Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Background The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction converts a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide-derived from coal, methane or biomass-to liquid fuels. The Department of Energy (DOE) refers to the coal-based process as Coal-to-Liquids. The F-T process was discovered by German scientists and used to make fuels during World War II. There has been continued interest of varying intensity in F-T technology

2

Platinum-Modulated Cobalt Nanocatalysts for Low-Temperature Aqueous-Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), which converts fossil fuel- based syngas to liquid fuel products over Ru as the source for the production of syngas, with the surging consumption of fossil fuels, FTS is once again catalytic process for liquid fuel generation, which converts coal/shale gas/biomass-derived syngas (a

Li, Weixue

3

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States-Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The United States has the world's largest coal reserves and Montana the highest potential for mega-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create a major source of domestic transportation fuels from coal, and some prominent Montanans want to be at the center of that effort. We calculate that the energy efficiency of the best existing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process applied to average coal in Montana is less than 1/2 of the corresponding efficiency of an average crude oil refining process. The resulting CO{sub 2} emissions are 20 times (2000%) higher for CTL than for conventional petroleum products. One barrel of the FT fuel requires roughly 800 kg of coal and 800 kg of water. The minimum energy cost of subsurface CO{sub 2} sequestration would be at least 40% of the FT fuel energy, essentially halving energy efficiency of the process. We argue therefore that CTL conversion is not the most valuable use for the coal, nor will it ever be, as long as it is economical to use natural gas for electric power generation. This finding results from the low efficiency inherent in FT synthesis, and is independent of the monumental FT plant construction costs, mine construction costs, acute lack of water, and the associated environmental impacts for Montana.

Patzek, Tad W. [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)], E-mail: patzek@mail.utexas.edu; Croft, Gregory D. [University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Tailored fischer-tropsch synthesis product distribution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel methods of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are described. It has been discovered that conducting the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over a catalyst with a catalytically active surface layer of 35 microns or less results in a liquid hydrocarbon product with a high ratio of C.sub.5-C.sub.20:C.sub.20+. Descriptions of novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts and reactors are also provided. Novel hydrocarbon compositions with a high ratio of C.sub.5-C.sub.20:C.sub.20+ are also described.

Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Cao, Chunshe (Kennewick, WA); Li, Xiaohong Shari (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

5

Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch  

SciTech Connect

The slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process has attracted considerable attention recently. The process can make liquid fuels by reacting hydrogen-lean synthesis gas produced from modern energy-efficient gasifiers. continuing assessment of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) has a high priority within an indirect liquefaction program, a part of the liquid fuels program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and executed by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Funding for the indirect liquefaction program in 1990:0090 is anticipated to be about $8.5 million compared to $6.6 million in 1989 and a like amount in the year before. The studies within the program are conducted by industry, universities, national laboratories and in-house PETC research and development. This article reviews preparation and properties of iron-based catalysts, including recent patent activities and in-depth process analysis of slurry-phase FTS. The review provides an analysis of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst research and development trends and describes options to increase selectivity for iron-based catalysts in a slurry phase.

Srivastava, R.D. (Burns and Roe Services Corp. (US)); Rao, V.U.S.; Cinquegrane, G.; Stiegel, G.J. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Fischer-Tropsch process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing a product selective and stable catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Orefield, PA); Withers, Howard P. (Douglassville, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

The selective catalytic cracking of Fischer-Tropsch liquids to high value transportation fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Amoco Oil Company, investigated a selective catalytic cracking process (FCC) to convert the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) gasoline and wax fractions to high value transportation fuels. The primary tasks of this contract were to (1) optimize the catalyst and process conditions of the FCC process for maximum conversion of F-T wax into reactive olefins for later production of C{sub 4}{minus}C{sub 8} ethers, and (2) use the olefin-containing light naphtha obtained from FCC processing of the F-T wax as feedstock for the synthesis of ethers. The catalytic cracking of F-T wax feedstocks gave high conversions with low activity catalysts and low process severities. HZSM-5 and beta zeolite catalysts gave higher yields of propylene, isobutylene, and isoamylenes but a lower gasoline yield than Y zeolite catalysts. Catalyst selection and process optimization will depend on product valuation. For a given catalyst and process condition, Sasol and LaPorte waxes gave similar conversions and product selectivities. The contaminant iron F-T catalyst fines in the LaPorte wax caused higher coke and hydrogen yields.

Schwartz, M.M.; Reagon, W.J.; Nicholas, J.J.; Hughes, R.D.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Novel Attrition-Resistant Fischer Tropsch Catalyst  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong national interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process because it offers the possibility of making liquid hydrocarbon fuels from reformed natural gas or coal and biomass gasification products. This project explored a new approach that had been developed to produce active, attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that are based on glass-ceramic materials and technology. This novel approach represented a promising solution to the problem of reducing or eliminating catalyst attrition and maximizing catalytic activity, thus reducing costs. The technical objective of the Phase I work was to demonstrate that glass-ceramic based catalytic materials for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis have resistance to catalytic deactivation and reduction of particle size superior to traditional supported Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials. Additionally, these novel glass-ceramic-based materials were expected to exhibit catalytic activity similar to the traditional materials. If successfully developed, the attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials would be expected to result in significant technical, economic, and social benefits for both producers and public consumers of Fischer-Tropsch products such as liquid fuels from coal or biomass gasification. This program demonstrated the anticipated high attrition resistance of the glass-ceramic materials. However, the observed catalytic activity of the materials was not sufficient to justify further development at this time. Additional testing documented that a lack of pore volume in the glass-ceramic materials limited the amount of surface area available for catalysis and consequently limited catalytic activity. However, previous work on glass-ceramic catalysts to promote other reactions demonstrated that commercial levels of activity can be achieved, at least for those reactions. Therefore, we recommend that glass-ceramic materials be considered again as potential Fischer-Tropsch catalysts if it can be demonstrated that materials with adequate pore volume can be produced. During the attrition resistance tests, it was learned that the glass-ceramic materials are very abrasive. Attention should be paid in any further developmental efforts to the potential for these hard, abrasive materials to damage reactors.

Weast, Logan, E.; Staats, William, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Effect of Liquid Composition on the Slurry Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. 1. Rate of Reaction  

SciTech Connect

With a reduced fused magnetite catalyst, the rate of reaction in the presence of phenanthrene is nearly twice that observed in the presence of n-octacosane even though the solubility of H/sub 2/ and CO is moderately less in phenanthrene. The rate in the presence of triphenylmethane was about the same as in n-octacosane. In the presence of a perfluoropolyether, the rate of reaction was markedly reduced, even though H/sub 2/ and CO solubilities are much higher than in hydrocarbons. This was attributed to substantial mass transfer resistances through an encapsulating hydrocarbon layer around the catalyst particles. The effect of the nature of a liquid on several other reactions is also discussed.

Satterfield, C.N.; Stenger, H.G.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula PS -R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS -H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS -Br; treating said PS -Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS -Li; substituting said PS - Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

14

Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels This factsheet describes a project that developed...

15

Fischer-Tropsch Wastewater Utilization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is generally directed to handling the wastewater, or condensate, from a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor. More particularly, the present invention provides a process wherein the wastewater of a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor, such as a Fischer-Tropsch reactor, is sent to a gasifier and subsequently reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas. The wastewater may also be recycled back to a slurry preparation stage, where solid combustible organic materials are pulverized and mixed with process water and the wastewater to form a slurry, after which the slurry fed to a gasifier where it is reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas.

Shah, Lalit S. (Sugar Land, TX)

2003-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

16

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends  

SciTech Connect

Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

17

Effect of surface modification by chelating agents on Fischer-Tropsch performance of Co/SiO2 catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The silica support of a Co-based catalyst for Fischer?Tropsch (FT) synthesis was modified by the chelating agents (CAs) nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the modification, characterization of the fresh and spent catalysts shows reduced crystallite sizes, a better-dispersed Co3O4 phase on the calcined samples, and increased metal dispersions for the reduced samples. The CA-modified catalysts display higher CO conversions, product yields, reaction rates, and rate constants. The improved FT performance of CA-modified catalysts is attributed to the formation of stable complexes with Co. The superior performance of the EDTA-modified catalyst in comparison to the NTA-modified catalyst is due to the higher affinity of the former for complex formation with Co ions. 1. INTRODUCTION Fischer?Tropsch (FT) synthesis has been recognized as one of the most promising technologies for the conversion of coal, natural gas, and biomass-derived syngas into liquid fuels and chemicals.1 Limited oil reserves, energy supply security concerns, carbon credits,1 pollution abatement laws, and, most notably, uncertainty about fuel prices have increased the prospect of commercializing the FT process. Catalysts that are typically used for FT synthesis include supported Co or Fe. Cobased catalysts have the advantage of higher syngas conversion, more high-

Bambal, Ashish S. [WVU; Kyugler, Edwin L. [WVU; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE; Dadyburjor, Dady B. [WVU

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses This is a presentation from the November 27, 2012, Sustainable Alternative Fuels...

19

Opportunities for the Early Production of Fischer-Tropsch (F...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for the Early Production of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels in the U.S. -- An Overview Opportunities for the Early Production of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels in the U.S. -- An Overview...

20

INTEGRATED FISCHER TROPSCH MODULAR PROCESS MODEL  

SciTech Connect

With declining petroleum reserves, increased world demand, and unstable politics in some of the world’s richest oil producing regions, the capability for the U.S. to produce synthetic liquid fuels from domestic resources is critical to national security and economic stability. Coal, biomass and other carbonaceous materials can be converted to liquid fuels using several conversion processes. The leading candidate for large-scale conversion of coal to liquid fuels is the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. Process configuration, component selection, and performance are interrelated and dependent on feed characteristics. This paper outlines a flexible modular approach to model an integrated FT process that utilizes a library of key component models, supporting kinetic data and materials and transport properties allowing rapid development of custom integrated plant models. The modular construction will permit rapid assessment of alternative designs and feed stocks. The modeling approach consists of three thrust areas, or “strands” – model/module development, integration of the model elements into an end to end integrated system model, and utilization of the model for plant design. Strand 1, model/module development, entails identifying, developing, and assembling a library of codes, user blocks, and data for FT process unit operations for a custom feedstock and plant description. Strand 2, integration development, provides the framework for linking these component and subsystem models to form an integrated FT plant simulation. Strand 3, plant design, includes testing and validation of the comprehensive model and performing design evaluation analyses.

Donna Post Guillen; Richard Boardman; Anastasia M. Gribik; Rick A. Wood; Robert A. Carrington

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The Impact of Biomass Pretreatment on the Feasibility of Overseas Biomass Conversion to Fischer?Tropsch Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Impact of Biomass Pretreatment on the Feasibility of Overseas Biomass Conversion to Fischer?Tropsch Products ... One of the most promising options to produce transportation fuels from biomass is the so-called biomass-to-liquids (BtL) route, in which biomass is converted to syngas from which high-quality Fischer?Tropsch (FT) fuels are synthesized. ... Alternatively to converting biomass into liquids or coal-like material, new and dedicated feeding systems for biomass can be developed. ...

Robin W. R. Zwart; Harold Boerrigter; Abraham van der Drift

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

22

ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to convert syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) derived from natural gas or coal to liquid fuels and wax is a well-established technology. For low H{sub 2} to CO ratio syngas produced from CO{sub 2} reforming of natural gas or from gasification of coal, the use of Fe catalysts is attractive because of their high water gas shift activity in addition to their high FT activity. Fe catalysts are also attractive due to their low cost and low methane selectivity. Because of the highly exothermic nature of the FT reaction, there has been a recent move away from fixed-bed reactors toward the development of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) that employ 30 to 90 {micro}m catalyst particles suspended in a waxy liquid for efficient heat removal. However, the use of FeFT catalysts in an SBCR has been problematic due to severe catalyst attrition resulting in fines that plug the filter employed to separate the catalyst from the waxy product. Fe catalysts can undergo attrition in SBCRs not only due to vigorous movement and collisions but also due to phase changes that occur during activation and reaction.

K. Jothimurugesan; James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Santosh K. Gangwal

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for indirect coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS)reaction is the established technology for the production of liquid fuels from coal by an indirect route using coal-derived syngas (CO + H{sub 2}). Modern FTS catalysts are potassium- and copper-promoted iron preparations. These catalysts exhibit moderate activity with carbon monoxide-rich feedstocks such as the syngas produced by advanced coal gasification processes. However, the relatively large yields of by-product methane and high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon waxes detract from the production of desired liquid products in the C{sub 5}-C{sub 16} range needed for motor and aviation fuel. The goal of this program is to decrease undesirable portions of the FTS hydrocarbon yield by altering the Schultz-Flory polymerization product distribution through design and formulation of improved catalysts. Two approaches were taken: (1) reducing the yield of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon waxes by using highly dispersed catalysts produced from surface-confined multiatomic clusters on acid supports and (2) suppressing methane production by uniformly pretreating active, selective conventional FTS catalysts with submonolayer levels of sulfur.

Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Tong, G.T.; Chan, Y.W.; Huang, H.W.; McCarty, J.G.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

None

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a process for the separation of catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The separation is accomplished by extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic. The purified catalyst can be upgraded by various methods.

White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Migration of potassium in an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch/zeolite composite catalyst.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Includes abstract. The product of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is low in aromatics and as a result has relatively poor gasoline quality (with respect to the… (more)

Gwagwa, Xoliswa Yolanda.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

ATTACHMENT IX Review of Air Products Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IX.1-Draft ATTACHMENT IX Review of Air Products Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Work During the 1980s, Air Products & Chemicals worked on several aspects of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These included, exhibited similar activity and product selectivity, showing that the preparative method was reproducible

Kentucky, University of

28

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch from Catalyst by Supercritical Extraction.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300{degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent.

Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over iron-rhodium alloy catalysts  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the nature of iron-rhodium alloy catalysts during the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, a combination of experimental techniques were applied. Infrared spectroscopy was mainly used to extract direct information on the surface of catalysts under the reaction conditions. In addition, Mossbauer spectroscopy was employed to study the iron alloy catalysts. Further characterization of the catalysts was performed by chemisorption measurements. Hydrocarbon products of the CO + H/sub 2/ synthesis reaction were analyzed by gas chromatography. The working surface of a silica-supported rhodium catalyst was found to be saturated with molecular carbon monoxide. The intensity of the linear carbonyl absorption band remained constant compared to that for room temperature CO adsorption, while that of the bridge-bonded carbonyl absorption band was drastically reduced during the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The bridge-bonded adsorption sites are assumed to be the active sites for dissociating carbon monoxide. The hydrogenation rate of the linearly adsorbed carbon monoxide was much slower than the steady state reaction rate. The alloy catalyst did not form a bulk carbide, but the presence of surface carbon was suggested by the large shift of the linear carbonyl absorption band. On the other hand, infrared spectra on an iron catalyst showed only weak bands, indicating a high degree of CO dissociation. On a silica-supported iron-rhodium alloy catalyst, surface analysis by infrared spectroscopy presents evidence of well-mixed alloy formation. Three models of carbon monoxide adsorption were identified.

Choi, S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Chapter 13 - Substitute Natural Gas and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter presents the direct conversion of syngas to hydrocarbons, either substitute natural gas, or higher hydrocarbons via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Substitute natural gas (SNG), also known as synthetic natural gas, is methane that is formed during gasification. The syngas generally contain carbon dioxide that can be hydrogenated to produce methane. Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a polymerization reaction. An alkane chain, absorbed on a catalyst site, reacts with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to add a methyl unit (CH2). The heat of reaction per methyl group, estimated from the gas phase heat of formation for dodecane, is –155.5 kJ/mole. This heat of reaction is about 20% of the heat of combustion of the feed gases. FT diesel fuel, due to its high alkane content, has very high cetane numbers. Blends of FT and conventional diesel are sold as premium products in Europe. Normal alkanes, however, have high melting points compared to branched or cyclic hydrocarbons. An FT diesel produced simply by distilling an FT fluid would have poor low temperature properties. Most FT diesel, however, is not simply an FT fluid distillation product, but a blend of this distillation product and products of hydrocracked FT wax.

David A Bell; Brian F Towler; Maohong Fan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Investigation of Effects of Coal and Biomass Contaminants on the Performance of Water-Gas-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of Coal Effects of Coal and Biomass Contaminants on the Performance of Water-Gas-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Background Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes gasify coal, biomass, and mixtures of coal/ biomass to produce synthesis gas (syngas) that can be converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Positive benefits of these processes include the use of feedstocks from domestic sources and lower greenhouse gas production than can be achieved from using conventional petroleum-based fuels. However, syngas generated by coal and biomass co-gasification contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the water- gas-shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts used in the gas-to-liquid processes. While the effect of coal contaminants on FT processes is well studied, more research

32

Supported fischer-tropsch catalyst and method of making the catalyst  

SciTech Connect

A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a method of making the catalyst for a Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas, is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Orefield, PA); Withers, Howard P. (Douglassville, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Spray drying and attrition behavior of iron catalysts for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating attrition resistant iron catalysts prepared by spray drying technique. These catalysts are intended for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor...

Carreto Vazquez, Victor Hugo

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

35

Improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for indirect coal liquefaction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS)reaction is the established technology for the production of liquid fuels from coal by an indirect route using coal-derived syngas (CO + H{sub 2}). Modern FTS catalysts are potassium- and copper-promoted iron preparations. These catalysts exhibit moderate activity with carbon monoxide-rich feedstocks such as the syngas produced by advanced coal gasification processes. However, the relatively large yields of by-product methane and high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon waxes detract from the production of desired liquid products in the C{sub 5}-C{sub 16} range needed for motor and aviation fuel. The goal of this program is to decrease undesirable portions of the FTS hydrocarbon yield by altering the Schultz-Flory polymerization product distribution through design and formulation of improved catalysts. Two approaches were taken: (1) reducing the yield of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon waxes by using highly dispersed catalysts produced from surface-confined multiatomic clusters on acid supports and (2) suppressing methane production by uniformly pretreating active, selective conventional FTS catalysts with submonolayer levels of sulfur.

Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Tong, G.T.; Chan, Y.W.; Huang, H.W.; McCarty, J.G.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

EA-1642: Design and Construction of an Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

42: Design and Construction of an Early Lead Mini 42: Design and Construction of an Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Near Lexington, Kentucky EA-1642: Design and Construction of an Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Near Lexington, Kentucky SUMMARY DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory prepared this environmental assessment to analyze the potential environmental impacts of providing funding for the proposed Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery. The early lead facility would be located at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in Fayette County Kentucky. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

37

Attrition resistant catalysts for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch process  

SciTech Connect

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T because they are relatively inexpensive and possess reasonable activity for F-T synthesis (FTS). Their most advantages trait is their high water-gas shift (WGS) activity compared to their competitor, namely cobalt. This enables Fe F-T catalysts to process low H{sub 2}/CO ratio synthesis gas without an external shift reaction step. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, make the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, an d result in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research were to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance.

K. Jothimurugesan

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Syntroleum plant is mechanically complete and currently undergoing start-up. The fuel production and demonstration plan is near completion. The study on the impact of small footprint plant (SFP) fuel on engine performance is about half-completed. Cold start testing has been completed. Preparations have been completed for testing the fuel in diesel electric generators in Alaska. Preparations are in progress for testing the fuel in bus fleets at Denali National Park and the Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority. The experiments and analyses conducted during this project show that Fischer-Tropsch (FT) gas-to-liquid diesel fuel can easily be used in a diesel engine with little to no modifications. Additionally, based on the results and discussion presented, further improvements in performance and emissions can be realized by configuring the engine to take advantage of FT diesel fuel's properties. The FT fuel also shows excellent cold start properties and enabled the engine tested to start at more the ten degrees than traditional fuels would allow. This plant produced through this project will produce large amounts of FT fuel. This will allow the fuel to be tested extensively, in current, prototype, and advanced diesel engines. The fuel may also contribute to the nation's energy security. The military has expressed interest in testing the fuel in aircraft and ground vehicles.

Steve Bergin

2003-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

39

FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This project has two primary purposes: (1) Build a small-footprint (SFP) fuel production plant to prove the feasibility of this relatively transportable technology on an intermediate scale (i.e. between laboratory-bench and commercial capacity) and produce as much as 150,000 gallons of hydrogen-saturated Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel; and (2) Use the virtually sulfur-free fuel produced to demonstrate (over a period of at least six months) that it can not only be used in existing diesel engines, but that it also can enable significantly increased effectiveness and life of the next-generation exhaust-after-treatment emission control systems that are currently under development and that will be required for future diesel engines. Furthermore, a well-to-wheels economic analysis will be performed to characterize the overall costs and benefits that would be associated with the actual commercial production, distribution and use of such FT diesel fuel made by the process under consideration, from the currently underutilized (or entirely un-used) energy resources targeted, primarily natural gas that is stranded, sub-quality, off-shore, etc. During the first year of the project, which is the subject of this report, there have been two significant areas of progress: (1) Most of the preparatory work required to build the SFP fuel-production plant has been completed, and (2) Relationships have been established, and necessary project coordination has been started, with the half dozen project-partner organizations that will have a role in the fuel demonstration and evaluation phase of the project. Additional project tasks directly related to the State of Alaska have also been added to the project. These include: A study of underutilized potential Alaska energy resources that could contribute to domestic diesel and distillate fuel production by providing input energy for future commercial-size SFP fuel production plants; Demonstration of the use of the product fuel in a heavy-duty diesel vehicle during the Alaska winter; a comparative study of the cold-starting characteristics of FT and conventional diesel fuel; and demonstration of the use of the fuel to generate electricity for rural Alaskan villages using both a diesel generator set, and a reformer-equipped fuel cell.

Stephen P. Bergin

2003-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

40

Preliminary life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions  

SciTech Connect

The US by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass, have only considered the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified and factored into these estimates until recently. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO{sub 2}-capping on the US refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO{sub 2} emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmentally and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. These biomass-derived products include power, fuel gas, hydrogen for refinery processing, and Fischer-Tropsch liquids for upgrading and blending into finished transportation fuels.

Marano, J.J. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rogers, S. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Combined Steam Reforming of Methane and Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis for the Formation of Hydrocarbons: A Proof of Concept Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of combining the reactions of methane steam reforming and the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is explored in an attempt to convert methane directly to hydrocarbons. Consideration of the thermodynamics ... c...

Meleri Johns; Paul Collier; Michael S. Spencer; Tony Alderson…

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was continued to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. In this reporting period, a series of crossflow filtration experiments were initiated to study the effect of olefins and oxygenates on the filtration flux and membrane performance. Iron-based FTS reactor waxes contain a significant amount of oxygenates, depending on the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Mono-olefins and aliphatic alcohols were doped into an activated iron catalyst slurry (with Polywax) to test their influence on filtration properties. The olefins were varied from 5 to 25 wt% and oxygenates from 6 to 17 wt% to simulate a range of reactor slurries reported in the literature. The addition of an alcohol (1-dodecanol) was found to decrease the permeation rate while the olefin added (1-hexadecene) had no effect on the permeation rate. A passive flux maintenance technique was tested that can temporarily increase the permeate rate for 24 hours.

James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

43

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was continued to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. The shakedown phase of the pilot-scale filtration platform was completed at the end of the last reporting period. A study of various molecular weight waxes was initiated to determine the effect of wax physical properties on the permeation rate without catalyst present. As expected, the permeation flux was inversely proportional to the nominal average molecular weight of the polyethylene wax. Even without catalyst particles present in the filtrate, the filtration membranes experience fouling during an induction period on the order of days on-line. Another long-term filtration test was initiated using a batch of iron catalyst that was previously activated with CO to form iron carbide in a separate continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The permeation flux stabilized more rapidly than that experienced with unactivated catalyst tests.

James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

44

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles  

SciTech Connect

In this reporting period, a study of ultra-fine iron catalyst filtration was initiated to study the behavior of ultra-fine particles during the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids filtration. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. The change of particle size during the slurry-phase FTS has monitored by withdrawing catalyst sample at different TOS. The measurement of dimension of the HRTEM images of samples showed a tremendous growth of the particles. Carbon rims of thickness 3-6 nm around the particles were observed. This growth in particle size was not due to carbon deposition on the catalyst. A conceptual design and operating philosophy was developed for an integrated wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor to be used in Phase II of this research program. The system will utilize a primary inertial hydroclone followed by a Pall Accusep cross-flow membrane. Provisions for cleaned permeate back-pulsing will be included to as a flux maintenance measure.

James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Burtron H. Davis

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Fischer Tropsch synthesis in supercritical fluids. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Objectives for the first quarter for Task A, Diffusion Coefficients of F-T Products in Supercritical Fluids, were to measure diffusion coefficients of 1-tetradecene in subcritical propane and the diffusion coefficients of 1-octene and 1-tetradecene in subcritical propane and the diffusion coefficients of 1-octene and 1-tetradecene in subcritical and supercritical ethane. We planned to use ethane as a solvent because its lower critical temperature enabled measurements without modification of the existing unit. Our objective was to investigate the behavior of the diffusion coefficients in crossing from subcritical to supercritical conditions. Objectives for Task B, Fischer Tropsch reaction related studies, were: (1) to install and test the temperature probe and the flammable gas detector: (2) to conduct Fischer-Tropsch experiments at baseline conditions and at a high pressure in order to test the newly constructed fixed bed reactor assembly. Accomplishments and problems, are presented.

Akgerman, A.; Bukur, D.B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst  

SciTech Connect

This report details experiments performed on three different copper-based catalysts: Cu/Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3], Cu/MnO/Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. Of these three catalysts, the Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] exhibits the greatest stability when slurried in octacosane. More than 1000 hours-on-stream indicate that the catalyst activity is not detrimentally affected by high pressure, high H[sub 2]/CO ratio, or the presence of alkenes. All of these are necessary stability characteristics for the water-gas shift catalyst, if it is to be used in combination with a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. A review of documented reduction procedures for cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is presented.

Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals: Thermodynamic Studies on the Extraction of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals: Thermodynamic Studies on the Extraction of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Ionic Liquids ... Furthermore, the solubility of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in these solutes and the solubility of the solutes in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate ([C4mim][CH3SO3]) was assessed. ... In the past 20 years, a large body of work has been conducted on the condensation of fructose and other carbohydrates to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which, due to its multifunctionality, has been claimed a prime platform chemical derived from biomass (Scheme 1). ...

Annegret Stark; Bernd Ondruschka; Dzmitry H. Zaitsau; Sergey P. Verevkin

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Biofuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Biofuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran ... In recent years, 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), which is produced by the selective hydrogenation of biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and is considered as a new-fashioned liquid biofuel for transportation, has received much more attention from many researchers in the world. ... Among the various desired compounds via the oriented transformation,(15-19) 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is considered as a versatile platform compound (Scheme 1) and a crucial intermediate for connecting biomass resource and fossil industry,(20-24) and this is because that it can be further transformed into a series of high-quality fuels such as ethyl levulinate (EL),(25-27) 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF),(28-30) 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF),(31-33) and C9–C15 alkanes(34-36) and high-value chemicals such as levulinic acid (LA),(37-39) 2,5-dihydroxymethylfuran (DHMF),(40-42) 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF),(43-45) and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). ...

Lei Hu; Lu Lin; Shijie Liu

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

49

Utilizing the heat content of gas-to-liquids by-product streams for commercial power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and sulphur. They have no aromatics due to the isomerisation of the highly paraffinic Fischer-Tropsch liquids into GTL fuels and are practically100%iso-paraffinic,thustheyhaveveryhighcetaneratings. The... and sulphur. They have no aromatics due to the isomerisation of the highly paraffinic Fischer-Tropsch liquids into GTL fuels and are practically100%iso-paraffinic,thustheyhaveveryhighcetaneratings. The...

