. An ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation system for the martian atmosphere: Implementation and simulation experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    , United States h Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 variables (such as temperature and winds) using observations from only one or two observed fields) of Hunt et al. (2007), a powerful and efficient assimilation scheme which has performed very well

  3. Operating Experience Level 3, Atmospheric Dispersion Parameter (x/Q) for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing853926 NewsORMATDepartment of Energy

  4. DOE/SC-ARM-14-034 Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HAB Packet HanfordDOE ProjectREMOTE-HANDLED TRU764 The6 User3 ARM4

  5. Session Papers Quality Measurement Experiments Within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 Unlimited Release4: "Short-Term Energy

  6. Atmospheric Chemistry of Venus-like Exoplanets Laura Schaefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Atmospheric Chemistry of Venus-like Exoplanets by Laura Schaefer and Bruce Fegley, Jr thermodynamic calculations to model atmospheric chemistry on terrestrial exoplanets that are hot enough for chemical equilibria between the atmosphere and lithosphere, as on Venus. The results of our calculations

  7. Isotopic evidence for Mesoarchaean anoxia and changing atmospheric sulphur chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    LETTERS Isotopic evidence for Mesoarchaean anoxia and changing atmospheric sulphur chemistry James changes in pre-2.45-Gyr-ago atmospheric pathways for non-mass-dependent chemistry and in the ultraviolet J. Kaufman1 The evolution of the Earth's atmosphere is marked by a transition from an early

  8. Phase Transitions of Aqueous Atmospheric Particles Scot T. Martin*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transformations of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles," in 1995-1996 at MIT in Atmospheric Chemistry. He was an Assistant Professor in Aquatic and Atmospheric Chemistry in the Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineers in the Atmospheric Chemistry Program). His laboratory research group is currently active in two

  9. Renewed growth of atmospheric methane R. G. Prinn,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    use these data, along with an inverse method applied to a simple model of atmospheric chemistry this observation further using a simple model of atmospheric transport and chemistry to attempt to quantifyRenewed growth of atmospheric methane M. Rigby,1 R. G. Prinn,1 P. J. Fraser,2 P. G. Simmonds,3 R. L

  10. Photo: RSMAS The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , marine geophysics, ocean acoustics, and marine and atmospheric chemistry. The school is also known as onePhoto: RSMAS The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) was founded in 1943 in Biscayne Bay near Miami. It is the only subtropical applied and basic marine and atmospheric research

  11. School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuhang

    in atmospheric chemistry/air quality and climate and a growing reputation in oceanography, geophysicsSchool of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology Strategic Plan March 1 opportunities. Vision The vision of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences is: To lead in innovative

  12. Usage Policies Notebook for Thermco Atmospheric Diffusion Furnace system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Usage Policies Notebook for Thermco Atmospheric Diffusion Furnace system Revision date September 2014 #12;2 Emergency Plan for Diffusion Furnaces Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies Contact;4 Usage Policies for Thermco Atmospheric Diffusion Furnace Standard policies for usage The Atmospheric

  13. High Altitude Unmanned Air System for Atmospheric Science Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sbester, Andrs

    High Altitude Unmanned Air System for Atmospheric Science Missions A. Sobester , S. J. Johnston and processing atmospheric observations across a range of altitudes. We consider the aeronautical a specified block of airspace. I. The Need for Wide Altitude Range Atmospheric Observations The ability

  14. MEA 213 Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences I FALL Semester

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuter, Sandra

    and define the major terms that apply to meteorology. Structure of the atmosphere: Explain the chemical composition and vertical structure of the atmosphere. Weather maps: Read, interpret and plot station moisture parameter such as dew point, specific humidity, and mixing ratio from measured atmospheric

  15. Results and prospects of deep under-ground, under-water and under-ice experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornoza, J D

    2014-01-01

    Astroparticle experiments have provided a long list of achievements both for particle physics and astrophysics. Many of these experiments require to be protected from the background produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere. The main options for such protection are to build detectors deep under ground (mines, tunnels) or in the deep sea or antarctic ice. In this proceeding we review the main results shown in the RICAP 2013 conference related with these kind of experiments and the prospects for the future.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T

    2004-10-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  17. Representative Atmospheric Plume Development for Elevated Releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2014-03-03

    An atmospheric explosion of a low-yield nuclear device will produce a large number of radioactive isotopes, some of which can be measured with airborne detection systems. However, properly equipped aircraft may not arrive in the region where an explosion occurred for a number of hours after the event. Atmospheric conditions will have caused the radioactive plume to move and diffuse before the aircraft arrives. The science behind predicting atmospheric plume movement has advanced enough that the location of the maximum concentrations in the plume can be determined reasonably accurately in real time, or near real time. Given the assumption that an aircraft can follow a plume, this study addresses the amount of atmospheric dilution expected to occur in a representative plume as a function of time past the release event. The approach models atmospheric transport of hypothetical releases from a single location for every day in a year using the publically available HYSPLIT code. The effective dilution factors for the point of maximum concentration in an elevated plume based on a release of a non-decaying, non-depositing tracer can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the day of the release, even for the same number of hours after the release event. However, the median of the dilution factors based on releases for 365 consecutive days at one site follows a power law relationship in time, as shown in Figure S-1. The relationship is good enough to provide a general rule of thumb for estimating typical future dilution factors in a plume starting at the same point. However, the coefficients of the power law function may vary for different release point locations. Radioactive decay causes the effective dilution factors to decrease more quickly with the time past the release event than the dilution factors based on a non-decaying tracer. An analytical expression for the dilution factors of isotopes with different half-lives can be developed given the power law expression for the non-decaying tracer. If the power-law equation for the median dilution factor, Df, based on a non-decaying tracer has the general form Df=a?t?^(-b) for time t after the release event, then the equation has the form Df=e^(-?t)at^(-b) for a radioactive isotope, where ? is the decay constant for the isotope.

  18. Reactive greenhouse gas scenarios: Systematic exploration of uncertainties and the role of atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, Michael J; Holmes, Christopher D; Hsu, Juno

    2012-01-01

    and time scales in atmospheric chemistry, Philos. Trans. R.PRATHER ET AL. : ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND GREENHOUSE GASESet al. (2001), Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases,

  19. Environmental Chamber Study of Atmospheric Chemistry and Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Using Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yingdi

    2011-01-01

    modelling: a review. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics,emerging issues. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2009. 9:aqueous phase. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2009. 9:

  20. A comparison of the chemical sinks of atmospheric organics in the gas and aqueous phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, S. A; Nizkorodov, S. A

    2012-01-01

    cal data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II gas phaseAttribution 3.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics AJ. and Pandis, S. : Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, John

  1. Time scales in atmospheric chemistry: Theory, GWPs for CH 4 and CO, and runaway growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, Michael J

    1996-01-01

    Program and NSF's Atmospheric Chemistry Program for supporteigenstates in atmospheric chemistry, (2) Exponential decaytracer gases and atmospheric chemistry, in steady-state

  2. Chemistry of atmospheric aerosol particles and their resulting warm cloud-nucleation properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Meagan Julia Kerry

    2011-01-01

    for CCN activation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10,and precipitation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9,dust particles. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2009, 9,

  3. Atmospheric chemistry results from the ANTCI 2005 Antarctic plateau airborne study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    2010 for Full Article Atmospheric chemistry results from theL. , et al. (2010), Atmospheric chemistry results from the2010), Plume chemistry and atmospheric impact of emissions

  4. Time scales in atmospheric chemistry: Theory, GWPs for CH4 and CO, and runaway growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Prather, MJ

    1996-01-01

    Program and NSF's Atmospheric Chemistry Program for supporteigenstates in atmospheric chemistry, (2) Exponential decaytracer gases and atmospheric chemistry, in steady-state

  5. Real time in situ detection of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew W.

    2011-01-01

    +NO 3 reaction. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2009, 9,radicals (NO 3 ). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2008, 8,aerosol yields. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2009, 9,

  6. Chemistry of atmospheric aerosol particles and their resulting warm cloud-nucleation properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Meagan Julia Kerry

    2011-01-01

    CCN activation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 5241-precipitation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 3223-particles. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2009, 9, A. P.

  7. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanal, Vandana [Dept. of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2011-11-23

    At present, neutrinoless double beta decay is perhaps the only experiment that can tell us whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. Given the significance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta}, there is a widespread interest for these rare event studies employing a variety of novel techniques. This paper describes the current status of DBD experiments. The Indian effort for an underground NDBD experiment at the upcoming INO laboratory is also presented.

  8. Nuclear Physics: Experiment Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerator and Experimental Schedule Beam Time Request Form Experiment Scheduling and General Information Radiation Budget Form (pdf) Interactive beam request form (for contact...

  9. Nuclear Physics: Experiment Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free Electron Laser (FEL) Medical Imaging Physics Topics Campaigns Meetings Recent Talks Archived Talks Additional Information Computing at JLab Operations Logbook Experiment...

  10. Origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by it stable carbon isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesselet, R.; Fontugne, M.; Buat-Menard, P.; Ezat, U.; Lambert, C.E.

    1981-04-01

    Organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition were determined in samples of atmospheric particulate matter collected in 1979 at remote marine locations (Enewetak atoll, Sargasso Sea) during the SEAREX (Sea-Air Exchange) program field experiments. Atmospheric Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentrations were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 mg. m/sup -3/, in agreement with previous literature data. The major mass of POC was found on the smallest particles (r<0.5 mm). The /sup 13/C//sup 12/C of the small particles is close to the one expected (d/sup 13/C = 26 +- 2/sup 0///sub infinity/) for atmospheric POC of continental origin. For all the samples analysed so far, it appears that more than 80% of atmospheric POC over remote marine areas is of continental origin. This can be explained either by long-range transport of small sized continental organic aserosols or by the production of POC in the marine atmosphere from a vapor phase organic carbon pool of continental origin. The POC in the large size fraction of marine aerosols (<20% of the total concentration) is likely to have a direct marine origin since its carbon isotopic composition is close to the expected value (d/sup 13/C = -21 +- 2/sup 0///sub 00/) for POC associated with sea-salt droplets transported to the marine atmosphere.

  11. Results from the International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Accurate Measurements of Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere (measurements of atmospheric trace halocarbons, hydrocarbons, and

  12. Long-Term Operation Of Ground-Based Atmospheric Sensing Systems In The Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivey, Mark; Jones, Larry J.; Porch, W. M.; Apple, Monty L.; Widener, Kevin B.

    2004-10-14

    Three semi-autonomous atmospheric sensing systems were installed in the tropical western Pacific region. The first of these Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Stations (ARCS) began operation in 1996. Each ARCS is configured as a system-of-systems since it comprises an ensemble of independent instrument systems. The ARCS collect, process, and transmit large volumes of cloud, solar and thermal radiation, and meteorological data to support climate studies and climate-modeling improvements as part of the U.S Department of Energys Atmospheric and Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Data from these tropical ARCS stations have been used for satellite ground-truth data comparisons and validations, including comparisons for MTI and AQUA satellite data. Our experiences with these systems in the tropics led to modifications in their design. An ongoing international logistics effort is required to keep gigabytes per day of quality-assured data flowing to the ARM programs archives. Design criteria, performance, communications methods, and the day-to-day logistics required to support long-term operations of ground-based remote atmospheric sensing systems are discussed. End-to-end data flow from the ARCS systems to the ARM Program archives is discussed.

