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1

Process synthesis and design of low temperature Fischer-Tropsch crude production from biomass derived syngas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The production of biofuels via a low temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis could potentially increase the utilization of biofuels without having to change the currently used combustion… (more)

Pondini, Maddalena

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Fischer-Tropsch Liquids from Greenhouse Gases: A Novel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All are ready-to-use feeds for SOFCs and syngas is a valuable precursor for the Fischer-Tropsch process. The concept uses inexpensive catalysts (a metal or its ...

3

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Background The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction converts a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide-derived from coal, methane or biomass-to liquid fuels. The Department of Energy (DOE) refers to the coal-based process as Coal-to-Liquids. The F-T process was discovered by German scientists and used to make fuels during World War II. There has been continued interest of varying intensity in F-T technology

4

Catalytic Tri-reforming of Biomass-Derived Syngas to Produce Desired H2:CO Ratios for Fuel Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study focuses on upgrading biomass derived syngas for the synthesis of liquid fuels using Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). The process includes novel gasification of biomass… (more)

Walker, Devin Mason

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

State-of-the-art processes for manufacturing synthetic liquid fuels via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processes for manufacturing synthetic liquid fuels on the basis of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis from alternative feedstock (natural gas, coal, biomass of various origins, etc.) are surveyed. State-of-the-art technology, companies that offer such processes, and the quality of products in comparison with their oil analogs, as well as economic features of the processes, are considered.

A.Y. Krylova; E.A. Kozyukov [NGK ITERA, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Liquid phase Fischer-Tropsch (II) demonstration in the Laporte Alternative Fuels Development Unit. Final topical report. Volume 7, Appendix. Task 1, Engineering modifications (Fischer-Tropsch II demonstration) and Task 2, AFDU shakedown, operations, deactivation and disposal (Fischer-Tropsch II demonstration)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results from a demonstration of Liquid Phase Fischer-Tropsch (LPFT) technology in DOE`s Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) at LaPorte, Texas. The run was conducted in a bubble column at the AFDU in May--June 1994. The 10-day run demonstrated a very high level of reactor productivity for LPFT, more than five times the previously demonstrated productivity (1). The productivity was constrained by mass transfer limitations, perhaps due to slurry thickening as a result of carbon formation on the catalyst. With a cobalt catalyst or an improved iron catalyst, if the carbon formation can be avoided, there is significant room for further improvements. This volume contains appendices for: reactor temperature stability; Mott Cross-flow filter test for F-T II; Fischer-Tropsch II run authorizations; Fischer-Tropsch II run chronology; liquid compositions; and F-T II / IIA Demonstration Mass Balances.

Bhatt, B.L.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Impact of Contaminants Present in Coal-Biomass Derived Synthesis Gas on Water-gas Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Co-gasification of biomass and coal in large-scale, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants increases the efficiency and reduces the environmental impact of making synthesis gas ("syngas") that can be used in Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes for producing transportation fuels. However, the water-gas shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts used in these processes may be poisoned by multiple contaminants found in coal-biomass derived syngas; sulfur species, trace toxic metals, halides, nitrogen species, the vapors of alkali metals and their salts (e.g., KCl and NaCl), ammonia, and phosphorous. Thus, it is essential to develop a fundamental understanding of poisoning/inhibition mechanisms before investing in the development of any costly mitigation technologies. We therefore investigated the impact of potential contaminants (H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, HCN, AsH{sub 3}, PH{sub 3}, HCl, NaCl, KCl, AS{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}OH, KNO{sub 3}, HBr, HF, and HNO{sub 3}) on the performance and lifetime of commercially available and generic (prepared in-house) WGS and FT catalysts; ferrochrome-based high-temperature WGS catalyst (HT-WGS, Shiftmax 120�, Süd-Chemie), low-temperature Cu/ZnO-based WGS catalyst (LT-WGS, Shiftmax 230�, Süd-Chemie), and iron- and cobalt-based Fischer-Trospch synthesis catalysts (Fe-FT & Co-FT, UK-CAER). In this project, TDA Research, Inc. collaborated with a team at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) led by Dr. Burt Davis. We first conducted a detailed thermodynamic analysis. The three primary mechanisms whereby the contaminants may deactivate the catalyst are condensation, deposition, and reaction. AsH{sub 3}, PH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HCl, NH{sub 3} and HCN were found to have a major impact on the Fe-FT catalyst by producing reaction products, while NaCl, KCl and PH{sub 3} produce trace amounts of deposition products. The impact of the contaminants on the activity, selectivity, and deactivation rates (lifetime) of the catalysts was determined in bench-scale tests. Most of the contaminants appeared to adsorb onto (or react with) the HT- and LT-WGS catalysts were they were co-fed with the syngas: � 4.5 ppmv AsH{sub 3} or 1 ppmv PH{sub 3} in the syngas impacted the selectivity and CO conversion of both catalysts; � H{sub 2}S slowly degraded both WGS catalysts; - A binary mixture of H{sub 2}S (60 ppmv) and NH{sub 3} (38 ppmv) impacted the activity of the LT-WGS catalyst, but not the HT-WGS catalyst � Moderate levels of NH{sub 3} (100 ppmv) or HCN (10 ppmv) had no impact � NaCl or KCl had essentially no effect on the HT-WGS catalyst, but the activity of the LT-WGS catalyst decreased very slowly Long-term experiments on the Co-FT catalyst at 260 and 270 °C showed that all of the contaminants impacted it to some extent with the exception of NaCl and HF. Irrespective of its source (e.g., NH{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, or HNO{sub 3}), ammonia suppressed the activity of the Co-FT catalyst to a moderate degree. There was essentially no impact the Fe-FT catalyst when up to 100 ppmw halide compounds (NaCl and KCl), or up to 40 ppmw alkali bicarbonates (NaHCO{sub 3} and KHCO{sub 3}). After testing, BET analysis showed that the surface areas, and pore volumes and diameters of both WGS catalysts decreased during both single and binary H2S and NH3 tests, which was attributed to sintering and pore filling by the impurities. The HT-WGS catalyst was evaluated with XRD after testing in syngas that contained 1 ppmv PH{sub 3}, or 2 ppmv H{sub 2}S, or both H{sub 2}S (60 ppmv) and NH{sub 3} (38 ppmv). The peaks became sharper during testing, which was indicative of crystal growth and sintering, but no new phases were detected. After LT-WGS tests (3-33 ppmv NH{sub 3} and/or 0-88 ppmv H{sub 2}S) there were a few new phases that appeared, including sulfides. The fresh Fe-FT catalyst was nanocrystalline and amorphous. ICP-AA spectroscopy and other methods (e.g., chromatography) were used to analyze for

Gokhan Alptekin

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

8

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States-Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States has the world's largest coal reserves and Montana the highest potential for mega-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create a major source of domestic transportation fuels from coal, and some prominent Montanans want to be at the center of that effort. We calculate that the energy efficiency of the best existing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process applied to average coal in Montana is less than 1/2 of the corresponding efficiency of an average crude oil refining process. The resulting CO{sub 2} emissions are 20 times (2000%) higher for CTL than for conventional petroleum products. One barrel of the FT fuel requires roughly 800 kg of coal and 800 kg of water. The minimum energy cost of subsurface CO{sub 2} sequestration would be at least 40% of the FT fuel energy, essentially halving energy efficiency of the process. We argue therefore that CTL conversion is not the most valuable use for the coal, nor will it ever be, as long as it is economical to use natural gas for electric power generation. This finding results from the low efficiency inherent in FT synthesis, and is independent of the monumental FT plant construction costs, mine construction costs, acute lack of water, and the associated environmental impacts for Montana.

Patzek, Tad W. [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)], E-mail: patzek@mail.utexas.edu; Croft, Gregory D. [University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Research Opportunities for Fischer-Tropsch Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was discovered in Germany in the 1920's and has been studied by every generation since that time. As technology and chemistry, in general, improved through the decades, new insights, catalysts, and technologies were added to the Fischer-Tropsch process, improving it and making it more economical with each advancement. Opportunities for improving the Fischer-Tropsch process and making it more economical still exist. This paper gives an overview of the present Fischer-Tropsch processes and offers suggestions for areas where a research investment could improve those processes. Gas-to-liquid technology, which utilizes the Fischer Tropsch process, consists of three principal steps: Production of synthesis gas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from natural gas, the production of liquid fuels from syngas using a Fischer-Tropsch process, and upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Each step will be studied for opportunities for improvement and areas that are not likely to reap significant benefits without significant investment.

Jackson, Nancy B.

1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

Tailored fischer-tropsch synthesis product distribution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel methods of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are described. It has been discovered that conducting the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over a catalyst with a catalytically active surface layer of 35 microns or less results in a liquid hydrocarbon product with a high ratio of C.sub.5-C.sub.20:C.sub.20+. Descriptions of novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts and reactors are also provided. Novel hydrocarbon compositions with a high ratio of C.sub.5-C.sub.20:C.sub.20+ are also described.

Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Cao, Chunshe (Kennewick, WA); Li, Xiaohong Shari (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

11

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst Using Near-Critical Fluid Extraction: Analysis of Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is performed using absorption in ethanolamines and PSA. Once the syngas is prepared the Fischer - Tropsch) technologies based on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Wilhelm et al., 2001) Fischer-Tropsch liquids can be refined process conditions. Depending on the types and quantities of Fischer- Tropsch products desired, either low

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

12

Determination of the Effect of Coal/Biomass-Derived Syngas Contaminants on the Performance of Fischer-Tropsch and Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Today, nearly all liquid fuels and commodity chemicals are produced from non-renewable resources such as crude oil and natural gas. Because of increasing scrutiny of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions produced using traditional fossil-fuel resources, the utilization of alternative feedstocks for the production of power, hydrogen, value-added chemicals, and high-quality hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel and substitute natural gas (SNG) is critical to meeting the rapidly growing energy needs of modern society. Coal and biomass are particularly attractive as alternative feedstocks because of the abundant reserves of these resources worldwide. The strategy of co-gasification of coal/biomass (CB) mixtures to produce syngas for synthesis of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels offers distinct advantages over gasification of either coal or biomass alone. Co-feeding coal with biomass offers the opportunity to exploit economies of scale that are difficult to achieve in biomass gasification, while the addition of biomass to the coal gasifier feed leverages proven coal gasification technology and allows CO{sub 2} credit benefits. Syngas generated from CB mixtures will have a unique contaminant composition because coal and biomass possess different concentrations and types of contaminants, and the final syngas composition is also strongly influenced by the gasification technology used. Syngas cleanup for gasification of CB mixtures will need to address this unique contaminant composition to support downstream processing and equipment. To investigate the impact of CB gasification on the production of transportation fuels by FT synthesis, RTI International conducted thermodynamic studies to identify trace contaminants that will react with water-gas-shift and FT catalysts and built several automated microreactor systems to investigate the effect of single components and the synergistic effects of multiple contaminants on water-gas-shift and FT catalyst performance. The contaminants investigated were sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and combinations thereof. This report details the thermodynamic studies and the individual and multi-contaminant results from this testing program.