Adegoke, Adesola Ayodeji

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

50

Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating improved catalysts for a slurry Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process for converting synthesis gas to high quality transportation fuels (gasoline and distillate). The improvements in catalyst performance were sought by studying effects of pretreatment conditions, promoters and binders/supports. A total of 20 different, iron based, catalysts were evaluated in 58 fixed bed reactor tests and 10 slurry reactor tests. The major accomplishments and conclusions are summarized below. The pretreatment conditions (temperature, duration and the nature of reducing gas) have significant effect on catalyst performance (activity, selectivity and stability) during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. One of precipitated unsupported catalysts had hydrocarbon selectivity similar to Mobil`s I-B catalyst in high wax mode operation, and had not experienced any loss in activity during 460 hours of testing under variable process conditions in a slurry reactor. The effect of promoters (copper and potassium) on catalyst performance during FT synthesis has been studied in a systematic way. It was found that potassium promotion increases activities of the FT and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions, the average molecular weight of hydrocarbon products, and suppresses the olefin hydrogenation and isomerization reactions. The addition of binders/supports (silica or alumina) to precipitated Fe/Cu/K catalysts, decreased their activity but improved their stability and hydrocarbon selectivity. The performance of catalysts of this type was very promising and additional studies are recommended to evaluate their potential for use in commercial slurry reactors.

Bukur, D.B.; Mukesh, D.; Patel, S.A.; Zimmerman, W.H.; Rosynek, M.P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Kellogg, L.J. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Development and Demonstration of Fischer-Tropsch Fueled Heavy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

(F-T) Fuels in the U.S. -- An Overview APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Coal-Derived Liquids to Enable HCCI Technology...

52

VLE MEASUREMENTS FOR ASYMMETRIC MIXTURES OF FISCHER-TROPSCH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect

The ability to model the thermodynamic phase behavior of long-chain and short-chain alkane mixtures is of considerable industrial and theoretical interest. However, attempts to accurately describe the phase behavior of what we call asymmetric mixtures of hydrocarbons (AMoHs) have met with only limited success. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data are surprisingly scarce, and the limited data that are available suggest that cubic equations of state may not be capable of fitting (much less predicting) the phase behavior of AMoHs. The following tasks, which address the problems described above, were accomplished during the one-year period of this Phase I UCR grant: (1) A continuous-flow apparatus was modified for the measurement of AMoHs and used to measure VLE for propane + hexadecane mixtures at temperatures from 473 to 626 K and pressures up to the mixture critical pressures of about 100 bar. (2) The extent to which cubic vs. modern, statistical mechanics-based equations of state (EoS) are applicable to AMoHs was evaluated. Peng-Robinson (PR) was found to be a surprisingly accurate equation for fitting AMoHs, but only if its pure component parameters were regressed to liquid densities and vapor pressures. However, even this form of PR was still not a predictive equation, as there was a significant variation of kij with temperature. In spite of its deficiencies in terms of vapor-phase predictions and modeling of the critical region, PC-SAFT was found to be the most appropriate EoS for truly predicting the phase behavior of highly asymmetric mixtures of alkanes. (3) Finally, a dense-gas extraction (DGE) apparatus was designed and constructed for the fractionation of F-T waxes into cuts of pure oligomers. Such oligomers are needed in g-sized quantities to perform VLE measurements with long-chain alkanes with carbon numbers greater than 40. The dense gas and the solute mixture to be extracted are contacted in a packed column that has a separation power significantly greater than what can be achieved in one equilibrium stage. Thus, wax oligomer purities are expected to be much better than what can be obtained by conventional supercritical extraction processes.

Mark C. Thies

2004-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

53

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Characterization and Reaction Testing of Cobalt Carbide  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide was investigated for cobalt carbide synthesized from Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} by CO carburization in a fixed-bed reactor. The cobalt carbide synthesized was characterized by BET surface area, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The catalysts were tested in the slurry phase using a continuously stirred tank reactor at P = 2.0 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO = 2:1 in the temperature range of 493-523 K, and with space velocities varying from 1 to 3 Nl h{sup -1} g{sub cat}{sup -1}. The results strongly suggest that a fraction of cobalt converts to a form with greater metallic character under the conditions employed. This was more pronounced on a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis run conducted at a higher temperature (523 versus 493 K).

Khalid S.; Mohandas J.C.; Gnanamani M.K.; Jacobs G.; Ma W.; Ji Y.; Davis B.H.

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Monetization of Nigeria coal by conversion to hydrocarbon fuels through Fischer-Tropsch process  

SciTech Connect

Given the instability of crude oil prices and the disruptions in crude oil supply chains, this article offers a complementing investment proposal through diversification of Nigeria's energy source and dependence. Therefore, the following issues were examined and reported: A comparative survey of coal and hydrocarbon reserve bases in Nigeria was undertaken and presented. An excursion into the economic, environmental, and technological justifications for the proposed diversification and roll-back to coal-based resource was also undertaken and presented. The technology available for coal beneficiation for environmental pollution control was reviewed and reported. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and its advances into Sasol's slurry phase distillate process were reviewed. Specifically, the adoption of Sasol's advanced synthol process and the slurry phase distillate process were recommended as ways of processing the products of coal gasification. The article concludes by discussing all the above-mentioned issues with regard to value addition as a means of wealth creation and investment.

Oguejiofor, G.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst by Supercritical Extraction  

SciTech Connect

The proposed process of using supercritical fluid extraction in conjunction with the Fischer-Tropsch slurry bubble column reactor has been examined using the ASPEN Plus simulator by the research group at North Carolina State University. Qualitative results have been obtained for varying the following process parameters: solvent-to-wax ratio, solvent type (pentane or hexane), extraction temperature and pressure, and recovery unit temperature and pressure. The region of retrograde behavior was determined for pentane and hexane. Initial results show hexane to be the superior solvent; compared to pentane, hexane requires lower quantities of solvent makeup (the amount of solvent which needs to be added to account for solvent that cannot be recycled), and also results in a lower average molecular weight of slurry in the reactor. Studies indicate that increasing the extraction temperature, extraction pressure, recovery temperature, or solvent to wax ratio decreases the amount solvent makeup required. Decreasing the recovery pressure was found to decrease the makeup flowrate.

Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

1997-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst by supercritical fluid extraction. Technical progress report, October--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

Goal is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer-Tropsch slurry bubble column reactor into two fractions: a catalyst-free wax containing <10 ppM solids and a concentrated catalyst slurry ready for recycle/regeneration. Efforts focused on programming and testing of the SAFT equation and automation of the continuous-flow apparatus.

Thies, M.C.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

Analyzing Biomass Conversion into Liquid Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Variants of the Fischer–Tropsch producer-gas conversion into liquid hydrocarbons are analyzed under the ... is attained in the reactions occurring in the biomass gasification. When the raw material is wood ... th...

V. D. Meshcheryakov; V. A. Kirillov

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

The Prospects for Coal-To-Liquid Conversion: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the economics of coal-to-liquid (CTL) conversion, a polygeneration technology that produces liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity by coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch process. CTL is more expensive ...

Chen, Y.-H. Henry

59

Kinetic studies for elucidation of the promoter effect of alkali in Fischer-Tropsch iron catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of the formation of hydrocarbons in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and of consecutive reactions, i.e., hydrogenation and double bond isomerization of primarily formed 1-alkenes, were studied in a slurry-phase reactor using alkalized and nonalkalized precipitated iron catalysts. Both consecutive reactions have an order of about -2 with respect to carbon monoxide and an order of about 1 with respect to 1-alkenes. The order with respect to hydrogen is 1 for the hydrocarbon formation and also 1 for the consecutive hydrogenation, but 0 for the consecutive isomerization. The reaction orders are not changed by addition of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to the catalyst. The kinetics of consecutive reactions can be interpreted by competitive adsorption of 1-alkene and carbon monoxide. Alkali addition causes an increase in the strength of carbon monoxide adsorption and consequently a decrease in 1-alkene adsorption so that the rates of the consecutive reactions are reduced. This hypothesis could be proved by studies of 1-hexene hydrogenation in the presence and absence of carbon monoxide for alkalized and nonalkalized iron catalysts. The kinetics were studied in the ranges 1.3 < P{sub CO}(10{sup 5} Pa) < 7, 1.6 < P{sub H{sub 2}}(10{sup 5} Pa) < 9, and 490 K < T < 530 K.

Herzog, K.; Gaube, J. (Institut fuer Chemische Technologie der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt, Darmstadt (West Germany))

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project was to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, is to be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Aspen Plus{trademark} was used to perform process simulation studies on the proposed extraction process, with Redlich-Kwong-Soave (RKS) being used for the thermodynamic property model. In summary, we have made comprehensive VLE measurements for short alkane + long alkane systems over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, dramatically increasing the amount of high-quality data available for these simple, yet highly relevant systems. In addition, our work has demonstrated that, surprisingly, no current thermodynamic model can adequately predict VLE behavior for these systems. Thus, process simulations (such as those for our proposed SCF extraction process) that incorporate these systems can currently only give results that are qualitative at best. Although significant progress has been made in the past decade, more experimental and theoretical work remain to be done before the phase equilibria of asymmetric alkane mixtures can be predicted with confidence.

Patrick C. Joyce; Mark C. Thies

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1996--31 March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200--300 {degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two major factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished without entraining the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds, i.e., a constant carbon-number distribution of the alkanes in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. During this quarter work focused on task 1b, experimental measurement of selected model systems. Vapor-liquid equilibrium experiments for the n- hexane/squalane system, which we initiated in the previous quarter, were continued and results are discussed in this report.

Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Studying Fischer-Tropsch catalysts using transmission electron microscopy and model systems of nanoparticles on planar supports.  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticle model systems on planar supports form a versatile platform for studying morphological and compositional changes of catalysts due to exposure to realistic reaction conditions. We review examples from our work on iron and cobalt catalysts, which can undergo significant rearrangement in the reactive environment of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The use of specially designed, silicon based supports with thin film SiO{sub 2} enables the application of transmission electron microscopy, which has furnished important insight into e.g. the mechanisms of catalyst regeneration.

Thune, P. C.; Weststrate, C. J.; Moodley, P.; Saib, A. M.; van de Loosdrecht, J.; Miller, J. T.; Niemantsverdriet, J. W. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology); (Sasol Technology)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst by supercritical fluid extraction. Technical progress report, January--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Objective is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer-Tropsch (F- T) slurry bubble column reactor into a wax and a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle/regeneration. The automated apparatus was evaluated using a toluene-petroleum pitch system. The Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT) equation will be used to fit the VLE and LLE data for F-T wax-solvent systems; this equation was successful in predicting both phase compositions and average molecular weight distributions.

Thies, M.C.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Autothermal oxidative pyrolysis of biomass feedstocks over noble metal catalysts to liquid products.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Two thermal processing technologies have emerged for processing biomass into renewable liquid products: pyrolysis and gasification/Fischer-Tropsch processing. The work presented here will demonstrate oxidative pyrolysis… (more)

Balonek, Christine Marie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Catalytic Reforming of Biomass Raw Fuel Gas to Syngas for FT Liquid Fuels Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasification of biomass to obtain a syngas provides a competitive means for clean FT (Fischer-Tropsch) liquid fuels from renewable resources. The feasibility of the process depends on the upgrading of raw ...

Tiejun Wang; Chenguang Wang; Qi Zhang…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

SBA-15-supported iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch production of diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect

Iron supported on SBA-15, a mesoporous structured silica, has been developed as a catalyst for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons. The catalysts retain the high surface area of the support, {approximately}500 m{sup 2}/g, average pore size, and pore volume. Inclusion of aluminum into the SBA-15 did not significantly alter these parameters. XRD, XAFS, and Moessbauer spectroscopies were used to characterize the catalyst before and after being subjected to the reaction conditions. Prior to reaction, the iron was distributed among {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ferrihydrite, and minor {gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. After reaction, the iron phases detected were nonmagnetic iron oxides, iron carbide, and metallic iron. The length of the induction period typically seen with iron-based F-T catalysts was strongly dependent on the amount of aluminum present in the catalyst. With no aluminum, the induction period lasted about 25 h, whereas the induction period decreased to less than 5 h with an Al:Si mass ratio of 0.010. A further increase in aluminum content lengthened the induction period, but always remained less than that without aluminum. Catalyst activity and product selectivity were also strongly dependent on aluminum content with the maximum diesel fuel fraction, C{sub 11+}, occurring with the Al:Si ratio of 0.010 and a CO conversion of 37%. The small concentration of aluminum may serve to increase the rate of iron carbide formation, whereas higher concentrations may begin to inhibit the rate. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Dae Jung Kim; Brian C. Dunn; Frank Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman; Min Kang; Jae Eui Yie; Edward M. Eyring [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Department of Chemistry

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Toward a More Comprehensive Greenhouse Gas Emissions Assessment of Biofuels: The Case of Forest-Based Fischer–Tropsch Diesel Production in Finland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technology and feedstock production chain-specific factors, market-mediated factors and climate policy time frame issues are reflected using as a case study Fischer–Tropsch diesel derived from boreal forest biomass in Finland. ... Hochman, G.; Rajagopal, D.; Zilberman, D.The effect of biofuels on crude oil markets AgBioForum 2010, 13 ( 2) 112– 118 ...

Sampo Soimakallio

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

68

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Technical progress report No. 2, December 26, 1990--March 26, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this contract are to develop a technology for the production of active and stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to develop a scaleup procedure for large-scale synthesis of such catalyst for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. With a feed containing H{sub 2} and CO in the molar ratio of 0.5 to 1.0, the catalyst performance target in the slurry bubble-column reactor is 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion at a minimum space velocity of 2.4 NL/hr/gFe. The desired sum of methane and ethane selectivities is no more than 4%, and the conversion loss per week is not to exceed 1%.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Technical progress report No. 5, September 26, 1991--December 26, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Objective is to develop producing active, stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to synthesize such catalysts on a large scale for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. A mixed oxalate of Fe, Cu, and K was prepared; a catalyst will be prepared from this material. An evaluation run was performed on an Fe-based UCI catalyst, which was shown to produce low levels of C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} paraffins; e.g., at the end of the run, when the catalyst was converting 60% of the CO, the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} paraffin selectivities were 4.2 and 1.0, respectively.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

70

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Technical progress report No. 1, September 26, 1990--December 26, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this contract are to develop a technology for the production of active and stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to develop a scale-up procedure for large-scale synthesis of such catalysts for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble column reactors. With a feed containing H{sub 2}:CO in the ratio of 0.5 to 1.0, the catalyst performance target in the slurry bubble column reactor is 88% CO + H{sub 2}conversion at a minimum space velocity of 2.4 NL/h/gFe. The methane + ethane selectivity is desired to be no more than 4% and the conversion loss per week is not to exceed 1%.

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

71

Effect of Surface Modification by Chelating Agents on Fischer- Tropsch Performance of Co/SiO{sub 2} Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The silica support of a Co-based catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was modified by the chelating agents (CAs) nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the modification, characterization of the fresh and spent catalysts show reduced crystallite sizes, a better-dispersed Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase on the calcined samples, and increased metal dispersions for the reduced samples. The CA-modified catalysts display higher CO conversions, product yields, reaction rates and rate constants. The improved FT performance of CA-modified catalysts is attributed to the formation of stable complexes with Co. The superior performance of the EDTA-modified catalyst in comparison to the NTA-modified catalyst is due to the higher affinity of the former for complex formation with Co ions.

Bambal, Ashish S.; Kugler, Edwin L.; Gardner, Todd H.; Dadyburjor, Dady B.

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

72

Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer lab evaluation; cold-start test-cell evaluations; overall feasibility, economics, and efficiency of SFP fuel production; and an economic analysis. Two unexpected issues that arose during the project were further studied and resolved: variations in NOx emissions were accounted for and fuel-injection nozzle fouling issues were traced to the non-combustible (ash) content of the engine oil, not the F-T fuel. The F-T fuel domestically produced and evaluated in this effort appears to be a good replacement candidate for petroleum-based transportation fuels. However, in order for domestic F-T fuels to become a viable cost-comparable alternative to petroleum fuels, the F-T fuels will need to be produced from abundant U.S. domestic resources such as coal and biomass, rather than stranded natural gas.

Stephen P. Bergin

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

73

Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

74

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, June 30, 1988--September 30, 1988  

SciTech Connect

This report details experiments performed on three different copper-based catalysts: Cu/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cu/MnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Of these three catalysts, the Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits the greatest stability when slurried in octacosane. More than 1000 hours-on-stream indicate that the catalyst activity is not detrimentally affected by high pressure, high H{sub 2}/CO ratio, or the presence of alkenes. All of these are necessary stability characteristics for the water-gas shift catalyst, if it is to be used in combination with a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. A review of documented reduction procedures for cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is presented.

Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

Assessment of Fuel-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Fischer?Tropsch Diesel from Coal and Cellulosic Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Assessment of Fuel-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Fischer?Tropsch Diesel from Coal and Cellulosic Biomass ... There are two general designs for FTD production:(7, 30) recycling (RC) design and once-through (OT) design, as illustrated in Figure 2. ... Wang, M. Q.GREET 1.0 — Transportation Fuel Cycles Model: Methodology and Use, Argonne National Laboratory: Argonne, IL, ANL/ESD-33. ...

Xiaomin Xie; Michael Wang; Jeongwoo Han

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

76

Effect of Liquid Composition on the Slurry Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. 2. Product Selectivity  

SciTech Connect

With a reduced, fused magnetite catalyst, secondary reactions, consisting of olefin hydrogenation, olefin isomerization, and incorporation of ethylene and/or ethyl alcohol into product, were slightly greater in octacosane than in phenanthrene at 232/sup 0/C but essentially the same at 263/sup 0/C. This is attributed to competitiv adsorption effects with phenanthrene which adsorbs significantly onto the catalyst at 232/sup 0/C, but not at 263/sup 0/C. All secondary reactions are enhanced by conditions minimizing CO adsorption. Oxygenates were greatly diminished at high conversions. C/sub 2/ incorporation into product stops chain growth by a scavenging effect. In the presence of a perfluoropolyether (Fomblin), in which hydrocarbons are immiscible, catalyst is preferentially wetted by hydrocarbons and secondary reactions are greatly enhanced by mass transfer resistances.

Stenger, H.G.; Satterfield, C.N.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Technical progress report No. 10, December 26, 1992--March 26, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this contract are to develop a technology for the production of active and stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to develop a scaleup procedure for large-scale synthesis of such catalysts for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. With a feed containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the molar ratio of 0.5 to 1.0 to the slurry bubble-column reactor, the catalyst performance target is 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion at a minimum space velocity of 2.4 NL/hr/gFe. The desired sum of methane and ethane selectivities is no more than 4%, and the conversion loss per week is not to exceed 1%. Contract tasks are as follows: 1.0: Catalyst development; 1.1--Technology assessment; 1.2--Precipitated catalyst preparation method development; 1.3--Novel catalyst preparation methods investigation; 1.4--Catalyst pretreatment; 1.5--Catalyst characterization; 2.0--Catalyst testing; 3.0--Catalyst aging studies, and 4.0--Preliminary design and cost estimate of a catalyst synthesis facility. This paper reports progress made on Task 1.2 and 2.0.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Technical progress report No. 9, September 26, 1992--December 26, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this contract are to develop a technology for the production of active and stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to develop a scaleup procedure for large-scale synthesis of such catalysts for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. With a feed containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the molar ratio of 0.5 to 1.0 to the slurry bubble-column reactor, the catalyst performance target is 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion at a minimum space velocity of 2.4 NL/hr/gFe. The desired sum of methane and ethane selectivities is no more than 4%, and the conversion loss per week is not to exceed 1%. Contract Tasks are as follows: 1.0--Catalyst development, 1.1--Technology assessment, 1.2--Precipitated catalyst preparation method development, 1.3--Novel catalyst preparation methods investigation, 1.4--Catalyst pretreatment, 1.5--Catalyst characterization, 2.0--Catalyst testing, 3.0--Catalyst aging studies, and 4.0--Preliminary design and cost estimate of a catalyst synthesis facility. This paper reports progress on Task 1.3.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

79

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Technical progress report No. 6, December 26, 1991--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract are to develop a technology for the production of active and stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to develop a scaleup procedure for large-scale synthesis of such catalysts for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. With a feed containing H{sub 2} and CO in the molar ratio of 0.5 to 1.0 to the slurry bubble-column reactor, the catalyst performance target is 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion at a minimum space velocity of 2.4 NL/hr/gFe. The desired sum of methane and ethane selectivities is no more than 4%, and the conversion loss per week is not to exceed 1%. Contract Tasks are as follows: 1.0--Catalyst development, 1.1--Technology assessment, 1.2--Precipitated catalyst preparation method development, 1.3--Novel catalyst preparation methods investigation, 1.4--Catalyst pretreatment, 1.5--Catalyst characterization, 2.0--Catalyst testing, 3.0--Catalyst aging studies, and 4.0--Preliminary design and cost estimate of a catalyst synthesis facility. This paper reports progress made on catalyst development.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

80

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst by supercritical extraction. Quarterly report, July 1, 1996 - September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research projects is to evaluate the potential of SCF extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer- Tropsch (F-T) slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e. 200-300{degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the projects depends on two major factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, the must be accomplished without entraining the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds, i.e., a constant carbon-number distribution of the alkanes in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. The project includes three tasks (1) equilibrium solubility measurements, (2) thermodynamic modeling, and (3) process design studies.

Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Sherrard, D.; Biales, J.; Kilpatrick, P.; Roberts, G. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Programming and testing of the highly complex Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (or SAFT) equation of state is essentially complete. As an accuracy check, results from our program were compared and found to be in excellent agreement with those of two other research groups (one in the US and two in Europe) for both a nonassociating (methane-hexadecane) and an associating (carbon dioxide-methanol) system. This equation is being used to model the solubility our model Fischer-Tropsch compounds in supercritical solvents such as hexane. SAFT has been chosen for this work because of its fundamental rigor. Therefore, extension of our model compound results to the poorly defined Fischer-Tropsch waxes should be more successful compared to more empirical equations such as Peng-Robinson. Computer-controlled automation of one of our dynamic supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction apparatus is complete. The apparatus collects samples automatically, dramatically reducing operator manpower and fatigue, and is also capable of controlling the operating pressure more precisely (i.e., within {plus_minus}2 psi). This apparatus (SFE I) will be used for future experiments with actual Fischer-Tropsch waxes. Modification/construction of another apparatus (SCF II) that will be used for our model component-SCF phase equilibria/solubility studies is nearly complete; it is currently being leak-tested. This apparatus was built to handle the low mass flow rates that will be required when measuring solubility data for the more expensive model compounds, such as n-C40. Anticipated results for the next quarter include VLE measurements for hexane-squalane at temperatures to 573 K.

Thies, M.C.; Joyce, P.C.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Fischer-Tropsch chemistry: structure of a seminal eta/sup 2/-CH cluster derivative, HFe/sub 4/(eta/sup 2/-CH)(CO)/sub 12/  

SciTech Connect

Results of x-ray crystallographic studies of the complex HFe/sub 4/(eta/sup 2/-CH)(CO)/sub 12/ are reported. The complex may provide information that relates to intermediates in some metal-surface catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch reactions. The complex was found to contain a butterfly array of four Fe atoms, each with three terminal carbonyl ligands, with the carbidic C atom nestled near the center of the top of the wings of the Fe/sub 4/ array where it forms a strong C-H-Fe interaction. Measurements of the bond distances are given. (BLM)

Beno, M.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Williams, J.M.; Tachikawa, M.; Muetterties, E.L.

1980-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

83

Atomic-Scale Design of Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts: A Combined Computational Chemistry, Experimental, and Microkinetic Modeling Approach  

SciTech Connect

Work continued on the development of a microkinetic model of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on supported and unsupported Fe catalysts. The following aspects of the FT mechanism on unsupported iron catalysts were investigated on during this third year: (1) the collection of rate data in a Berty CSTR reactor based on sequential design of experiments; (2) CO adsorption and CO-TPD for obtaining the heat of adsorption of CO on polycrystalline iron; and (3) isothermal hydrogenation (IH) after Fischer Tropsch reaction to identify and quantify surface carbonaceous species. Rates of C{sub 2+} formation on unsupported iron catalysts at 220 C and 20 atm correlated well to a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type expression, derived assuming carbon hydrogenation to CH and OH recombination to water to be rate-determining steps. From desorption of molecularly adsorbed CO at different temperatures the heat of adsorption of CO on polycrystalline iron was determined to be 100 kJ/mol. Amounts and types of carbonaceous species formed after FT reaction for 5-10 minutes at 150, 175, 200 and 285 C vary significantly with temperature. Mr. Brian Critchfield completed his M.S. thesis work on a statistically designed study of the kinetics of FTS on 20% Fe/alumina. Preparation of a paper describing this work is in progress. Results of these studies were reported at the Annual Meeting of the Western States Catalysis and at the San Francisco AIChE meeting. In the coming period, studies will focus on quantitative determination of the rates of kinetically-relevant elementary steps on unsupported Fe catalysts with/without K and Pt promoters by SSITKA method. This study will help us to (1) understand effects of promoter and support on elementary kinetic parameters and (2) build a microkinetics model for FTS on iron. Calculations using periodic, self-consistent Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods were performed on models of defected Fe surfaces, most significantly the stepped Fe(211) surface. Binding Energies (BE's), preferred adsorption sites and geometries of all the FTS relevant stable species and intermediates were evaluated. Each elementary step of our reaction model was fully characterized with respect to its thermochemistry and comparisons between the stepped Fe(211) facet and the most-stable Fe(110) facet were established. In most cases the BE's on Fe(211) reflected the trends observed earlier on Fe(110), yet there were significant variations imposed on the underlying trends. Vibrational frequencies were evaluated for the preferred adsorption configurations of each species with the aim of evaluating the entropy-changes and preexponential factors for each elementary step. Kinetic studies were performed for the early steps of FTS (up to CH{sub 4} formation) and CO dissociation. This involved evaluation of the Minimum Energy Pathway (MEP) and activation energy barrier for the steps involved. We concluded that Fe(211) would allow for far more facile CO dissociation in comparison to other Fe catalysts studied so far, but the other FTS steps studied remained mostly unchanged.

Manos Mavrikakis; James A. Dumesic; Rahul P. Nabar

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

84

Fossil-fuel processing technical/professional services: comparison of Fischer-Tropsch reactor systems. Phase I, final report  

SciTech Connect

The Fischer-Tropsch reaction was commercialized in Germany and used to produce military fuels in fixed bed reactors. It was recognized from the start that this reactor system had severe operating and yield limitations and alternative reactor systems were sought. In 1955 the Sasol I complex, using an entrained bed (Synthol) reactor system, was started up in South Africa. Although this reactor was a definite improvement and is still operating, the literature is filled with proponents of other reactor systems, each claiming its own advantages. This report provides a summary of the results of a study to compare the development potential of three of these reactor systems with the commercially operating Synthol-entrained bed reactor system. The commercial Synthol reactor is used as a benchmark against which the development potential of the other three reactors can be compared. Most of the information on which this study is based was supplied by the M.W. Kellogg Co. No information beyond that in the literature on the operation of the Synthol reactor system was available for consideration in preparing this study, nor were any details of the changes made to the original Synthol system to overcome the operating problems reported in the literature. Because of conflicting claims and results found in the literature, it was decided to concentrate a large part of this study on a kinetic analysis of the reactor systems, in order to provide a theoretical analysis of intrinsic strengths and weaknesses of the reactors unclouded by different catalysts, operating conditions and feed compositions. The remainder of the study considers the physical attributes of the four reactor systems and compares their respective investment costs, yields, catalyst requirements and thermal efficiencies from simplified conceptual designs.