  13. Fungi in the future: Interannual variation and effects of atmospheric change on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cotton, T. E. Anne; Fitter, Alastair H.; Miller, R. Michael; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Helgason, Thorunn

    2015-01-05

    Understanding the natural dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their response to global environmental change is essential for the prediction of future plant growth and ecosystem functions. We investigated the long-term temporal dynamics and effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations on AM fungal communities. Molecular methods were used to characterize the AM fungal communities of soybean (Glycine max) grown under elevated and ambient atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and O3 within a free air concentration enrichment experiment in three growing seasons over 5 yr. Elevated CO2 altered the community composition of AM fungi, increasingmorethe ratio of Glomeraceae to Gigasporaceae. By contrast, no effect of elevated O3 on AM fungal communities was detected. However, the greatest compositional differences detected were between years, suggesting that, at least in the short term, large-scale interannual temporal dynamics are stronger mediators than atmospheric CO2 concentrations of AM fungal communities. We conclude that, although atmospheric change may significantly alter AM fungal communities, this effect may be masked by the influences of natural changes and successional patterns through time. We suggest that changes in carbon availability are important determinants of the community dynamics of AM fungi.less

  14. Stabilization of CO2 Atmospheres on Exoplanets around M Dwarf Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Peter; Robinson, Tyler D; Li, Cheng; Yung, Yuk L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the chemical stability of CO2-dominated atmospheres of M dwarf terrestrial exoplanets using a 1-dimensional photochemical model. On planets orbiting Sun-like stars, the photolysis of CO2 by Far-UV (FUV) radiation is balanced by the reaction between CO and OH, the rate of which depends on H2O abundance. By comparison, planets orbiting M dwarf stars experience higher FUV radiation compared to planets orbiting Sun-like stars, and they are also likely to have low H2O abundance due to M dwarfs having a prolonged, high-luminosity pre-main sequence (Luger & Barnes 2015). We show that, for H2O-depleted planets around M dwarfs, a CO2-dominated atmosphere is stable to conversion to CO and O2 by relying on a catalytic cycle involving H2O2 photolysis. However, this cycle breaks down for planets with atmospheric hydrogen mixing ratios below ~1 ppm, resulting in ~40% of the atmospheric CO2 being converted to CO and O2 on a time scale of 1 Myr. The increased abundance of O2 also results in high O3 concent...

  15. Chemistry of Silicate Atmospheres of Evaporating Super-Recommended short title: Silicate Atmospheres of Super-Earths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Chemistry of Silicate Atmospheres of Evaporating Super- Earths Recommended short title: Silicate Atmospheres of Super-Earths Laura Schaefer1,2 Bruce Fegley, Jr.1,3 1 Planetary Chemistry through currently available methods. Keywords: atmosphere, silicate, exoplanet, chemistry #12;- 4 - 1

  16. Franklin: User Experiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun; Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  17. International Experience Singapore 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    , energy and environmental issues in India, alternative energy and technology in China and Hong KongInternational Experience Singapore 2014 Department of Energy, Environmental And Chemical Experience Program is part of the McDonnell International Scholars Academy Global Energy & Environment

  18. The Path to Large-Mass Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Steven R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-08

    The technology is ready for atmospheric scale sensitivity and we can at least discuss it for the solar scale. Even null results will be interesting. Supporting measurements are important and have an impact. Need several mesurements with a total uncertainty (experiment and theory) of {approx} 50% or less, and eventually even better. If we see {beta}{beta} the qualitative physics results are profound, but next we'll want to quantify the underlying physics.

  19. Future precision neutrino experiments and their theoretical implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter Winter

    2007-09-19

    Future neutrino oscillation measurement focus, at first priority, on the discovery of sin^2(2 theta_13) describing the coupling between solar and atmospheric oscillations. In this talk, we briefly discuss the prospects to measure sin^2(2 theta_13) by future reactor and beam experiments, and we illustrate the usefulness of these measurements (and their precision) from the theoretical point of view with an example.

  20. Nonlinear symmetric stability of planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, J.C.; Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    The energy-Casimir method is applied to the problem of symmetric stability in the context of a compressible, hydrostatic planetary atmosphere with a general equation of state. Linear stability criteria for symmetric disturbances to a zonally symmetric baroclinic flow are obtained. In the special case of a perfect gas the results of Stevens (1983) are recovered. Nonlinear stability conditions are also obtained that, in addition to implying linear stability, provide an upper bound on a certain positive-definite measure of disturbance amplitude.

  1. Atmospheric fogging in underground mine airways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillies, A.D.S.; Schimmelpfennig

    1983-04-01

    Loss of visibility due to the occurrence of atmospheric fogging in underground mine airways can lead to longer travel times and loss of production efficiency, an increase in the frequency of vehicular and foot traffic accidents and difficulty in checking rock surfaces for instability and loose material. Where hot and humid surface air meets colder underground air, conditions for fog formation may be present. Further, suspended particulate matter from diesel exhausts or stoping operations together with slow movement of air along passageways may contribute to formation. This study describes an investigation being undertaken with the cooperation of Kennecott's Ozark Lead Co. to identify causes of the problem.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, November 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-12-03

    Fall 2002 Intensive Operation Periods: Single Column Model and Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle--In an Intensive Operation Period (IOP) on November 3-23, 2002, researchers at the SGP CART site are collecting a detailed data set for use in improving the Single Column Model (SCM), a scaled-down climate model. The SCM represents one vertical column of air above Earth's surface and requires less computation time than a full-scale global climate model. Researchers first use the SCM to efficiently improve submodels of clouds, solar radiation transfer, and atmosphere-surface interactions, then implement the results in large-scale global models. With measured values for a starting point, the SCM predicts atmospheric variables during prescribed time periods. A computer calculates values for such quantities as the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface and predicts how clouds will evolve and interact with incoming light from the sun. Researchers compare the SCM's predictions with actual measurements made during the IOP, then adjust the submodels to make predictions more reliable. A second IOP conducted concurrently with the SCM IOP involves high-altitude, long-duration aircraft flights. The original plan was to use an unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV), but the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aircraft Proteus will be substituted because all UAVs have been deployed elsewhere. The UAV is a small, instrument-equipped, remote-control plane that is operated from the ground by a computer. The Proteus is a manned aircraft, originally designed to carry telecommunications relay equipment, that can be reconfigured for uses such as reconnaissance and surveillance, commercial imaging, launching of small space satellites, and atmospheric research. The plane is designed for two on-board pilots in a pressurized cabin, flying to altitudes up to 65,000 feet for as long as 18 hours. The Proteus has a variable wingspan of 77-92 feet and is 56 feet long. The plane can carry up to 7,260 pounds of equipment, making it a versatile research tool. The Proteus is making measurements at the very top of the cirrus cloud layer to characterize structures of these clouds. These new measurements will provide more accurate, more abundant data for use in improving the representation of clouds in the SCM. 2002-2003 Winter Weather Forecast--Top climate forecasters at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Climate Prediction Center say that an El Nino condition in the tropical Pacific Ocean will influence our winter weather this year. Although this El Nino is not as strong as the event of the 1997-1998 winter season, the United States will nevertheless experience some atypical weather. Strong impacts could be felt in several areas. Nationally, forecasters are predicting warmer-than-average temperatures over the northern tier of states and wetter-than-average conditions in the southern tier of states during the 2002-2003 winter season. Kansas residents should expect warmer and wetter conditions, while Oklahoma will be wetter than average.

  3. White light emission from silicon oxycarbide films prepared by using atmospheric pressure microplasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding Yi; Shirai, Hajime

    2009-02-15

    An atmospheric pressure microplasma jet was employed as a deposition tool to fabricate silicon oxycarbide films from tetraethoxysilane-argon (Ar) mixture gas at room temperature. Resultant films exhibit intense visible emission under a 325 nm excitation which appears white to naked eyes in the range from {approx}1.75 to {approx}3.5 eV at room temperature. The origin of photoluminescence is attributed to the electron-hole pair recombination through neutral oxygen vacancies (NOVs) in the film. The density of NOV defects was found in the range from 3.48x10{sup 15} to 2.23x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. The photoluminescence quantum efficiencies were estimated to be 1.48%-4.15%. Present experiment results demonstrate that the silicon oxycarbide films prepared by using atmospheric pressure microplasma jet would be a competitive candidate for the development of white light emission devices.

  4. Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01

    2000: A Coupled Air-Sea Mesoscale Model: Experiments inWind Stress Curl from a Mesoscale Model. Mon. Wea. Rev. ,2006: Effect of Ocean Mesoscale Variability on the Mean

  5. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01

    2000: A Coupled Air-Sea Mesoscale Model: Experiments inWind Stress Curl from a Mesoscale Model. Mon. Wea. Rev. ,2006: Effect of Ocean Mesoscale Variability on the Mean

  6. Adaptive control for Mars atmospheric flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Restrepo, Carolina Isabel

    2009-05-15

    The new vision for space exploration will focus on sending humans to the moon and eventually to Mars. This endeavor presents new challenges that are critically di?erent from the past experience with robotic missions to ...

  7. The Neutron EDM Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. G. Harris

    2007-12-05

    The neutron EDM experiment has played an important part over many decades in shaping and constraining numerous models of CP violation. This review article discusses some of the techniques used to calculate EDMs under various theoretical scenarios, and highlights some of the implications of EDM limits upon such models. A pedagogical introduction is given to the experimental techniques employed in the recently completed ILL experiment, including a brief discussion of the dominant systematic uncertainties. A new and much more sensitive version of the experiment, which is currently under development, is also outlined.

  8. Cold atmospheric plasma in cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alex; Volotskova, Olga; Ann Stepp, Mary; Srinivasan, Priya; Sandler, Anthony; Trink, Barry

    2013-05-15

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. This paper outlines recent progress in understanding of cold plasma physics as well as application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in cancer therapy. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were developed recently in a quest to understand physics of CAP. It was established that the streamer head charge is about 10{sup 8} electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 10{sup 7} V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies of CAP action on cancer were performed. It was shown that the cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in-vitro without damaging normal cells and significantly reduces tumor size in-vivo. Studies indicate that the mechanism of action of cold plasma on cancer cells is related to generation of reactive oxygen species with possible induction of the apoptosis pathway. It is also shown that the cancer cells are more susceptible to the effects of CAP because a greater percentage of cells are in the S phase of the cell cycle.

  9. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  10. Levitating atmospheres of Eddington-luminosity neutron stars I. Optically thin Thomson-scattering atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wielgus, M; S?dowski, A; Narayan, R; Abramowicz, M

    2015-01-01

    In general relativity static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric.

  11. Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 17431758 Impact of urban heat island on regional atmospheric pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    pollution C. Sarrata,, A. Lemonsub , V. Massona , D. Guedaliac a CNRM-GAME Meteo-France 42, avenue and spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants over the Paris region. One anticyclonic episode from urban effects have an important impact on the primary and secondary regional pollutants, more

  12. Levitating atmospheres of Eddington-luminosity neutron stars I. Optically thin Thomson-scattering atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wielgus; W. Klu?niak; A. S?dowski; R. Narayan; M. Abramowicz

    2015-05-22

    In general relativity static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric.

  13. SYNTHETIC SPECTRA AND COLORS OF YOUNG GIANT PLANET ATMOSPHERES: EFFECTS OF INITIAL CONDITIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC METALLICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , as giant planets should be warmest, largest, and brightest when they are young, but will cool, contractSYNTHETIC SPECTRA AND COLORS OF YOUNG GIANT PLANET ATMOSPHERES: EFFECTS OF INITIAL CONDITIONS 2008 March 17; accepted 2008 May 7 ABSTRACT We examine the spectra and infrared colors of the cool

  14. Chaotic characteristics of corona discharges in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan Xiangyu; Zhang Qiaogen; Wang Xiuhuan; Sun Fu; Zha Wei; Jia Zhijie [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A point-plane electrode system in atmospheric air is established to investigate the mechanism of the corona discharge. By using this system, the current pulses of the corona discharges under the 50 Hz ac voltage are measured using partial discharge (PD) measurement instrument and constitute the point-plane voltage-current (V-I) characteristic equation together with the voltage. Then, this paper constructs the nonlinear circuit model and differential equations of the system in an attempt to give the underlying dynamic mechanism based on the nonlinear V-I characteristics of the point-plane corona discharges. The results show that the chaotic phenomenon is found in the corona circuit by the experimental study and nonlinear dynamic analysis. The basic dynamic characteristics, including the Lyapunov exponent, the existence of the strange attractors, and the equilibrium points, are also found and analyzed in the development process of the corona circuit. Moreover, the time series of the corona current pulses obtained in the experiment is used to demonstrate the chaotic characteristics of the corona current based on the nonlinear dynamic circuit theory and the experimental basis. It is pointed out that the corona phenomenon is not a purely stochastic phenomenon but a short term deterministic chaotic activity.

  15. General relativity and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Damour

    1994-12-08

    The confrontation between Einstein's theory of gravitation and experiment is summarized. Although all current experimental data are compatible with general relativity, the importance of pursuing the quest for possible deviations from Einstein's theory is emphasized.