Trembly, Jason; Cooper, Matthew; Farmer, Justin; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Predicting the performance of system for the co-production of Fischer-Tropsch synthetic liquid and power from coal  

SciTech Connect

A co-production system based on Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactor and gas turbine was simulated and analyzed. Syngas from entrained bed coal gasification was used as feedstock of the low-temperature slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reactor. Raw synthetic liquid produced was fractioned and upgraded to diesel, gasoline, and liquid petrol gas (LPG). Tail gas composed of unconverted syngas and FT light components was fed to the gas turbine. Supplemental fuel (NG, or refinery mine gas) might be necessary, which was dependent on gas turbine capacity expander through flow capacity, etc. FT yield information was important to the simulation of this co-production system. A correlation model based on Mobil's two step pilot plant was applied. User models that can predict product yields and cooperate with other units were embedded into Aspen plus simulation. Performance prediction of syngas fired gas turbine was the other key of this system. The increase in mass flow through the turbine affects the match between compressor and turbine operating conditions. The calculation was carried out by GS software developed by Politecnico Di Milano and Princeton University. Various cases were investigated to match the FT synthesis island, power island, and gasification island in co-production systems. Effects of CO{sub 2} removal/LPG recovery, co-firing, and CH{sub 4} content variation were studied. Simulation results indicated that more than 50% of input energy was converted to electricity and FT products. Total yield of gasoline, diesel, and LPG was 136-155 g/N m{sup 3} (CO+H{sub 2}). At coal feed of 21.9 kg/s, net electricity exported to the grid was higher than 100 MW. Total production of diesel and gasoline (and LPG) was 118,000 t (134,000 t)/year. Under the economic analysis conditions assumed in this paper the co-production system was economically feasible.

Wang, X.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, S.; Guo, Z. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Engineering Thermophysics

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

FischerTropsch synthesis on a model Co/SiO2 catalyst , Zhoujun Wang a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

turbine and electrical generator or 2. to a steam reformer and a modified, carbon-recycling Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, a modified Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process that converts carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid of electricity, steam, and heat needed to power the entire ZEROS facility. The Fischer-Tropsch-like ZEROS FT

Goodman, Wayne

15

Fischer-Tropsch process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing a product selective and stable catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Orefield, PA); Withers, Howard P. (Douglassville, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

The selective catalytic cracking of Fischer-Tropsch liquids to high value transportation fuels. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amoco Oil Company, investigated a selective catalytic cracking process (FCC) to convert the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) gasoline and wax fractions to high value transportation fuels. The primary tasks of this contract were to (1) optimize the catalyst and process conditions of the FCC process for maximum conversion of F-T wax into reactive olefins for later production of C{sub 4}{minus}C{sub 8} ethers, and (2) use the olefin-containing light naphtha obtained from FCC processing of the F-T wax as feedstock for the synthesis of ethers. The catalytic cracking of F-T wax feedstocks gave high conversions with low activity catalysts and low process severities. HZSM-5 and beta zeolite catalysts gave higher yields of propylene, isobutylene, and isoamylenes but a lower gasoline yield than Y zeolite catalysts. Catalyst selection and process optimization will depend on product valuation. For a given catalyst and process condition, Sasol and LaPorte waxes gave similar conversions and product selectivities. The contaminant iron F-T catalyst fines in the LaPorte wax caused higher coke and hydrogen yields.

Schwartz, M.M.; Reagon, W.J.; Nicholas, J.J.; Hughes, R.D.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Novel Attrition-Resistant Fischer Tropsch Catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is a strong national interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process because it offers the possibility of making liquid hydrocarbon fuels from reformed natural gas or coal and biomass gasification products. This project explored a new approach that had been developed to produce active, attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that are based on glass-ceramic materials and technology. This novel approach represented a promising solution to the problem of reducing or eliminating catalyst attrition and maximizing catalytic activity, thus reducing costs. The technical objective of the Phase I work was to demonstrate that glass-ceramic based catalytic materials for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis have resistance to catalytic deactivation and reduction of particle size superior to traditional supported Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials. Additionally, these novel glass-ceramic-based materials were expected to exhibit catalytic activity similar to the traditional materials. If successfully developed, the attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials would be expected to result in significant technical, economic, and social benefits for both producers and public consumers of Fischer-Tropsch products such as liquid fuels from coal or biomass gasification. This program demonstrated the anticipated high attrition resistance of the glass-ceramic materials. However, the observed catalytic activity of the materials was not sufficient to justify further development at this time. Additional testing documented that a lack of pore volume in the glass-ceramic materials limited the amount of surface area available for catalysis and consequently limited catalytic activity. However, previous work on glass-ceramic catalysts to promote other reactions demonstrated that commercial levels of activity can be achieved, at least for those reactions. Therefore, we recommend that glass-ceramic materials be considered again as potential Fischer-Tropsch catalysts if it can be demonstrated that materials with adequate pore volume can be produced. During the attrition resistance tests, it was learned that the glass-ceramic materials are very abrasive. Attention should be paid in any further developmental efforts to the potential for these hard, abrasive materials to damage reactors.

Weast, Logan, E.; Staats, William, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Pathways for CO2 formation and conversion during FischerTropsch synthesis on iron-based catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is implemented in the plant. Keywords: Energy, Biofuels, Alternative fuels, Diesel, Fisher ­ Tropsch is performed using absorption in ethanolamines and PSA. Once the syngas is prepared the Fischer - Tropsch) technologies based on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Wilhelm et al., 2001) Fischer-Tropsch liquids can be refined

Iglesia, Enrique

19

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States--FischerTropsch Synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States--Fischer­Tropsch Synthesis Tad W The United States has the world�s largest coal reserves and Montana the highest potential for mega-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

20

8. Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

8. Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels B. Fuel Ethanol Production and Market Conditions Ethanol is consumed as fuel in the United States primarily as "gasohol"--a blend ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula PS -R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS -H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS -Br; treating said PS -Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS -Li; substituting said PS - Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel.

Derr, Jr., W. Rodman (Vincentown, NJ); Garwood, William E. (Haddonfield, NJ); Kuo, James C. (Cherry Hill, NJ); Leib, Tiberiu M. (Voorhees, NJ); Nace, Donald M. (Woodbury, NJ); Tabak, Samuel A. (Wenonah, NJ)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel. 2 figs.

Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

26

Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: Characterization Rb Promoted Iron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nov 1, 2007 ... Abstract Rubidium promoted iron Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) ... Keywords Fischer–Tropsch synthesis Á Iron catalyst Á. Rubidium Á Active ...

27

Reducing fischer-tropsch catalyst attrition losses in high ...  

Reducing fischer-tropsch catalyst attrition losses in high agitation reaction systems United States Patent

28

Platinum-Modulated Cobalt Nanocatalysts for Low-Temperature Aqueous-Phase Fischer Tropsch Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an important catalytic process for liquid fuel generation, which converts coal/shale gas/biomass-derived syngas (a mixture of CO and H2) to oil. While FTS is thermodynamically favored at low temperature, it is desirable to develop a new catalytic system that could allow working at a relatively low reaction temperature. In this article, we present a one-step hydrogenation reduction route for the synthesis of Pt Co nanoparticles (NPs) which were found to be excellent catalysts for aqueous-phase FTS at 433 K. Coupling with atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and theoretical calculations, the outstanding activity is rationalized by the formation of Co overlayer structures on Pt NPs or Pt Co alloy NPs. The improved energetics and kinetics from the change of the transition states imposed by the lattice mismatch between the two metals are concluded to be the key factors responsible for the dramatically improved FTS performance.

Wang, Hang [Peking University; Zhou, Wu [ORNL; Liu, JinXun [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics; Si, Rui [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Sun, Geng [Peking University; Zhong, Mengqi [Peking University; Su, Haiyan [Peking University; Zhao, Huabo [Peking University; Rodrigues, Jose [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Li, Weixue [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics; Kou, Yuan [Peking University; Ma, Ding [Peking University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Diesel production from Fischer-Tropsch: the past, the present, and new concepts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is technically classified into two categories, the high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (HTFT) and the low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) processes. The criterion for this classification is the operating temperature of the synthesis, which ranges between 310-340{sup o}C for the HTFT process and 210-260{sup o}C for the LTFT process. A Fischer-Tropsch facility can be divided into roughly three sections, synthesis gas (syngas) generation, FT synthesis, and refining of the synthetic crude (syncrude). Fischer-Tropsch refineries differ regarding the product upgrading, and both transportation fuels and chemicals can be produced. Regarding the FT refinery history, the configuration of each refinery also reflects the requirements of the fuel specification at that time. This paper gives a condensed overview of how Fischer-Tropsch facilities changed during the last 70 years and focuses in particular on the diesel fuel produced. Some conceptual flow schemes are additionally presented with emphasis on the combined upgrading of the high boiling part of the FT product spectrum with liquids derived from coal pyrolysis. 52 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Fischer-Tropsch Wastewater Utilization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is generally directed to handling the wastewater, or condensate, from a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor. More particularly, the present invention provides a process wherein the wastewater of a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor, such as a Fischer-Tropsch reactor, is sent to a gasifier and subsequently reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas. The wastewater may also be recycled back to a slurry preparation stage, where solid combustible organic materials are pulverized and mixed with process water and the wastewater to form a slurry, after which the slurry fed to a gasifier where it is reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas.

Shah, Lalit S. (Sugar Land, TX)

2003-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

31

Moderated ruthenium fischer-tropsch synthesis catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprises moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation.

Abrevaya, Hayim (Wilmette, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

33

Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by slurring them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation.

White, Curt M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Quiring, Michael S. (Katy, TX); Jensen, Karen L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hickey, Richard F. (Bethel Park, PA); Gillham, Larry D. (Bartlesville, OK)

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

34

Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst-free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by mixing them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation. 2 figs.

White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

35

Liquid phase Fischer-Tropsch (II) demonstration in the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit. Volume 1/2, Main Report. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results from a demonstration of Liquid Phase Fischer-Tropsch (LPFT) technology in DOE`s Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) at LaPorte, Texas. The run was conducted in a bubble column at the AFDU in May--June 1994. The 10-day run demonstrated a very high level of reactor productivity for LPFT, more than five times the previously demonstrated productivity. The productivity was constrained by mass transfer limitations, perhaps due to slurry thickening as a result of carbon formation on the catalyst. With a cobalt catalyst or an improved iron catalyst, if the carbon formation can be avoided, there is significant room for further improvements. The reactor was operated with 0.7 H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas in the range of 2400--11700 sl/hr-kg Fe, 175--750 psig and 270--300C. The inlet gas velocity ranged from 0.19 to 0.36 ft/sec. The demonstration was conducted at a pilot scale of 5 T/D. Catalyst activation with CO/N{sub 2} proceeded well. Initial catalyst activity was close to the expectations from the CAER autoclave runs. CO conversion of about 85% was obtained at the baseline condition. The catalyst also showed good water-gas shift activity and a low {alpha}. At high productivity conditions, reactor productivity of 136 grams of HC/hr -- liter of slurry volume was demonstrated, which was within the target of 120--150. However, mass transfer limitations were observed at these conditions. To alleviate these limitations and prevent excessive thickening, the slurry was diluted during the run. This enabled operations under kinetic control later in the run. But, the dilution resulted in lower conversion and reactor productivity. A new reactor internal heat exchanger, installed for high productivity conditions, performed well above design,and the system never limited the performance. The control can expected, the reactor temperature control needed manual intervention. The control can be improved by realigning the utility oil system.

Bhatt, B.L.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

INTEGRATED FISCHER TROPSCH MODULAR PROCESS MODEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With declining petroleum reserves, increased world demand, and unstable politics in some of the world’s richest oil producing regions, the capability for the U.S. to produce synthetic liquid fuels from domestic resources is critical to national security and economic stability. Coal, biomass and other carbonaceous materials can be converted to liquid fuels using several conversion processes. The leading candidate for large-scale conversion of coal to liquid fuels is the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. Process configuration, component selection, and performance are interrelated and dependent on feed characteristics. This paper outlines a flexible modular approach to model an integrated FT process that utilizes a library of key component models, supporting kinetic data and materials and transport properties allowing rapid development of custom integrated plant models. The modular construction will permit rapid assessment of alternative designs and feed stocks. The modeling approach consists of three thrust areas, or “strands” – model/module development, integration of the model elements into an end to end integrated system model, and utilization of the model for plant design. Strand 1, model/module development, entails identifying, developing, and assembling a library of codes, user blocks, and data for FT process unit operations for a custom feedstock and plant description. Strand 2, integration development, provides the framework for linking these component and subsystem models to form an integrated FT plant simulation. Strand 3, plant design, includes testing and validation of the comprehensive model and performing design evaluation analyses.