Thompson, G.J.; Riekena, M.L.; Vickers, A.G.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Fischer-Tropsch slurry phase process variations to understand wax formations: Quarterly report for period October 1, 1987 to December 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

Effects of high syngas conversion on the secondary reactions of olefins formed by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on a reduced fused magnetite catalyst were simulated by studies of olefins in the presence of hydrogen and low concentrations of CO, or none at all. kinetic models were developed for the effect of CO partial pressure on hydrogenation rates at 232)degree)C and 0.30 to 0.79 MPa. In the absence of carbon monoxide, olefin hydrogenation was more rapid than in its presence. A model indicated that a hydrogenated carbon monoxide species on the catalyst may be responsible for the inhibition of olefin hydrogenation, and that olefin adsorption is rate-limiting. The formation of secondary olefins appeared to follow similar trends with carbon monoxide partial pressure. Olefin incorporation was not observed in the small amount of Fischer-Tropsch products obtained in these experiments. The chain growth probability, alpha, appeared to correlate with the H/sub 2/CO feed ratio. 14 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Satterfield, C.N.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Safety and Techno-Economic Analysis of Solvent Selection for Supercritical Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the fixed-bed reactor, among other disadvantages, is that the reaction is very exothermic, which is a concern in terms of safety hazards and also in terms of cost of heat removal. With the slurry reactor, a problem is that in the liquid media... at different lengths.4 After the reaction takes place, the amount of carbon monoxide consumed decreases and carbon dioxide is produced as a side product.9 The FTS reaction is an extremely exothermic process, which represents serious challenges...

Hamad, Natalie

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

87

Fischer?Tropsch Synfuels from Biomass: Maximizing Carbon Efficiency and Hydrocarbon Yield  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper collects yield and efficiency estimates for FT synfuel production from biomass feedstocks. ... In comparison to other biofuels, advantages include (i) flexible use of all kinds of biomass feedstocks (including waste materials) and, therefore, no competition with the production of food, (ii) relatively high yields per arable land (100?180 GJ ha?1 year?1), and (iii) high fuel qualities to be used in present distribution infrastructures and high-efficiency engine technologies. ... Flow scheme for the conversion of biomass feedstocks to liquid hydrocarbon fuels (BTL) and formal chemical reactions. ...

Dominik Unruh; Kyra Pabst; Georg Schaub

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

Comparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life-Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from Coal and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal and Natural Gas Figure S1 shows a graphical description of the life cycle of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). Figure S1: Life Cycle of Coal-Based and Natural Gas-Based Fischer-Tropsch LiquidComparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life- Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from

Jaramillo, Paulina

89

Atomic-Scale Design of Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts; A Combined Computational Chemistry, Experimental, and Microkinetic Modeling Approach  

SciTech Connect

This work focuses on (1) searching/summarizing published Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) mechanistic and kinetic studies of FTS reactions on iron catalysts; (2) preparation and characterization of unsupported iron catalysts with/without potassium/platinum promoters; (3) measurement of H{sub 2} and CO adsorption/dissociation kinetics on iron catalysts using transient methods; (3) analysis of the transient rate data to calculate kinetic parameters of early elementary steps in FTS; (4) construction of a microkinetic model of FTS on iron, and (5) validation of the model from collection of steady-state rate data for FTS on iron catalysts. Three unsupported iron catalysts and three alumina-supported iron catalysts were prepared by non-aqueous-evaporative deposition (NED) or aqueous impregnation (AI) and characterized by chemisorption, BET, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), extent-of-reduction, XRD, and TEM methods. These catalysts, covering a wide range of dispersions and metal loadings, are well-reduced and relatively thermally stable up to 500-600 C in H{sub 2} and thus ideal for kinetic and mechanistic studies. Kinetic parameters for CO adsorption, CO dissociation, and surface carbon hydrogenation on these catalysts were determined from temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO and temperature programmed surface hydrogenation (TPSR), temperature-programmed hydrogenation (TPH), and isothermal, transient hydrogenation (ITH). A microkinetic model was constructed for the early steps in FTS on polycrystalline iron from the kinetic parameters of elementary steps determined experimentally in this work and from literature values. Steady-state rate data were collected in a Berty reactor and used for validation of the microkinetic model. These rate data were fitted to 'smart' Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate expressions derived from a sequence of elementary steps and using a combination of fitted steady-state parameters and parameters specified from the transient measurements. The results provide a platform for further development of microkinetic models of FTS on Fe and a basis for more precise modeling of FTS activity of Fe catalysts. Calculations using periodic, self-consistent Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods were performed on various realistic models of industrial, Fe-based FTS catalysts. Close-packed, most stable Fe(110) facet was analyzed and subsequently carbide formation was found to be facile leading to the choice of the FeC(110) model representing a Fe facet with a sub-surface C atom. The Pt adatom (Fe{sup Pt}(110)) was found to be the most stable model for our studies into Pt promotion and finally the role of steps was elucidated by recourse to the defected Fe(211) facet. Binding Energies(BEs), preferred adsorption sites and geometries for all FTS relevant stable species and intermediates were evaluated on each model catalyst facet. A mechanistic model (comprising of 32 elementary steps involving 19 species) was constructed and each elementary step therein was fully characterized with respect to its thermochemistry and kinetics. Kinetic calculations involved evaluation of the Minimum Energy Pathways (MEPs) and activation energies (barriers) for each step. Vibrational frequencies were evaluated for the preferred adsorption configuration of each species with the aim of evaluating entropy-changes, pre exponential factors and serving as a useful connection with experimental surface science techniques. Comparative analysis among these four facets revealed important trends in their relative behavior and roles in FTS catalysis. Overall the First Principles Calculations afforded us a new insight into FTS catalysis on Fe and modified-Fe catalysts.

Manos Mavrikakis; James Dumesic; Rahul Nabar; Calvin Bartholonew; Hu Zou; Uchenna Paul

2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

90

Poisoning of a silica-supported cobalt catalyst due to presence of sulfur impurities in syngas during Fischer-Tropsch: Effects of chelating agent  

SciTech Connect

The effects of sulfur impurities on the performance of cobalt-based Fischer?Tropsch catalysts are evaluated under industrially relevant operating conditions of temperature, pressure, and impurity levels. Chelating agents (CAs) were used to modify the SiO2 support, and the performances of the CA-modified catalysts are compared with conventional Co/SiO2 catalysts. For both the Co/SiO2 and CA-modified catalysts, the presence of sulfur in the inlet syngas results in a notable drop in the CO conversion, an undesired shift in the hydrocarbon selectivity toward short-chain hydrocarbons, more olefins in the products, and lower product yields. In the post-poisoning stage, i.e., after termination of sulfur introduction in the inlet syngas, the CA-modified catalysts recover activity and selectivity (to some extent at least), whereas such trends are not observed for the base-case, i.e., unmodified Co/SiO2 catalyst. The improved performance of the CA-modified catalysts in the presence of sulfur is attributed to higher densities of active sites.

Bambal, Ashish S. [WVU; Guggilla, Vidya S. [WVU; Kugler, Edwin L. [WVU; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE; Dadyburjor, Dady B. [WVU

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.  

SciTech Connect

This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Fischer Tropsch synthesis : influence of Mn on the carburization rates and activities of Fe-based catalysts by TPR-EXAFS/XANES and catalyst testing.  

SciTech Connect

Fe-based catalysts containing different amounts of Mn were tested for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using a stirred tank reactor at 270 C, 1.21 MPa, and H{sub 2}:CO = 0.7. Catalyst activation by carburization with 10% CO/He was followed by Temperature Programmed Reduction/X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (TPR-EXAFS/XANES) from room temperature to 300 C. {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was converted into iron carbides, whereas MnO{sub x} was reduced to oxygen deficient MnO. Mn hindered Fe carburization, such that the carburized catalyst displayed higher Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} content than the catalyst without Mn. EXAFS fitting indicates that the carburized catalyst contained a mixture of Hgg carbide, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Mn oxides. Increasing Mn content led to higher CH{sub 4} and light product selectivities, and lower light olefin selectivities. Higher and stable conversions were obtained with a catalyst containing an almost equimolar Fe/Mn ratio relative to the catalyst without Mn. Selectivity trends are attributed to the higher WGS rates observed on the FeMn catalysts, consistent with the structural differences observed.

Ribeiro, M. C.; Jacobs, G.; Pendyala, R.; Davis, B. H.; Cronauer, D. C.; Kropf, A. J.; Marshall, C. L. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Univ. of Kentucky)

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

93

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of SCF extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer- Tropsch (F-T) slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300{degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two major factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished without entraining the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds, i.e., a constant carbon-number distribution of the alkanes in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. To implement our objectives, the following task structure is being implemented: Task 1 equilibrium solubility measurements; Task 2 thermodynamic modeling; and Task 3 process design studies. Progress reports are presented for each task.

Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

New approach to the generation of metal-bearing, medium-pore, shape-selective zeolites for Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. Spectroscopic studies of zeolites  

SciTech Connect

Two recent developments in zeolite synthesis and modification were successfully combined to demonstrate a new approach to the generation of metal-bearing, medium-pore, shape-selective zeolites for use as catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch conversions. The steps are: (1) synthesis of an aluminoferrisilicate zeolite having the ZSM-5-type structure; (2) removal of the organic base template incorporated in the channel system during synthesis; (3) formation of a polycyano inclusion compound in the AFS zeolite; and (4) reduction of the inclusion compound by hydrogen at approx. 400/sup 0/C. PAS and EPR spectroscopy have been used to establish that the as-synthesized AFS zeolite contains Fe/sup 3 +/ ions in both framework and non-framework sites. FMR spectroscopy has been used to confirm the formation of the metallic (Fe) and bimetallic (Fe/Ru and Fe/Co) particles as products of the reduction of the inclusion compounds by hydrogen. The application of other spectroscopic techniques in recent studies of cations, complexes, and metal particles in zeolites is reviewed: high-resolution solid-state NMR, nuclear-spin-relaxation studies, FMR, EXAFS, and XANES.

Iton, L.E.; Beal, R.B.; Hodul, D.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1995--31 December 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer-Tropsch slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300{degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. During the reporting period, work on the small-scale, continuous-flow apparatus continued. Initial experiments have been performed on a binary mixture of n-hexane (solvent) and squalane (model compound) at 200{degrees}C. A total of fifteen samples were collected at 135, 160, and 208 psig, with pressures being controlled to within {plus_minus}2 psi. Results indicate that the equilibrium phase compositions can in principle be measured to a reproducibility of {plus_minus}0.5% in the squalane-rich bottomphase and {plus_minus}2% in the hexane-rich top phase, with respect to the minor component. However, other data measured at these same conditions at another time exhibited scatter that was as much as 5 times greater. We believe that improvements in (1) the method of preheating the feed to the view cell/phase separator and to (2) the sample collection technique are required before data of high accuracy can consistently be generated. The apparatus modifications required to effect these improvements are currently underway and should be completed by the middle of February.

Thies, M.C.; Joyce, P.C.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation at the May 9, 2012, Pyrolysis Oil Workship on biomass derivatives competitive with heating oil costs.

97

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Southern Research Institute Project Number: FE0010231 Project Description Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, called syngas, into liquid hydrocarbons. It is a leading technology for converting syngas derived from gasification of coal and coal-biomass mixtures to hydrocarbons in coal to liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes. However, conventional FTS catalysts produce undesirable waxes (C21+) that need to be upgraded to liquids (C5-C20) by hydrotreating. This adds significantly to the cost of FTS. The objectives of this project are (i) to demonstrate potential for CBTL cost reduction by maximizing the production of C5-C20 hydrocarbon liquids using a selective FTS catalyst and (ii) to evaluate the impacts of the addition of biomass to coal on product characteristics, carbon foot print, and economics.

98

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

99

Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average *...

100

Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : atomic layer deposition of active catalytic metals. Activity report : January 1, 2005 - September 30, 2005.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry - specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. The broad goal is to produce diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. Originally the goal was to prepare shape-selective catalysts that would limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. We are currently awaiting follow-up experiments to determine the attrition strength of these catalysts. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those expected for complete monolayer coverage. In addition, there was likely to be significant variation in the Fe and Ru loading among the membranes due to difficulties in nucleating these materials on the aluminum oxide surfaces. The first series of experiments using coated membranes demonstrated that the technology needed further improvement. Specifically, observed catalytic FT activity was low. This low activity appeared to be due to: (1) low available surface area, (2) atomic deposition techniques that needed improvements, and (3) insufficient preconditioning of the catalyst surface prior to FT testing. Therefore, experimentation was expanded to the use of particulate silica supports having defined channels and reasonably high surface area. This later experimentation will be discussed in the next progress report. Subsequently, we plan to evaluate membranes after the ALD techniques are improved with a careful study to control and quantify the Fe and Ru loadings. The preconditioning of these surfaces will also be further developed. (A number of improvements have been made with particulate supports; they will be discussed in the subsequent report.) In support of the above, there was an opportunity to undertake a short study of cobalt/promoter/support interaction using the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne. Five catalysts and a reference cobalt oxide were characterized during a temperature programmed EXAFS/XANES experimental study with the combined effort of Argonne and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) of the University of Kentucky. This project was completed, and it resulted in an extensive understanding of the preconditioning step of reducing Co-containing FT catalysts. A copy of the resulting manuscript has been submitted and accepted for publication. A similar project was undertaken with iron-containing FT catalysts; the data is currently being studied.

Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce Costs Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce...

105

Efficient Utilization of Greenhouse Gases in a Gas-to-Liquids Process Combined with CO2/Steam-Mixed Reforming and Fe-Based Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the reforming unit, CO2 reforming and steam reforming of methane are combined together to produce syngas in flexible composition. ... In the burner-type reformer, NG is used as a heating fuel, in order to reduce the consumption of NG, the vent gas can be applied to the burner to replace some part of NG as fuel. ...

Chundong Zhang; Ki-Won Jun; Kyoung-Su Ha; Yun-Jo Lee; Seok Chang Kang

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

106

Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . Abstract: Black carbon (BC) may play an important role in the global C...

107

Biomass-Derived Energy Products and Co-Products Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass-Derived Energy Products and Co-Products Market This report identifies the bio-fuels and co & Earth Science & Technology ­ University of Hawai`i at Manoa #12;Biomass-Derived Energy Products and Co agency thereof. #12;Biomass Derived Energy Products and Co- Products Market and Off-take Study Hawaii

108

Catalytic Conversion of Biomass-derived Feedstock (HMF) into...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Catalytic Conversion of Biomass-derived Feedstock...

109

Biomass-derived Hydrogen-evolution catalyst and electrode - Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Biomass-derived Hydrogen-evolution catalyst and electrode Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact...

110

Multi-stage Fischer-Tropsch process  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing paraffinic hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen comprising: (a) introducing carbon monoxide and hydrogen into a reaction zone wherein the carbon monoxide and hydrogen contact in a first bed a first catalyst having a high olefin selectivity selected from the group consisting of Fe/Ce/Zn/K, Fe/Mn/K and Fe/Co/K; and (b) contacting the resulting olefin in a second bed with a second catalyst having a high selectivity for converting olefins to heavier paraffinic hydrocarbons selected from the group consisting of Ru/TiO/sub 2/, Ru/SiO/sub 2/ and Ru/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

Kim, C.J.; Fiato, R.A.

1986-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

111

Hydrodeoxygenation processes: Advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via C–C coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed.

Sudipta De; Basudeb Saha; Rafael Luque

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Process Intensification in Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Process Intensification in Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived Syngas ... A “one-box” process has been proposed and studied in order to economically produce pure hydrogen from biomass-derived syngas in the presence of its common impurities through the use of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. ... (1) Hydrogen burns cleanly and produces more energy on a per mass basis than any other fuel; if widely adopted for both mobile and stationary power generation, it would reduce the emissions of pollutants typically associated with power production, and would potentially diminish the prospect of global warming. ...

Mitra Abdollahi; Jiang Yu; Hyun Tae Hwang; Paul K. T. Liu; Richard Ciora; Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore T. Tsotsis

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

DOE studies on coal-to-liquids  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued reports that examine the feasibility of coal-to-liquids (CTL) facilities, both general and site specific, which are available at www.netl.gov/energy-analyses/ref-shelf.html. The US Department of Defence has been investigating use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Congress is considering various CTL proposals while the private sector is building pilot plants and performing feasibility studies for proposed plants. The article includes a table listing 14 coal-to-liquids plants under consideration. The private sector has formed the coal-to-liquids coalition (www.futurecoalfuels.org). The article mentions other CTL projects in South Africa, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and New Zealand. 1 tab.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier DOE Hydrogen Program Contractors biomass #12;Approach Outline Gasifier Pilot Plant· Develop subsystems for the hydrogen production system and pyrolysis occur simultaneously in a single reactor · Exothermic combustion provides heat · Endothermic

115

NETL: Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids - Systems and Industry Analyses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

C&CBTL > Systems Analyses C&CBTL > Systems Analyses Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Reference Shelf – Systems and Industry Analyses Studies DOE/NETL possesses strong systems analysis and policy-support capabilities. Systems analysis in support of the Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Program consists of conducting various energy analyses that provide input to decisions on issues such as national plans and programs, resource use, environmental and energy security policies, technology options for research and development programs, and paths to deployment of energy technology. Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Program's Systems and Industry Analyses Studies Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Presentation

116

Modeling and economic evaluation of the integration of carbon capture and storage technologies into coal to liquids plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper analyzes the technical and economic feasibility of the integration of Fischer–Tropsch process based Coal to Liquid (CTL) plants with Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies (CCS). CTL plants could be multipurpose, and for this reason, starting from coal can produce different energy products like liquid fuels, such as diesel and gasoline, chemicals, electricity and hydrogen. Different plant configurations are possible especially in the case of integration with CCS technologies. Obviously, the choice of the optimal process configuration is one that better meets technical and economical requirements. In order to make a first assessment, a screening of suitable technologies has been made. The CTL facility study here proposed is based on commercial coal gasification and Fischer–Tropsch technologies. The system configuration selected and the plant performance has been evaluated using Aspen Plus software. The plant size considered is about 10,000 bbl/d of liquid fuel products, equivalent to a consumption of about 4500 ton/d of coal fed to the gasification island. The declared objective is to evaluate the potential of the identified plant and to perform a first economic evaluation. The ultimate goal is to determine the specific cost of produced liquid fuels and to evaluate the economic performance of the system. The economic analysis was done to estimate the Internal Rate of Return (IRR), the payback period and the net present value for configurations with CCS or without CO2 capture. Results shows that the CCS introduction in CTL plants has a lighter impact on plant costs and performance since CO2 capture it is already included in the base plant.

Claudia Bassano; Paolo Deiana; Giuseppe Girardi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Activation studies with promoted precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Ruhrchemie catalyst, the catalyst activity and stability changed markedly with reduction procedure. Hs reduction at 220'C was repeated since it gave very loiv activity. The reproducibility of this test ivas good. Hs reduction at 250 gave higher catalyst...

Manne, Rama Krishna

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Cobalt-ruthenium catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A hydrocarbon synthesis process is described which comprises reacting hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst comprised of cobalt and ruthenium on titania, at reaction conditions suitable for the formation of higher hydrocarbons. The catalyst is prepared by impregnating titania with solutions of cobalt and ruthenium salts, drying the impregnated support, reducing the cobalt and ruthenium, treating the reduced metals with an oxygen containing stream at conditions sufficient to form oxides of cobalt and oxides of ruthenium and reducing the cobalt and ruthenium oxides.

Iglesia, E.; Soled, S.L.; Fiato, R.A.

1989-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

119

Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development  

SciTech Connect

Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing Fischerâ??Tropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through the EERCâ??U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding for BP1 was provided by the North Dakota Industrial Commissionâ??s (NDIC) Renewable Energy Council.

Joshua Strege; Anthony Snyder; Jason Laumb; Joshua Stanislowski; Michael Swanson

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Pressurised Combustion of Biomass-Derived, Low Calorific Value, Fuel Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During a 3 year (1996 – 1998) project, partly funded by the EU as part of their JOULE 3 programme, experimental and theoretical research will be done on the pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, LCV, fuel ga...

J. Andries; P. D. J. Hoppesteyn…

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds and Biomass-Derived Lignin using Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCD of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.; McKinney, K. A.; Lawrence, K. R.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

123

Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals: Thermodynamic Studies on the Conversion of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into Bulk Intermediates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals: Thermodynamic Studies on the Conversion of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into Bulk Intermediates ... This work was undertaken to obtain new thermochemical data for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and parent compounds. ... Cellulose and other carbohydrates (e.g., glucose and fructose) can be converted into furanic biofuels via 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), using relatively simple processes such as condensation and hydrogenation reactions. ...

Sergey P. Verevkin; Vladimir N. Emel’yanenko; Elena N. Stepurko; Richardas V. Ralys; Dmitry H. Zaitsau; Annegret Stark

2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

124

Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass  

SciTech Connect

A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).

Kuester, J.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used in the mid- and long-term time frames.

126

Lattice-Matched Bimetallic CuPd-Graphene Nanocatalysts for Facile Conversion of Biomass-Derived Polyols to Chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lattice-Matched Bimetallic CuPd-Graphene Nanocatalysts for Facile Conversion of Biomass-Derived Polyols to Chemicals ... A bimetallic nanocatalyst with unique surface configuration displays extraordinary performance for converting biomass-derived polyols to chemicals, with potentially much broader applications in the design of novel catalysts for several reactions of industrial relevance. ... Dehydrogenated species are instantaneously converted to LA(37, 41) (with OH–) or alcoholic chemicals(15, 39) (by in situ formed hydrogen) in alkaline medium. ...

Xin Jin; Lianna Dang; Jessica Lohrman; Bala Subramaniam; Shenqiang Ren; Raghunath V. Chaudhari

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

127

Production of dimethylfuran for liquid fuels from biomass-derived carbohydrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... be accomplished in two steps: first, removing three oxygen atoms by dehydration to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF); and second, removing two oxygen atoms by hydrogenolysis to produce DMF by ...

Yuriy Román-Leshkov; Christopher J. Barrett; Zhen Y. Liu; James A. Dumesic

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

128

Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Factsheet summarizing Univ. of Alabama project to save energy and reduce emissions with fuel-flexible burners

129

One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

130

Advanced Fuels Synthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Fuels Synthesis Advanced Fuels Synthesis Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Advanced Fuels Synthesis The Advanced Fuels Synthesis Key Technology is focused on catalyst and reactor optimization for producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal/biomass mixtures, supports the development and demonstration of advanced separation technologies, and sponsors research on novel technologies to convert coal/biomass to liquid fuels. Active projects within the program portfolio include the following: Fischer-Tropsch fuels synthesis Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal/Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels Via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Coal Fuels Alliance: Design and Construction of Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery

131

EA-1642S: Finding of No Significant Impact  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, Kentucky

132

CX-009372: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Small Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

133

EA-1642S: Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, Kentucky

134

Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results  

SciTech Connect

Document details the evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch diesel, a gas-to-liquid fuel, in medium-duty delivery vehicles at Yosemite Waters. The study was conducted by NREL at the company's Fullerton, California, bottling headquarters.

Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Alleman, T. L.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas using ceria-supported oxygen carriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cu, Ni and Fe oxides supported on ceria were investigated for their performance as oxygen carriers during the chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas. A complex gas mixture containing CO, H2, CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons was used to simulate the complex fuel gas environment derived from biomass gasification. Results show that the transfer of the stored oxygen into oxidants for the supported Cu and Ni oxides at 800 °C for the combustion of syngas was effective (>85%). The unsupported Cu oxide showed high oxygen carrying capacity but particle sintering was observed at 800 °C. A reaction temperature of 950 °C was required for the supported Fe oxides to transfer the stored oxygen into oxidants effectively. Also, for the complex fuel gas environment, the supported Ni oxide was somewhat effective in reforming CH4 and other light hydrocarbons into CO, which may have benefits for the reduction of tar produced during biomass pyrolysis.

H.B. Huang; L. Aisyah; P.J. Ashman; Y.C. Leung; C.W. Kwong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

One-Step Conversion of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 1,2,6-Hexanetriol Over Ni–Co–Al Mixed Oxide Catalysts Under Mild Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One-Step Conversion of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 1,2,6-Hexanetriol Over Ni–Co–Al Mixed Oxide Catalysts Under Mild Conditions ... A sustainable process with a one-step conversion of biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 1,2,6-hexanetriol is presented. ... The conversion of biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was examined over Ni–Co–Al mixed oxide catalysts derived from corresponding hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs). ...

Shengxi Yao; Xicheng Wang; Yijun Jiang; Feng Wu; Xinguo Chen; Xindong Mu

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Miscibility of Ethanol in Diesel Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fuels selected were as follows:? US-1D, US-2D, kerosene, light cycle oil, #1 fuel oil, Fischer Tropsch Liquid 2 (FTL-2, FTL refers to a broad-cut fraction of Fischer?Tropsch products not meeting diesel volatility specifications.), ... The close proximity of a mixture's UCST to the fuel's cloud point masked the classical UCST phase behavior for the FTL fuels and light cycle oil; however, the general trends persisted. ...

K. R. Gerdes; G. J. Suppes

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

139

Dried chitosan-gels as organocatalysts for the production of biomass-derived platform chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aldol condensations between sugar-derived dehydrated aldehydes (e.g. furfural) and acetone have been proposed as a route to provide useful biomass-derived chemicals. In the quest of sustainable catalytic ways for such aldol condensations, this paper assesses the use of dried chitosan-gels as naturally-immobilized, readily available and non-hazardous amino-based organocatalysts. At room temperature chitosan dried gels are not suitable catalysts for the desired reaction. However, at higher temperatures (>90 °C) reaction proceeds efficiently either in solvent-free systems (with addition of catalytic amounts of water) or in water. The set-up of closed reactor set-ups (thermoshakers or microwave reactions) proved highly beneficial for the reaction outcome. Furthermore, chitosan dried gels were successfully re-used for a number of cycles. An efficient catalyst drying method (either lyophilization or scCO2 drying) was crucial to achieve virtually full conversions in 4 h. After pertinent further process optimization, dried chitosan-gels may become very useful catalysts for their use in biomass-based reactions in biorefineries.

Henning Kayser; Christoph R. Müller; Carlos A. García-González; Irina Smirnova; Walter Leitner; Pablo Domínguez de María

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)  

SciTech Connect

Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ('biochar'). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. BET-N{sub 2} surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous, but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved, (ii) in amorphous chars the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed, (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases, and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. The molecular variations among the different char categories translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents.

Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P.S.; Johnson, M.G.; Kleber, M.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived Syngas Using a Membrane Reactor Based Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) One of the benefits of adopting H2 as an energy source, in addition to reducing CO2 emissions, is that it can be produced from readily available and plentiful raw materials such as coal and renewable biomass; this then diminishes the need to use the world’s dwindling crude-oil resources. ... For that, coal must be first gasified with air or pure O2 at high temperatures(2) to produce coal-gasifier off-gas (or syngas), containing as key species H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4, and other byproducts such as organic vapors, tars, H2S, and NH3, etc.,(2) the exact composition depending on the operating conditions, e.g., pressure, temperature, type of coal and oxidant used and their flow rates, and gasifier configuration, etc.(2) ... A novel MR system termed as the “one-box” process, in which syngas cleanup, hydrogen production via the WGS reaction, and product separation are combined in the same unit, was successfully utilized for producing hydrogen from a feed with a simulated biomass-derived syngas containing common impurities such as H2S and NH3, a model organic vapor (toluene), and a model tar-like species (naphthalene). ...