  16. Experiment Scheduling Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Scheduling Committee Title Name Phome Email Deputy Director for Research Bob McKeown (757) 269-6481 bmck@jlab.org Physics Division AD (co-chair) Rolf Ent (757) 269-7373...

  17. The GLUEX Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.R. Shepherd

    2009-12-01

    The GLUEX experiment, to be constructed in the new Hall D at Jefferson Lab as part of the 12 GeV upgrade, will utilize a linearly polarized 9 GeV photon beam, produced via coherent bremsstrahlung radiation off of a diamond wafer, incident on a proton target to conduct a search for exotic hybrid mesons. A summary of the physics motivation for the experiment and the key factors that drive the design of the detector and beam line is presented.

  18. The MAJORANA Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The MAJORANA Collaboration

    2011-09-22

    The MAJORANA collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR experiment, an R&D effort that will field approximately 40kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR.

  19. The MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, John; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

  20. The Majorana Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo, E.; Fast, J. E.; Hoppe, E. W.; Keillor, M. E.; Kephart, J. D.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, N. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. III [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Back, H. O. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Barabash, A. S.; Konovalov, S. I.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bergevin, M.; Chan, Y.-D.; Detwiler, J. A.; Loach, J. C. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); and others

    2011-12-16

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

  1. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang; Xiao, Heng; Neelin, David; Ji, Xuan

    2013-11-15

    The impact of global tropical climate to perturbations in land surface processes (LSP) are evaluated using perturbations given by different LSP representations of continental-scale in a global climate model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that LSP processes such as interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, different LSP representations are confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. We find that the largest impact is mainly from LSP perturbations over the tropical African continent. The impact is through anomalous convective heating in tropical Africa due to changes in the surface heat fluxes, which in turn affect basinwide teleconnections in the Pacific through equatorial wave dynamics. The modifications in the equatorial Pacific climate are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as effect of ocean memory. Our results further suggest that correct representations of land surface processes, land use change and the associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty when performing future climate projections under different climate change scenarios.

  2. Climate change will bring economic, social and environmental costs at scales beyond any other human experience (IARU, 2009). Studies imply that humanity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    experience (IARU, 2009). Studies imply that humanity must reduce CO2 below its current atmosphericClimate change will bring economic, social and environmental costs at scales beyond any other human

  3. Atmospheric Neutrino Induced Muons in the MINOS Far Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, Dipu; /Minnesota U.

    2007-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The MINOS Far Detector, located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Soudan MN, has been collecting data since August 2003. The scope of this dissertation involves identifying the atmospheric neutrino induced muons that are created by the neutrinos interacting with the rock surrounding the detector cavern, performing a neutrino oscillation search by measuring the oscillation parameter values of {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23}, and searching for CPT violation by measuring the charge ratio for the atmospheric neutrino induced muons. A series of selection cuts are applied to the data set in order to extract the neutrino induced muons. As a result, a total of 148 candidate events are selected. The oscillation search is performed by measuring the low to high muon momentum ratio in the data sample and comparing it to the same ratio in the Monte Carlo simulation in the absence of neutrino oscillation. The measured double ratios for the ''all events'' (A) and high resolution (HR) samples are R{sub A} = R{sub low/high}{sup data}/R{sub low/high}{sup MC} = 0.60{sub -0.10}{sup +0.11}(stat) {+-} 0.08(syst) and R{sub HR} = R{sub low/high}{sup data}/R{sub low/high}{sup MC} = 0.58{sub -0.11}{sup +0.14}(stat) {+-} 0.05(syst), respectively. Both event samples show a significant deviation from unity giving a strong indication of neutrino oscillation. A combined momentum and zenith angle oscillation fit is performed using the method of maximum log-likelihood with a grid search in the parameter space of {Delta}m{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}. The best fit point for both event samples occurs at {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} = 1.3 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} = 1. This result is compatible with previous measurements from the Super Kamiokande experiment and Soudan 2 experiments. The MINOS Far Detector is the first underground neutrino detector to be able to distinguish the charge of the muons. The measured charge is used to test the rate of the neutrino to the anti-neutrino oscillations by measuring the neutrino induced muon charge ratio. Using the high resolution sample, the {mu}{sup +} to {mu}{sup -} double charge ratio has been determined to be R{sub CPT} = R{sub {mu}{sup -}/{mu}{sup +}}{sup data}/R{sub {mu}{sup -}/{mu}{sup +}}{sup MC} = 0.90{sub -0.18}{sup +0.24}(stat) {+-} 0.09(syst). With the uncertainties added in quadrature, the CPT double ratio is consistent with unity showing no indication for CPT violation.

  4. The Atmospheric and Terrestrial Mobile Laboratory (ATML).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zak, Bernard Daniel; Rahn, Thom (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Nitschke, Kim (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Ivey, Mark D.; Mora, Claudia (Los Alamos National Laboratory); McDowell, Nate (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Love, Steve (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Dubey, M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Michelsen, Hope A.; Guilderson, Tom (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Schubert, William Kent; Costigan, Keeley (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Chylek, Petr (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Bambha, Ray P.; Roskovensky, John K.

    2010-04-01

    The ionospheric disturbance dynamo signature in geomagnetic variations is investigated using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. The model results are tested against reference magnetically quiet time observations on 21 June 1993, and disturbance effects were observed on 11 June 1993. The model qualitatively reproduces the observed diurnal and latitude variations of the geomagnetic horizontal intensity and declination for the reference quiet day in midlatitude and low-latitude regions but underestimates their amplitudes. The patterns of the disturbance dynamo signature and its source 'anti-Sq' current system are well reproduced in the Northern Hemisphere. However, the model significantly underestimates the amplitude of disturbance dynamo effects when compared with observations. Furthermore, the largest simulated disturbances occur at different local times than the observations. The discrepancies suggest that the assumed high-latitude storm time energy inputs in the model were not quantitatively accurate for this storm.

  5. Emulation to simulate low resolution atmospheric data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebbur Venkata Subba Rao, Vishwas [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    Climate simulations require significant compute power, they are complex and therefore it is time consuming to simulate them. We have developed an emulator to simulate unknown climate datasets. The emulator uses stochastic collocation and multi-dimensional in- terpolation to simulate the datasets. We have used the emulator to determine various physical quantities such as temperature, short and long wave cloud forcing, zonal winds etc. The emulation gives results which are very close to those obtained by simulations. The emulator was tested on 2 degree atmospheric datasets. The work evaluates the pros and cons of evaluating the mean first and inter- polating and vice versa. To determine the physical quantities, we have assumed them to be a function of time, longitude, latitude and a random parameter. We have looked at parameters that govern high stable clouds, low stable clouds, timescale for convection etc. The emulator is especially useful as it requires negligible compute times when compared to the simulation itself.

  6. Atmospheric lead in downtown Guatemala City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durando, M.L.; Aragon, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic absorption (AA) analysis was employed to determine, for the first time in this country, lead concentrations in aerosols collected in Nuclepore filter media during the months of February and March (1980) in Guatemala City, Guatemala. In particular, the lead in the atmospheric fine particulate was measured in different downtown locations around noontime and in a single location at 1-h intervals throughout the day. The first was used to study short-term variations from one location to the other, and the second one was used to correlate parameters such as traffic density and wind velocity with the levels of airborne lead on the same day. In addition, this paper presents a brief discussion of the lead content in Guatemalan gasoline, the lead levels in street dusts, and the total suspended particulate matter in downtown Guatemala City.

  7. Atmospheric transmittance model for photosynthetically active radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulescu, Marius; Stefu, Nicoleta; Gravila, Paul; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pacurar, Angel; Mares, Oana; Pop, Nicolina; Calinoiu, Delia

    2013-11-13

    A parametric model of the atmospheric transmittance in the PAR band is presented. The model can be straightforwardly applied for calculating the beam, diffuse and global components of the PAR solar irradiance. The required inputs are: air pressure, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide column content, ngstrm's turbidity coefficient and single scattering albedo. Comparison with other models and ground measured data shows a reasonable level of accuracy for this model, making it suitable for practical applications. From the computational point of view the calculus is condensed into simple algebra which is a noticeable advantage. For users interested in speed-intensive computation of the effective PAR solar irradiance, a PC program based on the parametric equations along with a user guide are available online at http://solar.physics.uvt.ro/srms.

  8. Thermodynamics of atmospheric circulation on hot Jupiters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Goodman

    2008-10-07

    Atmospheric circulation on tidally-locked exoplanets is driven by the absorption and reradiation of heat from the host star. They are natural heat engines, converting heat into mechanical energy. A steady state is possible only if there is a mechanism to dissipate mechanical energy, or if the redistribution of heat is so effective that the Carnot efficiency is driven to zero. Simulations based on primitive, equivalent-barotropic, or shallow-water equations without explicit provision for dissipation of kinetic energy and for recovery of that energy as heat, violate energy conservation. More seriously perhaps, neglect of physical sources of drag may overestimate wind speeds and rates of advection of heat from the day to the night side.

  9. Aeras: A next generation global atmosphere model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Spotz, William F.; Smith, Thomas M.; Demeshko, Irina P.; Fike, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a new global atmosphere model named Aeras that is performance portable and supports the quantification of uncertainties. These next-generation capabilities are enabled by building Aeras on top of Albany, a code base that supports the rapid development of scientific application codes while leveraging Sandia's foundational mathematics and computer science packages in Trilinos and Dakota. Embedded uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an original design capability of Albany, and performance portability is a recent upgrade. Other required features, such as shell-type elements, spectral elements, efficient explicit and semi-implicit time-stepping, transient sensitivity analysis, and concurrent ensembles, were not componentsmoreof Albany as the project began, and have been (or are being) added by the Aeras team. We present early UQ and performance portability results for the shallow water equations.less

  10. Estimating atmospheric parameters and reducing noise for multispectral imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for estimating atmospheric radiance and transmittance. An atmospheric estimation system is divided into a first phase and a second phase. The first phase inputs an observed multispectral image and an initial estimate of the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band and calculates the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band, which can be used to generate a "corrected" multispectral image that is an estimate of the surface multispectral image. The second phase inputs the observed multispectral image and the surface multispectral image that was generated by the first phase and removes noise from the surface multispectral image by smoothing out change in average deviations of temperatures.

  11. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of...

  12. Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, W P L

    2007-01-01

    comparable to that for ethane. It is concluded that methylmethyl iodide and ethane. 32 Table A-of methyl iodide and ethane in the atmospheric reactivity

  13. A Volcanologist'S Review Of Atmospheric Hazards Of Volcanic Activity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hazards caused by explosive volcanic activity. The hazard posed by fine silicate ash with long residence time in the atmosphere is probably much less serious than...

  14. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces Chemistry occurring at or near the surfaces of aqueous droplets and thin films in the...