Donna Post Guillen; Richard Boardman; Anastasia M. Gribik; Rick A. Wood; Robert A. Carrington

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Upgrading of light Fischer-Tropsch products  

SciTech Connect

Work during this quarter concentrated on Task 4 of the study. The objective of this task is to evaluate the application of the UOP/BP Cyclar* process to the upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch LPG products into aromatics. Results from pilot plant studies were translated into commercial yield estimates as described in Quarterly Report No. 7. This quarterly report documents an economic evaluation of the Cyclar process for converting LPG into aromatics in a Fischer-Tropsch upgrading complex. 1 ref., 11 figs., 9 tabs.

1989-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

38

Process design and solvent recycle for the supercritical Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recycle reactor system for supercritical Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was successfully designed and tested. The new reactor system has these characteristics: (1) integration of supercritical Fischer-Tropsch reactions, natural separation of produced wax from liquid phase, and recycle of the solvent and (2) natural recycle of solvent driven by self-gravity. A 20% Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst and n-hexane were used as a catalyst and supercritical fluid, respectively. The results show that the average CO conversion at the steady state was 45% with recycle and 58% without recycle. The lumped hydrocarbon products distribution did not have any obvious difference between with and without recycle operation; however, {alpha}-olefin content of products with recycle was lower than that without recycle. The XRD result indicates that most of the reduced cobalt remains in the metallic state during the Fischer-Tropsch reactions for both cases. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Wensheng Linghu; Xiaohong Li; Kenji Asami; Kaoru Fujimoto [University of Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Chemical Processes and Environments, Faculty of Environmental Engineering

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

40

THE MECHANISM AND KINETICS OF FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS OVER SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. B. , "The Fischer- Tropsch and Related Syntheses", Wiley,Anderson, R. , "The Fischer-Tropsch and Related Synthesis",Isotope Effects on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Over Supported

Kellner, Carl Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Catalyst structure and method of fischer-tropsch synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention includes Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, reactions using Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, methods of making Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, processes of hydrogenating carbon monoxide, and fuels made using these processes. The invention provides the ability to hydrogenate carbon monoxide with low contact times, good conversion rates and low methane selectivities. In a preferred method, the catalyst is made using a metal foam support.

Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Vanderwiel, David P [Richland, WA; Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA; Baker, Eddie G [Pasco, WA

2002-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

42

Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts having improved selectivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst having an improved steam treated, acid extracted LZ-210 support is taught. The new catalyst system demonstrates improved product selectivity at Fischer-Tropsch reaction conditions evidenced by lower methane production, higher C.sub.5.sup.+ yield and increased olefin production.

Miller, James G. (Pearl River, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived from coal/biomass blends to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products to liquid fuels may provide a sustainable path forward, especially considering if carbon sequestration can be successfully demonstrated. However, one current drawback is that it is unknown whether conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt will be suitable without proper development because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using an entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier) than solely from coal, other byproducts may be present in higher concentrations. The current project examines the impact of a number of potential byproducts of concern from the gasification of biomass process, including compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the second year, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities.

Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

44

Biomass-Derived Liquids Distributed (Aqueous Phase) Reforming...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

required to meet the target G G G G G Introduction This project focuses on the APR of biomass-derived liquids for the production of hydrogen. We target the development of...

45

Spectroscopic and Transient Kinetic Studies of Site Requirements in Iron-Catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, known as AAFEX 1, used Fischer Tropsch fuel, which is aviation fuel derived from coal and natural gas pure FischerTropsch fuel or blends of FischerTropsch and stan dard JP8 fuel were burned. Carbon dioxide fuel tanks were filled with pure FischerTropsch fuel and not the JP8 blend. In March, researchers

Iglesia, Enrique

46

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical reaction media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the proposed research is to develop novel reactor operating strategies for the catalytic conversion of syngas to transportation grade fuels and oxygenates using near-critical (nc) fluids as reaction media. This will be achieved through systematic investigations aimed at a better fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical rate processes underlying catalytic syngas conversion in nc reaction media. Syngas conversion to fuels and fuel additives on Fe catalysts (Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) was investigated. Specific objectives are to investigate the effects of various nc media, their flow rates and operating pressure on syngas conversion, reactor temperature profiles, product selectivity and catalyst activity in trickle-bed reactors. Solvents that exhibit gas to liquid-like densities with relatively moderate pressure changes (from 25 to 60 bars) at typical syngas conversion temperatures (in the 220-280{degree}C range) will be chosen as reaction media.

Subramaniam, B.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

Huffman, Gerald P.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

48

Upgrading of light Fischer-Tropsch products  

SciTech Connect

The upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) light ends was studied at UOP in a program sponsored by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program was to increase the overall yield of marketable transportation fuels from the F-T upgrading complex by focusing on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and naphtha. An overview of the entire light-ends program is presented in this paper. Although this contract is specifically concerned with light products (C{sub 3}-C{sub 11}), a separate DOE-sponsored program at UOP investigated the characterization and upgrading of the heavy end of the F-T product spectrum: F-T wax. An economic analysis of the light and heavy ends upgrading was performed to evaluate the conversion of F-T products to marketable transportation fuels. 9 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

Shah, P.P.

1990-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

49

DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201000319 Surface Science Studies on Cobalt FischerTropsch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of biofuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, electricity production via turbines and the production of various of producing biofuels from syngas, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, is addressed briefly and the influence of various............................................................................................................................ 12 2.3.1 Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

Goodman, Wayne

50

CO activation pathways and the mechanism of FischerTropsch synthesis Manuel Ojeda a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the produced cellulosic ethanol is assumed to have relatively lower costs than Fischer-Tropsch, but that Fisher-Tropsch, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch from biomass; cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch. Ethanol is produced from lignocellulose through

Iglesia, Enrique

51

ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to convert syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) derived from natural gas or coal to liquid fuels and wax is a well-established technology. For low H{sub 2} to CO ratio syngas produced from CO{sub 2} reforming of natural gas or from gasification of coal, the use of Fe catalysts is attractive because of their high water gas shift activity in addition to their high FT activity. Fe catalysts are also attractive due to their low cost and low methane selectivity. Because of the highly exothermic nature of the FT reaction, there has been a recent move away from fixed-bed reactors toward the development of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) that employ 30 to 90 {micro}m catalyst particles suspended in a waxy liquid for efficient heat removal. However, the use of FeFT catalysts in an SBCR has been problematic due to severe catalyst attrition resulting in fines that plug the filter employed to separate the catalyst from the waxy product. Fe catalysts can undergo attrition in SBCRs not only due to vigorous movement and collisions but also due to phase changes that occur during activation and reaction.

K. Jothimurugesan; James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Santosh K. Gangwal

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process employing a moderated ruthenium catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch type process produces hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using a novel catalyst comprising moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation. 1 fig.

Abrevaya, H.

1990-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts having improved selectivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The promoter(s) Mn oxide or Mn oxide and Zr oxide are added to a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst combined with the molecular sieve TC-103 or TC-123 such that the resultant catalyst demonstrates improved product selectivity, stability and catalyst life. The improved selectivity is evidenced by lower methane production, higher C5+ yield and increased olefin production.

Miller, James G. (Pearl River, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process employing a moderated ruthenium catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch type process produces hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using a novel catalyst comprising moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation.

Abrevaya, Hayim (Wilmette, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This paper describes a process for the separation of catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The separation is accomplished by extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic. The purified catalyst can be upgraded by various methods.

White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

57

Attrition Resistant Iron-Based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRS) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T when using low CO/H{sub 2} ratio synthesis gases derived from modem coal gasifiers. This is because in addition to reasonable F-T activity, the FT catalysts also possess high water gas shift (WGS) activity. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, making the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research are to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition resistance of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. Catalyst preparations will be based on the use of spray drying and will be scalable using commercially available equipment. The research will employ among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis, including long duration slurry reactor runs in order to ascertain the degree of success of the various preparations. The goal is to develop an Fe catalyst which can be used in a SBCR having only an internal filter for separation of the catalyst from the liquid product, without sacrificing F-T activity and selectivity.

Jothimurugesan, K. [Hampton Univ., VA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Goodwin, J.G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Spivey, J.J.; Gangwal, S.K. [Research Triangle Inst., NC (United States)

1997-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

58

ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T when using low CO/H2 ratio synthesis gases derived from modern coal gasifiers. This is because in addition to reasonable F-T activity, the F-T catalysts also possess high water gas shift (WGS) activity. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, making the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research are to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition resistance of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. Catalyst preparations will be based on the use of spray drying and will be scalable using commercially available equipment. The research will employ among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis, including long duration slurry reactor runs in order to ascertain the degree of success of the various preparations. The goal is to develop an Fe catalyst which can be used in a SBCR having only an internal filter for separation of the catalyst from the liquid product, without sacrificing F-T activity and selectivity. The effect of silica addition via coprecipitation and as a binder to a doubly promoted Fischer-Tropsch synthesis iron catalyst (100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K) was studied. The catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation, followed by binder addition and drying in a 1 m diameter, 2 m tall spray dryer. The binder silica content was varied from 0 to 20 wt %. A catalyst with 12 wt % binder silica was found to have the highest attrition resistance. F-T reaction studies over 100 hours in a fixed-bed reactor showed that this catalyst maintained around 95 % CO conversion with a methane selectivity of less than 7 wt % and a C5 + selectivity of greater than 73 wt %. The effect of adding precipitated silica from 0 to 20 parts by weight to this catalyst (containing 12 wt % binder silica) was also studied. Addition of precipitated silica was found to be detrimental to attrition resistance and resulted in increased methane and reduced wax formation. An HPR series of proprietary catalysts was prepared to further improve the attrition resistance. Based on the experience gained, a proprietary HPR-43 catalyst has been successfully spray dried in 500 g quantity. This catalyst showed 95 % CO conversion over 125 h and had less than 4 % methane selectivity. Its attrition resistance was one of the highest among the catalyst tested.

James G. Goodwin, Jr.; James J. Spivey; K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

1999-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

59

ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T when using low CO/H{sub 2} ratio synthesis gases derived from modern coal gasifiers. This is because in addition to reasonable F-T activity, the F-T catalysts also possess high water gas shift (WGS) activity. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, making the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research are to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition resistance of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. Catalyst preparations will be based on the use of spray drying and will be scalable using commercially available equipment. The research will employ among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis, including long duration slurry reactor runs in order to ascertain the degree of success of the various preparations. The goal is to develop an Fe catalyst which can be used in a SBCR having only an internal filter for separation of the catalyst from the liquid product, without sacrificing F-T activity and selectivity. The effect of silica addition via coprecipitation and as a binder to a doubly promoted Fischer-Tropsch synthesis iron catalyst (100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K) was studied. The catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation, followed by binder addition and drying in a 1 m diameter, 2 m tall spray dryer. The binder silica content was varied from 0 to 20 wt %. A catalyst with 12 wt % binder silica was found to have the highest attrition resistance. F-T reaction studies over 100 hours in a fixed-bed reactor showed that this catalyst maintained around 95 % CO conversion with a methane selectivity of less than 7 wt % and a C{sub 5}{sup +} selectivity of greater than 73 wt %. The effect of adding precipitated silica from 0 to 20 parts by weight to this catalyst (containing 12 wt % binder silica) was also studied. Addition of precipitated silica was found to be detrimental to attrition resistance and resulted in increased methane and reduced wax formation.