Jiang Yu; Mingyang Tan; Paul K. T. Liu; Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore T. Tsotsis

2013-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

142

Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce Costs  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

New aqueous phase reforming process uses liquid feedstocks to produce energy from hydrogen with reduced costs.

143

Volatility of Mixtures of JP-8 with Biomass Derived Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuels by the Composition Explicit Distillation Curve Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Volatility of Mixtures of JP-8 with Biomass Derived Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuels by the Composition Explicit Distillation Curve Method ... Energy Fuels, 2012, 26 (3), ... There are many reasons for this, the most important of which are guarding against potential supply disruptions, overcoming the dependence on foreign sources of petroleum, overcoming the vulnerability of large centralized refineries (to both weather events and terrorist acts), and mitigation of the rising costs of current fuel streams. ...

Jean Van Buren; Kathryn Abel; Tara M. Lovestead; Thomas J. Bruno

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

144

Environmentally Friendly Oxidation of Biomass Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into 2,5-Diformylfuran Catalyzed by Magnetic Separation of Ruthenium Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmentally Friendly Oxidation of Biomass Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into 2,5-Diformylfuran Catalyzed by Magnetic Separation of Ruthenium Catalyst ... In this study, aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF) was studied over a magnetic catalyst [Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2-Ru(III)]. ... 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which is generated by the dehydration of C6-based carbohydrates, is considered to be a key platform molecule. ...

Shuguo Wang; Zehui Zhang; Bing Liu; Jinlin Li

2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

145

Engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of gas to liquid (GTL) fuels and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Crude oil price hikes, energy security concerns and environmental drivers have turned the focus to alternative fuels. Gas to liquid (GTL) diesel is regarded as a promising alternative diesel fuel, considering the adeptness to use directly as a diesel fuel or in blends with petroleum-derived diesel or bio-diesel. GTL fuel derived from Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is of distinctly different characteristics than fossil diesel fuel due to its paraffinic nature, virtually zero sulfur, low aromatic contents and very high cetane number. GTL fuel is referred to as a “clean fuel” for its inherent ability to reduce engine exhaust emission even with blends of diesel and bio-diesel. This paper illustrates feasibility of GTL fuel in context of comparative fuel properties with conventional diesel and bio-diesels. This review also describes the technical attributes of GTL and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel focusing their impact on engine performance and emission characteristics on the basis of the previous research works. It can introduce an efficacious guideline to devise several blends of alternative fuels, further the development of engine performance and constrain exhaust emission to cope with the relentless efforts to manufacture efficient and environment friendly powertrains.

H. Sajjad; H.H. Masjuki; M. Varman; M.A. Kalam; M.I. Arbab; S. Imtenan; S.M. Ashrafur Rahman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates via Aqueous-Phase Reforming  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation by Virent Energy Systems, Inc. at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

147

Synthesis of Aromatic-Rich Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons from Biomass-Derived Syngas over a Pd-Promoted Fe/HZSM-5 Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis of Aromatic-Rich Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons from Biomass-Derived Syngas over a Pd-Promoted Fe/HZSM-5 Catalyst ... The cool syngas was then compressed to a storage tank or sent to a burner. ...

Qiangu Yan; Yongwu Lu; Caixia Wan; Jun Han; Jose Rodriguez; Jing-jing Yin; Fei Yu

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

148

Glycolaldehyde as a Probe Molecule for Biomass Derivatives: Reaction of C—OH and C?O Functional Groups on Monolayer Ni Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Controlling the activity and selectivity of converting biomass derivatives to syngas (H2 and CO) is critical for the utilization of biomass feedstocks as renewable sources for chemicals and fuels. ...

Weiting Yu; Mark A. Barteau; Jingguang G. Chen

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

149

ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: SFP Construction and Fuel Production, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Fleet Testing at WMATA and Denali National Park, Demonstration of Clean Diesel Fuels in Diesel Electric Generators in Alaska, and Economic Analysis. ICRC provided overall project organization and budget management for the project. ICRC held meetings with various project participants. ICRC presented at the Department of Energy's annual project review meeting. The plant began producing fuel in October 2004. The first delivery of finished fuel was made in March of 2004 after the initial start-up period.

Steve Bergin

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

150

Processes and palladium-promoted catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for hydrocarbon synthesis comprising the step of reacting a synthesis gas in the presence of a cobalt catalyst promoted with palladium.

Singleton, Alan H. (Baden, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Gibsonia, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Cranberry Township, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst by Supercritical Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of January I to March 31, 1998. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was completed. Variations of particle trajectories are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity for irregular fibrous particles is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data for glass fibers and discussed. Additional progress on the sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition and resuspension in turbulent flows was made.

Mark C. Thies; Patrick C. Joyce

1998-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over a fused iron catalyst in a three phase slurry reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

variables and ranges were temperature, 235 C to 280 C, pressure, 200 to 400 psig, space velocity, 0, 71 to 4. 5N liter/hr gram unreduced catalyst and H /CO feed, 0. 64 to 2. 4. Increases in temperature and space velocity were found to shift product... Neter; L Drierite Tube; N Vater Saturator; N Vet Test Meter. 24 Catalyst Transfer Configuration for Catalyst Charging. 26 3-4 Carle Refinery Gas Analyzer Chromatogram for Gas Phase Analysis of Light Gases from Run 510. 29 3-5 Varian Aerograph...

Buck, Henry J

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

153

Influence of Biodiesel Addition to Fischer?Tropsch Fuel on Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Zhu, R.; Wang, X.; Miao, H.; Huang, Z.; Gao, J.; Jiang, D.Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends Energy Fuels 2009, 23, 286– 293 ... Results showed that, without changing the fuel supply system and the combustion system of a diesel engine, when using blended fuel with increased DMM percentage, break-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is higher for a smaller lower heating value of DMM, while thermal efficiency increases a little. ... To investigate influences of fuel design on regulated and non-regulated emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines, a Mercedes-Benz OM 906 Euro 3 engine was run with common diesel fuel (DF), first- and second-generation alternative fuels (Gas-to-liq. ...

Md. Nurun Nabi; Johan Einar Hustad

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

154

Making Fischer?Tropsch Fuels and Electricity from Coal and Biomass: Performance and Cost Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We employ a unified analytical framework to systematically analyze 16 separate process designs, simulating for each detailed mass/energy balances using Aspen Plus software, and calculating their full lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. ... In the plant designs with electricity as a major coproduct, designated as “once-through” (OT) configurations (Figure 1b), the syngas passes only once through the synthesis reactor, and all of the unconverted syngas plus light gases from FTL refining are compressed and supplied to the power island where a gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle (GTCC) provides the power needed to operate the plant, as well as a substantial amount of export power (up to 37% of the total plant output of fuel (LHV) and power—see Table 3). ... (27) The gasifier is followed by a tar cracking unit, modeled as an ATR with a syngas exit temperature of 882 °C that converts into syngas the heavy hydrocarbons that form at typical biomass gasification temperatures and that would otherwise condense and cause operating difficulties downstream. ...

Guangjian Liu; Eric D. Larson; Robert H. Williams; Thomas G. Kreutz; Xiangbo Guo

2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

155

Development of a Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline Process for the Steam Hydrogasification Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial   &  engineering  chemistry  research,  2005.  Industrial   &   engineering   chemistry   research,  Industrial   &   engineering   chemistry  research,  1995.  

Li, Yang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Co/Pillared Clay Bifunctional Catalyst for Controlling the Product Distribution of Fischer?Tropsch Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results indicate that the activities of the catalysts (i.e., CO conversions) increase in the order of Co/Na-Clay ? Co/Si-PILC ? Co/acid-clay ? Co/Al-PILC PILC ? Co/SiO2. ... After calcination at 773 K for 4 h, zirconia-pillared clay (Zr-PILC) was obtained. ... Following the same procedure as used for preparing Zr-PILC, Al-PILC and Si-PILC were obtained. ...

Qing-Qing Hao; Guang-Wei Wang; Zhao-Tie Liu; Jian Lu; Zhong-Wen Liu

2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

157

FischerTropsch synthesis on a model Co/SiO2 catalyst , Zhoujun Wang a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, although made vulnerable by the dramatic changes in crude oil prices, is still one of the few technologies and Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history on crude oil, and much effort has been made to develop renewable energy technologies, such as solar, wind

Goodman, Wayne

158

Performance Synergies between Low-Temperature and High-Temperature Fischer?Tropsch Diesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With both LTFT and HTFT diesels being nontraditional, alternative diesel fuels that can be used directly in the current fuelling infrastructure, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential synergies in fuel properties with blends of LTFT diesel and HTFT DHT diesel. ... Regulated exhaust emissions measured over the engine dynamometer test cycle in grams of pollutant per unit of mechanical energy delivered by the engine (g/kW h) included total hydrocarbon (THC), generally referred to as HC, CO, carbon dioxide (CO2), NOx, and PM. ... However, the general consumer should most probably not be able to notice the difference in volumetric fuel consumption. ...

Delanie Lamprecht; Luis P. Dancuart; Kaveer Harrilall

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Ultra-Clean Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Production and Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: Dynamometer Durability Testing, the Denali Bus Fleet Demonstration, Bus Fleet Demonstrations Emissions Analysis, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Emissions Analysis, Feasibility Study of SFPs for Rural Alaska, and Cold Weather Testing of Ultra Clean Fuel.

Steve Bergin

2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

160

Technology Development for Iron and Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Quarterly Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States agency thereof. #12;2 Abstract CAER Tight control of catalyst distribution within SBCRs should . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Kentucky, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A study of Fischer-Tropsch model compounds reacting over ZSM-5  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on small hydrocarbons have been studied by many investigators. The conversion of methanol to I , hydrocarbons has been studied by Chang and Silvestri (1977), Derouane, et ' al. (1978), Anderson, et al. (1979), Dejaifve, et al. (1980), and Vedrine, et al... on small hydrocarbons have been studied by many investigators. The conversion of methanol to I , hydrocarbons has been studied by Chang and Silvestri (1977), Derouane, et ' al. (1978), Anderson, et al. (1979), Dejaifve, et al. (1980), and Vedrine, et al...

Riley, Mark Garner

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

162

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst by Supercritical Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of January I to March 31, 1998. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was completed. Variations of particle trajectories are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity for irregular fibrous particles is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data for glass fibers and discussed. Additional progress on the sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition and resuspension in turbulent flows was made.

Mark C. Thies; Patrick C. Joyce

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

Emissions Characteristics of a Turbine Engine and Research Combustor Burning a Fischer?Tropsch Jet Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

GTL and CTL technologies were discovered in Germany in the mid-1910s and further developed in 1923 by German scientists Drs. ... The Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory and the Fuels Branch of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/PRTG) established a collaborative research and development program in 2000 to study and demonstrate clean aviation fuels as part of the DOE Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative. ... 21 Gaseous emissions were quantified using an MKS MultiGas 2030 Fourier-transform infrared based gas analyzer and a flame ionization detector based total hydrocarbon analyzer. ...

Edwin Corporan; Matthew J. DeWitt; Vincent Belovich; Robert Pawlik; Amy C. Lynch; James R. Gord; Terrence R. Meyer

2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

164

Combustion and \\{NOx\\} emissions of biomass-derived syngas under various gasification conditions utilizing oxygen-enriched-air and steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the \\{NOx\\} emissions from combustion of syngas derived from gasification of three different biomass feedstock (i.e., pine, maple–oak mixture, and seed corn) at different oxygen-enriched-air and steam conditions. Three different oxygen-enriched-air and steam conditions were tested for each feedstock, thus resulting in nine different sets of syngas. The biomass-derived syngas was burned in an industrial burner that was integrated into the gasification system. The gasifier and burner are rated at 800 kW and 879 kW thermal, respectively. For each set of biomass-derived syngas, \\{NOx\\} emissions were measured at different burner operating conditions including various heat rates and equivalence ratios using emission analyzers with chemiluminescence technology. All the combustion test conditions are in the lean mixture ranges in order to avoid the peak temperature limitation of both the burner and combustion chamber. Results show that \\{NOx\\} emissions using syngas obtained from woody feedstock decrease almost linearly as the combustion mixture becomes leaner and the heat rate decreases. When compared to natural gas, syngas from both woody feedstock generates higher \\{NOx\\} emissions even when the heat rates are comparable, indicating that fuel \\{NOx\\} formation is highly important in biomass-derived syngas combustion. In contrast to syngas from woody feedstock, syngas from seed corn results in peak \\{NOx\\} emissions before \\{NOx\\} decreases with leaner conditions. The trend is observed for all fuel flow rates and all oxygen-enriched-air and steam conditions of seed corn-derived syngas. Among the three feedstock, seed corn has the highest nitrogen content which yields the highest ammonia concentration in syngas, which, in turn, results in the highest \\{NOx\\} emissions for all test conditions. Overall, the \\{NOx\\} emissions from seed corn-derived syngas combustion are approximately in the range of 450–900 ppm higher compared to those from wood-derived syngas combustion.

Cuong Van Huynh; Song-Charng Kong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Argonne Transportation Technology R&D Center - Alternative Fuels -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Fischer-Tropsch Fuels SunDiesel fuel This Sun Diesel BTL fuel, made from wood chips, results in lower particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions. Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels are synthetic diesel fuels produced by converting gaseous hydrocarbons, such as natural gas and gasified coal or biomass, into liquid fuel. These fuels are commonly categorized into the following groups: Biomass to liquids (BTL) Gas to liquids (GTL) Coal to liquids (CTL) Argonne engineers are investigating the performance and emissions data of F-T fuels for both older and newer vehicles. The goal is to provide this data to the U.S. Department of Energy, the auto industry and energy suppliers. Part of the lab's strategy also includes publishing the data to solicit ideas and input from the fuels and combustion community.

166

Start | Grid View | Browse by Day OR Group/Topical | Author Index | Keyword Index | Personal Scheduler Controlled Variables Selection for a Gas-to-Liquids Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) production of synthesis gas (syngas), (ii) Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactor and (iii) upgrading units. Various production [1]. In our work, we study in a detail; design, optimization and controlled variables selection for a GTL process based on ATR for synthesis gas production and a FT reactor with Cobalt catalyst

Skogestad, Sigurd

167

EA-1642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and 642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY EA-1642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY SUMMARY This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE's proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

168

An efficient didehydroxylation method for the biomass-derived polyols glycerol and erythritol. Mechanistic studies of a formic acid-mediated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-oils from biomass pyrolysis4 and because of its promising role in hydrogen storage through the fixationAn efficient didehydroxylation method for the biomass-derived polyols glycerol and erythritol,2-deoxygenation method, involving an unexpected mechanism, was found for simple diols and for biomass

169

Calorimetric study of adsorption of aliphatic hydrocarbons on reduced cobalt catalyst  

SciTech Connect

A study has been made of the heats of adsorption and the adsorption isotherms of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons on Co at 298/sup 0/K; the content of organic matter in the catalyst has been determined after use in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. It is concluded that the Fischer-Tropsch process includes stages of diffusion of the original reactants and the products through a liquid film of hydrocarbons coating the catalyst; the hydrocarbon molecules are adsorbed on the surface in the ''lying down'' position; the adsorption of paraffins is reversible and is described by the BET theory; olefins form an irreversibly chemisorbed monolayer, above which reversible adsorption takes place; the ease of desorption of the paraffins explains their preferential formation in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

Ostrovskii, V.E.; Medvedkova, E.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

I Reproducedwith pennissionfrom Elsevier Preparedfor Proceedingsof the4thBiomassConferenceof theAmericas,ElsevierScience,Ltd.,Oxford,UK, 1999.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

comparative energy balances for F-T liquids production from natural gas, coal, and biomass. Using the approach A variety of liquid hydrocarbonscan beproducedvia Fischer-Tropsch synthesis from biomass. We combuItiCXI In this paper,we considerthe idea of )12 ~ producing liquid hydrocarbons from biomass i

171

A First-Principle Study of Chain Propagation Steps in the Fischer?Tropsch Synthesis on Fe(100)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This finding is consistent with the LEED and TDS observations that propyl is the dominant product instead of propane in the hydrogenation reaction of propylene on Fe(100) below 200 K.(51) ... thanks the Canadian Government for a Canada Research Chair in Theoretical Inorganic Chemistry. ...

John M. H. Lo; Tom Ziegler

2008-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

172

Síntese de Fischer-Tropsch sobre perovskitas LayCu0,4Fe0,6O3.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A produção atual de 52 milhões mdia-1 de gás natural e os grandes projetos para esta expansão vem estabelecendo novas fronteiras para a indústria nacional… (more)

José Roberto de Souza

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst Using Near-Critical Fluid Extraction: Analysis of Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

", can be produced from materials such as coal, natural gas, waste biomass, and petroleum coke. A great of coal and natural gas exist in many geographical regions that lack sufficient petroleum. Therefore

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

174

Selective adsorption of manganese onto cobalt for optimized Mn/Co/TiO2 FischerTropsch catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht Adsorption (SEA) method was applied to the rational design of a promoted Co catalyst for Fischer­Tropsch (FT (SEA) method, which has been successfully applied to prepare highly dis- persed, monometallic catalysts

Regalbuto, John R.

175

Characterization of new Co and Ru on -WC catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Influence of the carbide surface state.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[8]. Among the group VI transition metal carbides, the hexagonal tungsten carbide WC is a remarkable proceeds on supported transition metal catalysts, Co or Fe on oxide supports generally Al2O3 or SiO2 [1 of the carbide surface state. A. Griboval-Constant(1) *, J.-M. Giraudon(1) , I. Twagishema(1) , G. Leclercq(1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

Characterization of new Co and Ru on -WC catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Influence of the carbide surface state.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the metallic particles [8]. Among the group VI transition metal carbides, the hexagonal tungsten carbide WC monoxide and hydrogen. FT synthesis proceeds on supported transition metal catalysts, Co or Fe on oxide of the carbide surface state. A. Griboval-Constant(1) *, J.-M. Giraudon(1) , I. Twagishema(1) , G. Leclercq(1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst by supercritical extraction. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

One of the major objectives of this research project is to predict the phase behavior of model wax compounds in dense supercritical fluids such as hexane. Because initial results with the SAFT equation have been less promising than expected, the group at North Carolina State University has focused their recent attention on cubic equations of state, in particular the Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong versions. The focus of this work has been on developing correlations that can be used to predict binary interaction parameters (i.e., k{sub ij}s) for a given binary wax-solvent system. As a first step, k{sub ij}s were first calculated from experimental data on systems containing alkanes between nC{sub 4} and nC{sub 23} at temperatures between 25 and 357{degrees} C. Attempts were then made to correlate these parameters with specific pure component properties of the alkanes of interest. Reasonably good agreement between experimental and predicted k{sub ij}s was found using a correlation that incorporates both temperature and the molecular size of the alkanes. As phase equilibrium data becomes available for higher molecular weight model wax compounds, the ability of the correlation to handle such systems will need to be tested. The phase equilibrium apparatus is currently undergoing modifications that will allow the system to run components that are solids at ambient temperatures. Some problems are still being resolved, as the heavy component tends to precipitate in the sample lines. Modifications have been made that should allow the system to operate reliably.

Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels from Coal and Biomass Thomas G. Kreutz, Eric D. Larson, Guangjian Liu, Robert H. Williams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

...................................................................................................................................8 2.2.2 Biomass as feedstock

179

Neutrons for Catalysis: A Workshop on Neutron Scattering Techniques for Studies in Catalysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-EM Fischer Tropsch Catalysis on Fe- or Co-catalysts, ,,CTL" Coal to Liquids ­ ,a rough (?) analogy #12;Peter Albers, AQ-EM Carbonaceous Deposits on Catalysts #12;Peter Albers, AQ-EM IINS on Coked Catalysts from Industrial Plants High-temperature and low-temperature cokes deposited on catalysts during

Pennycook, Steve

180

Life Cycle Analysis of the Production of Aviation Fuels Using the CE-CERT Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FTR: Fischer-Tropsch reactor LCA: life cycle analysis LCI:software. Life cycle analyses (LCA) using a modified GREETfor the process. Keywords: LCA, Fischer-Tropsch, avation

Hu, Sangran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Efficient Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Chromium(III) Chloride in Inexpensive Ionic Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Chromium(III) Chloride in Inexpensive Ionic Liquid ... An efficient process was developed for the conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the relatively low-toxicity and inexpensive catalytic system of chromium(III) chloride (CrCl3·6H2O) catalyst and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) ionic liquid. ... Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Biofuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran ...

Lei Hu; Yong Sun; Lu Lin

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

182

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY HEADWATERS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION GROUP FOR AN  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HEADWATERS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION GROUP FOR AN HEADWATERS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION GROUP FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FC26-05NT42448; W(A)-05-023, CH-1287 The Petitioner, Headwaters Technology Innovation Group (HTI) was awarded a cooperative agreement for the performance of work entitled, "Production and Optimization of Coal-Derived High Hydrogen Content Fischer-Tropsch Liquids". The purpose of the cooperative agreement is to select the optimum Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst for producing high-hydrogen content FT liquids based on bench-scale testing of high and medium alpha iron-based catalysts and to produce barrel quantity samples of high-hydrogen content FT liquids in a process demonstration unit. This waiver is only for inventions of HTI made under its cooperative

183

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10231 10231 Southern Research Institute FE Nexant, Inc. SCC/Gasification Division 2013-2015/31 months Arun C Bose San Francisco, CA Small Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Nexant will conduct comparative process economic analysis by paper and computer studies for coal to liquids (CTL) and coal biomass to liquids (CBTL) production by the Fischer-Tropsch process. Arun Bose Digitally signed by Arun Bose DN: cn=Arun Bose, o=NETL, ou=SCC-Gasification Division, email=arun.bose@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2012.09.17 07:58:22 -04'00' 09 17 2012 john ganz Digitally signed by john ganz DN: cn=john ganz, o=environmental compliance division, ou=office of general counsel, email=john.ganz@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2012.09.17 14:26:15 -04'00'

184

EA-1642S: Supplemental Draft Environmental Assessment | Department of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EA-1642S: Supplemental Draft Environmental Assessment EA-1642S: Supplemental Draft Environmental Assessment EA-1642S: Supplemental Draft Environmental Assessment Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, Kentucky This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of DOE providing financial assistance to the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) to partially fund the completion of the design, construction and operation of a small-scale pilot plant for research related to the gasification of coal and coal-biomass blends and conversion of derived syngas to liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. This project is intended to evaluate the commercial and technical viability of

185

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

11 - 13320 of 31,917 results. 11 - 13320 of 31,917 results. Download Vision for 2025: A Framework for Change http://energy.gov/downloads/vision-2025-framework-change Page EA-1642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY Draft SEA: Comment Period Ends 01/22/14 This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE's proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

186

Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal Liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, we have studied the attrition behavior of Iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into liquid fuels.

Abhaya K. Datye

1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

187

SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

Abhaya K. Datye

1998-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

188

Analysis of Syngas Quality from Portuguese Biomasses: An Experimental and Numerical Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On the other hand, the use of gasifiers instead of combustors shows clear advantages, namely, the generation of a syngas with improved quality to be used in the production of Fischer-tropsch liquids, fuel cells, clean fuel combustion, and cheaper CO2 underground sequestration. ... Field, M. A.Rate of combustion of size-graded fractions of char from a low rank coal between 1200K-2000K Combust. ...

Valter Silva; Eliseu Monteiro; Nuno Couto; Paulo Brito; Abel Rouboa

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

189

Synthesis Gas Production with an Adjustable H2/CO Ratio through the Coal Gasification Process: Effects of Coal Ranks And Methane Addition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the decline of oil reserves and production, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) part of Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) synthesis technology has become increasing important. ... The Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that over 50% of the coal reserve base in the United States (U.S.) is bituminous coal, about 30% is sub-bituminous, and 9% is lignite. ...

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

190

UK FT PDU Facility Draft EA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2S 2S Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment for University of Kentucky Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Lexington, KY December 2013 Prepared for: Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory This page intentionally left blank. Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment DOE/EA-1642S Fischer-Tropsch Process Development Unit December 2013 Cover Sheet Proposed Action: The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes, through a cooperative agreement with the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), to partially fund the completion of the design, construction, and operation of a small-scale pilot plant for research related to the gasification of coal

191

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis F-T Efficiency & Performance - DOE R&D Comparing liquid transportation fuels production from coal gasification to fuels from traditional production methods is a difficult undertaking because of the vastly diverse configuration options available for gasification processing. Traditionally, fuels like gasoline and diesel are refined from crude oil, a (comparatively) more uniform feedstock than coal -or, for that matter, biomass, petcoke, refinery waste, etc. Each potential feedstock, even between different coal ranks, has variable characteristics that can necessitate design changes (ash content, sulfur concentration, feed handling issues, etc.). Additionally, as a relatively new approach to producing liquid fuels, gasification has not had years of refinement to develop a "best," most productive or cost-efficient approach, in part, due to the aforementioned flexibility in choosing feedstock, product, synthesis gas (syngas) cleaning and conditioning units. In fact, besides multiple gasifier options and configurations, the liquid fuel synthesis component itself can be approached multiple ways: methanol-to-gasoline or Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, to name the two most important. Essentially, comparing petroleum-refinery produced transportation fuels and gasification-derived fuels requires design assumptions and limiting the scope of the comparison in order to arrive at meaningful conclusions.

192

Aerobic Oxidation of Biomass-Derived 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural into 2,5-Diformylfuran Catalyzed by the Trimetallic Mixed Oxide (Co–Ce–Ru)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Sciences of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission & Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, People’s Republic of China ... (2-5) Therefore, chemical industries are shifting their focus to the development of sustainable manufacturing processes for the conversion of biomass into bulk chemicals and liquid fuels. ... (7-10) HMF is regarded as one of the most promising platform chemicals and can be used as a versatile precursor for the production of fine chemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and liquid fuels. ...

Yimei Wang; Bing Liu; Kecheng Huang; Zehui Zhang

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

193

Fischer?Tropsch Synthesis: Influence of Mn on the Carburization Rates and Activities of Fe-Based Catalysts by TPR-EXAFS/XANES and Catalyst Testing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

However, the structure of the catalyst changes as a function of reaction time, with the mixed oxide phase decomposing into iron carbides, magnetite, and MnO, thereby resulting in lower olefin selectivities. ... (7-10) Nevertheless, in examining the Fe K-edge results, although we observed differences in rates of carburization between catalyst samples with and without Mn, we did not detect discernible line shape differences in the XANES spectra between the intermediary iron oxides along the TPR trajectory. ... (35) Epsilon carbide is typically formed at lower temperatures (350 °C; cementite is formed at temperatures above 350 °C. ...

Mauro C. Ribeiro; Gary Jacobs; Ramana Pendyala; Burtron H. Davis; Donald C. Cronauer; A. Jeremy Kropf; Christopher L. Marshall

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

194

Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of iron-catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to carry out a Moessbauer spectroscopy study of Iron-based catalysts to identify iron phases present and correlate with water gas shift and FT activities. A total of 15 catalysts were evaluated so far. Results are presented on the amounts in each catalyst of the following phases: superparamagnetic phase, hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), Chi-carbide phase ({chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}), and an epsilon-carbide phase ({var_epsilon}-Fe{sub 2.2}C).

Huffman, G.P.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Potential for Reduction of Exhaust Emissions in a Common-Rail Direct-Injection Diesel Engine by Fueling with Fischer–Tropsch Diesel Fuel Synthesized from Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the constant speed/varying load test modes, the use of CFT also resulted in a general reduction of regulated emissions. ... (5, 6) Moreover, FT diesel fuels can be used in contemporary diesel engines without any modification and with a negligible or weak improvement of engine efficiency. ... Liu, Z.; Shi, S.; Li, Y.Coal liquefaction technologies—Development in China and challenges in chemical reaction engineering Chem. ...