  15. A New Photochemistry Code for Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    A New Photochemistry Code for Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres Renyu Hu, Sara Seager Massachusetts-transport equation for 111 molecules and aerosols Eddy diffusion Chemical kinetics Photolysis Boundary

  16. Application of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma in Polymer and Composite Adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hang

    2015-01-01

    oxidation of selected polymers using an atmospheric pressuremorphological modification of polymers under a helium-oxygenand dicyclopentadiene polymer, Submitted to Carbon for

  17. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    ThermoChem, under contract to the Department of Energy, conducted extensive research, development and demonstration work on a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) to confirm that advanced technology can meet these performance objectives. The ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC system integrates a pulse combustor with an atmospheric bubbling-bed type fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) In this modular configuration, the pulse combustor burns the fuel fines (typically less than 30 sieve or 600 microns) and the fluidized bed combusts the coarse fuel particles. Since the ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC employs both the pulse combustor and the AFBC technologies, it can handle the full-size range of coarse and fines. The oscillating flow field in the pulse combustor provides for high interphase and intraparticle mass transfer rates. Therefore, the fuel fines essentially burn under kinetic control. Due to the reasonably high temperature (>1093 C but less than the temperature for ash fusion to prevent slagging), combustion of fuel fines is substantially complete at the exit of the pulse combustor. The additional residence time of 1 to 2 seconds in the freeboard of the PAFBC unit then ensures high carbon conversion and, in turn, high combustion efficiency. A laboratory unit was successfully designed, constructed and tested for over 600 hours to confirm that the PAFBC technology could meet the performance objectives. Subsequently, a 50,000 lb/hr PAFBC demonstration steam boiler was designed, constructed and tested at Clemson University in Clemson, South Carolina. This Final Report presents the detailed results of this extensive and successful PAFBC research, development and demonstration project.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. For several years, studies of transport and diffusion have been extended to mesoscale areas of complex terrain. Atmospheric cleansing research has expanded to a regional scale, multilaboratory investigation of precipitation scavenging processes involving the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, the redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. A few long-range tracer experiments conducted in recent years and the special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity following the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986 offer important initial data bases for studying atmospheric processes at these super-regional scales.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2002-10-15

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on climate and vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC represents DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS). Wanda Ferrell is DOE's Program Manager with overall responsibility for CDIAC. Roger Dahlman is responsible for CDIAC's AmeriFlux tasks, and Anna Palmisano for CDIAC's Ocean Data tasks. CDIAC is made up of three groups: Data Systems, Information Services, and Computer Systems, with nineteen full-time or part-time staff. The following section provides details on CDIAC's staff and organization. The Data Systems Group identifies and obtains databases important to global-change research; analyzes data; compiles needed databases; provides data management and support to specific programs [e.g., NARSTO, Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE), AmeriFlux, Oceans]; and prepares documentation to ensure the long-term utility of CDIAC's data holdings. The Information Services Group responds to data and information requests; maintains records of all request activities; analyzes user statistics; assists in Web development and maintenance; and produces CDIAC's newsletter (CDIAC Communications), the fiscal year annual reports, and various information materials. The Computer Systems Group provides computer system support for all CDIAC and WDC activities; designs and maintains CDIAC's computing system network; ensures compliance with ORNL/DOE computing security regulations; ensures long-term preservation of CDIAC data holdings through systematic backups; evaluates, develops, and implements software; ensures standards compliance; generates user statistics; provides Web design, development, and oversight; and provides systems analysis and programming assistance for scientific data projects.

  20. AT BIOSPHERE 2 THE DIAGNOSTICS SUMMIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    nations and regions on innovation strategy and execution, including Finland, Singapore, the City of San that bridges cleantech and life sciences. John has long been an angel investor in emerging technology companies

  1. Results from the International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Control of Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide During the Growingof atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) and some similaritiesSF 6 , methane, and carbonyl sulfide The long atmospheric

  2. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J.L.; LaPointe, M.A.; Ganguly, A.K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); LaPointe, M.A. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250{endash}350 kV, 20{endash}30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J. L.; LaPointe, M. A. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Ganguly, A. K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250-350 kV, 20-30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains research in the atmospheric sciences. Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at PNL are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, continental, and global scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. The redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. Eventually, large-scale experiments on cloud processing and redistribution of contaminants will be integrated into the national program on global change, investigating how energy pollutants affect aerosols and clouds and the transfer of radiant energy through them. As the significance of this effect becomes clear, its global impact on climate will be studied through experimental and modeling research. The description of ongoing atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: atmospheric studies in complex terrain, large-scale atmospheric transport and processing of emissions, and climate change. This report describes the progress in FY 1989 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists project titles that support research activities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Irish Potato Fertilizer Experiments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hotchkiss, W.S.; Kyle, E. J. (Edwin Jackson)

    1908-01-01

    - ERS, 191 4 FIELD B I., Nitrogen; P.; Phosphoric aci'd; K., potash. lo~~.--The price of fertilizer as in 1906, was as follows: Cotton Seed ~eal,' $26.00 per ton; Acid Phospnate, $20.00 per ton; Sulphate ;h. $55.00 Der ton. Yield Marketabe Bushels.... BULLETIN NO 101 January, 1908. ish Potato Fertilizer Experiments - Postoffice, COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS OFFICERS. GOVERNING BOARD. (Board of Directors A. & M. College.) \\ - -- K. K. LEGGETT...

  6. Measuring Programming Experience Janet Feigenspan,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaestner, Christian

    Measuring Programming Experience Janet Feigenspan, University of Magdeburg Christian K of Duisburg-Essen Abstract--Programming experience is an important confound- ing parameter in controlled experiments regarding program comprehension. In literature, ways to measure or control pro- gramming

  7. Measuring Programming Experience Janet Feigenspan,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apel, Sven

    Measuring Programming Experience Janet Feigenspan, University of Magdeburg, Germany Christian K Hanenberg, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany Abstract--Programming experience is an important confound- ing parameter in controlled experiments regarding program comprehension. In literature, ways

  8. A new chemical scheme to study carbon-rich exoplanet atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venot, Olivia; Agndez, Marcelino; Decin, Leen; Bounaceur, Roda

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheres with a high C/O ratio are expected to contain an important quantity of hydrocarbons, including heavy molecules (with more than 2 carbon atoms). To study correctly these C-rich atmospheres, a chemical scheme adapted to this composition is necessary. We have implemented a chemical scheme that can describe the kinetics of species with up to 6 carbon atoms. This chemical scheme has been developed with specialists of combustion and validated through experiments on a wide range of T and P. This chemical network is available on the online database KIDA. We have created a grid of 12 models to explore different thermal profiles and C/O ratios. For each of them, we have compared the chemical composition determined with a C0-C2 chemical scheme (species with up to 2 carbon atoms) and with the C0-C6 scheme. We found no difference in the results obtained with the two schemes when photolyses are not included in the model, whatever the temperature of the atmosphere. In contrast, when there is photochemistry, diff...

  9. Modeling Activities in the Department of Energys Atmospheric Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) conducts research pertinent to radiative forcing of climate change by atmospheric aerosols. The program consists of approximately 40 highly interactive peer-reviewed research projects that examine aerosol properties and processes and the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Principal components of the program are instrument development, laboratory experiments, field studies, theoretical investigations, and modeling. The objectives of the Program are to 1) improve the understanding of aerosol processes associated with light scattering and absorption properties and interactions with clouds that affect Earth's radiative balance and to 2) develop model-based representations of these processes that enable the effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system to be properly represented in global-scale numerical climate models. Although only a few of the research projects within ASP are explicitly identified as primarily modeling activities, modeling actually comprises a substantial component of a large fraction of ASP research projects. This document describes the modeling activities within the Program as a whole, the objectives and intended outcomes of these activities, and the linkages among the several modeling components and with global-scale modeling activities conducted under the support of the Department of Energy's Climate Sciences Program and other aerosol and climate research programs.

  10. High explosives vapor detection by atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization/tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.

    1996-02-01

    The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of traces of high explosives is described. Particular emphasis is placed on use of the quadrupole ion trap as the type of tandem mass spectrometer. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge provides a simple, rugged, and efficient means for anion formation while the quadrupole ion trap provides for efficient tandem mass spectrometry. Mass selective ion accumulation and non-specific ion activation methods can be used to overcome deleterious effects arising from ion/ion interactions. Such interactions constitute the major potential technical barrier to the use of the ion trap for real-time monitoring of targeted compounds in uncontrolled and highly variable matrices. Tailored waveforms can be used to effect both mass selective ion accumulation and ion activation. Concatenated tailored waveforms allow for both functions in a single experiment thereby providing the capability for monitoring several targeted species simultaneously. The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with a state-of-the-art analytical quadrupole ion trap is a highly sensitive and specific detector for traces of high explosives. The combination is also small and inexpensive relative to virtually any other form of tandem mass spectrometry. The science and technology underlying the glow discharge/ion trap combination is sufficiently mature to form the basis for an engineering effort to make the detector portable. 85 refs.

  11. Hog Feeding Experiments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, John C.

    1910-01-01

    ................................................................................. ~eriment,s Nos. 111 and IV 17 I ...................................................................................... ,,,,proved Hogs vs. Scrubs 19 I Corn vs. Rice Bran vs. Spanish Peanuts ........................................................... 22... 1 ! .................................................................................................................. Summary. 33 I I [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] HOG FEEDING EXPERIMENTS. BY JOHN C. BURNS, DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL...

  12. The Majorana Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. E. Guiseppe; for the Majorana Collaboration

    2010-12-30

    The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in Ge-76. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

  13. The Majorana Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Bai, Xinhua; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hong, H.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Medlin, D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Reid, Douglas J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Ronquest, M. C.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.; Zhang, C.

    2011-08-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

  14. The MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiseppe, V.E.; Keller, C.; Mei, D-M; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, G.; Thomas, K.; Xiang, W.; Zhang, C.; Aalseth, C.E.; Aguayo, E.; Ely, J.; Fast, J.E.; Hoppe, E.W.; Hossbach, T.W.; Keillor, M.; Kephart, J.D.; Kouzes, R.; Miley, H.S.; Mizouni, L.; Myers, A.W.; Reid, D.; Amman, M.; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Y-D; Detwiler, J.A.; Loach, J.C.; Luke, P.N.; Martin, R.D.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Vetter, K.; Yaver, H.; Avignone, F.T. III; Creswick, R.; Farach, H.; Mizouni, L.; Avignone, Frank Titus; Bertrand Jr, Fred E; Capps, Gregory L; Cooper, Reynold J; Radford, David C; Varner Jr, Robert L; Wilkerson, John F; Yu, Chang-Hong; Back, H.O.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.R.; Back , H.O.; Bai, X.; Hong, H.; Howard, S.; Medlin, D.; Sobolev, V.; Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, V.; Barbeau, P.S.; Collar, J.I.; Fields, N.; Boswell , M.; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, M.; Burritt , T.H.; Burritt , T.H.; Busch, M.; Esterline, J.; Swift, G.; Tornow, W.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, M.; Shima, T.; Finnerty , P.; et al.

    2011-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

  15. Foliar Lead Uptake by Lettuce Exposed to Atmospheric Fallouts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    Foliar Lead Uptake by Lettuce Exposed to Atmospheric Fallouts G A E L L E U Z U , S O P H I E S O gardens near industrial plants. The mechanisms of foliar uptake of lead by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) exposed to the atmospheric fallouts of a lead-recycling plant were studied. After43daysofexposure

  16. Lecture(s) 9 Slides from atmosphere-ocean lectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the required energy poleward. the atmosphere is a heat engine, with Hadley convection cells driven moisture: both the `sensible' and `latent' heat fuels the vigorous overturning of the cloud visible albedo and ice can insulate the ocean from the atmosphere above. When the ocean surface freezes

  17. Investigating jets in the lower-to-mid solar atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , in the lower-to-mid solar atmosphere, remains one of the biggest unanswered questions in solar physics today reconnection driven processes. Spicules are one of the most common features in the lower-to-mid solarInvestigating jets in the lower-to-mid solar atmosphere: Observations & Numerical Simulations Eamon

  18. WAVE-VORTEX INTERACTIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE, AND CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    WAVE-VORTEX INTERACTIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE, AND CLIMATE PREDICTION Onno Bokhove Numerical Analysis, The Netherlands o.bokhove@math.utwente.nl Abstract Can we construct an accurate atmospheric climate model parcel dynamics, linear modes, balan- ced models, gravity waves, weather and climate prediction

  19. Non-equilibrium Chemistry in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metchev, Stanimir

    Non-equilibrium Chemistry in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres PHY688 Aaron Jackson April 27, 2009 #12 and convection #12;Non-equilibrium Chemistry In the context of Brown Dwarf Atmospheres, the relevant chemical;Outline What is non-equilibrium chemistry in the context of Brown Dwarfs? What is the observational

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER The influence of plants on atmospheric methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ORIGINAL PAPER The influence of plants on atmospheric methane in an agriculture-dominated landscape on atmospheric methane (CH4) in an agriculture-dominated landscape in the Upper Mid- west of the United States role in the landscape-scale CH4 budget. Keywords Methane . Corn . Soybean . Agriculture . Land surface

  1. Understanding oxygen photochemistry in CO2-dominated planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strong, Kimberly

    of confidence in forecasting the temperature profile for the Martian atmosphere over the aerobraking region temperature, dust load, water concentrations, etc., on the vertical ii #12;structure of the emissions the NO airglow emission in the Mars atmosphere from the SPICAM instrument. The method is tested with one year

  2. FUNDAMENTALS OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE COURSE: ...................................................................................... EAS B9014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    and Physics 20700 and 20800 Textbook (required): Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey (2nd editionFUNDAMENTALS OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE COURSE% Students will write a term paper, linking a topic learned in class with either (a) their own research or (b