JAMES G. GOODWIN, JR.; JAMES J. SPIVEY; K. JOTHIMURUGESAN; SANTOSH K. GANGWAL

1998-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

60

Preparation of a novel structured catalyst based on aligned carbon nanotube arrays for a microchannel Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactor  

SciTech Connect

A novel catalyst microstructure based on aligned multiwall carbon nanotube arrays was synthesized. Its advanced heat and mass transport characteristics coupled with high surface area led to superior performances for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a microchannel chemical reactor. The fabrication of such a novel catalyst structure first involved metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of a dense Al2O3 thin film over FeCrAlY foam substrate to enhance adhesion between catalyst layer and metal substrate. Aligned arrays of multiwall carbon nanotubes were grown over the substrate by catalytic decomposition of ethylene. These nanotube bundles were directly attached to the FeCrAlY substrate through a thin layer of oxide thin film. When the outer surfaces of nanobundles were coated with a catalyst layer, a unique hierarchical catalyst structure with nanoporous interstitials between the bundles was created. Thus, engineered catalysts based on such a novel hierarchical structure minimizes mass transfer encountered in the gas-liquid-solid three phase reactions. In addition, high thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube and the direct attachment of these nanobundles to the metal foam allow efficient heat removal from catalytic sites. The advanced heat and mass transfer on this novel structured catalyst was demonstrated in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a microchannel fixed bed reactor. The presence of carbon nanotube arrays improved dispersion of active metals and reduced mass transfer limitation, leading to a factor of four enhancement of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis activity. The improved temperature control with the carbon nanotube arrays also allows the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis being operated at temperatures as high as 265 C without reaction runaway favoring methane formation.

Chin, Ya-Huei; Hu, Jianli; Cao, Chunshe; Gao, Yufei; Wang, Yong

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Emissions from Trucks using Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process can be used to synthesize diesel fuels from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California B- diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. overview of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel production and engine emissions testing is presented. Previous engine laboratory tests indicate that F-T diesel is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and substantial exhaust emissions reductions can be realized. The authors have performed preliminary tests to assess the real-world performance of F-T diesel fuels in heavy-duty trucks. Seven White-GMC Class 8 trucks equipped with Caterpillar 10.3 liter engines were tested using F-T diesel fuel. Vehicle emissions tests were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The trucks were found to perform adequately on neat F-T diesel fuel. Compared to a California diesel fuel baseline, neat F-T diesel fuel emitted about 12% lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 24% lower particulate matter over a five-mile driving cycle.

Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Brent Bailey; Nigel N. Clark; Donald W. Lyons; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

1998-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

62

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts based on Fe oxide precursors modified by Cu and K: structure and site requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of ultramafic silicates (olivine/pyroxene) produces serpentine, hydrogen, and methane metal-catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch

Iglesia, Enrique

63

DEVELOPMENT OF PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect

Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the US will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Some of the F-T catalysts synthesized and tested at Texas A and M University under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89868 were more active than any other known catalysts developed for maximizing production of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (waxes). The objectives of the present contract were to demonstrate repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of preparation procedures of two of these catalysts on a laboratory scale. Improvements in the catalyst performance were attempted through the use of: (a) higher reaction pressure and gas space velocity to maximize the reactor productivity; (b) modifications in catalyst preparation steps; and (c) different pretreatment procedures. Repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of catalyst synthesis procedure have been successfully demonstrated in stirred tank slurry reactor tests. Reactor space-time-yield was increased up to 48% by increasing reaction pressure from 1.48 MPa to 2.17 MPa, while maintaining the gas contact time and synthesis gas conversion at a constant value. Use of calcination temperatures above 300 C, additional CaO promoter, and/or potassium silicate as the source of potassium promoter, instead of potassium bicarbonate, did not result in improved catalyst performance. By using different catalyst activation procedures they were able to increase substantially the catalyst activity, while maintaining low methane and gaseous hydrocarbon selectivities. Catalyst productivity in runs SA-0946 and SA-2186 was 0.71 and 0.86 gHC/g-Fe/h, respectively, and this represents 45-75% improvement in productivity relative to that achieved in Rheinpreussen's demonstration plant unit (the most successful bubble column slurry reactor performance to date), and sets new standards of performance for ''high alpha'' iron catalysts.

Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. X. Lang; Dr. S. Chokkaram; Dr. L. Nowicki; G. Wei; Dr. Y. Ding; Dr. B. Reddy; Dr. S. Xiao

1999-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

64

Kinetically Relevant Steps and H2/D2 Isotope Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Fe and Co Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, and dehydrogenation of C2- C4 alkanes. The work is carried out. Rytter, A. Holmen, Deactivation of cobalt based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts: A review, Catal. Today, 154-oil upgrading, syngas cleaning and composition adjustment, residual hydrocarbon reforming and Fischer-Tropsch

Iglesia, Enrique

65

Applied Catalysis A: General 219 (2001) 215222 Structural analysis of unpromoted Fe-based FischerTropsch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, and dehydrogenation of C2- C4 alkanes. The work is carried out. Rytter, A. Holmen, Deactivation of cobalt based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts: A review, Catal. Today, 154-oil upgrading, syngas cleaning and composition adjustment, residual hydrocarbon reforming and Fischer-Tropsch

Iglesia, Enrique

66

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect

The effects of copper on Fischer-Tropsch activity, selectivity and water-gas shift activity were studied over a wide range of syngas conversion. Three catalyst compositions were prepared for this study: (a) 100Fe/4.6Si/1.4K, (b) 100Fe/4.6Si/0.10Cu/1.4K and (c) 100Fe/4.6Si/2.0Cu/1.4K. The results are reported in Task 2. The literature review for cobalt catalysts is approximately 90% complete. Due to the size of the document, it has been submitted as a separate report labeled Task 6.

Burtron H. Davis

1999-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

67

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of operation since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products in one approach may be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase iron-based FTS and is a key factor for optimizing operating costs. The separation problem is further compounded by attrition of iron catalyst particles and the formation of ultra-fine particles.

Amitava Sarkar; James K. Neathery; Burtron H. Davis

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Hydrodynamic characterization of slurry bubble-column reactors for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the Fischer-Tropsch approach to indirect liquefaction, slurry bubble-column reactors (SBCRs) are used to convert coal syngas into the desired product. Sandia`s program to develop, implement, and apply diagnostics for hydrodynamic characterization of SBCRs at industrially relevant conditions is discussed.Gas-liquid flow experiments are performed in an industrial-scale stainless steel vessel. Gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) is applied to make spatially resolved gas holdup measurements. Both water and Drakeol 10 with air sparging are examined at ambient and elevated pressures. Gas holdup increases with gas superficial velocity and pressure, and the GDT values are in good agreement with values from differential pressure (DP) measurements.

Jackson, N.B.; Torczynski, J.R.; Shollenberger, K.A.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Isotopic tracer studies of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Ru/TiO sub 2 catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process in which CO and H{sub 2} react to give predominantly liquid hydrocarbons. The reaction can be considered a special type of polymerization in which the monomer is produced in situ, and chain growth occurs by a sequence of independently repeated additions of the monomer to the growing chain. A investigation has been conducted to study the CO hydrogenation reaction in order to better understand catalyst deactivation and the elementary surface processes involved in chain growth. Isotopic tracers are used in conjunction with transient-response techniques in this study of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Experiments are conducted at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere, reaction temperatures of 453--498 K and D{sub 2}/CO (or H{sub 2}/CO) ratios of 2--5. Synthesis products are analyzed by gas chromatography or isotope-ratio gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rate constants for chain initiation, propagation and termination are evaluated under steady-state reaction conditions by using transients in isotopic composition. The activation energy for chain termination is much higher than that for propagation, accounting for the observed decrease in the chain growth parameter are also estimated. Coverages by reaction intermediates are also estimated. When small amounts of {sup 12}C-labelled ethylene are added to {sup 13}CO/H{sub 2} synthesis gas, ethylene acts as the sole chain initiator. Ethylene-derived carbon also accounts for 45% of the C{sub 1} monomer pool. 102 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

Krishna, K.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Isotopic tracer studies of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process in which CO and H{sub 2} react to give predominantly liquid hydrocarbons. The reaction can be considered a special type of polymerization in which the monomer is produced in situ, and chain growth occurs by a sequence of independently repeated additions of the monomer to the growing chain. A investigation has been conducted to study the CO hydrogenation reaction in order to better understand catalyst deactivation and the elementary surface processes involved in chain growth. Isotopic tracers are used in conjunction with transient-response techniques in this study of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Experiments are conducted at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere, reaction temperatures of 453--498 K and D{sub 2}/CO (or H{sub 2}/CO) ratios of 2--5. Synthesis products are analyzed by gas chromatography or isotope-ratio gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rate constants for chain initiation, propagation and termination are evaluated under steady-state reaction conditions by using transients in isotopic composition. The activation energy for chain termination is much higher than that for propagation, accounting for the observed decrease in the chain growth parameter are also estimated. Coverages by reaction intermediates are also estimated. When small amounts of {sup 12}C-labelled ethylene are added to {sup 13}CO/H{sub 2} synthesis gas, ethylene acts as the sole chain initiator. Ethylene-derived carbon also accounts for 45% of the C{sub 1} monomer pool. 102 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

Krishna, K.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Investigation of Effects of Coal and Biomass Contaminants on the Performance of Water-Gas-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of Coal Effects of Coal and Biomass Contaminants on the Performance of Water-Gas-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Background Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes gasify coal, biomass, and mixtures of coal/ biomass to produce synthesis gas (syngas) that can be converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Positive benefits of these processes include the use of feedstocks from domestic sources and lower greenhouse gas production than can be achieved from using conventional petroleum-based fuels. However, syngas generated by coal and biomass co-gasification contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the water- gas-shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts used in the gas-to-liquid processes. While the effect of coal contaminants on FT processes is well studied, more research

72

Supported fischer-tropsch catalyst and method of making the catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a method of making the catalyst for a Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas, is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Orefield, PA); Withers, Howard P. (Douglassville, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

Davis, B.H.

1998-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

74

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective is to develop producing active, stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to synthesize such catalysts on a large scale for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. A mixed oxalate of Fe, Cu, and K was prepared; a catalyst will be prepared from this material. An evaluation run was performed on an Fe-based UCI catalyst, which was shown to produce low levels of C[sub 1] and C[sub 2] paraffins; e.g., at the end of the run, when the catalyst was converting 60% of the CO, the C[sub 1] and C[sub 2] paraffin selectivities were 4.2 and 1.0, respectively.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

75

Evidence for alkyl intermediates during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and their relation to hydrocarbon products  

SciTech Connect

Fisher-Tropsch synthesis mechanisms have been postulated in which alkyl fragments are both the chain-growing intermediate and the precursor to hydrocarbon products. The conversion of CO/H/sub 2/ into small alkyl fragments was investigated by scavenging C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ alkyl species from the surface of an iron catalyst during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The experiments were performed in a steady-state mode revealing that pyridine did not inhibit or poison the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, rather it suppressed the overall rate slightly. Scavenged ..cap alpha..-alkylpyridine distributions were dependent upon synthesis variables and displayed a dependence which was proportional to the dependence upon synthesis variables and displayed a dependence which was proportional to the dependence of C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ Fischer-Tropsch products. These dependences are used to demonstrate that alkyl fragments are the immediate precursors to Fischer-Tropsch products.