Chonglin Song; Guohong Gong; Jinou Song; Gang Lv; Xiaofeng Cao; Lidong Liu; Yiqiang Pei

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

196

Comparative Study on Engine Performance and Diesel Emissions with European Diesel Fuel (DF)?Diethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether (DGM) and Fischer?Tropsch (FT)?DGM Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Department of Energy and Process Engineering ... The general picture of the methyl- and methylene-related vibrations in the DF used here confirms the results of the GC analyses; i.e., that the DF resembles a n-alkane-dominated hydrocarbon mixture. ... To investigate influences of fuel design on regulated and non-regulated emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines, a Mercedes-Benz OM 906 Euro 3 engine was run with common diesel fuel (DF), first- and second-generation alternative fuels (Gas-to-liq. ...

Md. Nurun Nabi; Rudolf Schmid; Johan Einar Hustad

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

197

New approach to the generation of metal-bearing, medium-pore, shape-selective zeolites for Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. [Aluminoferrisilicate  

SciTech Connect

A new method of combining the shape-selective characteristics of zeolites with a group VIII metal component is described. It involves the following sequence of steps: (1) synthesis of an aluminoferrisilicate (AFS) zeolite, having a crystal structure analogous to zeolite ZSM-5, but which incorporates ferric ions into the structure during synthesis; (2) removal of the organic base used as a template in crystallization of the AFS zeolite; (3) reaction of the AFS zeolite with a transition metal complex anion in aqueous solution to precipitate an inclusion compound in the AFS zeolite, and (4) reduction of the inclusion compound with hydrogen at elevated temperature.

Iton, L.E.; Beal, R.B.; Hodul, D.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy held a kick-off meeting for the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) on October 24, 2006, in Baltimore, Maryland. The Working Group is addressing technical challenges to distributed reforming of biomass-derived, renewable liquid fuels to hydrogen, including the reforming, water-gas shift, and hydrogen recovery and purification steps. The meeting provided the opportunity for researchers to share their experiences in converting bio-derived liquids to hydrogen with each other and with members of the DOE Hydrogen Production Technical Team.

199

Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Simonetti, Dante A. (Middleton, WI); Kunkes, Edward L. (Madison, WI)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

200

Albany, OR * Anchorage, AK * Morgantown, WV * Pittsburgh, PA * Sugar Land, TX  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasification Characteristics of Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels Background Domestically abundant coal is a primary energy source and when mixed with optimum levels of biomass during the production of liquid fuels may have lower carbon footprints compared to petroleum fuel baselines. Coal and biomass mixtures are converted via gasification into synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of predominantly carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which can be subsequently converted to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting research focused on using coal and biomass to produce clean and affordable power, fuels and chemicals. The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is partnering with Leland Stanford Junior

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

C–H Bond Activation by Pd-substituted CeO2: Substituted Ions versus Reduced Species  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While large reserves of CH4 exist and considerable portions of these reserves are currently used to heat homes and generate hydrogen for other synthetic processes, it is widely accepted that the conversion of CH4 to liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently with an inexpensive and robust catalyst would be a substantial contribution to alternative energy research. ... (40) The usual Fischer–Tropsch strategy requires oxidation to mixtures of CO and H2, which are then converted to higher hydrocarbons. ... While heating any hydrocarbon in the presence of oxygen to high temperatures, combustion products are expected. ...

Lauren M. Misch; Joshua A. Kurzman; Alan R. Derk; Young-Il Kim; Ram Seshadri; Horia Metiu; Eric W. McFarland; Galen D. Stucky

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

202

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Influence of CO Conversion on Selectivities H2/CO Usage Ratios and Catalyst Stability for a 0.27 percent Ru 25 percent Co/Al2O3 using a Slurry Phase Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The effect of CO conversion on hydrocarbon selectivities (i.e., CH{sub 4}, C{sub 5+}, olefin and paraffin), H{sub 2}/CO usage ratios, CO{sub 2} selectivity, and catalyst stability over a wide range of CO conversion (12-94%) on 0.27%Ru-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied under the conditions of 220 C, 1.5 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio of 2.1 and gas space velocities of 0.3-15 NL/g-cat/h in a 1-L continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Catalyst samples were withdrawn from the CSTR at different CO conversion levels, and Co phases (Co, CoO) in the slurry samples were characterized by XANES, and in the case of the fresh catalysts, EXAFS as well. Ru was responsible for increasing the extent of Co reduction, thus boosting the active site density. At 1%Ru loading, EXAFS indicates that coordination of Ru at the atomic level was virtually solely with Co. It was found that the selectivities to CH{sub 4}, C{sub 5+}, and CO{sub 2} on the Co catalyst are functions of CO conversion. At high CO conversions, i.e. above 80%, CH{sub 4} selectivity experienced a change in the trend, and began to increase, and CO{sub 2} selectivity experienced a rapid increase. H{sub 2}/CO usage ratio and olefin content were found to decrease with increasing CO conversion in the range of 12-94%. The observed results are consistent with water reoxidation of Co during FTS at high conversion. XANES spectroscopy of used catalyst samples displayed spectra consistent with the presence of more CoO at higher CO conversion levels.

W Ma; G Jacobs; Y Ji; T Bhatelia; D Bukur; S Khalid; B Davis

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fischer?Tropsch Synthesis: An In-Situ TPR-EXAFS/XANES Investigation of the Influence of Group I Alkali Promoters on the Local Atomic and Electronic Structure of Carburized Iron/Silica Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After 10 h of treatment the samples containing K, Rb, and Cs were completely carburized, and residual quantities of iron oxides were detected in both unpromoted and Li-promoted samples. ... To further constrain the model, global parameters (i.e., over all samples) were used for the isotropic lattice expansion (?) and Debye?Waller factor (?2) parameters for carbide (i.e., combined epsilon and Hägg) and oxide (i.e., Fe3O4) fractions. ... Au particles smaller than about 30 Å were also reactive to air, leading to oxidn. of up to 15% of the atoms of the gold particles, depending on the size; larger particles were not oxidized. ...

Mauro C. Ribeiro; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis; Donald C. Cronauer; A. Jeremy Kropf; Christopher L. Marshall

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Synthetic Jet Fuel Production Design and evaluate cost-competitiveness of co-gasification facility for producing primarily Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel. Includes...

205

Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pathways, such as gasification. However, the current studysuch as MSW, the gasification to Fischer- Tropsch fuelof research on biomass gasification to FT-fuels compared to

Jones, Andrew; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

June 3, 2014 Webinar - Features, Events, and Processes: Practical...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& Publications HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses Proceedings of 3rd USGerman Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation Eastern Wind Integration...

207

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

petroleum based fuels * Non-petroleum based fuels: - Biodiesel and new generation biofuels - Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels - Oil sand derived fuels Reduce mechanisms for...

208

Otimização da produção de hidrogênio pela reforma a vapor do metano em reator com membrana laboratorial.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydrogen is used as fuel and as a feedstock in important processes such as ammonia and methanol production and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, besides the increasing use… (more)

Leandro Cardoso Silva

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY TEXACO ENERGY SERVICES...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the integration of four existing commercial modules (gasification, air separation, combined cycle process, and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology into a unified whole unit...

210

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Commercial Use of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Commercial Use of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Operating Facilities - Sasol Production of liquid fuels and chemicals from coal on a large scale has been a reality in South Africa for decades. Sasol Synfuels owns and operates Sasol II and Sasol III, which are two F-T synthesis-based fuels production plants in Secunda, South Africa. The Sasol plants represent the most significant example of commercialized F-T synthesis in the world. Construction of Sasol II began in the mid 1970s, with operation of the two plants commencing in the early 1980s. The two plants contain 80 Sasol-Lurgi Fixed Bed Dry Bottom (FBDB) gasifiers, and total output from both of the plants is approximately 150,000 barrels per day (bpd), reaching 160,000 bpd in 2006. The feedstock for the plants is sub-bituminous coal supplied by Sasol Mining, a sister company of Sasol Synfuels. Natural gas is also used as a supplemental feedstock. A proprietary iron-based Fisher-Tropsch (FT) process is used to convert the synthesis gas (syngas) produced by the gasifiers to gasoline, light olefins (alkenes), and a variety of other products.

211

Liquid hydrocarbon fuels from syngas. Second annual report, March 1982-February 1983  

SciTech Connect

Initial Task 1 tests used methanol as the feed. It was found that catalysts of interest tended to make highly methylated aromatics in the Berty reactor. Although a simulated distillation showed that these products boiled in the gasoline and diesel range, most were solid at room temperature. Aromatic products frequently are desirable constituents of gasoline, but highly methylated aromatics which precipitate at the concentrations found are undesirable. Since small olefins are products and intermediates in reactions over Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, propylene was chosen as feedstock to replace methanol. Catalysts for syngas feed (task 2) have a metal component (MC) and a shape-selective component (SSC). Four techniques have been used in synthesizing our bi-functional catalysts. The data presented show that catalysts and conditions have been found which enable converting 1:1 H/sub 2//CO syngas feed at reasonable conversions in one step to motor fuel range products with quite acceptable selectivity to C/sub 5//sup +/ products. Two effects should be noted. The molecular sieves used reduced the high boiling (wax) component of the product as compared to physical mixture with the relatively inert ..cap alpha..-alumina. Also the quality of the gasoline range product with the molecular sieve is much better than with the F-T type catalyst.

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Emission characteristics of GTL fuel as an alternative to conventional marine gas oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study examine the gaseous, smoke and particulate matter emission characteristics of a turbocharged heavy-duty diesel engine operated on conventional marine gas oil and gas-to-liquid Fischer–Tropsch fuel under modes of propulsion and generator operation. The gas-to-liquid showed average reductions up to 19% in nitrogen oxides, 25% in carbon monoxide, 4% in carbon dioxide and 30% in smoke with slight increase in unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Particulate number concentrations for gas-to-liquid were up to 21% higher, whereas particulates mass showed a 16% decrease at medium and high loads, while increasing by 12–15% under lower load conditions. Very low aromatic content of gas-to-liquid fuel and nearly zero sulfur level are responsible for particulate reduction.

Sergey Ushakov; Nadine G.M. Halvorsen; Harald Valland; Dag H. Williksen; Vilmar Æsøy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Selective Transformation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Fuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran over Carbon-Supported Ruthenium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective Transformation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Fuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran over Carbon-Supported Ruthenium ... A simple and efficient process was presented for the selective hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into the high-quality liquid fuel 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). ... (1-3) Among the many possible chemicals, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which can be produced from a variety of biomass-derived carbohydrates,(4-8) is recognized as a versatile intermediate (Scheme 1), and it can be further converted into a series of high-quality fuels such as ethyl levulinate (EL),(9) 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF),(10) 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF),(11) C9–C15 alkanes,(12) and high-value chemicals such as levulinic acid (LA),(13) 2,5-dihydroxymethylfurfural (DHMF),(14) 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF),(15) and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). ...

Lei Hu; Xing Tang; Jiaxing Xu; Zhen Wu; Lu Lin; Shijie Liu

2014-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

214

Conversion of Biomass Derived Products by Anodic Activation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fatty acids and carbohydrate carboxylic acids are homo- and heterocoupled to intermediates for polyesters, new oleochemicals and potential enzyme inhibitors. — L-Ketogulonic acid is decarboxylated quantitatively ...

Hans J. Schäfer; Silke Kratschmer…

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Nonenzymatic Sugar Production from Biomass Using Biomass-Derived ?-Valerolactone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...than one glucan or xylan monomer (supplementary...by-products on the surface of cellulose, which...reactive cellulose surface (16). Water-insoluble...solids isolated after treatment with GVL...of our standard treatment. Moreover, when...overall conversion of xylan to known products...

Jeremy S. Luterbacher; Jacqueline M. Rand; David Martin Alonso; Jeehoon Han; J. Tyler Youngquist; Christos T. Maravelias; Brian F. Pfleger; James A. Dumesic

2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

216

Valorization of Biomass: Deriving More Value from Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...fields, or lignin as a fuel to power paper mills...chemical 1000 Transportation fuel 200–400 Cattle feed...increasing quantities by the biodiesel industry and could become...conversion to transportation fuel and 10 times that...feedstocks involves the introduction of oxygen-containing...

Christopher O. Tuck; Eduardo Pérez; István T. Horváth; Roger A. Sheldon; Martyn Poliakoff

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

217

Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FIFTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION - DOE/NETL FIFTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION - DOE/NETL May 8 - 11, 2006 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Comparing Climate-Change Mitigating Potentials of Alternative Synthetic Liquid Fuel Technologies Using Biomass and Coal Robert H. Williams 1 , Eric D. Larson 1 , Haiming Jin 2 1 Princeton Environmental Institute, Princeton University Guyot Hall, Washington Road, Princeton, NJ, 08544 2 TX Energy, 1330 Post Oak Boulevard, Suite 1600, Houston, TX, 77056 Abstract The climate-change mitigation potentials of alternative options for making synthetic liquid fuel from coal and biomass without and with CO 2 capture and storage are explored. The emphasis is on making Fischer-Tropsch liquids, with comparisons to cellulosic ethanol. Particular attention is

218

Stora Enso, North America  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stora Enso North America Stora Enso North America Corporate Headquarters: Wisconsin Rapids, WI Global Headquarters: Helsinki, Finland Proposed Facility Location: Wisconsin Rapids, WI Description: The project will construct and operate a thermal gasification and gas-to-liquids plant at Wisconsin Rapids Mill and produce liquid biofuels that will ultimately be converted into renewable diesel. CEO or Equivalent: Mark A. Suwyn, Chairman and CEO Participants: TRI; Syntroleum; DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and the Alabama Center for Paper and Bioresource Engineering at Auburn University Production: * 370 barrels per day (approximately under 5,500,000 gallons per year) of Fischer-Tropsch liquids Technology and Feedstocks: * 497 bone dry tons per day of woody biomass comprised of mill residues and

219

NETL: LabNotes - May 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Gain New Insight into Activating Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Researchers Gain New Insight into Activating Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts An array of model Fischer-Tropsch catalyst particles. The image on the left shows an array of model Fischer-Tropsch catalyst particles, as seen using a special scan- ning tunneling microscope at NETL. The image on the right is an enlargement of the surface of one of these particles showing a regular array of closely packed oxygen atoms, which appear as small circular ‘bumps’ in the images. The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process is a set of chemical reactions that historically has been used to produce a petroleum substitute from coal, natural gas, or biomass by nations looking for an alternative to importing it. The F-T process has received intermittent attention as a source of low-sulfur diesel fuel whenever the cost of petroleum gets sufficiently

220

Improved method of analysis of biomass sugars using high-performance liquid chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The precise quantitative analysis of biomass derived sugars is a very important step in the conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuels and chemicals. However, the...

F.A. Agblevor; A. Murden; B.R. Hames

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

EIS-0357 - Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in Giberton, PA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 - Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in 7 - Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in Giberton, PA EIS-0357 - Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in Giberton, PA Summary This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts that would result from a proposed Department of Energy (DOE) action to provide cost-shared funding for construction and operation of facilities near Gilberton, Pennsylvania, which have been proposed by WMPI PTY, LLC, for producing electricity, steam, and liquid fuels from anthracite coal waste (culm). The project was selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) to demonstrate the integration of coal waste gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquid hydrocarbon fuels at commercial scale. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES

222

EIS-0357: Final Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Environmental Impact Statement Final Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0357: Final Environmental Impact Statement Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project, Gilberton, Pennsylvania This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts that would result from a proposed Department of Energy (DOE) action to provide cost-shared funding for construction and operation of facilities near Gilberton, Pennsylvania, which have been proposed by WMPI PTY, LLC, for producing electricity, steam, and liquid fuels from anthracite coal waste (culm). The project has been selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) to demonstrate the integration of coal waste gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquid hydrocarbon fuels at commercial scale.

223

EIS-0357: Final Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

57: Final Environmental Impact Statement 57: Final Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0357: Final Environmental Impact Statement Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project, Gilberton, Pennsylvania This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts that would result from a proposed Department of Energy (DOE) action to provide cost-shared funding for construction and operation of facilities near Gilberton, Pennsylvania, which have been proposed by WMPI PTY, LLC, for producing electricity, steam, and liquid fuels from anthracite coal waste (culm). The project has been selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) to demonstrate the integration of coal waste gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquid hydrocarbon fuels at commercial scale.

224

Water addition for increased CO/H[sub 2] hydrocarbon synthesis activity over catalysts comprising cobalt, ruthenium and mixtures thereof which may include a promoter metal  

SciTech Connect

A once-through, fixed or slurry bed Fischer Tropsch process is described with enhanced CO conversion activity and C[sub 5] + liquid hydrocarbon selectivity comprising contacting a feed mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in a reaction zone with about 1 Vol % to about 70 Vol % water based on the total volume of feed mixture, at a pressure above one atmosphere and a temperature ranging from about 150 C to about 300 C, with a catalyst selected from the group consisting of cobalt, ruthenium, and mixtures thereof on a titania support, wherein said titania support is less than 40 m[sup 2]/g, converting at least 90 Vol % of the carbon monoxide to liquid hydrocarbons, and in the substantial absence of CO[sub 2] formation.

Kim, C.J.

1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

225

Chlorocuprate Ionic Liquid Functionalized Biochar Sulfonic Acid as an Efficiently Biomimetic Catalyst for Direct Hydrolysis of Bamboo under Microwave Irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

National & Local United Engineering Laboratory for New Petrochemical Materials & Fine Utilization of Resources, Key Laboratory of Resource Fine-Processing and Advanced Materials of Hunan Province and Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, People’s Republic of China ... Recently, cellulose hydrolysis to reducing sugars with Br?nsted acid catalysis(7, 8) and the conversion of cellulose or sugars to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) catalyzed by metal chlorides(9-11) in some ionic liquids (ILs) have gained increasing research attention, because these ILs possess a good solubility for cellulose, which can lead to significantly improved hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose. ... Verevkin, S. P.; Emel’yanenko, V. N.; Stepurko, E. N.; Ralys, R. V.; Zaitsau, D. H.; Stark, A.Biomass-derived platform chemicals: thermodynamic studies on the conversion of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into bulk intermediates Ind. Eng. ...

Chao Zhang; Zaihui Fu; Baohua Dai; Shunqin Zen; Yachun Liu; Qiong Xu; Steven Robert Kirk; Dulin Yin

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

226

Environmental Assessments (EA) | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Assessments (EA) Environmental Assessments (EA) Environmental Assessments (EA) Environmental Assessments are concise public documents that a Federal agency prepares under NEPA to provide sufficient evidence and analysis to determine whether a proposed agency action would require preparation of an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact. If you have any trouble finding a specific document, please contact AskNEPA@hq.doe.gov for assistance. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD December 19, 2013 EA-1642S: Supplemental Draft Environmental Assessment Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, Kentucky November 15, 2013 EA-1752: Draft Environmental Assessment

227

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: California | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

September 18, 2012 September 18, 2012 CX-009257: Categorical Exclusion Determination Radiography of Explosive Samples B321C CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/18/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): Lawrence Livermore Site Office September 17, 2012 CX-009372: Categorical Exclusion Determination Small Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory September 17, 2012 CX-009370: Categorical Exclusion Determination Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of carbon dioxide from Flue Gas - Pilot Plant CX(s) Applied: A1, B3.6 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): California, California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

228

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: National Energy Technology Laboratory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7, 2012 7, 2012 CX-009374: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of a Carbon Dioxide Chemical Sensor for Downhole Carbon Dioxide Monitoring in Carbon Sequestration CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): New Mexico Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory September 17, 2012 CX-009373: Categorical Exclusion Determination Testing of an Advanced Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): North Dakota Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory September 17, 2012 CX-009372: Categorical Exclusion Determination Small Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

229

Microsoft Word - FinalReportforActivity1_jlh_rev1.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Baseline Technical and Economic Assessment of a Baseline Technical and Economic Assessment of a Commercial Scale Fischer-Tropsch Liquids Facility DOE/NETL-2007/1260 Final Report April 9, 2007 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation,

230

Microsoft Word - DOE Report on OSU Looping final.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

December 2007 December 2007 DOE/NETL-2008/1307 Independent Assessment of the Potential of Chemical-Looping in the Context of a Fischer-Tropsch Plant Chemical-Looping Process in a Coal-to-Liquids Configuration Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name,

231

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

21 - 4430 of 9,640 results. 21 - 4430 of 9,640 results. Download CX-009371: Categorical Exclusion Determination Audio/Video Technology Refresh: PGH/MGN CX(s) Applied: B1.15, B1.23, B2.2 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): West Virginia, Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-009371-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-009372: Categorical Exclusion Determination Small Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-009372-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-009373: Categorical Exclusion Determination Testing of an Advanced Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants

232

Economical production of transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, and other carbonaceous feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

The Nation`s economy and security will continue to be vitally linked to an efficient transportation system of air, rail, and highway vehicles that depend on a continuous supply of liquid fuels at a reasonable price and with characteristics that can help the vehicle manufacturers meet increasingly strict environmental regulations. However, an analysis of US oil production and demand shows that, between now and 2015, a significant increase in imported oil will be needed to meet transportation fuel requirements. One element of an overall Department of Energy`s (DOE) strategy to address this energy security issue while helping meet emissions requirements is to produce premium transportation fuels from non-petroleum feedstocks, such as coal, natural gas, and biomass, via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) and other synthesis gas conversion technologies.

Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Winslow, J.C.; Venkataraman, V.K.; Driscoll, D.J. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

233

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41 - 6050 of 8,172 results. 41 - 6050 of 8,172 results. Download CX-009371: Categorical Exclusion Determination Audio/Video Technology Refresh: PGH/MGN CX(s) Applied: B1.15, B1.23, B2.2 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): West Virginia, Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-009371-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-009372: Categorical Exclusion Determination Small Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-009372-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-009373: Categorical Exclusion Determination Testing of an Advanced Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants

234

Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

xTL Fuels to someone xTL Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels xTL Fuels Synthetic liquid transportation fuels, collectively known as xTL fuels, are produced through specialized conversion processes. These production methods, including the Fischer-Tropsch process, produce fuels from carbon-based feedstocks, such as biomass, coal, or natural gas, and can

235

EMSL - liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

liquids en Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 °C. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsiodine-solubility-low-activity-waste-borosilicate...

236

LNG liquid-liquid immiscibility  

SciTech Connect

Although natural gas species rarely exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility in binary systems, the presence of additional components can extend the domain of immiscibility in those few binary systems where it already exists or produce immiscibility in binary systems where it had not existed. If the solute has the proper molecular relation to the solvent mixture background, liquid-liquid-vapor (LLV) behavior will occur; such phenomena greatly complicate the design of LNG processing equipment. To aid LNG engineers, researchers mapped the thermodynamic behavior of four ternary LLV systems and examined the effects of the second solvents - ethane, propane, n-butane, and CO/sub 2/ - on the binary methane + n-octane system.

Luks, K.D.; Kohn, J.P.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

CX-002358: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels DevelopmentCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 05/10/2010Location(s): Grand Forks, North DakotaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

238

CX-011112: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Innovative Gasification to Produce Fischer-Tropsch Jet and Diesel Fuel CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 08/15/2013 Location(s): Iowa Offices(s): Golden Field Office

239

Feasibility of Steam Hydrogasification of Microalgae for Production of Synthetic Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and is followed by steam methane reforming ( SMR). The finalReaction: Steam Methane Reforming: Fischer–Tropsch Reaction:methane and steam in steam methane reforming generates the

Suemanotham, Amornrat

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

NOx Emissions of Alternative Diesel Fuels:? A Comparative Analysis of Biodiesel and FT Diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study explores the diesel injection and combustion processes in an effort to better understand the differences in NOx emissions between biodiesel, Fischer?Tropsch (FT) diesel, and their blends with a conventional diesel fuel. Emissions studies were ...

James P. Szybist; Stephen R. Kirby; André L. Boehman

2005-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

FY 2012 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies  

Energy Savers (EERE)

For example, oil-sand-derived fuels from Canada, Fischer-Tropsch fuels made from natural gas, and biofuels derived from fats and vegetable oils will play increasingly important...

242

Die Rolle der Kohlenwasserstoffe bei der Herstellung synthetischer Fettprodukte durch Oxydation in Deutschland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Es werden ein Gesamtüberblick über die Fischer-Tropsch-Synthese gegeben und die besonderen Reaktionsbedingungen beschrieben, die eine Paraffin-Bildung bei der Synthese begünstigen. Im Zusammenhang damit werden...

Anton Zwergal

243

Effect of engine operating parameters and fuel characteristics on diesel engine emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To examine the effects of using synthetic Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel in a modern compression ignition engine, experiments were conducted on a MY 2002 Cummins 5.9 L diesel engine outfitted with high pressure, common ...

Acar, Joseph, 1977-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

coal through the Fischer-Tropsch process, and compressed or liquefied gas derived from biomass. For an entity to be eligible to claim the credit they must be liable for reporting...

245

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

coal through the Fischer-Tropsch process, and compressed or liquefied gas derived from biomass. The incentive must first be taken as a credit against the blender's alternative fuel...

246

Theoretical Cluster Studies on the Catalytic Sulfidation of MoO3 Xue-Rong Shi,,,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, State Key Laboratory of Coal ConVersion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (HDN) processes and exhibit also high activity for methanation and for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and sulfur adsor- bates as well as hydrogen

247

UHV Studies on CO and Methanol Adsorption and Decomposition on Pristine and Oxidized Alumina-Supported Co Nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although cobalt is an important Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, there is only limited fundamental knowledge about the factors determining the elementary steps, such as the dissociation of CO, the influence of adsorbed ...

T. Nowitzki; V. Zielasek; M. Bäumer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Chemicals from coal  

SciTech Connect

This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to create a synthetic bio- based fuel that is chemicallyBoeing/NASA Synthetic bio-based fuels, Fischer-Tropsch (FT)ICAO 2009b). Synthetic bio-based fuels include bio-based jet

McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: Indirect Liquefaction (oxygenated fuels); and Indirect Liquefaction (Fischer-Tropsch technology). Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

252

Production of Versatile Platform Chemical 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Biomass in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Growing concerns on global warming and the depletion of traditional resources have driven us to look for green and sustainable energy sources. As a biomass-derived platform chemical, the production of 5-HMF has b...

Xinhua Qi; Richard L. Smith Jr.; Zhen Fang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids

254

A liquid film motor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known that electro-hydrodynamical effects in freely suspended liquid films can force liquids to flow. Here, we report a purely electrically driven rotation in water and some other liquid suspended film...

A. Amjadi; R. Shirsavar; N. Hamedani Radja…

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

256

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

257

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

259

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano (Madison, WI); West, Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

260

Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

Andile B. Mzinyati [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Viscosity, specific (for liquids)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n. The ratio between the viscosity of a liquid and the viscosity of water at the same temperature. Specific viscosity is sometimes used interchangeably with relative viscosity for liquids.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Liquid Piston Stirling Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Fluidyne liquid piston engine is a simple free-piston Stirling engine that can be made from nothing more...

Graham Walker Ph. D.; J. R. Senft Ph.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions with Fuel-Flexible Burners  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas, thereby reducing energy consumption, lowering greenhouse gas emissions, and...