  3. North-Atlantic atmospheric dynamics and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North-Atlantic atmospheric dynamics and climate change Julien Cattiaux1 with Christophe Cassou2 weather and global warming J. Cattiaux - North-Atlantic atmospheric dynamics and climate change AMA & LEFE the climate change affect the dynamics? The midlatitude dynamics is driven by the equator-to-pole T gradient

  4. Destruction mechanisms for formaldehyde in atmospheric temperature plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Destruction mechanisms for formaldehyde in atmospheric temperature plasmas Daniel G. Starch, Illinois 61801 (Received 4 June 1992; accepted for publication 15 September 1992) Formaldehyde (CH of formaldehyde from atmospheric pressure gas streams using plasmas generated by a dielectric barrier dis- charge

  5. Data assimilation for the coupled ocean-atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    is vacillating between a normal year (lasts from ~3-8 years) and an El Nino (lasts about a 1 year) #12;Time atmosphere slow ocean fast extratropical atmosphere t=0.01 We do OSSEs with this simple coupled model "El

  6. Author's personal copy Solar modulation in surface atmospheric electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    Author's personal copy Solar modulation in surface atmospheric electricity R. Giles Harrison a is the major source of air's electrical conductivity over the oceans and well above the continents atmospheric electrical circuit, including the local vertical current density and the related surface potential

  7. MEET THE PEER COUNSELORS Marine and Atmospheric Science Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    MEET THE PEER COUNSELORS Marine and Atmospheric Science Program Welcome all incoming at the University of Miami and the Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS). Incoming students as possible, both academically and socially. We are here as guides for incoming and prospective students who

  8. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface Abstract. A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model current. In order to analyze the eect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the rst one

  9. Experiment Profile: Mu2e

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alternatives and a cost range for the experiment, is expected in 2011. Earliest construction could begin 2013 with data-taking beginning in 2017. LIFESPAN OF EXPERIMENT: Two...

  10. Preface to the special issue of PSS on ``Surfaces and atmospheres of the outer planets, their satellites and ring systems: Part V''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atreya, Sushil

    and models on the atmospheres and surfaces of the giant planets and their satellites. Particular attention, several of papers in this issue discuss results from laboratory experiments and models. Zuchowski et al. present a new parametrization scheme of Jovian moist convection based on a heat engine arguments

  11. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with very large volume neutrino telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. P. Yaez; A. Kouchner

    2015-09-28

    Neutrino oscillations have been probed during the last few decades using multiple neutrino sources and experimental set-ups. In the recent years, very large volume neutrino telescopes have started contributing to the field. First ANTARES and then IceCube have relied on large and sparsely instrumented volumes to observe atmospheric neutrinos for combinations of baselines and energies inaccessible to other experiments. Using this advantage, the latest result from IceCube starts approaching the precision of other established technologies, and is paving the way for future detectors, such as ORCA and PINGU. These new projects seek to provide better measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters, and eventually determine the neutrino mass ordering. The results from running experiments and the potential from proposed projects are discussed in this review, emphasizing the experimental challenges involved in the measurements.

  12. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with very large volume neutrino telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaez, J P

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations have been probed during the last few decades using multiple neutrino sources and experimental set-ups. In the recent years, very large volume neutrino telescopes have started contributing to the field. First ANTARES and then IceCube have relied on large and sparsely instrumented volumes to observe atmospheric neutrinos for combinations of baselines and energies inaccessible to other experiments. Using this advantage, the latest result from IceCube starts approaching the precision of other established technologies, and is paving the way for future detectors, such as ORCA and PINGU. These new projects seek to provide better measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters, and eventually determine the neutrino mass ordering. The results from running experiments and the potential from proposed projects are discussed in this review, emphasizing the experimental challenges involved in the measurements.

  13. The opacity of grains in protoplanetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naor Movshovitz; Morris Podolak

    2007-09-29

    We have computed the size distribution of silicate grains in the outer radiative region of the envelope of a protoplanet evolving according to the scenario of Pollack et al. (1996). Our computation includes grain growth due to Brownian motion and overtake of smaller grains by larger ones. We also include the input of new grains due to the breakup of planetesimals in the atmosphere. We follow the procedure of Podolak (2003), but have speeded it up significantly. This allows us to test the sensitivity of the code to various parameters. We have also made a more careful estimate of the resulting grain opacity. We find that the grain opacity is of the order of $10^{-2}\\ \\mathrm{cm^2 g^{-1}}$ throughout most of the outer radiative zone as Hubickyj et al. (2005) assumed for their low opacity case, but near the outer edge of the envelope, the opacity can increase to $\\sim{1} \\mathrm{cm^2 g^{-1}}$. We discuss the effect of this on the evolution of the models.

  14. Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, Alexander I.; /Caltech

    2011-05-01

    This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |{Delta}{bar m}{sub atm}{sup 2}| = (3.36{sub -0.40}{sup +0.46}(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst)) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}(2{bar {theta}}{sub 23}) = 0.860{sub -0.12}{sup +0.11}(stat) {+-} 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.

  15. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  16. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  17. Pallickara, Plale, Jensen, Sun Structure, sharing and preservation of scientific experiment data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pallickara, Sangmi

    with developments in sensors and instruments capable of monitoring the lower several kilometers of the atmosphere that we conducted. Keywords: Scientific Computing, Metadata, Grid Services, LEAD, Experiment data, OGSA solution is a metadata database for storing metadata about data products. A scientist, in the process

  18. A Biochemical Ocean State Estimate in the Southern1 Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haine, Thomas W. N.

    of the oceanic31 carbon pool. It influences light penetration with consequences for primary productivity1 A Biochemical Ocean State Estimate in the Southern1 Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment2 S. Dwivedi1 , T. W. N. Haine2 and C. E. Del Castillo3 3 1 Department of Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences, University

  19. "WEATHER IN A TANK" exploiting Laboratory experiments in the Teaching of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sukyoung

    "WEATHER IN A TANK" exploiting Laboratory experiments in the Teaching of meteorology, oceanography revealing midlatitude weather systems (the North Pole is in the middle) "stirring" properties between that govern atmospheric synoptic-scale weather systems. The laboratory model is a simplified system

  20. MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE;2 #12;MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N 20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE cli- mate has on natural emissions of N2 0 and CH4 from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere

  1. First local helioseismic experiments with CO5BOLD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Steiner; G. Vigeesh; L. Krieger; S. Wedemeyer-Bhm; W. Schaffenberger; B. Freytag

    2007-01-05

    With numerical experiments we explore the feasibility of using high frequency waves for probing the magnetic fields in the photosphere and the chromosphere of the Sun. We track a plane-parallel, monochromatic wave that propagates through a non-stationary, realistic atmosphere, from the convection-zone through the photosphere into the magnetically dominated chromosphere, where it gets refracted and reflected. We compare the wave travel time between two fixed geometrical height levels in the atmosphere (representing the formation height of two spectral lines) with the topography of the surface of equal magnetic and thermal energy density (the magnetic canopy or beta=1 contour) and find good correspondence between the two. We conclude that high frequency waves indeed bear information on the topography of the `magnetic canopy'.

  2. THE RADIAL VELOCITY EXPERIMENT (RAVE): FOURTH DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Williams, M. E. K.; Piffl, T.; Enke, H.; Carrillo, I.; Boeche, C.; Roeser, S.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Zwitter, T.; Binney, J.; De Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bijaoui, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Freeman, K.; Munari, U.; Anguiano, B.; and others

    2013-11-01

    We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances, and distances determined for 425,561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar atmospheric parameters are computed using a new pipeline, based on the algorithms of MATISSE and DEGAS. The spectral degeneracies and the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometric information are now better taken into consideration, improving the parameter determination compared to the previous RAVE data releases. The individual abundances for six elements (magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, iron, and nickel) are also given, based on a special-purpose pipeline that is also improved compared to that available for the RAVE DR3 and Chemical DR1 data releases. Together with photometric information and proper motions, these data can be retrieved from the RAVE collaboration Web site and the Vizier database.

  3. A Grid of 3D Stellar Atmosphere Models of Solar Metallicity: I. General Properties, Granulation and Atmospheric Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trampedach, Regner; Collet, Remo; Nordlund, ke; Stein, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations, and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late type stars, based on deep, 3D, convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations, and improve stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, asymptotic adiabat, as function of atmospheric parameters. These and other re...

  4. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program: Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program -- Final Report. Part 1: The lower atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tooman, T.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents work done between FY91 and FY95 for the lower atmospheric portion of the joint Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program (ARSAP) within the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). The work focused on (1) developing new measurement capabilities and (2) measuring atmospheric heating in a well-defined layer and then relating it to cloud properties an water vapor content. Seven new instruments were develop3ed for use with Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs) as the host platform for flux, radiance, cloud, and water vapor measurements. Four major field campaigns were undertaken to use these new as well as existing instruments to make critically needed atmospheric measurements. Scientific results include the profiling of clear sky fluxes from near surface to 14 km and the strong indication of cloudy atmosphere absorption of solar radiation considerably greater than predicted by extant models.

  5. THE SIMULATION OF FINE SCALE NOCTURNAL BOUNDARY LAYER MOTIONS WITH A MESO-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werth, D.; Kurzeja, R.; Parker, M.

    2009-04-02

    A field project over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Clouds and Radiation Testbed (ARM-CART) site during a period of several nights in September, 2007 was conducted to explore the evolution of the low-level jet (LLJ). Data was collected from a tower and a sodar and analyzed for turbulent behavior. To study the full range of nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) behavior, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was used to simulate the ARM-CART NBL field experiment and validated against the data collected from the site. This model was run at high resolution, and is ideal for calculating the interactions among the various motions within the boundary layer and their influence on the surface. The model reproduces adequately the synoptic situation and the formation and dissolution cycles of the low-level jet, although it suffers from insufficient cloud production and excessive nocturnal cooling. The authors suggest that observed heat flux data may further improve the realism of the simulations both in the cloud formation and in the jet characteristics. In a higher resolution simulation, the NBL experiences motion on a range of timescales as revealed by a wavelet analysis, and these are affected by the presence of the LLJ. The model can therefore be used to provide information on activity throughout the depth of the NBL.

  6. The LUX experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Akerib, D. S.; Arajo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; et al

    2015-03-24

    We present the status and prospects of the LUX experiment, which employs approximately 300 kg of two-phase xenon to search for WIMP dark matter interactions. The LUX detector was commissioned at the surface laboratory of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD, between December 2011 and February 2012 and the detector has been operating underground since January, 2013. These proceedings review the results of the commissioning run as well as the status of underground data-taking.

  7. The stability of the thermohaline circulation in global warming experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmittner, A.; Stocker, T.F.

    1999-04-01

    A simplified climate model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system is used to perform extensive sensitivity studies concerning possible future climate change induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Supplemented with an active atmospheric hydrological cycle, experiments with different rates of CO{sub 2} increase and different climate sensitivities are performed. The model exhibits a threshold value of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration beyond which the North Atlantic Deep Water formation stops and never recovers. For a climate sensitivity that leads to an equilibrium warming of 3.6 C for a doubling of CO{sub 2} and a rate of CO{sub 2} increase of 1% yr{sup {minus}1}, the threshold lies between 650 and 700 ppmv. Moreover, it is shown that the stability of the thermohaline circulation depends on the rate of increase of greenhouse gases. For a slower increase of atmospheric pCO{sub 2} the final amount that can be reached without a shutdown of the circulation is considerably higher. This rate-sensitive response is due to the uptake of heat and excess freshwater from the uppermost layers to the deep ocean. The increased equator-to-pole freshwater transport in a warmer atmosphere is mainly responsible for the cessation of deep water formation in the North Atlantic. Another consequence of the enhanced latent heat transport is a stronger warming at high latitudes. A model version with fixed water vapor transport exhibits uniform warming at all latitudes. The inclusion of a simple parameterization of the ice-albedo feedback increases the model sensitivity and further decreases the pole-to-equator temperature difference in a greenhouse climate. The possible range of CO{sub 2} threshold concentrations and its dependency on the rate of CO{sub 2} increase, on the climate sensitivity, and on other model parameters are discussed.