Wang, C.J.; Ekerdt, J.G.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Iron on mixed zirconia-titania substrate Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising iron co-deposited with or deposited on particles comprising a mixture of zirconia and titania, preferably formed by co-precipitation of compounds convertible to zirconia and titania, such as zirconium and titanium alkoxide. The invention also comprises the method of making this catalyst and an improved Fischer-Tropsch reaction process in which the catalyst is utilized.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Nordquist, Andrew F. (Whitehall, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

78

Synthesis gas solubility in Fischer-Tropsch slurry: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is to investigate the phase equilibrium behavior of synthesis gases and products in a Fischer-Tropsch slurry reactor. A semi-flow apparatus has been designed and constructed for this purpose. Measurements have been made for hydrogen, cabon monoxide, methane, ethane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide in a heavy n-paraffin at temperatures from 100 to 300)degree)C and pressures 10 to 50 atm. Three n-paraffin waxes: n-eicosane (n-C/sub 20/), n-octacosane )n-C/sub 28/), and n-hexatriacontane (n-C/sub 36/), were studied to model the industrial wax. Solubility of synthesis gas mixtures of H/sub 2/ and CO in n-C/sub 28/ was also determined at two temperatures (200 and 300)degree)C) for each of three gas compositions (40.01, 50.01, and 66.64 mol%) of hydrogen). Measurements were extended to investigate the gas solubility in two industrial Fischer-Tropsch waxes: Mobilwax and SASOL wax. Observed solubility increases in the order: H/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, CO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, at a given temperature pressure, and in the same solvent. Solubility increases with increasing pressure for all the gases. Lighter gases H/sub 2/ and CO show increased solubility with increasing temperature, while the heavier gases CO/sub 2/, ethane, and ethylene show decreased solubility with increasing temperature. The solubility of methane, the intermediate gas, changes little with temperature, and shows a shallow minimum at about 200)degrees)C or somewhat above. Henry's constant and partial molal volume of the gas solute at infinite dilution are determinedfrom the gas solubility data. A correlation is developed from the experimental data in the form on an equation of state. A computer program has been prepared to implement the correlation. 19 refs., 66 figs., 39 tabs.

Chao, K.C.; Lin, H.M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

OVERVIEW OF FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS WITH COBALT CATALYSTS This review of the use of cobalt catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1-Draft OVERVIEW OF FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS WITH COBALT CATALYSTS SUMMARY This review of the use. It is primarily intended to define catalyst formulations, both available to the public and of limited use because using cobalt catalysts has been extensively reviewed [1-3]. The Bureau of Mines review [3

Kentucky, University of

80

Intensified Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Process with Microchannel Catalytic Reactors  

SciTech Connect

A microchannel catalytic reactor with improved heat and mass transport has been used for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to produce fuels and chemicals. This type of novel reactor takes advantages of highly active and selective catalysts with increased site density so that the FT synthesis process can be intensified. It was demonstrated that this microchannel reactor based process can be carried out at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) as high as 60,000 hr-1 to achieve greater than 60% of one-pass CO conversion while maintaining low methane selectivity (<10%) and high chain growth probability(>0.9). Such superior FT synthesis performance has not ever been reported in the prior open literatures. The overall productivity to heavy hydrocarbons has been significantly improved over the conventional reactor technology. In this study, performance data were obtained in a wide range of pressure (10atm-35atm) and hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio (1-2.5). The catalytic system was characterized by BET, scanning electron microcopy (SEM), transmission electron microcopy(TEM), and H2 chemisorption. A three dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model were used to simulate temperature profiles in the exothermic reaction system in order to optimize the reactor design and intensify the synthesis process. Intraparticle non-isothermal characteristics are also analyzed for the FT synthesis catalyst.

Cao, Chunshe; Hu, Jianli; Li, Shari; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Wang, Yong

2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objectives are to develop active, stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to develop a scaleup procedure for large-scale synthesis of such catalysts for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. For a H[sub 2]-CO in molar ratio of 0.5 to 1.0, catalyst performance target is 88% CO+H[sub 2] conversion at a minimum space velocity of 2.4 NL/hr/gFe, with no more than 4% methane/ethane selectivity and 1% conversion loss per week. During this period, it was found that the performance of the slurry-phase iron and copper oxide-based catalyst depends on the amount of K. Five catalysts with differing K contents were studied. The catalysts with the lowest K were more active than the ones with higher K levels. The one with the middle K level was judged best.

Frame, R.R.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the ''standard-catalyst'' developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

Burtron H. Davis

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}; however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94% {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}, deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C.

Burtron H. Davis

1999-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

Technology development for iron fischer-tropsch catalysis  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the `standard-catalyst` developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low- alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high- alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for 5 catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

Davis, B.H.

1997-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

85

CHAIN-LIMITING OPERATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH REACTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of H{sub 2} pulsing to maximize the yield of diesel-range (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}) Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis products was examined on two high-chain-growth-probability (a {ge} 0.9) Co-based FT catalysts. For both catalysts, H{sub 2} pulsing causes a significant increase in CO conversion, while only temporarily increasing the selectivity to undesirable CH{sub 4}. Increasing the frequency or the duration of H{sub 2} pulsing produces higher CO productivity and higher yield of the C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} range on the Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, in agreement with prior observations on a Co-Zr/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. An optimum set of pulse parameters is required for maximizing the selectivity towards the desirable C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} diesel product fraction. Application of a suitable H{sub 2} pulse in the presence of added steam in the feed is a simple method to overcome the loss in activity and the shift in paraffin vs. olefin selectivity (increase in the olefin/paraffin ratio) caused by the excess steam. A decrease in syngas concentration has a strong suppressing effect on the olefin/paraffin ratio of the light hydrocarbon products. Higher syngas concentration can increase the chain growth probability a and thus allow for better evaluation of the effect of pulsing on FT synthesis.

Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

87

Control of metal dispersion and structure by changes in the solid-state chemistry of supported cobalt FischerTropsch catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas for large scale Fischer-Tropsch synthesis." American Chemical Society, Division of Petroleum unit · Pre-reformer · Auto-thermal reformer (ATR) · Fired heater CO2 removal (optional) Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactor: slurry bubble column reactor Fischer-Tropsch products separation #12;8M. Panahi, S

Iglesia, Enrique

88

EA-1642: Design and Construction of an Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

42: Design and Construction of an Early Lead Mini 42: Design and Construction of an Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Near Lexington, Kentucky EA-1642: Design and Construction of an Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Near Lexington, Kentucky SUMMARY DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory prepared this environmental assessment to analyze the potential environmental impacts of providing funding for the proposed Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery. The early lead facility would be located at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in Fayette County Kentucky. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

89

Researching Fe catalyst suitable for CO{sub 2}-containing syngas for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a technology to produce liquid fuels from coal, natural gas, and biomass as an alternate to crude oil. However, the quantity of emitted CO{sub 2} from the FT process consisting of syngas preparation, FT synthesis, and product workup is one of the serious disadvantages of FT process. The conversion of CO{sub 2} into hydrocarbons is one of the promising methods to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions. Effects of promoter addition on the activity of precipitated Fe catalysts for the conversion of CO{sub 2} were studied using pure CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}-containing syngas feeds. The results suggested that CO{sub 2} can be activated by suitable promoter(s) for hydrocarbon synthesis at low temperature. Low K content is suitable for increasing hydrocarbon yield. The Fe catalysts promoted by equal Zn and Cu have higher CO and CO{sub 2} conversion and decreased CH{sub 4} selectivity. 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Wensheng Ning; Naoto Koizumi; Muneyoshi Yamada [Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China). College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Low-pressure hydrocracking of coal-derived Fischer-Tropsch waxes to diesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-derived low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) wax was hydrocracked at pressures of 3.5-7.0 MPa using silica-alumina-supported sulfided NiW/NiMo and an unsulfided noble metal catalyst, modified with MoO{sub 3}. A low-pressure operation at 3.5 MPa produced a highly isomerized diesel, having low cloud points (from -12 to -28{sup o}C) combined with high cetane numbers (69-73). These properties together with the extremely low sulfur ({lt}5 ppm) and aromatic ({lt}0.5%) contents place coal/liquid (CTL) derived distillates as highly valuable blending components to achieve Eurograde diesel specifications. The upgrading of coal-based LTFT waxes through hydrocracking to high-quality diesel fuel blend components in combination with commercial-feasible coal-integrated gasification combined cycle (coal-IGCC) CO{sub 2} capture and storage schemes should make CTL technology more attractive. 28 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Attrition resistant catalysts for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T because they are relatively inexpensive and possess reasonable activity for F-T synthesis (FTS). Their most advantages trait is their high water-gas shift (WGS) activity compared to their competitor, namely cobalt. This enables Fe F-T catalysts to process low H{sub 2}/CO ratio synthesis gas without an external shift reaction step. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, make the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, an d result in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research were to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance.

K. Jothimurugesan

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, April--June 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effective September 26, 1991, Bechtel, with Amoco as the main subcontractor, initiated a study to develop a computer model and baseline design for advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology; prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design; and develop a process flow sheet simulation (PI-S) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis, and the computer model win be the major research planning tools that PETC will use to plan, guide, and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction. for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. This report is Bechtel`s third quarterly technical progress report covering the period from March 16, 1992 through June 21, 1992. This report consists of seven sections: Section 1 - introduction; Section 2 - summary; Section 3 - carbon dioxide removal tradeoff study; Section 4 - preliminary plant designs for coal preparation; Section 5 - preliminary design for syngas production; Section 6 - Task 3 - engineering design criteria; and Section 7 - project management.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Syntroleum plant is mechanically complete and currently undergoing start-up. The fuel production and demonstration plan is near completion. The study on the impact of small footprint plant (SFP) fuel on engine performance is about half-completed. Cold start testing has been completed. Preparations have been completed for testing the fuel in diesel electric generators in Alaska. Preparations are in progress for testing the fuel in bus fleets at Denali National Park and the Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority. The experiments and analyses conducted during this project show that Fischer-Tropsch (FT) gas-to-liquid diesel fuel can easily be used in a diesel engine with little to no modifications. Additionally, based on the results and discussion presented, further improvements in performance and emissions can be realized by configuring the engine to take advantage of FT diesel fuel's properties. The FT fuel also shows excellent cold start properties and enabled the engine tested to start at more the ten degrees than traditional fuels would allow. This plant produced through this project will produce large amounts of FT fuel. This will allow the fuel to be tested extensively, in current, prototype, and advanced diesel engines. The fuel may also contribute to the nation's energy security. The military has expressed interest in testing the fuel in aircraft and ground vehicles.