264

Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions  

SciTech Connect

Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Societal lifecycle costs of cars with alternative fuels/engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effectively addressing concerns about air pollution (especially health impacts of small-particle air pollution), climate change, and oil supply insecurity will probably require radical changes in automotive engine/fuel technologies in directions that offer both the potential for achieving near-zero emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases and a diversification of the transport fuel system away from its present exclusive dependence on petroleum. The basis for comparing alternative automotive engine/fuel options in evolving toward these goals in the present analysis is the “societal lifecycle cost” of transportation, including the vehicle first cost (assuming large-scale mass production), fuel costs (assuming a fully developed fuel infrastructure), externality costs for oil supply security, and damage costs for emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases calculated over the full fuel cycle. Several engine/fuel options are considered—including current gasoline internal combustion engines and a variety of advanced lightweight vehicles: internal combustion engine vehicles fueled with gasoline or hydrogen; internal combustion engine/hybrid electric vehicles fueled with gasoline, compressed natural gas, Diesel, Fischer–Tropsch liquids or hydrogen; and fuel cell vehicles fueled with gasoline, methanol or hydrogen (from natural gas, coal or wind power). To account for large uncertainties inherent in the analysis (for example in environmental damage costs, in oil supply security costs and in projected mass-produced costs of future vehicles), lifecycle costs are estimated for a range of possible future conditions. Under base-case conditions, several advanced options have roughly comparable lifecycle costs that are lower than for today's conventional gasoline internal combustion engine cars, when environmental and oil supply insecurity externalities are counted—including advanced gasoline internal combustion engine cars, internal combustion engine/hybrid electric cars fueled with gasoline, Diesel, Fischer–Tropsch liquids or compressed natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cell cars. The hydrogen fuel cell car stands out as having the lowest externality costs of any option and, when mass produced and with high valuations of externalities, the least projected lifecycle cost. Particular attention is given to strategies that would enhance the prospects that the hydrogen fuel cell car would eventually become the Car of the Future, while pursuing innovations relating to options based on internal combustion engines that would both assist a transition to hydrogen fuel cell cars and provide significant reductions of externality costs in the near term.

Joan M Ogden; Robert H Williams; Eric D Larson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

267

Sliding Luttinger liquid phases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study systems of coupled spin-gapped and gapless Luttinger liquids. First, we establish the existence of a sliding Luttinger liquid phase for a system of weakly coupled parallel quantum wires, with and without disorder. It is shown that the coupling can stabilize a Luttinger liquid phase in the presence of disorder. We then extend our analysis to a system of crossed Luttinger liquids and establish the stability of a non-Fermi-liquid state: the crossed sliding Luttinger liquid phase. In this phase the system exhibits a finite-temperature, long-wavelength, isotropic electric conductivity that diverges as a power law in temperature T as T?0. This two-dimensional system has many properties of a true isotropic Luttinger liquid, though at zero temperature it becomes anisotropic. An extension of this model to a three-dimensional stack exhibits a much higher in-plane conductivity than the conductivity in a perpendicular direction.

Ranjan Mukhopadhyay; C. L. Kane; T. C. Lubensky

2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

268

Catalytic Transformations of Biomass-Derived Materials into Value-Added Chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This manuscript reviews recent literatures on synthesis of furfurals (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde) from...d-galactose, d-arabinose, xylose, l-rhamnose, lactose, cellobiose, sucrose) ...

Atsushi Takagaki; Shun Nishimura; Kohki Ebitani

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Biomass-derived volatile fatty acid platform for fuels and chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The typical biorefinery platforms are sugar, thermochemical (syngas), carbon-rich chains, and biogas platforms, each offering unique advantages and disadvantages. The sugar platform uses hexose and pentose sugars...

Ho Nam Chang; Nag-Jong Kim; Jongwon Kang…

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Simulating Adsorptive Expansion of Zeolites: Application to Biomass-Derived Solutions in Contact with Silicalite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(2) Research on generating these new second-generation biofuels requires the study of catalytic and separation processes for transforming plant material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin into more useful platform chemicals. ... For the furfural and HMF solutes, the ideal solution equation of state gives the following relationship between the solute chemical potential in solution and its concentration:where ?i is the chemical potential of the ith species in solution, Ci is the concentration, Co is a reference concentration, R is the gas constant, T is absolute temperature, and ?solv?i(C0) is the molar Gibbs free energy of solvation from gas to solution phase at the reference concentration and temperature T. ... Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (2008), 10 (32), 4817-4826 CODEN: PPCPFQ; ISSN:1463-9076. ...

Julian E. Santander; Michael Tsapatsis; Scott M. Auerbach

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

An efficient didehydroxylation method for the biomass-derived polyols glycerol and erythritol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

materials, the conversion of biomass commonly requires thee?cient approach to the conversion of biomass to value-addedbiomass-derived polyols (glycerol and erythritol) that results in the conversion

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mechanism study of wood lignin pyrolysis  by using TG?FTIR hemicellulose,  cellulose and lignin pyrolysis.  Fuel 2007, bark,  cellulose,  and  lignin:  Implications for the 

Keiluweit, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

E-Print Network 3.0 - above-ground biomass derived Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

biomass estimates from lidar. Forest above- ground biomass... that the height of medium energy returns (RH50) is better related to above- ground biomass than the height at...

274

Evaluation of a biomass derived oil for use as additive in paving asphalt  

SciTech Connect

Treatment and disposal costs of sewage sludge can represent up to 50% of a municipality`s annual wastewater treatment budget. Sewage sludge (30% solids) accounts 5% of Canadian landfill by weight, and the ever increasing volume of sludge coupled with the decreasing options available for disposal creates a growing problem for major municipalities. Current disposal options are agricultural application, incineration and landfill. Concern about heavy metal migration and public pressure to find a local solution has severely curtailed the spreading of sludge on agricultural land. Incineration is the major option for larger centers but the relatively high cost for incineration, ranging from $350 to $1000/t dry sludge, has caused a great deal of interest in methods of improving the cost effectiveness of incineration or in new equivalent technologies. The high cost and more stringent environmental regulations for incinerating municipal sludges have led to developing more efficient sludge management technologies that are not agricultural based. This paper describes applications of oils from sludge processing.

Houde, J. Jr.; Clelland, I.; Sawatzky, H. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

Hydroprocessing of Biomass-Derived Oils and Their Blends with Petroleum Feedstocks: A Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main focus of this review is to provide an understanding of the effects of biomass feedstocks on process operation, catalyst performance and deactivation, feedstock conversion, and product yield and quality. ...

Mustafa Al-Sabawi; Jinwen Chen

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

276

Development of a co-firing fuel from biomass-derived binder and crushed coal.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The focus of this work was the development of a co-firing boiler fuel for use in the coal power plant industry. This fuel, known as… (more)

Friend, Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Comparison of Biomass-Derived Turbine Fuels with the Composition-Explicit Distillation Curve Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology Boulder, Colorado 80305, United States ... In recent years, civilian and military users of aviation kerosene (for gas turbine engines) have been interested in expanding the scope of fuel feed stocks to include nonpetroleum sources. ... JP-7 was developed in the 1950s to meet the more stringent requirements necessary for the development of high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft that fly at speeds exceeding Mach 3. The extreme temps. ...

Thomas J. Bruno; Evgenii Baibourine

2011-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

278

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

279

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

280

Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly report No. 5 for the period July 1994--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is an abundant resource in various parts of the world. The major component of natural gas is methane, often comprising over 90% of the hydrocarbon fraction of the gas. The expanded use of natural gas as fuel is often hampered because of difficulties in storing and handling a gaseous fuel. This is especially true for natural gas in remote areas such as the North Slope of Alaska. The successful implementation of a natural gas-to-gasoline process would decrease dependence on imported oil for transportation fuels. These factors make it very desirable to convert natural gas to more valuable liquids. There are commercial processes for converting natural gas to gasoline-range liquids. These processes, such as the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and Mobil`s MTG (Methanol To Gasoline), start with the steam reforming of methane. Steam reforming of methane requires the removal of sulfur compounds present in natural gas down to less than 0.1 ppm. This additional gas cleanup step, with its additional cost, is necessary because the catalysts are quickly poisoned by sulfur compounds.

Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuels Fuels Indirect Liquefaction Processes Indirect coal liquefaction requires first gasifying the coal into a syngas. Therefore, while direct coal liquefaction (DCL) takes coal directly into a liquid phase, indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) consists of two major steps: (a) gasification to produce a synthesis gas (syngas); and (b) conversion of the carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) in the syngas to a range of hydrocarbon fuels/products such as gasoline, diesel, methanol and chemicals). Most frequently, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis followed by subsequent liquids product refining is used to convert syngas to fuels; alternately, methanol formed from syngas can be converted to gasoline via ExxonMobil's MTG process. Direct coal liquefaction requires an external source of hydrogen, which may have to be provided by gasifying additional coal feed and/or the heavy residue produced from the DCL reactor. Many argue that indirect liquefaction with the current state-of-the-art technologies is more competitive than direct liquefaction. ICL has been demonstrated commercially by Sasol since the 1950s, and the ICL process is more amenable to carbon dioxide (CO2) capture.

282

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

284

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

286

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

287

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

288

Sandia National Laboratories: ionic liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

liquid Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks On February 26, 2013, in Biofuels, Biomass, Energy,...

289

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

290

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Liquid-level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

Not Available

1981-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

292

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

293

EA-1642: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

642: Final Environmental Assessment 642: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1642: Final Environmental Assessment Design and Construction of an Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Near Lexington, Kentucky The U.S. Department of Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory prepared this environmental assessment to analyze the potential environmental impacts of providing funding for the proposed Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery. DOE/EA-1642: Design and Construction of an Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Near Lexington, Kentucky (July 2009) More Documents & Publications EA-1642: Finding of No Significant Impact EA-1642S: Supplemental Draft Environmental Assessment

294

EA-1642: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Finding of No Significant Impact Finding of No Significant Impact EA-1642: Finding of No Significant Impact Design and Construction of an Early Lead Mini-Fischer-Tropsch Refinery at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Near Lexington, Kentucky The Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment for providing funding to advance the design and construction of a proposed Early Lead Mini-Fischer-Tropsch Refinery to be located at and operated by the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research north of Lexington, Kentucky Finding of No Significant Impace for Design and Construction of an Early Lead Mini-Fischer-Tropsch Refinery at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Near Lexington, Kentucky More Documents & Publications

295

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FY 2012 Annual Progress Report FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1 II. Hydrogen Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II-1 II.0 Hydrogen Production Sub-Program Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II-3 II.A Distributed Biomass-Derived Liquids Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-11 II.A.1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Biomass-Derived Liquids Distributed (Aqueous Phase) Reforming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

296

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

297

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DE-FC26-08NT43293-11S1 DE-FC26-08NT43293-11S1 Western Research Institute FE DE-FC2643293-11S1 SCC - Fuels Division 2011 Steven Markovich (412) 386-7537 01/01/2011 - 12/31/2012 Laramie, WY Development and Testing of Compact Heat Exchange Reactors (CHER) for Synthesis of Liquid Fuels The primary objective of the proposed work is to continue the evaluation of the heat and mass transfer properties and reaction kinetics of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reactions in the CHER. 04 21 2011 Steven Markovich Digitally signed by Steven Markovich DN: cn=Steven Markovich, o=Fuels Division, ou=DOE/NETL/SCC/Fuels, email=markovis@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2011.04.21 16:17:54 -04'00' 4 29 2011 john ganz Digitally signed by john ganz DN: cn=john ganz, o=netl, ou=environmental compliance division, email=john.ganz@netl.doe.gov, c=US

298

Potential of Wastewater-Treating Anaerobic Granules for Biomethanation of Synthesis Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This includes the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction for increasing the H2/CO ratio followed by nickel-catalyzed methanation of CO and CO2 into methane and water (reactions of Fischer?Tropsch (nCO + (2n+1)H2 ? CnH(2n+2) + nH2O) and Sabatier (CO2 + 4H2 ? CH4 + 2H2O)). ... Such higher specific conversion potential may have allowed for a higher volumetric conversion potential as well, which may have resulted in a faster depletion of the dissolved CO, and in turn improved the gas?liquid mass transfer rate. ... Results are reported of mixed-culture studies employing the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum for converting CO to CO2 and H2 by the water gas shift reaction and 2 methanogens, Methanobacterium formicicum and Methanosarcina barkeri, for converting CO2 and H2 to CH4. Results are presented for triculture operation in 2 types of reactors, the packed bubble column and the trickle-bed reactor. ...

Serge R. Guiot; Ruxandra Cimpoia; Gaël Carayon

2011-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

299

Methanol conversion to higher hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Several indirect options exist for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, or biomass. All involve an initial conversion step to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}). Presently, there are two commercial technologies for converting syngas to liquids: Fischer-Tropsch, which yields a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights determined by Schulz-Flory kinetics, and methanol synthesis. Mobil`s diversity of technology for methanol conversion gives the methanol synthesis route flexibility for production of either gasoline, distillate or chemicals. Mobil`s ZSM-5 catalyst is the key in several processes for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from methanol: MTO for light olefins, MTG for gasoline, MOGD for distillates. The MTG process has been commercialized in New Zealand since 1985, producing one-third of the country`s gasoline supply, while MTO and MOGD have been developed and demonstrated at greater than 100 BPD scale. This paper will discuss recent work in understanding methanol conversion chemistry and the various options for its use.

Tabak, S.A. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States). Central Research Lab.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Efficient biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids derived from lignin and hemicellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...experimental details.) Effect of Biomass-Derived...performed in triplicate, and average yields are reported...biomass into furans for fuels and chemicals . J Am Chem...Brandt A ( 2010 ) The effect of the ionic...estimates were made using prices in bulk chemical supplier...

Aaron M. Socha; Ramakrishnan Parthasarathi; Jian Shi; Sivakumar Pattathil; Dorian Whyte; Maxime Bergeron; Anthe George; Kim Tran; Vitalie Stavila; Sivasankari Venkatachalam; Michael G. Hahn; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

302

Method of inducing surface ensembles on a metal catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of inducing surface ensembles on a transition metal catalyst used in the conversion of a reactant gas or gas mixture, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen into hydrocarbons (the Fischer-Tropsch reaction) is disclosed which comprises adding a Lewis base to the syngas (CO + H/sub 2/) mixture before reaction takes place. The formation of surface ensembles in this manner restricts the number and types of reaction pathways which will be utilized, thus greatly narrowing the product distribution and maximizing the efficiency of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Similarly, amines may also be produced by the conversion of reactant gas or gases, such as nitrogen, hydrogen, or hydrocarbon constituents.

Miller, S.S.

1987-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

303

Liquid Scintillator Purification  

SciTech Connect

The KamLAND collaboration has studied background requirements and purification methods needed to observe the 7Be neutrino from the sun. First we will discuss the present background situation in KamLAND where it is found that the main background components are 210Pb and 85Kr. It is then described how to purify the liquid scintillator. The present status and results on how to remove 210Pb from the liquid scintillator are discussed. Specifically, the detailed analysis of the effects of distillation and adsorption techniques are presented.

Kishimoto, Y. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University (Japan)

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

304

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen in a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Freeze the Rainbow! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! What happens when the world's most beloved cryogenic liquid meets one of the most common household appliances? Find out when we try to microwave liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A little while ago we received an email from Star of the Sea Catholic School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, asking what happens when you place liquid nitrogen in a microwave. Well, I just happen to have some liquid nitrogen! Steve: And I just happen to have a microwave!

305

Lyophilic liquid porosimetry and a new liquid autoporosimeter  

SciTech Connect

Lyophilic liquid porosimetry determines the volumes of different size pores by measuring the amount of liquid in these pores, thus, providing pore volume distribution (PVD) data for porous structures. Any liquid that wets the sample may be used. This opens unique opportunities for porous structure evaluation. It provides realistic PVD analysis when the liquid of interest changes the porous structure. It determines uptake/drainage hysteresis of real liquids. It allows direct measurements of uptake and retention capillary pressures with different amounts of liquid in a sample. Lyophilic liquid porosimetry determines liquid/solid contact angles of different size pores within the sample. It can also be used for PVD analysis of both soft, brittle materials and porous metal materials.

Tyomkin, I. [TRI/Princeton, NJ (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

Viscosity of Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

6 November 1952 research-article Viscosity of Liquids E. N. da C. Andrade The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. www.jstor.org

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

The Viscosity of Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of momentum between them. In the case of a gas, Maxwell showed how the viscosity can be derived by considering this momentum as being communicated by molecules transferring themselves bodily ... fulfilment of the conditions postulated in Maxwell's treatment, and the fact that while gas viscosity goes up with temperature liquid ...

E. N. DA C. ANDRADE

1930-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

308

Detonation in Liquid Explosives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Laboratory, on the initiative of Dr. A. H. Davis, into the process of detonation in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the ... in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the detonation Waves in transparent liquid explosives—the sensitivity of some of which can be varied by ...

D. CRONEY

1948-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

309

Liquid Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid Natural Gas ... IN A new technique for storing natural gas at the East Ohio Gas Co. plant, Cleveland, Ohio, the gas is liquefied before passing to the gas holders. ... Natural gas contains moisture and carbon dioxide, both of which liquefy before the natural gas and are somewhat of a nuisance because upon solidification they clog the pipes. ...

W. F. SCHAPHORST

1941-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

310

Air Liquide- Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation about Air Liquide's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Charlie Anderson, Air Liquide, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

311

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago; Northern Illinois University; the University of California, Santa Cruz; and ChemMatCARS (sector 15 at the APS) used x-ray reflectivity from ion distributions at the liquid-liquid interface to provide strong evidence that the interfacial structure of a liquid alters the ion distributions near a charged interface, contrary to earlier theories about ions at charged surfaces. Coulomb's Law describes the interaction between two, otherwise isolated, point charges. If many charges are present in the region between these two charges, the net interaction between them is modified. This is commonly found in real systems, such as a plasma gas of electrons and ionized

314

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze the Rainbow! Freeze the Rainbow! Previous Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!) Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen... Steve: ...meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol! Joanna: While a mix of 70 percent ethylene glycol and 30 percent water doesn't freeze until 60 degrees below zero, it's still no match for liquid nitrogen. At 321 degrees below zero, liquid nitrogen easily freezes

315

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Freeze Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Pennies! Shattering Pennies! Previous Video (Shattering Pennies!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! By removing the hottest molecules, we're able to freeze liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Today, we're going to freeze liquid nitrogen! Joanna and Steve: Yeah! Joanna: The obvious way to do this is to put the liquid nitrogen into something colder. Something that we have lots of around here! Something like... liquid helium! Steve: Yes! Joanna: Yeah, but we're not going to do that. Instead, we're going to freeze the nitrogen by removing the hottest molecules!

316

Determinants of Hospital's Financial Liquidity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of the articles is to identify key factors that may affect the level of hospital's liquidity ratio. We’ve posed four research hypotheses, assuming that, the level of financial liquidity in hospitals depends on several factors (number of beds, annual income per bed, profitability ratios, debt ratio). We’ve found that: 1) there is a positive relationship between debt ratio and liquidity and profitability ratio and liquidity 2) the relationship between the size of the hospital and the financial liquidity is not statistically significant. In the study we’ve use statistical tools: Pearson's correlation coefficient, T-Student's test with Cohran-Cox's correction.

Agnieszka Bem; Katarzyna Pr?dkiewicz; Pawe? Pr?dkiewicz; Paulina Ucieklak-Je?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Quantal Ising Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An example is presented of a model of an amorphous quantum mechanical system, a liquid of quantal Ising spins, which can be solved exactly within certain many-body theories. Analytical solutions of the model in mean-field theory are shown to reveal a decrease in the extent of the ferromagnetic region (compared to an equivalent classical system) and the occurrence of some degree of quantum localization. Both phenomena are analyzed as a competition between quantum mechanics and the condensed phase.

Richard M. Stratt

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

RHIC The Perfect Liquid  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.

BNL

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Theory of fermion liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop a general theory of fermion liquids in spatial dimensions greater than 1. The principal method, bosonization, is applied to the cases of short- and long-range longitudinal interactions and to transverse gauge interactions. All the correlation funtions of the system may be obtained with the use of a generating functional. Short-range and Coulomb interactions do not destroy the Landau-Fermi fixed point. Non-Fermi liquid fixed points are found, however, in the cases of a super-long-range longitudinal interaction in two dimensions and transverse gauge interactions in two and three spatial dimensions. We consider in some detail the (2+1)-dimensional problem of a Chern-Simons gauge action combined with a longitudinal two-body interaction V(q)??q?y-1, which controls the density, and hence gauge, fluctuations. For y0 the interaction is relevant and the fixed point cannot be accessed by bosonization. Of special importance is the case y=0 (Coulomb interaction), which describes the Halperin-Lee-Read theory of the half-filled Landau level. We obtain the full quasiparticle propagator, which is of a marginal Fermi-liquid form. Using Ward identities, we show that neither the inclusion of nonlinear terms in the fermion dispersion nor vertex corrections alters our results: the fixed point is accessible by bosonization. As the two-point fermion Green’s function is not gauge invariant, we also invetigate the gauge-invariant density response function. Near momentum Q=2kF, in addition to the Kohn anomaly we find other nonanalytic behavior. In the appendies we present a numerical calculation of the spectral function for a Fermi liquid with Landau parameter f0?0. We also show how Kohn’s theorem is satisfied within the bosonization framework.

H.-J. Kwon; A. Houghton; J. B. Marston

1995-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

What constitutes a simple liquid?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlation between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a property of the intermolecular potential only because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, according to the new definition not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials) and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS). This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of structure and dynamics of 15 atomic and molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. No proof is given that the chemical characterization follows from the strong correlation property, but it is shown to be consistent with the existence of isomorphs in strongly correlating liquids' phase diagram. Finally, we note that the FCS characterization of simple liquids calls into question the basis for standard perturbation theory, according to which the repulsive and attractive forces play fundamentally different roles for the physics of liquids.

Trond S. Ingebrigtsen; Thomas B. Schrøder; Jeppe C. Dyre

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Liquid fossil fuel technology  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports are presented under the following headings: (1) extraction (technology assessment, oil research, gas research); (2) liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); (3) utilization (energy conservation); and (4) project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are also listed. Some of the highlights for this period are: the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center was converted into NIPER, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research on October 1, 1983; modelling of enthalpies, heat capacities and volumes of aqueous surfactant solutions began using a mass action model; a series of experiments were run on upgrading by hydrogenation SRC-II coal liquid at different degrees of severity and the products have been analyzed; heavy crude oil extracts were separated into fraction with high performance liquid chromatography by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the mass spectra and electron spin resonance were determin ed; and particulates from exhaust gases of diesel engines using fire fuel types are being collected and will be analyzed by chemical methods and results will be compared with those obtained by biological assay. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Pour Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Flowers! Shattering Flowers! Previous Video (Shattering Flowers!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Giant Koosh Ball!) Giant Koosh Ball! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Liquid nitrogen?! On the floor?! Who's going to clean that mess up?! See what really happens when one of the world's most beloved cryogenic liquids comes into contact with a room temperature floor. [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: From time to time, we spill a little liquid nitrogen! The reaction we sometimes get is.... Shannon: Did they just pour LIQUID NITROGEN on the FLOOR?!?! Joanna: Yes. Yes we did. Steve: One thing people seem to have a problem with is the mess that liquid

323

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquids Liquids James F. Wishart, Alison M. Funston, and Tomasz Szreder in "Molten Salts XIV" Mantz, R. A., et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2006) pp. 802-813. [Information about the volume (look just above this link)] Abstract: Ionic liquids have potentially important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments will require an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of ionic liquid radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material

324

1 Copyright 2012 by ASME Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cycles for three interesting coal fired, gasification based, plants with CO2 capture: a Fischer Tropsch synthesis processes with once-through reactor (CTL-OT-CCS), and an integrated gasification combined cycle systems typically comprise a Heat Recovery Steam Cycle (HRSC) fed with waste heat from gas turbines and

325

Modelling of a solar-powered supercritical water biomass gasifier Laurance A Watson1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is incorporated that recovers the waste heat proceeding biomass gasification. Under the ideal assumptions applied exercise to design a solar supercritical water gasification (SCWG) reactor. A formative reactor concept the waste heat (steam) of a downstream Fischer- Tropsch process. An intermediate heat exchange unit

326

Energy: A Geoscience Perspective:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...individuals around the world. But fundamental questions remain about these...example, the internal combustion engine (along with the gas turbine...low-efficiency internal combustion engine with the high-efficiency...conversion of biomass into synthetic diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch...

Daniel P. Schrag

327

XIII.1-Draft ATTACHMENT XIII  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

XIII.1-Draft ATTACHMENT XIII Review of Fischer-Tropsch Work by Statoil Three patents on Fischer are summarized below (XIII.1-XIII.3). These individuals summarize the background for their invention. Anderson amount (0.1 - 5%, preferably 0.1 to 2 wt.%) of a metal #12;XIII.3-Draft oxide promoter in addition

Kentucky, University of

328

XII.1-Draft ATTACHMENT XII  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

XII.1-Draft ATTACHMENT XII Review of Fischer-Tropsch Work by Gulf Oil The Gulf-Badger process leads analysis conducted by Gulf Oil, and later the process and engineering design provided by Badger (XII.1). A simplified process scheme is shown in XII.1 (XII.2). The process was first discovered from exploratory work

Kentucky, University of

329

innovative research fa l l 2 0 0 6  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, to make fuel cells, to cleanly liquefy coal, and to meet the dramatically increasing global demand of the Journal of Catalysis,two editions of the Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis, as well as a special issue control, methane com- bustion, selective hydrogenation, Fischer- Tropsch synthesis,methanol steam

New Mexico, University of

330

Energy: A Geoscience Perspective:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...internal combustion engine (along with the...Gt) OF FOSSIL FUEL PROVEN RESERVES AND...by reducing energy consumption. This does not necessarily...internal combustion engine with the high-efficiency...allowing transportation fuel to come from carbon-free...biomass into synthetic diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch...

Daniel P. Schrag

331

BRIEF ABSTRACTS:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......The unrivaled reliability. More importantly...computer regression analysis were used to define...On-Line Single Run Analysis of Effluents from a Flscher- Tropsch Reactor 40 H.H. Nijs...Fischer- Tropsch reactor is presented. Fast...Chromatographic Analysis with Short Columns......

Brief Abstracts

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Serpentinization, Carbon, and Deep Life  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Fischer-Tropsch-type and/or Sabatier-type reactions (for in depth...that abiogenic FTT and/or Sabatier reactions lead to the production...systems, in addition to an improved understanding of the microbiological...a supercritical water flow reactor simulating submarine hydrothermal...

Matthew O. Schrenk; William J. Brazelton; Susan Q. Lang

333

ELSEVIER Surface Science 303 (lYY4) 206-230 ;,,.;_:_.y y .../. .' ..`,. :> .,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by means of the Fischer- Tropsch technique, and the steam reforming of natural gas to form so-called syngas. Representative examples are the ammonia synthesis via Haber-Bosch, the synthesis of alco- hols and hydrocarbons of products, and (7) diffusion of products from the surface. One typically treats these elementary reactions

Miller, William H.

334

Energy: A Geoscience Perspective:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the internal combustion engine (along with the gas...developed countries. In general, countries with higher...low-efficiency internal combustion engine with the high-efficiency...biomass into synthetic diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch...House et al. 2006). In general, the storage issues...

Daniel P. Schrag

335

Transportation fuels from synthetic gas  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-five experimental Fischer-Tropsch synthesis runs were made with 14 different catalysts or combinations of catalysts using a Berty reactor system. Two catalysts showed increased selectivity to transportation fuels compared to typical Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. With a catalyst consisting of 5 wt % ruthenium impregnated on a Y zeolite (run number 24), 63 to 70 wt % of the hydrocarbon product was in the gasoline boiling range. Using a 0.5 wt % ruthenium on alumina catalyst (run number 22), 64 to 78 wt % of the hydrocarbon product was in the diesel fuel boiling range. Not enough sample was produced to determine the octane number of the gasoline from run number 24, but it is probably somewhat better than typical Fischer-Tropsch gasoline (approx. 50) and less than unleaded gasoline (approx. 88). The diesel fuel produced in run number 22 consisted of mostly straight chained paraffins and should be an excellent transportation fuel without further refining. The yield of transportation fuels from biomass via gasification and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with the ruthenium catalysts identified in the previous paragraph is somewhat less, on a Btu basis, than methanol (via gasification) and wood oil (PERC and LBL processes) yields from biomass. However, the products of the F-T synthesis are higher quality transportation fuels. The yield of transportation fuels via the F-T synthesis is similar to the yield of gasoline via methanol synthesis and the Mobil MTG process.