  8. Atmospheric process evaluation of mobile source emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    During the past two decades there has been a considerable effort in the US to develop and introduce an alternative to the use of gasoline and conventional diesel fuel for transportation. The primary motives for this effort have been twofold: energy security and improvement in air quality, most notably ozone, or smog. The anticipated improvement in air quality is associated with a decrease in the atmospheric reactivity, and sometimes a decrease in the mass emission rate, of the organic gas and NO{sub x} emissions from alternative fuels when compared to conventional transportation fuels. Quantification of these air quality impacts is a prerequisite to decisions on adopting alternative fuels. The purpose of this report is to present a critical review of the procedures and data base used to assess the impact on ambient air quality of mobile source emissions from alternative and conventional transportation fuels and to make recommendations as to how this process can be improved. Alternative transportation fuels are defined as methanol, ethanol, CNG, LPG, and reformulated gasoline. Most of the discussion centers on light-duty AFVs operating on these fuels. Other advanced transportation technologies and fuels such as hydrogen, electric vehicles, and fuel cells, will not be discussed. However, the issues raised herein can also be applied to these technologies and other classes of vehicles, such as heavy-duty diesels (HDDs). An evaluation of the overall impact of AFVs on society requires consideration of a number of complex issues. It involves the development of new vehicle technology associated with engines, fuel systems, and emission control technology; the implementation of the necessary fuel infrastructure; and an appropriate understanding of the economic, health, safety, and environmental impacts associated with the use of these fuels. This report addresses the steps necessary to properly evaluate the impact of AFVs on ozone air quality.

  9. Non-equilibrium chemistry in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Saumon; M. S. Marley; K. Lodders; R. S. Freedman

    2002-07-02

    Carbon monoxide and ammonia have been detected in the spectrum of Gl 229B at abundances that differ substantially from those obtained from chemical equilibrium. Vertical mixing in the atmosphere is a mechanism that can drive slowly reacting species out of chemical equilibrium. We explore the effects of vertical mixing as a function of mixing efficiency and effective temperature on the chemical abundances in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and on their spectra. The models compare favorably with the observational evidence and indicate that vertical mixing plays an important role in brown dwarf atmospheres.

  10. Habitability of waterworlds: runaway greenhouses, atmospheric expansion and multiple climate states of pure water atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2015-01-01

    There are four different stable climate states for pure water atmospheres, as might exist on so-called "waterworlds". I map these as a function of solar constant for planets ranging in size from Mars size to 10 Earth-mass. The states are: globally ice covered (Ts< 245K), cold and damp (270 < Ts< 290K), hot and moist (350< Ts< 550K) and very hot and dry (Ts< 900K). No stable climate exists for 290< Ts < 350K or 550 < Ts < 900K. The union of hot moist and cold damp climates describe the liquid water habitable zone, the width and location of which depends on planet mass. At each solar constant, two or three different climate states are stable. This is a consequence of strong non-linearities in both thermal emission and the net absorption of sunlight. Across the range of planet sizes, I account for the atmospheres expanding to high altitudes as they warm. The emitting and absorbing surfaces (optical depth of unity) move to high altitude, making their area larger than the planet surfa...

  11. Content Development Policy: Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences 1 The University of Manchester Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrahams, I. David

    Content Development Policy: Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences 1 The University of Manchester Library Content Development Policy Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences Monday, 30 April.................................................................................................55 #12;2 Content Development Policy: Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences Introduction

  12. IMPROVED QUASI-STEADY-STATE-APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay, Laurent O.

    IMPROVED QUASI-STEADY-STATE-APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION L. O. JAY are presented. Key words. atmospheric chemistry, stiff ordinary differential equations, quasi PII. S1064827595283033 1. Introduction. As our scientific understanding of atmospheric chemistry

  13. Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertiagravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Raffaele

    Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earths rotation and the atmospheres stratification. As a ...

  14. Experiments in Steer Feeding.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, John A. (John Alexander); Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

    1904-01-01

    as to the relative value of these two very characteristic rations for steer feeding. Cotton? seed meal and hulls is the ration that is most generally used throughout the cotton belt, while corn and alfalfa will likely be conceded to be the ration which is most... STATIONS. BULLETIN NO. 76. Animal Husbandry Section. T E X A S G R S I C 1904. EXPERIMENTS IN STEER FEEDING I. RICE BY-PRODUCTS FOR STEER FEEDING. II. FODDERS FOR FEEDING STEERS WITH COTTONSEED MEAL. III. MOLASSES FOR STEER FEEDING. IV. COMPARISON...

  15. BooNE Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura|BilayerBiomimetic DyeBlue Gene/QENT2.0.01Experiment

  16. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvan Racah Evan RacahNFTS-13Report InstructionsExperiment

  17. Fermilab | Tevatron | Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvan Racah861MayArtQuestions for theare thereExperiments

  18. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find whatGas SeparationsRelevantTechnologiesEventsExperiment

  19. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8) WignerEnergyAbout UsExpectationsExperiment

  20. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8) WignerEnergyAboutExperiment Safety

  1. Sandia Energy - Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumniProjectsCyberNotLEDPhase FieldEnergyExperiments Home

  2. Development of the first nonhydrostatic nested-grid grid-point global atmospheric modeling system on parallel machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Langley, D.L.; Reisner, J.M.; Smith, W.S.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Evaluating the importance of global and regional climate response to increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases requires a comprehensive global atmospheric modeling system (GAMS) capable of simulations over a wide range of atmospheric circulations, from complex terrain to continental scales, on high-performance computers. Unfortunately, all of the existing global circulation models (GCMs) do not meet this requirements, because they suffer from one or more of the following three shortcomings: (1) use of the hydrostatic approximation, which makes the models potentially ill-posed; (2) lack of a nested-grid (or multi-grid) capability, which makes it difficult to consistently evaluate the regional climate response to the global warming, and (3) spherical spectral (opposed to grid-point finite-difference) representation of model variables, which hinders model performance for parallel machine applications. The end product of the research is a highly modularized, multi-gridded, self-calibratable (for further parameterization development) global modeling system with state-of-the-science physics and chemistry. This system will be suitable for a suite of atmospheric problems: from local circulations to climate, from thunderstorms to global cloud radiative forcing, from urban pollution to global greenhouse trace gases, and from the guiding of field experiments to coupling with ocean models. It will also provide a unique testbed for high-performance computing architecture.

  3. Detectability of biosignature gases in the atmospheres of terrestrial exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messenger, Stephen Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Biosignature gases in the atmosphere of an exoplanet provide a means by which we can deduce the possible existence of life on that planet. As the list of possible biosignature gases is ever growing, the need to determine ...

  4. Study of the Martian upper atmosphere using radio tracking data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazarico, Erwan Matas Alexandre, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Since the first in situ observations of the Martian atmosphere were made by the twin Viking landers, we have learned considerably more about its composition, dynamics and variability. Not only did the new data on global ...

  5. Computational Science and Engineering Certification for Atmospheric Sciences Undergraduate Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Matthew

    Computational Science and Engineering Certification for Atmospheric Sciences Undergraduate Students The Computational Science and Engineering certificate program is designed to provide ATMS under- graduate students a certificate in "Computational Science and Engineering," students must complete the required courses listed

  6. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    on soda-silicate or soda-lime- silicate melts [2-5,9], or on6]. However, even for soda- lime glasses and metallurgicalon the foaming of soda-lime glass batch in air atmospheres

  7. Extreme hydrodynamic atmospheric loss near the critical thermal escape regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erkaev, N V; Odert, P; Kulikov, Yu N; Kislyakova, K G

    2015-01-01

    By considering martian-like planetary embryos inside the habitable zone of solar-like stars we study the behavior of the hydrodynamic atmospheric escape of hydrogen for small values of the Jeans escape parameter $\\beta thermal energy. Our study is based on a 1-D hydrodynamic upper atmosphere model that calculates the volume heating rate in a hydrogen dominated thermosphere due to the absorption of the stellar soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) flux. We find that when the $\\beta$ value near the mesopause/homopause level exceeds a critical value of $\\sim$2.5, there exists a steady hydrodynamic solution with a smooth transition from subsonic to supersonic flow. For a fixed XUV flux, the escape rate of the upper atmosphere is an increasing function of the temperature at the lower boundary. Our model results indicate a crucial enhancement of the atmospheric escape rate, when the Jeans escape parameter $\\beta$ decr...

  8. Behavior of buoyant moist plumes in turbulent atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza, Redouane

    1981-01-01

    A widely applicable computational model of buoyant moist plumes in turbulent atmospheres has been constructed. To achieve this a one dimensional Planetary Boundary Layer (P.B.L.) model has been developed to account for ...

  9. Deriving emissions time series from sparse atmospheric mole fractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rigby, Matthew

    A growth-based Bayesian inverse method is presented for deriving emissions of atmospheric trace species from temporally sparse measurements of their mole fractions. This work is motivated by many recent studies that have ...

  10. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH, ANNUAL REPORT 1976-77

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novakov, T.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric Chemistry Catalytic Oxidation of ,S02 on Carbonand S.G. Chang, "Catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbonCHEMISTRY LBL-6819 Catalytic Oxidation of S02 on Carbon in

  11. On The Implications of Atmospheric Gravity Waves on Wind Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norris, Luke

    2011-11-24

    In view of the rapidly rising cost of fossil fuels and concerns over climate change, there can be little doubt that renewable energy is to play a large role in the future of our economic development. The impact of Atmospheric ...

  12. Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres, Part 0: General introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEC Technical Committee

    1971-01-01

    This Recommendation has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee No. 31, Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres; It forms one of a series of publications dealing with electrical apparatus for use in explosive gas ...

  13. Electrostatic activation of prebiotic chemistry in substellar atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Craig R; Diver, Declan A; Rimmer, Paul B

    2013-01-01

    Charged dust grains in the atmospheres of exoplanets may play a key role in the formation of prebiotic molecules, necessary to the origin of life. Dust grains submerged in an atmospheric plasma become negatively charged and attract a flux of ions that are accelerated from the plasma. The energy of the ions upon reaching the grain surface may be sufficient to overcome the activation energy of particular chemical reactions that would be unattainable via ion and neutral bombardment from classical, thermal excitation. As a result, prebiotic molecules or their precursors could be synthesised on the surface of dust grains that form clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. This paper investigates the energization of the plasma ions, and the dependence on the plasma electron temperature, in the atmospheres of substellar objects such as gas giant planets. Calculations show that modest electron temperatures of $\\approx 1$ eV ($\\approx 10^{4}$ K) are enough to accelerate ions to sufficient energies that exceed the activation...

  14. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric green- house effects, (b) there are no calculations.3 This paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 The warming

  15. 12.003 Physics of Atmospheres and Oceans, Fall 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, John C.

    The laws of classical mechanics and thermodynamics are used to explore how the properties of fluids on a rotating Earth manifest themselves in, and help shape, the global patterns of atmospheric winds, ocean currents, and ...

  16. Chapter 8: Modelling Sediment Records of Atmospherically Deposited Contaminants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    73 Chapter 8: Modelling Sediment Records of Atmospherically Deposited Contaminants 8.1. Catchment the Water Column...............................................79 8.3 Water Column to Bottom Sediment Transfer......................................80 #12;Chapter 8: Modelling Sediment Records... 74 8

  17. Spectral behavior of the coupled land-atmosphere system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to understand the daily cycle of the energy coupling between the land and the atmosphere in response to a forcing of incoming radiation at their common boundary, the land surface. This ...

  18. Local Dynamics of Synoptic Waves in the Martian Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulich, Michael J., Jr.

    2011-10-21

    The sources and sinks of energy for transient waves in the Martian atmosphere are investigated, applying diagnostic techniques developed for the analysis of terrestrial baroclinic waves to output from a Mars General Circulation Model...

  19. Uncertainty in Greenhouse Emissions and Costs of Atmospheric Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Mort D.

    We explore the uncertainty in projections of emissions, and costs of atmospheric stabilization applying the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model, a computable general equilibrium model of the global economy. ...

  20. Atmospheric Condensation Potential of Windows in Hot, Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Diasty, R.; Budaiwi, I.

    1992-01-01

    condensation rate has been obtained by utilizing a simplified transient uni-dimensional finite difference model. The results show that this model has enhanced the assessment of the potential for atmospheric condensation on windows in hot, humid climates...