Steve Bergin

2003-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

94

Development of Detailed Kinetic Models for Fischer-Tropsch Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels can be synthesized from a syngas stream generated by the gasification of biomass. As such they have the potential to be a renewable hydrocarbon fuel with many desirable properties. However, both the chemical and physical properties are somewhat different from the petroleum-based hydrocarbons that they might replace, and it is important to account for such differences when considering using them as replacements for conventional fuels in devices such as diesel engines and gas turbines. FT fuels generally contain iso-alkanes with one or two substituted methyl groups to meet the pour-point specifications. Although models have been developed for smaller branched alkanes such as isooctane, additional efforts are required to properly capture the kinetics of the larger branched alkanes. Recently, Westbrook et al. developed a chemical kinetic model that can be used to represent the entire series of n-alkanes from C{sub 1} to C{sub 16} (Figure 1). In the current work, the model is extended to treat 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN), a large iso-alkane. The same reaction rate rules used in the iso-octane mechanism were incorporated in the HMN mechanism. Both high and low temperature chemistry was included so that the chemical kinetic model would be applicable to advanced internal combustion engines using low temperature combustion strategies. The chemical kinetic model consists of 1114 species and 4468 reactions. Concurrently with this effort, work is underway to improve the details of specific reaction classes in the mechanism, guided by high-level electronic structure calculations. Attention is focused upon development of accurate rate rules for abstraction of the tertiary hydrogens present in branched alkanes and properly accounting for the pressure dependence of the ?-scission, isomerization, and R + O{sub 2} reactions.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Carstensen, H; Dean, A M

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

95

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical fluids. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) in the supercritical phase employing a commercial precipitated iron catalysts. As the supercritical fluid the authors used propane and n-hexane. The catalyst had a nominal composition of 100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/25 SiO{sub 2} on mass basis and was used in a fixed bed reactor under both normal (conventional) and supercritical conditions. Experimental data were obtained at different temperatures (235 C, 250 C, and 260 C) and synthesis gas feed compositions (H{sub 2}/CO molar feed ratio of 0.67, 1.0 and 2.0) in both modes of operation under steady state conditions. The authors compared the performance of the precipitated iron catalyst in the supercritical phase, with the data obtained in gas phase (fixed bed reactor) and slurry phase (STS reactor). Comparisons were made in terms of bulk catalyst activity and various aspects of product selectivity (e.g. lumped hydrocarbon distribution and olefin content as a function of carbon number). In order to gain better understanding of the role of intraparticle mass transfer during FTS under conventional or supercritical conditions, the authors have measured diffusivities of representative hydrocarbon products in supercritical fluids, as well as their effective diffusion rates into the pores of catalyst at the reaction conditions. They constructed a Taylor dispersion apparatus to measure diffusion coefficients of hydrocarbon products of FTS in sub and supercritical ethane, propane, and hexane. In addition, they developed a tracer response technique to measure the effective diffusivities in the catalyst pores at the same conditions. Based on these results they have developed an equation for prediction of diffusion in supercritical fluids, which is based on the rough hard sphere theory.

Akgerman, A.; Bukur, D.B.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

CHAIN-LIMITING OPERATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH REACTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of pulsing to limit the chain growth of the hydrocarbon products of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis in order to maximize the yield of diesel-range (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}) products was examined on three high-chain-growth-probability ({alpha} {ge} 0.9) FT catalysts. On a Co-ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} FT synthesis catalyst the application of H{sub 2} pulsing causes significant increase in CO conversion, and only an instantaneous increase in undesirable selectivity to CH{sub 4}. Increasing the frequency of H{sub 2} pulsing enhances the selectivity to C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} compounds but the chain-growth probability {alpha} remains essentially unaffected. Increasing the duration of H{sub 2} pulsing results in enhancing the maximum obtained CO conversion and the instantaneous selectivity to CH{sub 4}. An optimum set of H{sub 2} pulse parameters (pulse frequency and duration) is required for maximizing the yield of desirable diesel-range C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} products. On a high-{alpha} Fe/K/Cu/SiO{sub 2} FT synthesis catalyst H{sub 2} pulsing enhances the yield of C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} but at the same time decreases the catalyst activity (CO conversion) and increases the selectivity to CH{sub 4}. On the other hand, pulsing with CO also increases the yield of C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} but has no impact on the selectivity to CH{sub 4} or CO{sub 2} and decreases catalytic activity only moderately. In contrast to these catalysts, H{sub 2} pulsing on a high-{alpha} Ru/alumina FT synthesis catalyst has only minimal effect on activity and product distribution, showing enhanced activity towards methanation and water-gas-shift at the expense of FT synthesis. However, these observations are based on experiments performed at a significantly lower reaction pressure (ca. 26 atm) and higher reaction temperature (210-250 C) than those commonly used for supported-Ru FT catalysts (typically 100-1000 atm, 160-170 C).

Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project has two primary purposes: (1) Build a small-footprint (SFP) fuel production plant to prove the feasibility of this relatively transportable technology on an intermediate scale (i.e. between laboratory-bench and commercial capacity) and produce as much as 150,000 gallons of hydrogen-saturated Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel; and (2) Use the virtually sulfur-free fuel produced to demonstrate (over a period of at least six months) that it can not only be used in existing diesel engines, but that it also can enable significantly increased effectiveness and life of the next-generation exhaust-after-treatment emission control systems that are currently under development and that will be required for future diesel engines. Furthermore, a well-to-wheels economic analysis will be performed to characterize the overall costs and benefits that would be associated with the actual commercial production, distribution and use of such FT diesel fuel made by the process under consideration, from the currently underutilized (or entirely un-used) energy resources targeted, primarily natural gas that is stranded, sub-quality, off-shore, etc. During the first year of the project, which is the subject of this report, there have been two significant areas of progress: (1) Most of the preparatory work required to build the SFP fuel-production plant has been completed, and (2) Relationships have been established, and necessary project coordination has been started, with the half dozen project-partner organizations that will have a role in the fuel demonstration and evaluation phase of the project. Additional project tasks directly related to the State of Alaska have also been added to the project. These include: A study of underutilized potential Alaska energy resources that could contribute to domestic diesel and distillate fuel production by providing input energy for future commercial-size SFP fuel production plants; Demonstration of the use of the product fuel in a heavy-duty diesel vehicle during the Alaska winter; a comparative study of the cold-starting characteristics of FT and conventional diesel fuel; and demonstration of the use of the fuel to generate electricity for rural Alaskan villages using both a diesel generator set, and a reformer-equipped fuel cell.

Stephen P. Bergin

2003-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

98

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most of this quarter has been devoted to design, construction and installation of a new external catalyst reduction unit. In this report, methods of reducing cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are reviewed, in an effort to develop an understanding of the important parameters which affect the reduction of cobalt catalysts. Design considerations for the external reduction unit are also presented.

Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.A.; Satterfield, C.N.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Fischer-Tropsch Database Calculations Conversions: CO, H2, and Syngas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch Database Calculations Conversions: CO, H2, and Syngas f in out in n n n = - 100 n contraction (%) #12;Syngas ratio (H2:CO): sr H in CO in n n = 2 _ _ n: (mols per hour) sr: Syngas ratio Rates active metal (g) r: Rate (mols / hr / g metal) #12;Rate Syngas: syngas H COr r r= +2 r syngas: Syngas

Kentucky, University of

100

Development of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Work continued on the development of catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Six catalysts were synthesised. The effects of a calcium oxide promoter were evaluated. Catalysts were characterized for pore size and BET surface area.

Bukur, D.B.; Lang, X.; Wei, G.; Xiao, S.

1995-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Effect of Potassium Addition on Coprecipitated Iron Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using Bio-oil-syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of potassium addition and the potassium content on the activity and selectivity of coprecipitated iron catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) were studied in a fixed bed reactor at 1.5 MPa

Zhao-xiang Wang; Ting Dong; Tao Kan; Quan-xin Li

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details experiments performed on three different copper-based catalysts: Cu/Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3], Cu/MnO/Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. Of these three catalysts, the Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] exhibits the greatest stability when slurried in octacosane. More than 1000 hours-on-stream indicate that the catalyst activity is not detrimentally affected by high pressure, high H[sub 2]/CO ratio, or the presence of alkenes. All of these are necessary stability characteristics for the water-gas shift catalyst, if it is to be used in combination with a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. A review of documented reduction procedures for cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is presented.

Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

CHAIN-LIMITING OPERATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH REACTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of pulsing in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to limit the hydrocarbon chain growth and maximize the yield of diesel-range (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}) products was examined on high-chain-growth-probability ({alpha} {ge} 0.9) FT catalysts. Pulsing experiments were conducted using a stainless-steel fixed-bed micro-reactor, equipped with both on-line (for the permanent gases and light hydrocarbons, C{sub 1}-C{sub 15}) and off-line (for the heavier hydrocarbons, C{sub 10}-C{sub 65}) gas chromatography analysis. Additional experiments were performed using a highly active attrition-resistant iron-based FT synthesis catalyst in a 1-liter continuous stirred-tank rector (CSTR). On both a Co-ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and a Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} FT synthesis catalyst application of H{sub 2} pulsing causes significant increase in CO conversion, and only an instantaneous increase in undesirable selectivity to CH{sub 4}. Increasing the frequency of H{sub 2} pulsing enhances the selectivity to C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} compounds but the chain-growth probability {alpha} remains essentially unaffected. Increasing the duration of H{sub 2} pulsing results in enhancing the maximum obtained CO conversion and an instantaneous selectivity to CH{sub 4}. An optimum set of H{sub 2} pulse parameters (pulse frequency, pulse duration) is required for maximizing the yield of desirable diesel-range C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} products. Application of a suitable H{sub 2} pulse in the presence of added steam in the feed is a simple method to overcome the loss in activity and the shift in paraffin vs. olefin selectivity (increase in the olefin/paraffin ratio) caused by the excess steam. A decrease in syngas concentration has a strong suppressing effect on the olefin/paraffin ratio of the light hydrocarbon products. Higher syngas concentration can increase the chain growth probability {alpha} and thus allow for better evaluation of the effect of pulsing on FT synthesis. On a high-{alpha} Fe/K/Cu/SiO{sub 2} FT synthesis catalyst H{sub 2} pulsing enhances the yield of C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} but at the same time decreases the catalyst activity (CO conversion) and increases the selectivity to CH{sub 4}. On the other hand, pulsing with CO also increases the yield of C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} but has no impact on the selectivity to CH{sub 4} or CO{sub 2} and decreases catalytic activity only moderately. FT reaction experiments using the Fe/K/Cu/SiO{sub 2} FT synthesis catalyst in a 1-liter CSTR indicate that both the catalyst activity and yield of all products (both favorable and unfavorable) are enhanced by increasing reaction pressure and H{sub 2}:CO feed ratio, as well as with decreasing reaction temperature. The selectivity to the desirable C{sub 5+} product fraction is favored by lower reaction temperatures and H{sub 2}:CO feed ratios. Based on the results of this study, the following recommendations should be considered: Pulsing experiments on FT synthesis catalysts (either cobalt-based or iron-based) should be performed under conditions that maximize the yield of the heavy hydrocarbon products (high chain-growth probability {alpha}), such as high synthesis gas partial pressure and low space velocity. More aggressive pulsing conditions (higher pulse frequency) should be examined, so as to establish the long-term impact of pulsing on product formation beyond experimental uncertainty. Also, more emphasis should be given to pulsing experiments in the CSTR which, due to its superior control of the catalyst temperature, would allow the evaluation of a more extensive range of pulsing parameters (pulse frequency and duration).

Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Processes and catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes and catalysts are disclosed for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR). One aspect of the invention involves the use of cobalt catalysts without noble metal promotion in an SBCR. Another aspect involves using palladium promoted cobalt catalysts in an SBCR. Methods for preparing noble metal promoted catalysts via totally aqueous impregnation and procedures for producing attrition resistant catalysts are also provided. 1 fig.

Singleton, A.H.; Oukaci, R.; Goodwin, J.G.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

106

Processes and catalysts for conducting fischer-tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes and catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR). One aspect of the invention involves the use of cobalt catalysts without noble metal promotion in an SBCR. Another aspect involves using palladium promoted cobalt catalysts in an SBCR. Methods for preparing noble metal promoted catalysts via totally aqueous impregnation and procedures for producing attrition resistant catalysts are also provided.