Baker, E.G.; Cuello, R.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results (Brochure)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Results Results Prepared for South Coast Air Quality Management District by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory CRD-01-098 Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Fuel Demonstration in a Southern California Vehicle Fleet Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report i Alternative Fuel Trucks YOSEMITE WATERS VEHICLE EVALUATION REPORT Authors Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

337

Process for preparing liquid wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

FLARE, Fermilab Liquid Argon Experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mature technology of Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers in conjunction with intense neutrino beams constructed at Fermilab offer a broad program of neutrino physics for the next decade.

L. Bartoszek

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

339

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Antifreeze! Antifreeze! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! A burning candle is placed in a container of liquid nitrogen! Filmed in front of a live studio audience. Well, they were live when we started... [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Steve: Now, then. I'm a little bit afraid to ask this next question because I think I already know the answer, but is anyone in here feeling a little... dangerous? You're willing to take a chance? Because I am willing to do an experiment they haven't let me do since 'The Incident.' Now, because of the danger, I cannot have a volunteer. I must do this on my

340

A new Diffractometer for Studies of Liquid-Liquid Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

We have designed a novel, dedicated diffractometer for surface x-ray scattering studies of liquid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces for the PETRA III High Resolution Diffraction Beamline. Using a double crystal beam-tilter in Bragg geometry this new instrument enables reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction investigations without moving the sample, which is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the diffractometer. This design minimizes external excitation of surface vibrations, a key prerequisite for studies of liquid interfaces. The instrument operates over the energy range 6.4 keV to 30 keV, the higher energy range being optimal for penetration through liquid sample environments. Vertical momentum transfer up to q{sub z} 2.5 A{sup -1} and lateral q{sub ||} up to 4 A{sup -1}will be available.

Murphy, B. M.; Greve, M.; Runge, B.; Koops, C. T.; Elsen, A.; Stettner, J.; Magnussen, O. M. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Seeck, O. H. [PETRA III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Cells vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Superconductors! Superconductors! Previous Video (Superconductors!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Oxygen and Fire!) Liquid Oxygen and Fire! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Let's say you've carelessly dunked your hand into a vat of liquid nitrogen and let it freeze solid. Every movie you've seen where this happens tells you that your hand will shatter like fine china should you bump it into something. If you're extremely careful, will your hand be okay once it thaws out? We'll explore this issue, using flower and onion cells rather than our hands! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: By now, we all know what happens when you place a flower in liquid

342

Implementation and initial evaluation of a decision support platform for selecting production routes of biomass-derived chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A decision support platform is developed to evaluate and screen options for producing chemicals from biomass feedstock. The platform is based on the modelling of the socalled compartmental processing blocks (CPBs) and their connections. It includes a simulation tool and a synthesis/optimisation tool, both based on a central database which holds process and economic information about individual CPBs. The synthesis/optimisation tool performs screening over multiple production routes by means of modelling and optimisation of superstructures that represent possible feedstock, routes, and products in a given case of assessment. The current implementation uses Excel for the database and the simulation tool, while the synthesis/ optimisation tool is based on GAMS. A case study on green ethylene production is reported to illustrate the application of the platform.

Marinella Tsakalova; Ta-Chen Lin; Aidong Yang; Antonis C. Kokossis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Value addition to lignocellulosics and biomass-derived sugars: An insight into solid acid-based catalytic methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the synthesis of important platform chemicals such as sugars (xylose and arabinose) and furans (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) from carbohydrates (hemicellulose and fructose) ... (SAPO) catalysts...

PRASENJIT BHAUMIK; A K DEEPA; TANUSHREE KANE…

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Comparative analysis of pinewood, peanut shell, and bamboo biomass derived biochars produced via hydrothermal conversion and pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biochars were produced from pinewood, peanut shell, and bamboo biomass through hydrothermal conversion (HTC) at 300 °C and comparatively by slow pyrolysis over a temperature range of 300, 400, and 500 °C. These biochars were characterized by FT-IR, cation exchange capacity (CEC) assay, methylene blue adsorption, as well as proximate and elemental analysis. The experimental results demonstrated higher retained oxygen content in biochars produced at lower pyrolysis temperatures and through HTC, which also correlated to the higher CEC of respective biochars. Furthermore, all types of biochar studied herein were capable of adsorption of methylene blue from solution and the adsorption did not appear to strongly correlate with CEC, indicating that the methylene blue adsorption appears to be dependent more upon the non-electrostatic molecular interactions such as the likely dispersive ?–? interactions between the graphene-like sheets of the biochar with the aromatic ring structure of the dye, than the electrostatic CEC. A direct comparison of hydrothermal and pyrolysis converted biochars reveals that biochars produced through HTC have much higher CEC than the biochars produced by slow pyrolysis. Analysis by FT-IR reveals a higher retention of oxygen functional groups in HTC biochars; additionally, there is an apparent trend of increasing aromaticity of the pyrolysis biochars when produced at higher temperatures. The CEC value of the HTC biochar appears correlated with its oxygen functional group content as indicated by the FT-IR measurements and its O:C ratio.

Matthew D. Huff; Sandeep Kumar; James W. Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

CO2 abatement by co-firing of natural gas and biomass-derived gas in a gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, a possible way for partial CO2 emissions reduction from gas turbine exhausts by co-firing with biomass is investigated. The basic principle is the recirculation of a fraction of the exhausts (still rich in oxygen) to a gasifier, in order to produce syngas to mix with natural gas fuel. As biomass is a CO2 neutral fuel, the fraction of replaced natural gas is a measure of CO2 removal potential of the powerplant. The investigated solution considers the conversion of solid fuel to a gaseous fuel into an atmospheric gasifier, which is blown with a recirculated fraction of hot gas turbine exhausts, typically still rich in air. In this way, the heat content of the exhausts may be exploited to partially sustain the gasification section. The produced syngas, after the tar removal into the high temperature cracker, is thus sent to the cooling section, consisting of three main components: (I) gas turbine recuperator, (II) heat recovery steam generator and (III) condensing heat exchanger to cool down the syngas close to the environmental temperature before the subsequent recompression and mixing with natural gas fuel into the combustion chamber. The water stream produced within the condensing heat exchanger upstream the syngas compression is vaporised and sent back to the gasifier. If very limited modification to the existing gas turbine has to be applied in order to keep the additional costs limited, only a relatively reduced fraction of the low calorific value syngas may be mixed with natural gas. The analysis at different levels of co-firing has shown that no appreciable redesign has to be applied to the target GE5 machine up to 25–30% (heat rate based) renewable fraction. With an accurate heat recovery from the cooling/cleaning system of the syngas, the same levels of efficiency of the original machine have been achieved, in spite of the relatively large power consumption of the syngas recompression. Very interesting results have been obtained within the 10–30% range of biomass co-firing, with CO2 removal levels between 30% and 50% with reference to the values of the base GE5 gas turbine powerplant. The economic analysis has shown that, in spite of the high investment required for the syngas fuel production chain (gasifier, coolers, cleaners and fuel compressor), approximately at the same level of gas turbine itself, there is an interesting attractiveness due to the possibility of selling high-value green certificates and CO2 allowances, which reduce the payback time to 2–4 years. The uncertainty on the calculated economic parameters are greatly influenced by the uncertainty on actual biomass availability and yearly working time of powerplant, whereas off design operation, which affects mainly the uncertainty of compressor and turbine efficiency, is mainly reflected on the uncertainty of electric power output and efficiency.

Daniele Fiaschi; Riccardo Carta

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Bio-mass derived mesoporous carbon as super electrode in all vanadium redox flow battery with multicouple reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We first report the multi-couple reaction in all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) while using bio-mass (coconut shell) derived mesoporous carbon as electrode. The presence of V3+/V4+ redox couple certainly supplies the additional electrons for the electrochemical reaction and subsequently provides improved electrochemical performance of VRFB system. The efficient electro-catalytic activity of such coconut shell derived high surface area mesoporous carbon is believed for the improved cell performance. Extensive power and electrochemical studies are performed for VRFB application point of view and described in detail.

Mani Ulaganathan; Akshay Jain; Vanchiappan Aravindan; Sundaramurthy Jayaraman; Wong Chui Ling; Tuti Mariana Lim; M.P. Srinivasan; Qingyu Yan; Srinivasan Madhavi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Bisolute Sorption and Thermodynamic Behavior of Organic Pollutants to Biomass-derived Biochars at Two Pyrolytic Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The structural characteristics and isotherms shape of the biochar were more dependent on the pyrolytic temperature than on the biomass feedstocks, which included orange peel, pine needle, and sugar cane bagasse. ... , a garden waste and ubiquitous forest biomass), orange peel (OP, Citrus reticulate, an industrial source of oils, not pre-extracted) and sugar cane bagasse (SB, Saccharum sinense, a byproduct of the sugar cane industry), were selected as biomass feedstocks because they are easily available. ... Low temperature biochars (LTB) at 300 °C and high temperature biochars (HTB) at 700 °C were produced by pyrolyzing different biomass feedstocks under oxygen-limited conditions as described in previous reports. ...

Zaiming Chen; Baoliang Chen; Dandan Zhou; Wenyuan Chen

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

348

Isolation and Characterization of Acid-Tolerant, Thermophilic Bacteria for Effective Fermentation of Biomass-Derived Sugars to Lactic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and the State of Florida, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment...National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden...waste cellulosics to fuel ethanol: a review...on transportation fuels. Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 25: 199-244...

Milind A. Patel; Mark S. Ou; Roberta Harbrucker; Henry C. Aldrich; Marian L. Buszko; Lonnie O. Ingram; K. T. Shanmugam

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Isolation and Characterization of Acid-Tolerant, Thermophilic Bacteria for Effective Fermentation of Biomass-Derived Sugars to Lactic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...TP-510-32438. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colo...potential to reduce the cost of SSF by minimizing the...cellulases, a significant cost component in the use of biomass as a renewable resource, for the production...

Milind A. Patel; Mark S. Ou; Roberta Harbrucker; Henry C. Aldrich; Marian L. Buszko; Lonnie O. Ingram; K. T. Shanmugam

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Enhanced liquid hydrocarbon recovery process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for recovering liquid hydrocarbons. It comprises: injecting into a fractured subterranean formation a polymer enhanced foam comprising a polymer selected from a synthetic polymer or a biopolymer, a surfactant, an aqueous solvent and a gas, recovering liquid hydrocarbons from the formation.

Sydansk, R.D.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

351

Laboratory solvent reuse -- Liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to develop a method for reduction of waste solvent in the Process Engineering Chemistry Laboratory. The liquid chromatographs are the largest generators of explosive-contaminated waste in the laboratory. We developed a successful process for the reuse of solvents from the liquid chromatographs and demonstrated the utility of the process in the assay of hexanitrostilbene.

Quinlin, W.T.; Schaffer, C.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Orifice mixing of immiscible liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measured with an Ostwald Viscosimeter relative to tap water also, All of these physical measurements were made at 83c F, the average tempera- ture noted during the runs. The liquid upon which these measurements were made were samples of the liquids...

McDonough, Joseph Aloysius

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Liquid-permeable electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

355

Freezing of a Liquid Marble  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, we present for the first time the observations of a freezing liquid marble. In the experiment, liquid marbles are gently placed on the cold side of a Thermo-Electric Cooler (TEC) and the morphological changes are recorded and characterized thereafter. These liquid marbles are noticed to undergo a shape transition from a spherical to a flying-saucer shaped morphology. The freezing dynamics of liquid marbles is observed to be very different from that of a freezing water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface. For example, the pointy tip appearing on a frozen water drop could not be observed for a frozen liquid marble. In the end, we highlight a possible explanation for the observed morphology.

Ali Hashmi; Adam Strauss; Jie Xu

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

356

Method of measuring a liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

Garcia, Gabe V. (Las Cruces, NM); Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

358

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Instant Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freezing Balloons! Freezing Balloons! Previous Video (Freezing Balloons!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Flowers!) Shattering Flowers! Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Need a bunch of balloons blown-up quickly? Liquid nitrogen to the rescue! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: We've been making videos for a while now and we've learned that people like balloons and liquid nitrogen! Steve: So... Here you go! Balloon: Crackling... Balloon: Pop! Joanna: Ooh! Balloon: Pop! Balloon: Pop! Steve: If you'd like to know the science of what's going on behind this, please one of our first videos, "Liquid Nitrogen Experiments: The Balloon."

359

Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of {approx}1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment.

Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

Molecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Richard J. Sadus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coexistence. 1. Introduction Henry's constant is a well-known measure of a solute's solubility in a particularMolecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Boundaries Richard to determine Henry's constant from the residual chemical potential at infinite dilution at the vapor-liquid

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The Viscosity of Liquid Helium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

2 September 1935 research-article The Viscosity of Liquid Helium J. O. Wilhelm A. D. Misener A. R. Clark The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve...

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Liquid Oxygen and its Uses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of the liquid. At present, however, there is no known method of rendering them flameless, and their use in the majority of coal-mines is therefore inadmissible. If this ...

HENRY BRIGGS

1924-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

363

Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Today's state of the art for hydrogen storage includes 5,000- and 10,000-psi compressed gas tanks and cryogenic liquid hydrogen tanks for on-board hydrogen storage.

364

Liquid helium cryo TEM | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cryo TEM Liquid helium cryo TEM The JEOL JEM-3000SFF was designed for high-resolution cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of biological samples and expands EMSL...

365

Essays on liquidity and information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation studies the interaction of liquidity and incomplete or asymmetric information. In Chapter 1, I study a dynamic economy with illiquidity due to adverse selection in financial markets. Investment is undertaken ...

Kurlat, Pablo (Pablo Daniel)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research and practical applications. They present a wide range of complex physical and chemical behaviors, including ambient vapor pressures ranging from UHV to weakly volatile, a substantial variety of distinct condensed phases, including multiple crystal isomorphs, glasses, amorphous plastic and liquid crystal phases, deep supercooling, and interesting dynamical and transport phenomena. Experiments and simulations have shown that their intrinsic self-organization at the nanoscale is responsible for several of these properties. The symposium will assemble an international array of speakers to discuss ionic liquids in the context of their heterogeneous environments, solvation, dynamics and transport, interfacial properties,

367

SRS - Programs - Liquid Waste Disposition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Waste Disposition Liquid Waste Disposition This includes both the solidification of highly radioactive liquid wastes stored in SRS's tank farms and disposal of liquid low-level waste generated as a by-product of the separations process and tank farm operations. This low-level waste is treated in the Effluent Treatment Facility. High-activity liquid waste is generated at SRS as by-products from the processing of nuclear materials for national defense, research and medical programs. The waste, totaling about 36 million gallons, is currently stored in 49 underground carbon-steel waste tanks grouped into two "tank farms" at SRS. While the waste is stored in the tanks, it separates into two parts: a sludge that settles on the bottom of the tank, and a liquid supernate that resides on top of the sludge. The waste is reduced to about 30 percent of its original volume by evaporation. The condensed evaporator "overheads" are transferred to the Effluent Treatment Project for final cleanup prior to release to the environment. As the concentrate cools a portion of it crystallizes forming solid saltcake. The concentrated supernate and saltcake are less mobile and therefore less likely to escape to the environment in the event of a tank crack or leak.

368

PHASE CHANGE LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect

Work is being performed to develop a new shipping system for frozen environmental samples (or other materials) that uses an optimal phase change liquid (PCL) formulation and an insulated shipping container with an on-board digital temperature data logger to provide a history of the temperature profile within the container during shipment. In previous work, several PCL formulations with temperatures of fusion ranging from approximately -14 to -20 C were prepared and evaluated. Both temperature of fusion and heat of fusion of the formulations were measured, and an optimal PCL formulation was selected. The PCL was frozen in plastic bags and tested for its temperature profile in a cooler using a digital temperature data logger. This testing showed that the PCL formulation can maintain freezer temperatures (< -7 to -20 C) for an extended period, such as the time for shipping samples by overnight courier. The results of the experiments described in this report provide significant information for use in developing an integrated freezer system that uses a PCL formulation to maintain freezer temperatures in coolers for shipping environmental samples to the laboratory. Experimental results show the importance of the type of cooler used in the system and that use of an insulating material within the cooler improves the performance of the freezer system. A new optimal PCL formulation for use in the system has been determined. The new formulation has been shown to maintain temperatures at < -7 to -20 C for 47 hours in an insulated cooler system containing soil samples. These results are very promising for developing the new technology.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry Physics Department, University of California the theory of an extremely correlated Fermi liquid with U ! 1. This liquid has an underlying auxiliary Fermi liquid Green's function that is further caparisoned by extreme correlations. The theory leads to two

California at Santa Cruz, University of

370

Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Core-softened Fluids, Water-like Anomalies and the Liquid-Liquid Critical Points  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. INTRODUCTION Water is characterized by well-known thermodynamic and kinetic liquid-state anomalies; for examplePREPRINT Core-softened Fluids, Water-like Anomalies and the Liquid-Liquid Critical Points Evy simulations are used to examine the relationship between water-like anoma- lies and the liquid-liquid critical

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

372

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Cation with Various Anions and the Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Anion with Various Cations Hui Jin, Bernie O'Hare, Jing Dong, Sergei Arzhantsev, Gary A. Baker, James F. Wishart, Alan J. Benesi, and Mark Maroncelli J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 81-92 (2008). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Physical properties of 4 room-temperature ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various perfluorinated anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) anion with 12 pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, and hydroxyl-containing cations are reported. Electronic structure methods are used to calculate properties related to the size, shape, and dipole moment of individual ions. Experimental measurements of

373

Liquid soap film generates electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have observed that a rotating liquid soap film generates electricity when placed between two non-contact electrodes with a sufficiently large potential difference. In our experiments suspended liquid film (water + soap film) is formed on the surface of a circular frame, which is forced to rotate in the $x-y$ horizontal plane by a motor. This system is located at the center of two capacitor-like vertical plates to apply an external electric voltage difference in the $x-$direction. The produced electric current is collected from the liquid film using two conducting electrodes that are separated in the $y-$direction. We previously reported that a liquid film in an external electric field rotates when an electric current passes through it, naming it the liquid film motor (LFM). In this paper we report a novel technique, in which a similar device can be used as an electric generator, converting the rotating mechanical energy to electrical energy. The liquid film electric generator (LFEG) is in stark contrast to the LFM, both of which could be designed similarly in very small scales like micro scales with different applications. Although the device is comparable to commercial electric motors or electric generators, there is a significant difference in their working principles. Usually in an electric motor or generator the magnetic field causes the driving force, while in a LFM or LFEG the Coulomb force is the driving force. This fact is also interesting from the Bio-science point of view and brings a similarity to bio motors. Here we have investigated the electrical characteristics of such a generator for the first time experimentally and modelled the phenomenon with electroconvection governing equations. A numerical simulation is performed using the local approximation for the charge-potential relation and results are in qualitative agreement with experiments.

Ahmad Amjadi; Sadegh Feiz; Reza Montazeri Namin

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

374

Alternative fuel and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

Development of a reliable and cost-effective method of wax/catalyst separation is a key step toward a commercially viable slurry reactor process with iron oxide-based catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbon transportation fuels. Although a variety of suitable catalysts (including, for example, cobalt-based catalysts) are available, iron oxide-based catalysts are preferred for coal-derived, CO-rich syngas because, in addition to catalyzing the F-T reaction, they simultaneously catalyze the reaction stifling CO to H{sub 2}, obviating a separate shift process block and associated costs. Because of the importance of development of this wax/catalyst separation, a study was initiated in February 1991. P. Z. Zhou of Burns and Roe reviewed the status of F-T wax/catalyst separation techniques. This led to the selection of a filtration system for the separation. Pilot tests were conducted by Mott Porous Metal Products in 1992 to develop this system. Initial results were good, but problems were encountered in follow-up testing. As a result of the testing, a filter was selected for use on the pilot plant. In LaPorte, Texas, APCI has been operating a pilot plant for the development of various synthesis gas technologies with DOE and industry support. The APCI F-T program builds on the DOE-sponsored laboratory-scale work by Mobil, reported in the mid-1980s, which used an iron oxide catalyst to produce high-quality F-T liquids in relatively compact reactors. Separation of the catalyst solids from the wax still represents a challenge. In the summer of 1992, testing of the selected filter was begun as part of the pilot plant testing. The filter performed poorly. Separation of the catalyst was primarily by sedimentation. It was recommended that the wax/catalyst separation be developed further.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography and Electrodriven Separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......processing (5), solvent extraction (6, 7), electrolytes in batteries (8), metal deposition (9, 10) and gas treatment (11...Polymerized ionic liquid sorbents for CO2 separation. Energy and Fuels (2010) 24:5797-5804. 13 Ho T.D. , Canestraro A......

Yi Huang; Shun Yao; Hang Song

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Method of measuring a liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

377

Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

378

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids Symposium Schedule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) (Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) Sunday Morning Structure and Heterogeneity of Ionic Liquids I. James Wishart and Edward Castner Introductory Remarks Andre Pinkert Hydroxyamine ionic liquids and their properties Thomas Strassner TAAILs - Tunable Aryl-Alkyl Ionic Liquids: A new generation of ionic liquids Laura Sprunger Grubbs Thermodynamic Properties of New Generation Ionic Liquids Christopher Hardacre Prediction methods for physical properties of ionic liquids BREAK Patricia Hunt What happens when you functionalise an ionic liquid with a "silicone" side chain? Edward L Quitevis Effect of cation symmetry and nanoscale segregation on the morphology, physical properties, and low-frequency vibrational dynamics of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cation ionic liquids

379

Determination of triclosan and triclocarban in environmental water samples with ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A hydrophobic ionic liquid was finely dispersed in aqueous solution along with a hydrophilic ionic liquid. Following centrifugation, the two phases aggregate to form relatively large droplets. Based on this pheno...

Ru-Song Zhao; Xia Wang; Jing Sun; Cong Hu; Xi-Kui Wang

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Nanopatterned anchoring layers for liquid crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the theory and fabrication of inhomogeneous Liquid Crystal anchoring layers. While chemical anchoring techniques have proved useful for many applications, especially Liquid Crystal Displays, they have ...

Gear, Christopher S. (Christopher Stanwood)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

382

Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications.

383

Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturingassembly guidelines, maintenancerepair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as...

384

Heterophase liquid states: Thermodynamics, structure, dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An overview of theoretical results and experimental data on the thermodynamics, structure and dynamics of the heterophase glass-forming liquids is presented. The theoretical approach is based on the mesoscopic heterophase fluctuations model (HPFM) developed within the framework of the bounded partition function approach. The Fischer cluster phenomenon, glass transition, liquid-liquid transformations, parametric phase diagram, cooperative dynamics and fragility of the glass-forming liquids is considered.

A. S. Bakai

2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

385

Remarks on Liquid Wall Research Mohamed Abdou  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wall Research Advances the Science and Energy Goals of Fusion in a Perfect Fit · If we can make liquidRemarks on Liquid Wall Research Mohamed Abdou Professor Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering UCLA Note For recent presentations and papers on liquid wall research by the APEX team see website: http

Abdou, Mohamed

386

Commercialization of coal to liquids technology  

SciTech Connect

After an overview of the coal market, technologies for producing liquids from coal are outlined. Commercialisation of coal-to-liquid fuels, the economics of coal-to-liquids development and the role of the government are discussed. Profiles of 8 key players and the profiles of 14 projects are finally given. 17 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen Show!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Insulators! Insulators! Previous Video (Insulators!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Superconductors!) Superconductors! Liquid Nitrogen Show! All of your favorite liquid nitrogen experiments all in one place! Flowers! Balloons! Racquetballs! Nothing is safe! Just sit back, relax, and enjoy the show! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Usually, every couple years, Jefferson Lab hosts an Open House. This is the one time the public and come and tour our accelerator and end stations. Steve: During the 2010 Open House, our cameraman snuck into one of the ongoing cryo shows that are held throughout the day. He missed half of it. So if you want to see the entire thing, check our website to see when the

388

Bubbles in Insulating Liquids: Stability in an Electric Field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...July 1964 research-article Bubbles in Insulating Liquids: Stability in an Electric Field C. G...Krasucki It is shown that a bubble of gas or liquid, immersed...of incompressible (liquid) bubbles immersed in an insulating liquid...

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

390

Viscosity of liquid Fe at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synchrotron x-ray radiography has been used to measure the viscosity of pure liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature in a large volume press. A probe sphere rising through liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature is imaged, in situ, allowing for the derivation of sample viscosity through a modified form of Stokes’ equation. The effect of pressure on viscosity is fit by the semi empirical framework for transport coefficients in liquid metals, providing experimental verification of constant viscosity at the pressure-dependent melting temperature of liquid Fe where no change in liquid structure occurs.

Michael D. Rutter; Richard A. Secco; Hongjian Liu; Takeyuki Uchida; Mark L. Rivers; Stephen R. Sutton; Yanbin Wang

2002-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

391

TETRAALKYLPHOSPHONIUM POLYOXOMETALATES AS NOVEL IONIC LIQUIDS.  

SciTech Connect

The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

DIETZ,M.L.; RICKERT, P.G.; ANTONIO, M.R.; FIRESTONE, M.A.; WISHART, J.F.; SZREDER, T.

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Alien liquid detector and control  

SciTech Connect

An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

Potter, B.M.

1980-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

394

Membrane Separations of Liquid Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS OF LIQUID MIXTURES Douglas R. Lloyd Separations Research Program Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas In recent years considerable attention has been given to the need... for reduced energy costs in the chemical processing industry. A major portion of the energy consumed in this industry is associated with the separation and recovery of chemicals. Membrane processes offer energy-efficient, cost effective methods...

Lloyd, D. R.

395

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Liquid Fuels  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid Fuels Liquid Fuels International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 2 - Liquid Fuels World liquids consumption increases from 84 million barrels per day in 2005 to 99 million barrels per day in 2030 in the IEO2008 high price case. In the reference case, which reflects a price path that departs significantly from prices prevailing in the first 8 months of 2008, liquids use rises to 113 million barrels per day in 2030. Figure 26. World Liquids Production in the Reference Case, 1990-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2005-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

396

Transient-Liquid-Phase and Liquid-Film-Assisted Joining ofCeramics  

SciTech Connect

Two joining methods, transient-liquid-phase (TLP) joining and liquid-film-assisted joining (LFAJ), have been used to bond alumina ceramics. Both methods rely on multilayer metallic interlayers designed to form thin liquid films at reduced temperatures. The liquid films either disappear by interdiffusion (TLP) or promote ceramic/metal interface formation and concurrent dewetting of the liquid film (LFAJ). Progress on extending the TLP method to lower temperatures by combining low-melting-point (<450 C) liquids and commercial reactive-metal brazes is described. Recent LFAJ work on joining alumina to niobium using copper films is presented.

Sugar, Joshua D.; McKeown, Joseph T.; Akashi, Takaya; Hong, SungM.; Nakashima, Kunihiko; Glaeser, Andreas M.