  1. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narita, Norio; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium(IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet (NUV) lights on the surface of exoplanets. Titania works as a photocatalyst to dissociate liquid water in this process. This mechanism offers a different source of a possibility of abiotic oxygen in atmospheres of exoplanets from previously considered photodissociation of water vapor in upper atmospheres by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Our order-of-magnitude estimation shows that possible amounts of oxygen produced by this abiotic mechanism can be comparable with or even more than that in the atmosphere of the current ...

  2. Laboratory measurements and modeling of trace atmospheric species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheehy, Philip M. (Philip Michael)

    2005-01-01

    Trace species play a major role in many physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the impact of each species requires a combination of laboratory exper- imentation, field measurements, ...

  3. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabalka, J R [ed.

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  4. Earth is warm because of "greenhouse gases" in atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    " properties of carbon dioxide, water. #12;Early 20th century, scientists realized that if CO2 content changed "Calculation shows that doubling or tripling the amount of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases

  5. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric budget of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    global atmospheric budget of ethanol V. Naik 1,2,* , A. M.nitrate formation from ethanol-fueled ve- hicular emissions,A. : Ambient concentrations of ethanol and methyl tert-butyl

  6. Perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, and octafluoropropane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhle, J.

    We present atmospheric baseline growth rates from the 1970s to the present for the long-lived, strongly infrared-absorbing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) tetrafluoromethane (CF4), hexafluoroethane (C2F6), and octafluoropropane ...

  7. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990-2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or...

  8. Atmosphere-soil-stream greenhouse gas fluxes from peatlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinsmore, Kerry J.

    2009-01-01

    Peatlands cover approximately 2-3% of the worlds land area yet represent approximately a third of the worlds estimated total soil carbon pool. They therefore play an important role in regulating global atmospheric CO2 and ...

  9. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration US Department of Commerce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency: Proceedings Series. IAEA. 2005. Worldwide marine Radionuclides in the Marine Environment: A Selected Bibliography Compiled and edited by: Chris Belter: NOAA's Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research and National Marine Fisheries Service, have prepared

  10. Atmospheric Tides in the Latest Generation of Climate Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Covey, Curt

    For atmospheric tides driven by solar heating, the database of climate model output used in the most recent assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirms and extends the authors earlier ...

  11. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  12. Diesel Aerosol Sampling in the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Kittelson; Jason Johnson; Winthrop Watts; Qiang Wei; Marcus Drayton; Dwane Paulsen; Nicolas Bukowiecki

    2000-06-19

    The University of Minnesota Center for Diesel Research along with a research team including Caterpillar, Cummins, Carnegie Mellon University, West Virginia University (WVU), Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, and Tampere University in Finland have performed measurements of Diesel exhaust particle size distributions under real-world dilution conditions. A mobile aerosol emission laboratory (MEL) equipped to measure particle size distributions, number concentrations, surface area concentrations, particle bound PAHs, as well as CO 2 and NO x concentrations in real time was built and will be described. The MEL was used to follow two different Cummins powered tractors, one with an older engine (L10) and one with a state-of-the-art engine (ISM), on rural highways and measure particles in their exhaust plumes. This paper will describe the goals and objectives of the study and will describe representative particle size distributions observed in roadway experiments with the truck powered by the ISM engine.

  13. Characterisation of Glass Electrodes and RPC Detectors for $INO-ICAL$ Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Md. Naimuddin; Daljeet Kaur; Purnendu Kumar; Ankit Gaur; Praveen Kumar; Md. Hasbuddin; Swati Mishra; Ashok Kumar

    2014-09-25

    India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is a planned neutrino experiment to be build up in southern part of India.The INO observatory will host a 51 kton Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector to detect atmospheric neutrinos. Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) has been chosen as the active detector element for the ICAL experiment. The ICAL experiment will consist of about 28,000 RPC's of dimension $2~m\\times 2~m$, divided into three modules. The experiment is planned to take data at least for 20 years from its start date. Due to the large number of RPC needed for ICAL experiment and the long lifetime of the experiment, it is necessary to carry out detailed $R\\&D$ to optimise each and every parameter of the detector performance. We report on the performance studies carried out on the RPC's made with these electrodes, and finally compare the detector performance with that of the material properties to optimise the detector parameters.

  14. A simplified system of pressure surfaces for atmospheric analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shay, Francis Schofield

    1959-01-01

    LIBRARY A g M COLLEGE OF TEXAS A SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM OF PRESSURE SURFACES FOR ATMOSPHERIC ANALYSIS A Thesis By FRANCIS S. SHAY + Captain USAF Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE May 1959 Major Subject: Meteorology A SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM OF PRESSURE SURFACES FOR ATMOSPHERIC ANALYSIS A Thesis By FRANCIS S. SHAY Captain USAF jpp roved j as to style and content...

  15. INFERENCE OF INHOMOGENEOUS CLOUDS IN AN EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; De Wit, Julien; Lewis, Nikole; Zsom, Andras; Seager, Sara; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel; Heng, Kevin; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Gillon, Michael; Barclay, Thomas; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2013-10-20

    We present new visible and infrared observations of the hot Jupiter Kepler-7b to determine its atmospheric properties. Our analysis allows us to (1) refine Kepler-7b's relatively large geometric albedo of Ag = 0.35 0.02, (2) place upper limits on Kepler-7b thermal emission that remains undetected in both Spitzer bandpasses and (3) report a westward shift in the Kepler optical phase curve. We argue that Kepler-7b's visible flux cannot be due to thermal emission or Rayleigh scattering from H{sub 2} molecules. We therefore conclude that high altitude, optically reflective clouds located west from the substellar point are present in its atmosphere. We find that a silicate-based cloud composition is a possible candidate. Kepler-7b exhibits several properties that may make it particularly amenable to cloud formation in its upper atmosphere. These include a hot deep atmosphere that avoids a cloud cold trap, very low surface gravity to suppress cloud sedimentation, and a planetary equilibrium temperature in a range that allows for silicate clouds to potentially form in the visible atmosphere probed by Kepler. Our analysis does not only present evidence of optically thick clouds on Kepler-7b but also yields the first map of clouds in an exoplanet atmosphere.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Physical Principles and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucarini, Valerio

    , cryosphere, and biosphere (Figure 1), and is powered by the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Sun in the atmosphere: composition, circulation Changes in the hydrological cycle Atmosphere Biosphere Land surface Precipitation evaporation Atmosphere-ice interaction Heat exchange Wind stress Sea ice Human influences Glacier

  17. The polarized SRF gun experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Shultheiss, T.

    2008-10-01

    An experiment is under way to prove the feasibility of a super-conducting RF gun for the production of polarized electrons. We report on the progress of the experiment and on simulations predicting the possibility of success.

  18. Experience with capture cavity II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koeth, T.; /Fermilab /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Branlard, J.; Edwards, H.; Fliller, R.; Harms, E.; Hocker, A.; McGee, M.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Prieto, P.; Reid, J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Valuable experience in operating and maintaining superconducting RF cavities in a horizontal test module has been gained with Capture Cavity II. We report on all facets of our experience to date.

  19. Flammability Characteristics of Hydrogen and Its Mixtures with Light Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Sub-atmospheric Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Thuy Minh Hai

    2013-07-13

    /vapor. This research focuses on the flammability limits of hydrogen and its binary mixtures with light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, n-butane, and ethylene) at sub-atmospheric pressures. The flammability limits of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, and binary mixtures...

  20. The CAPTAIN Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bian, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    The Cryogenic Apparatus for Precision Tests of Argon Interactions with Neutrinos (CAPTAIN) program is designed to make measurements of scientific importance to long-baseline neutrino physics and physics topics that will be explored by large underground detectors. The experiment employs two liquid Argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs), a primary detector with a mass of approximately 10 ton that will be deployed at different facilities for physics measurements and a two ton prototype detector for configuration testing. The physics programs for CAPTAIN include measuring neutron interactions at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, measuring neutrino interactions in the high-energy regime (1.5-5 GeV) at Fermilab NuMI beam, and measuring neutrino interactions in the low-energy regime (UV laser track has been seen in its TPC. This paper gives an overview of the CAPTAIN pr...

  1. The PANTHER User Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coram, Jamie L.; Morrow, James D.; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.

  2. Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kautz, Henry

    Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz One of the earliest goals of research in artificial intelligence was to create systems that can interpret and understand day to day human experience. Early work on the goal of building systems that understand human experience. Each of the previous barriers is weakened

  3. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leclerc, Monique Y.

    2014-11-17

    This final report presents the main activities and results of the project A Carbon Flux Super Site: New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling from 10/1/2006 to 9/30/2014. It describes the new AmeriFlux tower site (Aiken) at Savanna River Site (SC) and instrumentation, long term eddy-covariance, sodar, microbarograph, soil and other measurements at the site, and intensive field campaigns of tracer experiment at the Carbon Flux Super Site, SC, in 2009 and at ARM-CF site, Lamont, OK, and experiments in Plains, GA. The main results on tracer experiment and modeling, on low-level jet characteristics and their impact on fluxes, on gravity waves and their influence on eddy fluxes, and other results are briefly described in the report.

  4. Whitings as a Potential Mechanism for Controlling Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady D. Lee; William A. Apel; Michelle R. Walton

    2006-03-01

    Species of cyanobacteria in the genera Synechococcus and Synechocystis are known to be the catalysts of a phenomenon called "whitings", which is the formation and precipitation of fine-grained CaCO3 particles. Whitings occur when the cyanobacteria fix atmospheric CO2 through the formation of CaCO3 on their cell surfaces which leads to precipitation to the ocean floor and subsequent entombment in mud. Whitings represent one potential mechanism for CO2 sequestration. Research was performed to determine the ability of various strains of Synechocystis and Synechococcus to calcify when grown in microcosms amended with 2.5 mM HCO3- and 3.4 mM Ca2+. Results indicated that while all strains tested have the ability to calcify, only two, Synechococcus species, strains PCC 8806 and PCC 8807, were able to calcify to the extent that CaCO3 was precipitated. Enumeration of the cyanobacterial cultures during testing indicated that cell density did not appear to have an effect on calcification. Factors that had the greatest effect on calcification were CO2 removal and subsequent generation of alkaline pH. As CO2 was removed, growth medium pH increased and soluble Ca2+ was removed from solution. The largest increases in growth medium pH occurred when CO2 levels dropped below 400 ppmv. Precipitation of CaCO3 catalyzed by the growth and physiology of cyanobacteria in the Genus Synechococcus represents a potential mechanism for sequestration of atmospheric CO2 produced during the burning of coal for power generation. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 were tested in microcosm experiments for their ability to calcify when exposed to a fixed calcium concentration of 3.4 mM and dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations of 0.5, 1.25 and 2.5 mM. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 removed calcium continuously over the duration of the experiment producing approximately 18.6 mg of solid-phase calcium. Calcium removal occurred over a two-day time period when Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 was tested and only 8.9 mg of solid phase calcium was produced. The ability of the cyanobacteria to create an alkaline growth environment appeared to be the primary factor responsible for CaCO3 precipitation in these experiments. These research results demonstrate the potential of using cyanobacterial catalyzed whitings as a method to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere.