Singleton, Alan H. (Marshall Township, Allegheny County, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Allison Park, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Cranberry Township, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Emissions characteristics of Military Helicopter Engines Fueled with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The rapid growth in aviation activities and more stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations have increased concerns regarding aircraft emissions, due to their harmful health and environmental impacts, especially in the vicinity of airports and military bases. In this study, the gaseous and particulate-matter emissions of two General Electric T701C engines and one T700 engine were evaluated. The T700 series engines power the U.S. Army's Black Hawk and Apache helicopters. The engines were fueled with standard military JP-8 fuel and were tested at three power settings. In addition, one of the T701C engines was operated on a natural-gas-derived Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene jet fuel. Test results show that the T701C engine emits significantly lower particulate-matter emissions than the T700 for all conditions tested. Particulate-matter mass emission indices ranged from 0.2-1.4 g/kg fuel for the T700 and 0.2-0.6 g/kg fuel for the T701C. Slightly higher NOx and lower CO emissions were observed for the T701C compared with the T700. Operation of the T701C with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel rendered dramatic reductions in soot emissions relative to operation on JP-8, due primarily to the lack of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuel. The Fischer-Tropsch fuel also produced smaller particles and slight reductions in CO emissions.

Corporan, E. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; DeWitt, M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Klingshirn, Christopher D [ORNL; Striebich, Richard [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

An Ab Initio Approach Towards Engineering Fischer-Tropsch Surface Chemistry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As petroleum prices continue to rise and the United States seeks to reduce its dependency on foreign oil, there is a renewed interest in the research and development of more efficient and alternative energy sources, such as fuel cells. One approach is to utilize processes that can produce long-chain hydrocarbons from other sources. One such reaction is Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process by which syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) is converted to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. The reaction involves a complex set of bond-breaking and bond-making reactions, such as CO and H{sub 2} activation, hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions, and hydrocarbon coupling reactions. This report details our initial construction of an ab initio based kinetic Monte Carlo code that can be used to begin to simulate Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over model Co(0001) surfaces. The code is based on a stochastic kinetic formalism that allows us to explicitly track the transformation of all reactants, intermediates and products. The intrinsic kinetics for the simulations were derived from the ab initio results that we reported in previous year summaries.

Matthew Neurock

2005-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

109

Application of a novel TPR EXAFS/XANES method using a multi-sample holder to characterize promoted iron and cobalt fFischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts.  

SciTech Connect

Coal-to-liquids. Iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts are not only used commercially for high temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, but are increasingly becoming the focus for converting low H{sub 2}/CO ratio synthesis gas at lower temperature. Such low temperature processing yields hydrocarbon distributions with higher {alpha} values, and as a consequence, much less light hydrocarbon gas production (and especially, less methane). Another benefit to the use of iron-based catalysts is that the product slate is richer in {alpha}-olefinic products, which are more valuable than the paraffinic products produced using cobalt-based catalysts. Iron-based catalysts are often used to convert low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas, because the catalysts can intrinsically adjust the syngas ratio upward by converting a fraction of CO by reaction with H{sub 2}O to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} via the water-gas shift reaction.

Jacobs, G.; Sarkar, A.; Ji, Y.; Davis, B. H.; Cronauer, D.; Kropf, A. J.; Marshall, C. L.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. of Kentucky

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

111

PROGRESS TOWARDS MODELING OF FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The model includes heat generation due to the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. Results of the CMFD simulations (similar to those shown in Figure 1) will be presented.

Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Steven P. Antal

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Mathematical modeling of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in an industrial slurry bubble column - article no. A 23  

SciTech Connect

The increase in society's need for fuels and decrease in crude oil resources are important reasons to make more interest for both academic and industry in converting gas to liquids. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is one of the most attractive methods of Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) processes and the reactor in which, this reaction occurs, is the heart of this process. This work deals with modeling of a commercial size slurry bubble column reactor by two different models, i.e. single bubble class model (SBCM) and double bubble class model (DBCM). The reactor is assumed to work in a churn-turbulent flow regime and the reaction kinetic is a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type. Cobalt-based catalyst is used for this study as it plays an important role in preparing heavy cuts and the higher yield of the liquid products. Parameter sensitivity analysis was carried out for different conditions such as catalyst concentration, superficial gas velocity, H{sub 2} over CO ratio, and column diameter. The results of the SBCM and DBCM revealed that there is no significant difference between single and double bubble class models in terms of temperature, concentration and conversion profiles in the reactor, so the simpler SBCM with less number of model parameters can be a good and reliable model of choice for analyzing the slurry bubble column reactors.

Nasim Hooshyar; Shohreh Fatemi; Mohammad Rahmani [University of Tehran (Iran)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Incorporation of Reaction Kinetics into a Multiphase, Hydrodynamic Model of a Fischer Tropsch Slurry Bubble Column Reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of a computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) model of the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). The CMFD model is fundamentally based which allows it to be applied to different industrial processes and reactor geometries. The NPHASE CMFD solver [1] is used as the robust computational platform. Results from the CMFD model include gas distribution, species concentration profiles, and local temperatures within the SBCR. This type of model can provide valuable information for process design, operations and troubleshooting of FT plants. An ensemble-averaged, turbulent, multi-fluid solution algorithm for the multiphase, reacting flow with heat transfer was employed. Mechanistic models applicable to churn turbulent flow have been developed to provide a fundamentally based closure set for the equations. In this four-field model formulation, two of the fields are used to track the gas phase (i.e., small spherical and large slug/cap bubbles), and the other two fields are used for the liquid and catalyst particles. Reaction kinetics for a cobalt catalyst is based upon values reported in the published literature. An initial, reaction kinetics model has been developed and exercised to demonstrate viability of the overall solution scheme. The model will continue to be developed with improved physics added in stages.

Donna Guillen, PhD; Anastasia Gribik; Daniel Ginosar, PhD; Steven P. Antal, PhD

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

An Ab Initio Approach Towards Engineering Fischer-Tropsch Surface Chemistry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the greatest societal challenges over the next decade is the production of cheap, renewable energy for the 10 billion people that inhabit the earth. This will require the development of various different energy sources potentially including fuels derived from methane, coal, and biomass and alternatives sources such as solar, wind and nuclear energy. One approach will be to synthesize gasoline and other fuels from simpler hydrocarbons such as CO derived from methane or other U.S. based sources such as coal. Syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) can be readily converted into higher molecular weight hydrocarbons through Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis involves the initiation or activation of CO and H{sub 2} bonds, the subsequent propagation steps including hydrogenation and carbon-carbon coupling, followed by chain termination reactions. Commercially viable catalysts include supported Co and Co-alloys. Over the first two years of this project we have used ab initio methods to determine the adsorption energies for all reactants, intermediates, and products along with the overall reaction energies and their corresponding activation barriers over the Co(0001) surface. Over the third year of the project we developed and advanced an ab initio-based kinetic Monte Carlo simulation code to simulate Fischer Tropsch synthesis. This report details our work over the last year which has focused on the derivation of kinetic parameters for the elementary steps involved in FT synthesis from ab initio density functional theoretical calculations and the application of the kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate the initial rates of reaction for FT over the ideal Co(0001) surface. The results from our simulations over Co(0001) indicate the importance of stepped surfaces for the activation of adsorbed CO. In addition, they demonstrate that the dominant CH{sub x}* surface intermediate under steady state conditions is CH*. This strongly suggests that hydrocarbon coupling occurs through reaction with the adsorbed CH*.

Matthew Neurock; David A. Walthall

2006-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

115

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The rate of synthesis gas consumption over a cobalt FischerTropsch catalyst was measured in a well-mixed, continuous-flow, slurry reactor at 220 to 240[degrees]C, 0.5 to 1.5 MPa, H[sub 2]/CO feed ratios of 1.5 to 3.5 and conversions of 7 to 68% of hydrogen and 11 to 73% of carbon monoxide. The inhibiting effect of carbon monoxide was determined quantitatively and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type equation of the following form was found to best represent the results: -R[sub H[sub 2+Co

Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Untangling the water gas shift from Fischer-Tropsch: a Gordian knot. [185 references  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The water gas shift reaction is an integral part of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Although it may appear convenient to consider the water gas shift a separate reaction, in some cases, a detailed examination of the mechanism indicates theat the water gas shift and other synthesis gas reactions share several elementary reactions. Experimental support for the relevant elementary reactions for the water gas shift on metals, metal oxides, and in homogeneous solution is examined, from both surface and complex chemistry. Multiple paths leading to a net water gas shift reaction may be available; oxygen transfer and reaction through C-H-O intermediates may take place. 185 references, 6 tables.

Rofer-Depoorter, C.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Co/MgO/SiO[sub 2] Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was operated simultaneously with a Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] water-gas-shift catalyst in a slurry reactor for over 400 hours. The process conditions were held constant at a temperature of 240[degrees]C, a pressure of 0.79 MPa, and a 1.1 H[sub 2]/CO feed of 0.065 Nl/min-g.cat. The Fischer-Tropsch activity remained constant at the level predicted by the operation of the Co/MgO/SiO[sub 2] catalyst alone. The water-gas-shift reaction was near equilibrium. The hydrocarbon product distribution of the combined catalyst system was stable and matched that of the CO/MgO/SiO[sub 2] operating alone under similar conditions. The combined catalyst system exhibited a high selectivity to n-alkanes. Neither catalysts's operation appeared to have a detrimental effect on that of the other, showing promise for future option.

Chanenchuk, C.A.; Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Iron Aerogel and Xerogel Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of Diesel Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Iron aerogels, potassium-doped iron aerogels, and potassium-doped iron xerogels have been synthesized and characterized and their catalytic activity in the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction has been studied. Iron aerogels and xerogels were synthesized by polycondensation of an ethanolic solution of iron(III) chloride hexahydrate with propylene oxide which acts as a proton scavenger for the initiation of hydrolysis and polycondensation. Potassium was incorporated in the iron aerogel and iron xerogel by adding aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to the ethanolic solutions of the Fe(III) precursor prior to addition of propylene oxide. Fischer-Tropsch activities of the catalysts were tested in a fixed bed reactor at a pressure of 100 psi with a H{sub 2}:CO ratio of 2:1. Iron aerogels were found to be active for F-T synthesis, and their F-T activities increased on addition of a K containing promoter. Moessbauer spectroscopic data are consistent with an open, nonrigid iron(III) aerogel structure progressing to an iron carbide/metallic iron catalyst via agglomeration as the F-T synthesis proceeds in the course of a 35 h fixed bed reaction test.

Bali, S.; Huggins, F; Huffman, G; Ernst, R; Pugmire, R; Eyring, E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating improved catalysts for a slurry Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process for converting synthesis gas to high quality transportation fuels (gasoline and distillate). The improvements in catalyst performance were sought by studying effects of pretreatment conditions, promoters and binders/supports. A total of 20 different, iron based, catalysts were evaluated in 58 fixed bed reactor tests and 10 slurry reactor tests. The major accomplishments and conclusions are summarized below. The pretreatment conditions (temperature, duration and the nature of reducing gas) have significant effect on catalyst performance (activity, selectivity and stability) during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. One of precipitated unsupported catalysts had hydrocarbon selectivity similar to Mobil`s I-B catalyst in high wax mode operation, and had not experienced any loss in activity during 460 hours of testing under variable process conditions in a slurry reactor. The effect of promoters (copper and potassium) on catalyst performance during FT synthesis has been studied in a systematic way. It was found that potassium promotion increases activities of the FT and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions, the average molecular weight of hydrocarbon products, and suppresses the olefin hydrogenation and isomerization reactions. The addition of binders/supports (silica or alumina) to precipitated Fe/Cu/K catalysts, decreased their activity but improved their stability and hydrocarbon selectivity. The performance of catalysts of this type was very promising and additional studies are recommended to evaluate their potential for use in commercial slurry reactors.