2005-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

397

Closed cycle liquid helium refrigerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed closed cycle liquid helium refrigerators using a Joule Thomson circuit precooled by commercially available two staged Gifford Mac Mahon cryocoolers. The Joule Thomson counterflow heat exchangers are modular and have been thermo-hydraulically characterized. Fully automatic cool down and operation are achieved by two pneumatically driven by pass and expansion valves. Several apparatus have been built or are under assembly with cooling power ranging from 100 mW up to 5 Watt, for temperature ranging from 2.8 K up to 4.5 K. A trouble free operation with several warm up and cool down cycles has been proven over 7000 hours.

G. Claudet; R. Lagnier; A. Ravex

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Flowing Liquid Crystal Simulating the Schwarzschild Metric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show how to simulate the equatorial section of the Schwarzschild metric through a flowing liquid crystal in its nematic phase. Inside a liquid crystal in the nematic phase, a traveling light ray feels an effective metric, whose properties are linked to perpendicular and parallel refractive indexes, $n_o$ e $n_e$ respectively, of the rod-like molecule of the liquid crystal. As these indexes depend on the scalar order parameter of the liquid crystal, the Beris-Edwards hydrodynamic theory is used to connect the order parameter with the velocity of a liquid crystal flow at each point. This way we calculate a radial velocity profile that simulates the equatorial section of the Schwarzschild metric, in the region outside of Schwarzschild's radius, in the nematic phase of the liquid crystal. In our model, the higher flow velocity can be of the order of some meters per second.

Erms R. Pereira; Fernando Moraes

2010-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

399

Study of Liquid Dynamics by Neutron Scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reviews the information about the collective motions of atoms in liquids which can be obtained from neutron scattering experiments with particular attention to the rare gases and liquid metals. The current status of the theoretical interpretation is examined. Coherent neutron scattering from a monatomic liquid gives directly the spectrum of the correlation function for density fluctuations in the system for wavelengths in the range 1–10 Å. The results have a dual interpretation. On the one hand they may be understood in terms of a viscoelastic theory which takes into account the microscopic structure of the liquid; on the other hand fluctuations at these wavelengths may be interpreted in terms of vibrational modes as in an amorphous solid. The paper attempts to reconcile these two points of view. Qualitative differences between liquidargon and the liquid metals are discussed with reference to the connection between the neutron results and the microscopic properties of these liquids.

P. Schofield

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Mechanism of constitution liquid film migration  

SciTech Connect

Liquid film migration (LFM) in liquid phase sintering classically involves a large metastable liquid volume adjacent to solid, and migration occurs at an isolated solid-liquid (S-L) interface. Constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), discovered in alloy 718, has major characteristics similar to those of LFM, except that the metastable liquid is from the constitutional liquation of precipitates on the grain boundary. The similarity between LFM and CLFM has led to the theory that coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also responsible for CLFM. The coherency strain hypothesis was tested in this study by evaluating whether the Hillert model of LFM would also apply for CLFM. Experimental results of CLFM in alloy 718 showed that migration velocity followed the trend predicted by the Hillert model. This indicates that the coherency strain hypothesis of LFM also applies for CLFM and that the coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also the driving force for CLFM.

NONE

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Solubility of Carbohydrates in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

‡ Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P., Unit of Bioenergy, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038, Lisboa, Portugal ... The aim of this Review is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding the solubility of carbohydrates in ionic liquids but not on modifications of carbohydrates in ionic liquids. ... We herein collect all of the available literature data about the solubility of various carbohydrates in ionic liquids and highlight their interactions with carbohydrates. ...

Ma?gorzata Ewa Zakrzewska; Ewa Bogel-?ukasik; Rafa? Bogel-?ukasik

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

402

Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.

Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA); Schaffer, Michael J. (San Diego, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Gas well operation with liquid production  

SciTech Connect

Prediction of liquid loading in gas wells is discussed in terms of intersecting tubing or system performance curves with IPR curves and by using a more simplified critical velocity relationship. Different methods of liquid removal are discussed including such methods as intermittent lift, plunger lift, use of foam, gas lift, and rod, jet, and electric submersible pumps. Advantages, disadvantages, and techniques for design and application of the methods of liquid removal are discussed.

Lea, J.F.; Tighe, R.E.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

Andersen C, Hoogendoom S, Hudson B, Prince J, Teichert K, Wood J, Chase K

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

406

Exciplex Fluorescence Thermometry of Liquid Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental program is described that investigates the application of exciplex fluorescence to the internal thermometry of flowing liquid decane in the temperature range 24-91°C....

Stufflebeam, John H

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

,"Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves",49,"Annual",2012,"6301979" ,"Release...

408

Viscosity of Liquid Sodium and Potassium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

2 November 1936 research-article Viscosity of Liquid Sodium and Potassium Y. S. Chiong The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend...

1936-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

,"Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves",49,"Annual",2013,"6301979" ,"Release...

410

Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Seeing clearly through a liquid | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Influencing Quantitative Liquid (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy." 2014. Chemical Communications 50(8):4873-4880. DOI: 10.1039c3cc48479c Related Staff: James Evans...

412

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

413

Cryocompressed Hydrogen Storage and Liquid Delivery  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cryocompressed Hydrogen Storage & Liquid Delivery Jacob Leachman, Ph.D. Assistant Professor DOE H 2 Transmission & Delivery Workshop 2262014 H Y P E R H drogen roperties for...

414

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Liquid Chlorination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication explains the process, components, legal requirements, factors affecting performance, and maintenance needs of liquid chlorination systems for onsite wastewater treatment....

Weaver, Richard; Lesikar, Bruce J.; Richter, Amanda; O'Neill, Courtney

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

415

Hazardous Liquid Pipelines and Storage Facilities (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute regulates the permitting, construction, monitoring, and operation of pipelines transporting hazardous liquids, including petroleum products and coal slurries. The definition used in...

416

The response of a point source in a liquid layer overlying a liquid half space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The response to a harmonic point source in a liquid layer overlying a liquid half space is computed as a function of frequency. Included are the contributions form all normal modes that occur, and the branch-line integral ...

Greenfield, Roy

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Behavior of hydrophobic ionic liquids as liquid membranes on phenol removal: Experimental study and optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Room temperature ionic liquids show potential as an alternative to conventional organic membrane solvents mainly due to their properties of low vapor pressure, low volatility and they are often stable. In the present work, the technical feasibilities of room temperature ionic liquids as bulk liquid membranes for phenol removal were investigated experimentally. Three ionic liquids with high hydrophobicity were used and their phenol removal efficiency, membrane stability and membrane loss were studied. Besides that, the effects of several parameters, namely feed phase pH, feed concentration, NaOH concentration and stirring speeds on the performance of best ionic liquid membrane were also evaluated. Lastly, an optimization study on bulk ionic liquid membrane was conducted and the maximum phenol removal efficiency was compared with the organic liquid membranes. The preliminary study shows that high phenol extraction and stripping efficiencies of 96.21% and 98.10%, respectively can be achieved by ionic liquid memb...

Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Gasification-Based Fuels and Electricity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasification-Based Fuels and Electricity Production from Biomass Gasification-Based Fuels and Electricity Production from Biomass Project Summary Full Title: Gasification-Based Fuels and Electricity Production from Biomass, without and with Carbon Capture and Storage Project ID: 226 Principal Investigator: Eric D. Larson Keywords: Biomass; Fischer Tropsch; hydrogen Purpose Develop and analyze process designs for gasification-based thermochemical conversion of switchgrass into Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, dimethyl ether (DME), and hydrogen. All process designs will have some level of co-production of electricity, and some will include capture of byproduct CO2 for underground storage. Performer Principal Investigator: Eric D. Larson Organization: Princeton University Telephone: 609-258-4966 Email: elarson@princeton.edu

420

NREL: Fleet Test and Evaluation - Alternative Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alternative Fuels Alternative Fuels NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation Team works with industry partners to evaluate the use of alternative fuels in delivery, transit, and freight vehicles. Although biodiesel is the most commonly used alternative fuel in medium- and heavy-duty diesel vehicles, compressed and liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel are also viable options for trucking companies. Learn more about the team's evaluations of alternative fuels in fleet operations: Biodiesel Compressed Natural Gas Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Liquefied Natural Gas Printable Version Fleet Test and Evaluation Home Research & Development Vehicle Drive Cycle Analysis Hybrid Electric Drive Systems Electric & Plug-in Hybrid Electric Drive Systems Hydraulic Hybrid Drive Systems Truck Stop Electrification

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Spiers Memorial Lecture Recent experimental advances in studies of liquid/liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

complicated processes such as molecular transport across cell membranes. A variety of techniques have been on the interaction of a hydrophobic surface with water, and ion and solute transport across these and other liquid/hydrophilic properties of liquid/ liquid interfaces. In biological systems, protein folding and membrane formation rely

Richmond, Geraldine L.

422

Arrays and Cascades of Fluorescent Liquid-Liquid Waveguides: Broadband Light Sources for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arrays and Cascades of Fluorescent Liquid-Liquid Waveguides: Broadband Light Sources) microchannel waveguides with liquid cores containing fluorescent dyes, excited by incident light from an external halogen bulb. Simultaneous use of multiple fluorophores in a common solution, in a single L2 light

Prentiss, Mara

423

(Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs  

SciTech Connect

Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

None

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Catalytic oxidative coupling of methane over Li/MgO using N2O as an oxidant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by Mobil and is known as t, he methanol ? to ? gasoline process (MTG), The first commercial plant using th&s process was const. ructed at, Motunui, New Zealand and began operation in 1985 with 14, 000 barrel per day capacity. Off ? shore natural gas... is converted to synthesis gas by steam reforming and the methanol synthesis uses conventional technology. The advent of this technology (MTG process), which synthesizes high octane gasoline from methanol, may be contrasted with the Fischer ? Tropsch process...

Yamamoto, Hiroshi

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

425

Which route to coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The author compares the SRC-II process with three indirect liquefaction processes: Lurgi gasification and Mobil's methanol to gasoline (MTG) process; Shell-Koppers gasification and the Mobil MTG process; and Lurgi gasification and SASOL Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Yields, thermal efficiencies, costs, state of development, and complexity of the processes are examined. Direct liquefaction is more thermally efficient. Investment costs are so close that the relative ranking of the process may change.

Nene, R.G.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Communications Counterion Effects in Liquid Crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of nanostructured CdS templated directly with ion-doped liquid crystals.13,14 In both cases the mesoporous solidCommunications Counterion Effects in Liquid Crystal Templating of Nanostructured CdS V. Tohver, P system, nanostructured particles consisting of alternat- ing sheets of CdS and oligomeric vinyl alcohol

Braun, Paul

427

Fiber-optic liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fiber-optic liquid level sensor measures the height of a column of liquid through the hydrostatic pressure it produces. The sensor employs a fiber-optic displacement sensor to detect the pressure-induced displacement of the center of a corrugated diaphragm.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

June 2011 Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries A review of some of the challenges, activities and policy options for liquid biofuels Prepared for PISCES by Practical Action Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries Although this research is funded by DFID

429

Cholesteric Pitch of Lyotropic Polymer Liquid Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cholesteric Pitch of Lyotropic Polymer Liquid Crystals ... The cholesteric pitch P of semiflexible helical polymer solutions was formulated using a threaded equivalent freely jointed chain model. ... The structure of cholesteric liquid crystals is characterized by the cholesteric pitch P or the cholesteric wavenumber qc (?2?/P). ...

Takahiro Sato; Jun Nakamura; Akio Teramoto; Mark M. Green

1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

430

Dynamic nuclear polarization of liquid 3He  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...March 1998 research-article Dynamic nuclear polarization of liquid 3He B. Bleaney...3PU, UK Methods of producing dynamic nuclear polarization of liquid 3He by the solid...method have been proposed using enhanced nuclear paramagnetic resonance in Van Vleck compounds...

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Remarks on Liquid Wall Research Mohamed Abdou  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remarks on Liquid Wall Research Mohamed Abdou Professor Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering UCLA physicists and engineering scientists · Enhances synergism between IFE and MFE · Provides excellent disciplines. #12;Several "Ideas" Have Been Proposed for Liquid Walls Fluids 1) High-conductivity, low Pr

California at Los Angeles, University of

432

Taylor Instability of Incompressible Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

\ UNCLASSIFIED ' ;c ,. ' UNCLASSIFIED AECU-29'79 Subject Category: PHYSICS UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION TAYLOR INSTABILITY OF INCOMPRESSIBLE LIQUIDS BY Enrico Fermi John von Neumann , _ November 1955 [ TIS Issuance D.a&?] Los Alamos Scientific Labqratqry Los Alamos, New Mexico Technical Information Service, Ooic Ridge, Tennessee DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available document. original I , The date for Part 1 is September 4, 1951. The date for Part 2 is August 19, 1953. Work performed under Contract PTo. W-7405-Eng-36. The Atomic Energy Commission makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy or usefulness of the lnformatlon or statements contained

433

Enhanced liquid hydrocarbon recovery process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formation. It comprises injecting natural gas into the formation via a well in fluid communication with the formation, the natural gas being at a temperature which is insufficient to significantly mobilize light density oil in the formation and at a pressure such that the natural gas is immiscible with the light density oil in the formation, the natural gas being injected in a volume sufficient to contact light density oil in the formation within a radius from the well of about 50 meters; shutting in the well for a period of time of about 1 to about 100 days which is sufficient to render the contacted light density oil mobile; and producing the light density oil which has been mobilized by solution of the natural gas from the well.

Haines, H.K.; Monger, T.G.; Kenyon, D.E.; Galvin, L.J.

1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

434

Viscosity of Liquid He II  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The viscosity of liquid He4 has been measured between 1.10°K and the lambda point. A new type of viscometer was used, based on the damping of the transverse vibrations of a fine wire stretched between two rigid supports. The simplicity of the hydrodynamic problem and the low nuisance damping of the wire make this technique particularly appropriate for the measurement of small viscosities. The smoothed data are presented and found to be in good agreement with the latest rotating cylinder viscometer results. In different experimental runs the vibration frequency was varied by a factor of seven and the wire diameter by a factor of three. There was no evidence of systematic trend due to mean free-path effects or geometrical corrections.

J. T. Tough; W. D. McCormick; J. G. Dash

1963-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells â–  Hydrogen Energy â–  Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Integrated Concept Purified Biogas 3 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Non-Integrated Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2 purification Stationary Fuel Cells Direct Conversion Directed Biomethane 4 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Biogas Sources in the US â–  Landfill gas dominates (~4,000 Nm3/h typical)

436

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Insulators!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Popping Film Canisters! Popping Film Canisters! Previous Video (Popping Film Canisters!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Show!) Liquid Nitrogen Show! Insulators! Cups full of water are placed into bowls of liquid nitrogen! Which cup will insulate the best? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And these are two plastic cups! Joanna: Let's see which cup is the better insulator! Steve: Okay! So, um, how do we do that? Joanna: Well, we'll pour water into each of the cups and then we'll pour the liquid nitrogen into each of the bowls. If we then place the cup in the bowl, the heat from the water will try to pass through the cup into the

437

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Freezing Balloons!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Season Two Bloopers Season Two Bloopers Previous Video (Season Two Bloopers) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party!) Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Freezing Balloons! What happens when a balloon full of air is plunged into a container full of liquid nitrogen? Play the video to find out! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a really big balloon! Joanna: Let's see what happens when we place the balloon in the liquid nitrogen! Steve: Okay! Wait! Wait! Wait! Wait! Wait! Isn't the balloon going to pop? Joanna: We'll see! Steve: Aw, man... Huh. Okay, so the balloon didn't pop. But, there's

438

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid September 15, 2011 - 2:47pm Addthis The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. Kristina Pflanz Writer & Contractor, Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy What does this mean for me? With its all-liquid design, this battery is much more efficient than today's rechargeable batteries, which use 80-90% of the space to hold

440

Neutron Scattering from Liquid Helium at Large Momentum Transfer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......letter Letters to the Editor Neutron Scattering from Liquid Helium at Large...Vol. 46 (1971), No. 1 Neutron Scattering from Liquid Helium at Large...Feynman diagram for the elastic scattering of a neutron from liquid helium, where......

Sigenobu Sunakawa; Kazuo Okajima; Kiyohisa Matsuda

1971-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Fischer-T.qxd  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fischer-Tropsch One in a series of fact sheets United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA420-F-00-036 March 2002 www.epa.gov Transportation and Air Quality Transportation and Regional Programs Division C L E A N A L T E R N A T I V E F U E L S C L E A N E R A I R For the past 50 years, Fischer-Tropsch fuels have powered all of South Africa's vehicles-from buses to trucks to taxicabs. The fuel is primarily sup- plied by Sasol, a world leader in Fischer-Tropsch technologies. Sasol's South African facility produces more than 150,000 barrels of high- quality fuel from domestic low-grade coal daily. The popular fuel is cost-com- petitive with crude oil- based petroleum products in South Africa. During the next several years, experts predict use of Fischer-Trop- sch fuels will grow as a high-end blend stock in

442

Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of Methanol and Ethanol. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of...

443

Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions of methanol and ethanol at temperatures near the glass Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid...

444

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

445

Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance Computing Center Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance...

446

Creating Liquidity for Energy Efficiency Loans in Secondary Markets...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Creating Liquidity for Energy Efficiency Loans in Secondary Markets Creating Liquidity for Energy Efficiency Loans in Secondary Markets Provides information on secondary markets in...

447

DOE Selects Savannah River Remediation, LLC for Liquid Waste...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

objective of the Liquid Waste contract is to achieve closure of the SRS liquid waste tanks in compliance with the Federal Facilities Agreement, utilizing the Defense Waste...

448

Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid chromatography mobile phases as interference ions in liquid Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based...

449

Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

450

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help...

451

Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and...

452

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

453

Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced Combustion Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced...

454

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale...

455

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion...

456

California Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

457

California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

458

Louisiana Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Louisiana (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Louisiana (Million...

459

Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

460

Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Liquids Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade...

462

California State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

463

California--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

464

Alabama Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

465

California Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) California Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) Decade...

466

California Onshore Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted in California...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Liquids Extracted in California (Thousand Barrels) California Onshore Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted in California (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

467

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Wednesday, 25 May 2005 00:00 The unique...

468

Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for...

469

Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

470

Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

471

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

472

Thermal bubble behaviour in liquid nitrogen under electric fields.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis describes thermally induced bubble behaviour changes in liquid nitrogen (LN2) under electric fields. Cryogenic liquids such as LN2 have been used not only… (more)

Wang, Ping

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a...

474

Dielectric liquid ionization chambers for detecting fast neutrons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three ionization chambers with different geometries have been constructed and filled with dielectric liquids for detection of fast neutrons. The three dielectric liquids studied were Tetramethylsilane (TMS), Tetramethylpentane ...

Boyd, Erin M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Probing the Mobility of Supercooled Liquid 3-Methylpentane at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mobility of Supercooled Liquid 3-Methylpentane at Temperatures Near the Glass Transition Using Rare Gas Permeation. Probing the Mobility of Supercooled Liquid 3-Methylpentane at...

476

Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene,...

477

High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Viscosity of a nanoconfined liquid during compression  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The viscous behavior of liquids under nanoconfinement is not well understood. Using a small-amplitude atomic force microscope we found bulk-like viscosity in a nanoconfined weakly interacting liquid. A further decrease in viscosity was observed at confinement sizes of a just few molecular layers. Overlaid over the continuum viscous behavior we measured non-continuum stiffness and damping oscillations. The average stiffness of the confined liquid was found to scale linearly with the size of the confining tip while the damping scales with the radius of curvature of the tip end.

Edward L. Kramkowski; Peter J. Ochs; David M. Wilson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Fermi liquid theory for high temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect

In this article the Fermi liquid theory of metals is discussed starting from Luttinger's theorem. The content of Luttinger's Theorem and its implications for microscopic theories of high temperature superconductors are discussed. A simple quasi-2d Fermi liquid theory is introduced and some of its properties are calculated. It is argued that a number of experiments on YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 6+x/, x > 0.5, strongly suggest the existence of a Fermi surface and thereby a Fermi liquid normal state. 25 refs., 1 fig.

Bedell, K.S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROCARBON AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

SciTech Connect

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present period, the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) has been modified to improve its volumetric and equilibrium predictions. Specifically, the attractive term of the PGR equation was modified to enhance the flexibility of the model, and a new expression was developed for the temperature dependence of the attractive term in this segment-segment interaction model. The predictive capability of the modified PGR EOS for vapor pressure, and saturated liquid and vapor densities was evaluated for selected normal paraffins, normal alkenes, cyclo-paraffins, light aromatics, argon, carbon dioxide and water. The generalized EOS constants and substance-specific characteristic parameters in the modified PGR EOS were obtained from the pure component vapor pressures, and saturated liquid and vapor molar volumes. The calculated phase properties were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), the simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and the original PGR equations. Generally, the performance of the proposed EOS was better than the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations in predicting the pure fluid properties (%AAD of 1.3, 2.8 and 3.7 for vapor pressure, saturated liquid and vapor densities, respectively).

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction combined with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography for the rapid determination of triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-triclosan in aqueous samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As extraction solvents, ionic liquids have green characteristics. In this study, an environmentally benign analytical method termed temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TIL...

JieHong Guo; XingHong Li; XueLi Cao; Lei Qu; DeKun Hou…

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Neutron Scattering by Liquid Neon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theory for neutron scattering by a semiclassical system, which is appropriate for liquid neon, is described. The theory is based on a generalized mean-field approximation involving the polarization potential and the screened response function, similarly to what has been done previously for argon and helium. The screened response function is assumed to be a sum of Gaussian functions weighted by the momentum-distribution function. The polarization potential and the width of the Gaussians are determined by the zeroth and third moments of the scattering law. The momentum distribution has the Maxwell—Boltzmann form, but includes quantum corrections to order ?2. The quantum-mechanical zero-point energy is found to increase the kinetic energy per particle to a value of about 30% greater than the classical equipartition value. Calculations have been done for wave-vector transfers in the range 0.75-5.5 times the wave vector at the principal maximum in the static-structure factor, and the theoretical line shapes have been folded with the resolution function for the experiments of Buyers et al. Comparison of the position of the maximum, full width at half-maximum, and line shapes with the experimental results gives good agreement.

W. C. Kerr and K. S. Singwi

1973-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Thousand Barrels) Thousand Barrels) Data Series: Natural Gas Processed Total Liquids Extracted NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 658,291 673,677 720,612 749,095 792,481 873,563 1983-2012 Alabama 13,381 11,753 11,667 13,065 1983-2010 Alaska 22,419 20,779 19,542 17,798 18,314 18,339 1983-2012 Arkansas 126 103 125 160 212 336 1983-2012 California 11,388 11,179 11,042 10,400 9,831 9,923 1983-2012 Colorado 27,447 37,804 47,705 57,924 1983-2010 Florida 103 16 1983-2008 Illinois 38 33 24 231 705 0 1983-2012

484

Liquid and liquid–gas flows at all speeds  

SciTech Connect

All speed flows and in particular low Mach number flow algorithms are addressed for the numerical approximation of the Kapila et al. [1] multiphase flow model. This model is valid for fluid mixtures evolving in mechanical equilibrium but out of temperature equilibrium and is efficient for material interfaces computation separating miscible and non-miscible fluids. In this context, the interface is considered as a numerically diffused zone, captured as well as all present waves (shocks, expansion waves). The same flow model can be used to solve cavitating and boiling flows [2]. Many applications occurring with liquid–gas interfaces and cavitating flows involve a very wide range of Mach number, from 10{sup ?3} to supersonic (and even hypersonic) conditions with respect to the mixture sound speed. It is thus important to address numerical methods free of restrictions regarding the Mach number. To do this, a preconditioned Riemann solver is built and embedded into the Godunov explicit scheme. It is shown that this method converges to exact solutions but needs too small time steps to be efficient. An implicit version is then derived, first in one dimension and second in the frame of 2D unstructured meshes. Two-phase flow preconditioning is then addressed in the frame of the Saurel et al. [3] algorithm. Modifications of the preconditioned Riemann solver are needed and detailed. Convergence of both single phase and two-phase numerical solutions are demonstrated with the help of single phase and two-phase steady nozzle flow solutions. Last, the method is illustrated by the computation of real cavitating flows in Venturi nozzles. Vapour pocket size and instability frequencies are reproduced by the model and method without using any adjustable parameter.

LeMartelot, S., E-mail: sebastien.lemartelot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr [Polytech'Marseille, Aix-Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7343 IUSTI, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Nkonga, B., E-mail: boniface.nkonga@unice.fr [RS2N, Bastidon de la Caou, 13360 Roquevaire (France); University of Nice, LJAD UMR CNRS 7351, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex (France); Saurel, R., E-mail: richard.saurel@polytech.univ-mrs.fr [Polytech'Marseille, Aix-Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7343 IUSTI, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); RS2N, Bastidon de la Caou, 13360 Roquevaire (France); University Institute of France, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

485

Definition: Liquid natural gas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Liquid natural gas Liquid natural gas Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Liquid natural gas Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. Liquefied natural gas takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state, freezing and asphyxia. The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then condensed into a

486

LiquidMaize LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LiquidMaize LLC LiquidMaize LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name LiquidMaize, LLC Place Denver, Colorado Zip 80237 Product LiquidMaize is an ethanol development and management company that builds, owns, and operates ethanol plants within existing cattle feed-yards and dairy operations. Coordinates 39.74001°, -104.992259° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.74001,"lon":-104.992259,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

487

Analysis of Isocyanates by Gas Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Liquid Chromatography Gary W. Ruth Marathon Oil Company, Denver Research Center...Chromatography by Gary W. Ruth, Marathon Oil Company, Denver Research Center...at the Denver Research Center, Marathon Oil Company, Littleton, Colorado......

Gary W. Ruth

1968-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

489

Viscosity of Liquids and Colloidal Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... conference it was decided to hold a further conference, in the following year, on "Viscosity of Liquids and Colloidal Solutions". This took place just before the German invasion and ...

G. W. SCOTT BLAIR

1945-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

490

Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES  

SciTech Connect

A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.

Muraviev, E. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Liquid Fuels from Biomass | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuels from Biomass Liquid Fuels from Biomass Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel...

493

AEO 2013 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

last year but will be this year It is a cap and trade system for Green House Gas (GHG) It is anticipated to affect prices, production and more than just liquid fuels Carbon...

494

Photo-responsive liquid crystal block copolymers/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photo-responsive liquid crystal polymers (LCP) which contain azobenzene moieties have gained interest for their ability to change properties by merely irradiating them with the correct wavelength of light in the appropriate ...

Petr, Michael Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

SRS Liquid Waste Program Partnering Agreement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

We the members of the  SRS Liquid Waste Partnering Team do hereby mutually agree to work in a collaborative and cooperative manner through open communication and coordination with team members, and...

496

Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuels (ALF) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) Address: P.O. Box 76 Place: McArthur, Ohio Zip: 45651 Sector: Biofuels, Renewable Energy, Services...

497

Accelerated Animation of Liquid Splash Roman Durikovic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

step and viscosity. The final liquid surface is obtained from the velocity field by rough estimation small fluid objects such as splash and spray. Our final goal is to develop a real-time system

Durikovic, Roman

498

Doppler effect in light scattering in liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work deals with the study of the state of polarisation of the three components observed in the spectrum of monochromatic light scattered by liquid formic and acetic acids, when examined with a Fabr...

B. V. Raghavendra Rao

1936-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Goethite liquid crystals and magnetic field effects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis the liquid crystal phase behavior of colloidal, boardlike, goethite (alpha-FeOOH) particles is described. Apart from the nematic phase, a smectic A phase… (more)

Pol, E. van den

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Magnetism in Heavy-Electron Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Theoretical Physics February 1992 research-article Articles Magnetism in Heavy-Electron Liquids Fusayoshi J. Ohkawa Department...d expansion to paramagnons, metamagnetism, tiny-moment magnetism, and other topics are presented. Citing Article(s......

Fusayoshi J. Ohkawa

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z