  5. Investigation on coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunbo Duan; Changsui Zhao; Wu Zhou; Chengrui Qu; Xiaoping Chen [Institute for Thermal Power Engineering of Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2009-07-15

    Considerable studies have been reported on the coal pyrolysis process and the formation of SO{sub 2} and NOx processors such as H{sub 2}S, COS, SO{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3} in inert atmospheres. Similar studies in CO{sub 2} atmosphere also need to be accomplished for better understanding of the combustion characteristics and the SO{sub 2}/NOx formation mechanism of oxy-fuel combustion, which is one of the most important technologies for CO{sub 2} capture. In this study, thermogravimetry coupled with Fourier Transform Infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was employed to measure the volatile yield and gas evolution features during coal pyrolysis process in CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Results show that replacing N{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} does not influence the starting temperature of volatile release but seems to enhance the volatile releasing rate even at 480{sup o}C. At about 760{sup o}C, CO{sub 2} prevents the calcite from decomposing. In CO{sub 2} atmosphere, the volatile yield increases as the temperature increases and decreases as the heating rate increases. COS is monitored during coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} atmosphere while there are only H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} formed in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The COS is most likely formed by the reaction between CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. No NH{sub 3} was monitored in this study. In CO{sub 2} atmosphere, the gasification of char elevates the conversion of char-N to HCN. The HCN yield increases as the temperature increases and decreases as the heating rate increases. 20 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Estimation of stellar atmospheric parameters from SDSS/SEGUE spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Re Fiorentin; C. A. L. Bailer-Jones; Y. S. Lee; T. C. Beers; T. Sivarani; R. Wilhelm; C. Allende Prieto; J. E. Norris

    2007-03-13

    We present techniques for the estimation of stellar atmospheric parameters (Teff,logg,[Fe/H]) for stars from the SDSS/SEGUE survey. The atmospheric parameters are derived from the observed medium-resolution (R=2000) stellar spectra using non-linear regression models trained either on (1) pre-classified observed data or (2) synthetic stellar spectra. In the first case we use our models to automate and generalize parametrization produced by a preliminary version of the SDSS/SEGUE Spectroscopic Parameter Pipeline (SSPP). In the second case we directly model the mapping between synthetic spectra (derived from Kurucz model atmospheres) and the atmospheric parameters, independently of any intermediate estimates. After training, we apply our models to various samples of SDSS spectra to derive atmospheric parameters, and compare our results with those obtained previously by the SSPP for the same samples. We obtain consistency between the two approaches, with RMS deviations of 150K in Teff, 0.35dex in logg, and 0.22dex in [Fe/H]. The models are applied to pre-processed spectra, either via Principal Components Analysis or a Wavelength Range Selection method, which employs a subset of the full 3850-9000A spectral range. This is both for computational reasons, and because it delivers higher accuracy. From an analysis of cluster candidates with available SDSS spectroscopy (M15, M13, M2, and NGC2420), we find evidence for small systematic offsets in Teff and/or logg for the atmospheric parameter estimates from the model trained on real data with the SSPP. Thus, this model turns out to derive more precise, but less accurate, atmospheric parameters than the model trained on synthetic data.

  7. A 2000 year atmospheric history of methyl chloride from a South Pole ice core: Evidence for climate-controlled variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Margaret B; Aydin, Murat; Tatum, Cheryl; Saltzman, Eric S

    2007-01-01

    M. B. Williams, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch,California, USA. Now at Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics

  8. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-10

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the AprilMay 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors, and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal is to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that have never before been available.

  9. National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Networks: Data on the chemistry of precipitation

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) is a nationwide network of sites collecting data on the chemistry of precipitation for monitoring of geographical and temporal long-term trends. The precipitation at each station is collected weekly according to strict clean-handling procedures. It is then sent to the Central Analytical Laboratory where it is analyzed for hydrogen (acidity as pH), sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, and base cations (such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium). The network is a cooperative effort between many different groups, including the State Agricultural Experiment Stations, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and numerous other governmental and private entities. DOE is one of these cooperating agencies, though it plays a smaller funding role than some of the other federal sources. Since 1978, the NADP/NTN has grown from 22 stations to over 250 sites spanning the continental United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program has also expanded its sampling to two additional networks: 1) the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), currently with over 90 sites, was formed in 1995 to collect weekly samples of precipitation which are analyzed by Frontier Geosciences for total mercury, and 2) the Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN), formed for the purpose of studying precipitation chemistry trends with greater temporal resolution than the NTN. [taken from the NADP History and Overview page at http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/nadpoverview.asp] Data from these networks are freely available in via customized search interfaces linked to interactive maps of the stations in the three networks. Animated Isopleth maps in Flash and PowerPoint are also available to display concentrations and depositions various substances such as sulfate, nitrate, etc. (Specialized Interface)

  10. Effect of atmosphere on collinear double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew J. Effenberger, Jr.; Jill R. Scott

    2010-09-01

    Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) has been shown to enhance LIBS spectra. Several researches have reported significant increases in signal-to-noise and or spectral intensity [1-4]. In addition to DP-LIBS, atmospheric conditions can also increase spectra intensity. For example, Iida [5] found that He and Ar both increase LIBS intensity compared to air at one 1 atm. It was also found that as the pressure was decreased to 100 Torr, LIBS intensity increased in Ar and air for single pulse (SP) LIBS. In this study, a collinear DP-LIBS scheme is used along with manipulation of the atmospheric conditions. The DP-LIBS scheme consists of a 355 nm ablative pulse fired into a sample contained in a vacuum chamber. A second analytical 1064 nm pulse is then fired 100 ns to 10 s after and along the same path of the first pulse. Ar, He and air at pressures ranging from atmospheric pressure (630 Torr at elevation) to 10-5 Torr are introduced during DP-LIBS and SP-LIBS experiments. For a brass sample, a significant increase in spectral intensity of Cu and Zn lines were observed in DP-LIBS under Ar compared to DP-LIBS in air (Figure 1). It was also found that Cu and Zn lines acquired with SP-LIBS in Ar are nearly as intense as DP-LIBS in air. Signal-to-noise for lines from various samples will be reported for both DP-LIBS and SP-LIBS in Ar, He, and air at pressures ranging from 630 Torr to 10-5 Torr.

  11. The CAPTAIN Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianming Bian

    2015-09-25

    The Cryogenic Apparatus for Precision Tests of Argon Interactions with Neutrinos (CAPTAIN) program is designed to make measurements of scientific importance to long-baseline neutrino physics and physics topics that will be explored by large underground detectors. The experiment employs two liquid Argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs), a primary detector with a mass of approximately 10 ton that will be deployed at different facilities for physics measurements and a two ton prototype detector for configuration testing. The physics programs for CAPTAIN include measuring neutron interactions at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, measuring neutrino interactions in the high-energy regime (1.5-5 GeV) at Fermilab NuMI beam, and measuring neutrino interactions in the low-energy regime (UV laser track has been seen in its TPC. This paper gives an overview of the CAPTAIN program and reports the status of the commissioning. The up-to-date detector design and running plans are also described.

  12. Deep Pacific CaCO3 compensation and glacialinterglacial atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    Analysis of air trapped in Antarctic ice cores indicates that atmospheric CO2 concentrations have varied

  13. Characterization of atmospheric ammonia near Fort Worth, TX Part I. Dynamics of gaseous ammonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA 7 Earth and Sun Systems Laboratory, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National of the region. The dynamic behavior of NH319 highlights its importance in atmospheric chemistry and indicates (NH3) plays a significant role in atmospheric2 chemistry. It is emitted into the atmosphere from

  14. Dear Alumni and Friends, The Department of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and air quality, radiation and remote sensing, climate and atmosphere Dear Alumni and Friends, The Department of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University is proud to be recognized as one of the top atmospheric science programs in the United States. For 50 years

  15. MM5 Aids Forecasters Over the past five years a group in the Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    Jaegl's specialty is atmospheric chemistry. Her research deals with analysis and modelingMM5 Aids Forecasters Over the past five years a group in the Atmospheric Sciences department has around the region. (see Page 8) New Faculty Join Atmospheric Sciences In the past year, Atmospheric

  16. Strategy Implementation for the CTA Atmospheric Monitoring Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doro, M; Reyes, R de los; Gaug, M; Maccarone, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation facility of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. It will reach unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution in very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. CTA will detect Cherenkov light emitted within an atmospheric shower of particles initiated by cosmic-gamma rays or cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere. From the combination of images the Cherenkov light produces in the telescopes, one is able to infer the primary particle energy and direction. A correct energy estimation can be thus performed only if the local atmosphere is well characterized. The atmosphere not only affects the shower development itself, but also the Cherenkov photon transmission from the emission point in the particle shower, at about 10-20 km above the ground, to the detector. Cherenkov light on the ground is peaked in the UV-blue region, and therefore molecular and aerosol extinction phenomena are important. The goal of CTA is to control systematics in energy reconstr...

  17. Atmospheric sensing for the H.E.S.S. array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aye, K.-M.; Brown, A.M.; Chadwick, P.M.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Latham, I.J.; Le Gallou, R.; McComb, T.J.L.; Nolan, S.J.; Noutsos, A.; Orford, K.J.; Osborne, J.L.; Rayner, S.M.

    2005-02-21

    Several atmospheric monitoring instruments have been installed at the H.E.S.S. gamma-ray observatory in Namibia. Firstly, Heitronics KT19 infrared radiometers, aligned paraxially with the H.E.S.S. telescopes, measure the infrared radiation of the water molecules. These allow us to detect clouds crossing the telescopes' field of view and to estimate the humidity present in the atmosphere. For a general estimate of the atmosphere's transmittance, i.e. the detection of any light-attenuating aerosols, a ceilometer, which is a LIDAR with built-in atmospheric data reduction code, is being used. It will be complemented soon by an instrument which will measure the transmissivity of the atmosphere at different wavelengths up to 500m above the ground. The overall status of the weather is monitored by a fully automated weatherstation. This paper describes the setup, the data analysis and how this will be used in order to improve the knowledge of the telescopes' effective collection area.

  18. Proceedings of the sixth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1996 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held at San Antonio, Texas. The history and status of the ARM program at the time of the meeting helps to put these papers in context. The basic themes have not changed. First, from its beginning, the Program has attempted to respond to the most critical scientific issues facing the US Global Change Research Program. Second, the Program has been strongly coupled to other agency and international programs. More specifically, the Program reflects an unprecedented collaboration among agencies of the federal research community, among the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) national laboratories, and between DOE`s research program and related international programs, such as Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) and the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program. Next, ARM has always attempted to make the most judicious use of its resources by collaborating and leveraging existing assets and has managed to maintain an aggressive schedule despite budgets that have been much smaller than planned. Finally, the Program has attracted some of the very best scientific talent in the climate research community and has, as a result, been productive scientifically.

  19. Mass hierarchy discrimination with atmospheric neutrinos in large volume ice/water Cherenkov detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Franco; C. Jollet; A. Kouchner; V. Kulikovskiy; A. Meregaglia; S. Perasso; T. Pradier; A. Tonazzo; V. Van Elewyck

    2013-03-14

    Large mass ice/water Cherenkov experiments, optimized to detect low energy (1-20 GeV) atmospheric neutrinos, have the potential to discriminate between normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchies. The sensitivity depends on several model and detector parameters, such as the neutrino flux profile and normalization, the Earth density profile, the oscillation parameter uncertainties, and the detector effective mass and resolution. A proper evaluation of the mass hierarchy discrimination power requires a robust statistical approach. In this work, the Toy Monte Carlo, based on an extended unbinned likelihood ratio test statistic, was used. The effect of each model and detector parameter, as well as the required detector exposure, was then studied. While uncertainties on the Earth density and atmospheric neutrino flux profiles were found to have a minor impact on the mass hierarchy discrimination, the flux normalization, as well as some of the oscillation parameter (\\Delta m^2_{31}, \\theta_{13}, \\theta_{23}, and \\delta_{CP}) uncertainties and correlations resulted critical. Finally, the minimum required detector exposure, the optimization of the low energy threshold, and the detector resolutions were also investigated.

  20. Characterization of an atmospheric double arc argon-nitrogen plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, X.; Cheron, B. G.; Yan, J. H.; Yu, L.; Cen, K. F.

    2008-05-15

    In the framework of studies devoted to hazardous waste destruction, an original dc double anode plasma torch has been designed and tested, which produces an elongated, weak fluctuation and reproducible plasma jet at atmospheric pressure. The arc instabilities and dynamic behavior of the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma jet are investigated through the oscillations of electrical signals by combined means of fast Fourier transform and Wigner distribution. In our experiment, the restrike mode is identified as the typical fluctuation behavior in an argon-nitrogen plasma jet. The Fourier spectra and Wigner distributions exhibit two characteristic frequencies of 150 Hz and 4.1 kHz, which reveals that the nature of fluctuations in the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma can be ascribed to the undulation of the power supply and both arc roots motion on the anode channels. In addition, the microscopic properties of the plasma jet inside and outside the arc chamber are investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy, which yields excitation, electronic, rotational, and vibrational temperatures, as well as the electron number density. The results allow us to examine the validity criteria of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state in the plasma arc. The measured electron densities are in good agreement with those calculated from the LTE model, which indicates that the atmospheric double arc argon-nitrogen plasma in the core region is close to the LTE state under our experimental conditions.