Bukur, D.B.; Mukesh, D.; Patel, S.A.; Zimmerman, W.H.; Rosynek, M.P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Kellogg, L.J. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLOW MODEL FOR FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory at the Idaho National Laboratory was established to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective of reducing dependence on imported fossil fuels. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions are performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime, which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer. Our team is developing a research tool to aid in understanding the physicochemical processes occurring in the SBCR. A robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) consisting of thirteen species, which are CO reactant, H2 reactant, hydrocarbon product, and H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid plus catalyst is outlined. Mechanistic submodels for interfacial momentum transfer in the churn-turbulent flow regime are incorporated, along with bubble breakup/coalescence and two-phase turbulence submodels. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield. The model includes heat generation produced by the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. A property method approach is employed to incorporate vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) in a robust manner. Physical and thermodynamic properties as functions of changes in both pressure and temperature are obtained from VLE calculations performed external to the CMFD solver. The novelty of this approach is in its simplicity, as well as its accuracy over a specified temperature and pressure range.

Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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121

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Ceramic Monolith-Structured Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports recent research results about impact of different catalyst bed configurations on FT reaction product distribution. A CoRe/?-alumina catalyst is prepared in bulk particle form and tested in the packed bed reactor at a size of 60 to 100 mesh. The same catalyst is ball milled and coated on a ceramic monolith support structure of channel size about 1mm. The monolith catalyst module is tested in two different ways, as a whole piece and as well-defined channels. Steady-state reaction conversion is measured at various temperatures under constant H2/CO feed ratio of 2 and reactor pressure of 25 bar. Detailed product analysis is performed. Significant formation of wax is evident with the packed particle bed and with the monolith catalyst that is improperly packed. By contrast, the wax formation is not detected in the liquid product by confining the reactions inside the monolith channel. This study presents an important finding about the structured catalyst/reactor system that the product distribution highly depends on the way how the structured reactor is set up. Even if the same catalyst and same reaction conditions (T, P, H2/oil ratio) are used, hydrodynamics (or flow conditions) inside a structured channel can have a significant impact on the product distribution.

Wang, Yong; Liu, Wei

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Fischer-Tropsch fuel for use by the U.S. military as battlefield-use fuel of the future  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Defense (DoD) has been interested in low-sulfur, environmentally cleaner Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels since 2001 because they want to be less dependent upon foreign crude oil and ensure the security of the supply. A three-phase Joint Battlefield-Use Fuel of the Future (BUFF) program was initiated to evaluate, demonstrate, certify, and implement turbine fuels produced from alternative energy resources for use in all of its gas turbine and diesel engine applications. Sasol Synfuels International (Pty) Ltd. and Sasol Chevron Holdings Ltd., among others, were invited to participate in the program with the objective to supply the DoD with a FT BUFF that conforms to Jet Propulsion 8 (JP-8) and JP-5 fuel volatility and low-temperature fluidity requirements. Although the DoD is more interested in coal-to-liquid (CTL) technology, the product from a gas-to-liquid (GTL) Products Work-Up Demonstration Unit in Sasolburg, South Africa, was used to evaluate (on a bench scale) the possibility of producing a BUFF fraction from the Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate (Sasol SPD) low-temperature FT (LTFT) process and Chevron Isocracking technology. It was concluded from the study that the production of a synthetic FT BUFF is feasible using the Sasol SPD LTFT technology together with the current Chevron isocracking technology. The product yield for a BUFF conforming to JP-8 requirements is 30 vol % of the fractionator feed, whereas the product yield for a BUFF conforming to the JP-5 volatility requirement is slightly less than 22 vol % of the fractionator feed. Also concluded from the study was that the end point of the Sasol SPD LTFT BUFF will be restricted by the freezing point requirement of the DoD and not the maximum viscosity requirement. One would therefore need to optimize the hydrocracking process conditions to increase the Sasol SPD LTFT BUFF product yield. 16 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Delanie Lamprecht [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

5/ Includes pyrolysis oils, biomass-derived Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and renewable feedstocks used for the on-site production of diesel and gasoline.

124

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

5/ Includes pyrolysis oils, biomass-derived Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and renewable feedstocks used for the production of green diesel and gasoline.

125

Annual Energy Outlook 2012  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

oil processed. 5 Includes ethanol (including imports), biodiesel (including imports), pyrolysis oils, biomass-derived Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and renewable feedstocks for the...

126

Monetization of Nigeria coal by conversion to hydrocarbon fuels through Fischer-Tropsch process  

SciTech Connect

Given the instability of crude oil prices and the disruptions in crude oil supply chains, this article offers a complementing investment proposal through diversification of Nigeria's energy source and dependence. Therefore, the following issues were examined and reported: A comparative survey of coal and hydrocarbon reserve bases in Nigeria was undertaken and presented. An excursion into the economic, environmental, and technological justifications for the proposed diversification and roll-back to coal-based resource was also undertaken and presented. The technology available for coal beneficiation for environmental pollution control was reviewed and reported. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and its advances into Sasol's slurry phase distillate process were reviewed. Specifically, the adoption of Sasol's advanced synthol process and the slurry phase distillate process were recommended as ways of processing the products of coal gasification. The article concludes by discussing all the above-mentioned issues with regard to value addition as a means of wealth creation and investment.

Oguejiofor, G.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Kinetic model of product distribution over Fe catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new kinetic model of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is proposed to describe the non-Anderson-Schulz-Flory (ASF) product distribution. The model is based on the double-polymerization monomers hypothesis, in which the surface C{sub 2}{asterisk} species acts as a chain-growth monomer in the light-product range, while C{sub 1}{asterisk} species acts as a chain-growth monomer in the heavy-product range. The detailed kinetic model in the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson type based on the elementary reactions is derived for FTS and the water-gas-shift reaction. Kinetic model candidates are evaluated by minimization of multiresponse objective functions with a genetic algorithm approach. The model of hydrocarbon product distribution is consistent with experimental data (

Rongle Zhang; Jie Chang; Yuanyuan Xu; Liren Cao; Yongwang Li; Jinglai Zhou [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Characterization and Reaction Testing of Cobalt Carbide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide was investigated for cobalt carbide synthesized from Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} by CO carburization in a fixed-bed reactor. The cobalt carbide synthesized was characterized by BET surface area, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The catalysts were tested in the slurry phase using a continuously stirred tank reactor at P = 2.0 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO = 2:1 in the temperature range of 493-523 K, and with space velocities varying from 1 to 3 Nl h{sup -1} g{sub cat}{sup -1}. The results strongly suggest that a fraction of cobalt converts to a form with greater metallic character under the conditions employed. This was more pronounced on a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis run conducted at a higher temperature (523 versus 493 K).

Khalid S.; Mohandas J.C.; Gnanamani M.K.; Jacobs G.; Ma W.; Ji Y.; Davis B.H.

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Upgrading Fischer-Tropsch LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with the Cyclar process  

SciTech Connect

The use of the UOP/BP Cyclar{reg sign} process for upgrading Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied at UOP{reg sign}. The Cyclar process converts LPG into aromatics. The LPG derived from F-T is highly olefinic. Two routes for upgrading F-T LPG were investigated. In one route, olefinic LPG was fed directly to a Cyclar unit (Direct Cyclar). The alternative flow scheme used the Huels CSP process to saturate LPG olefins upstream of the Cyclar unit (Indirect Cyclar). An 18-run pilot plant study verified that each route is technically feasible. An economic evaluation procedure was designed to choose between the Direct and Indirect Cyclar options for upgrading LPG. Four situations involving three different F-T reactor technologies were defined. The main distinction between the cases was the degree of olefinicity, which ranged between 32 and 84 wt % of the fresh feed. 8 refs., 80 figs., 44 tabs.

Gregor, J.H.; Gosling, C.D.; Fullerton, H.E.

1989-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

130

An Ab Initio Approach Towards Engineering Fischer-Tropsch Surface Chemistry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As the US seeks to develop an energy strategy that reduces the reliance on foreign oil, there is a renewed interest in the research and development of the Fischer Tropsch synthesis for converting syngas into long chain hydrocarbon products. This report investigates some of the basic elementary steps for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over ideal Pt, Ru and carbon-covered Pt and Ru metal surfaces by using ab initio density functional theoretical calculations. We examine in detail the adsorption sites as well as the binding energies for C, CH, CH{sub 2}, CH3 and CH4 on Pt(111), Ru(0001), 2x2-C-Pt(111) and 2x2-C-Ru(0001). The results indicate that the binding energies increase with decreasing the hydrogen in the fragment molecule, i.e. CH{sub 4} < CH{sub 3} < CH{sub 2} < CH < C. More specifically the work analyzes the elementary steps involved in the activation of methane. This is simply the reverse set of steps necessary for the hydrogenation of C to CH{sub 4}. The results indicate that these hydrocarbon intermediates bind more strongly to Ru than Pt. The introduction of co-adsorbed carbon atoms onto both Ru(0001) as well as Pt(111) significantly increased the overall energies as well as the activation barriers for C-H bond activation. The results suggest that Ru may be so active that it initially can initially activate CH4 into CH or C but ultimately it dies because the CH and C intermediates poison the surface and thus kill its activity. Methane can dissociate on Pt but subsequent hydrocarbon coupling reactions act to remove the surface carbon.

Matthew Neurock; Siddharth Chopra

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

131

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

132

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

133

DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLOW MODEL FOR FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The model includes heat generation due to the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. Results of the CMFD simulations (similar to those shown in Figure 1) will be presented.

Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

An Ab Initio Approach Towards Engineering Fischer-Tropsch Surface Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the greatest societal challenges over the next decade is the production of cheap, renewable energy for the 10 billion people that inhabit the earth. This will require the development of various energy sources which will likely include fuels derived from methane, coal, and biomass and alternatives sources such as solar, wind and nuclear energy. One approach will be to synthesize gasoline and other fuels from simpler hydrocarbons such as CO derived from methane or other U.S. based sources such as coal. Syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) can be readily converted into higher molecular weight hydrocarbons through Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis involves the adsorption and the activation of CO and H{sub 2}, the subsequent propagation steps including hydrogenation and carbon-carbon coupling, followed by chain termination reactions. The current commercial catalysts are supported Co and Co-alloys particles. This project set out with the following objectives in mind: (1) understand the reaction mechanisms that control FT kinetics, (2) predict how the intrinsic metal-adsorbate bond affects the sequence of elementary steps in FT, (3) establish the effects of the reaction environment on catalytic activity and selectivity, (4) construct a first-principles based algorithm that can incorporate the detailed atomic surface structure and simulate the kinetics for the myriad of elementary pathways that make up FT chemistry, and (5) suggest a set of optimal features such as alloy composition and spatial configuration, oxide support, distribution of defect sites. As part of this effort we devoted a significant portion of time to develop an ab initio based kinetic Monte Carlo simulation which can be used to follow FT surface chemistry over different transition metal and alloy surfaces defined by the user. Over the life of this program, we have used theory and have developed and applied stochastic Monte Carlo simulations in order to establish the fundamental catalytic processes that control FT synthesis, thus enabling us to accomplish the first 4 of these objectives. In addition, we were able to begin to suggest the design features of these materials, the final task of the proposed effort. The following report details the specific findings and proposes recommendations. The support from DOE NETL was used to fund a portion of a postdoctoral and a graduate student's salaries. The postdoctoral fellow (Dr. Qingfeng Ge) who was working on this project was hired as an Assistant Professor in chemistry at the Southern Illinois University.

Matthew Neurock

2006-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

135

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished at conditions that do not entrain the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds. That is, a constant carbon-number distribution in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. Three major tasks are being undertaken to evaluate our proposed SCF extraction process. Task 1: Equilibrium solubility measurements for model F-T wax components in supercritical fluids at conditions representative of those in a SBC reactor. Task 2: Thermodynamic modeling of the measured VLE data for extending our results to real wax systems. Task 3: Process design studies of our proposed process. Additional details of the task structure are given.

MARK C. THIES; PATRICK C. JOYCE

1998-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

136

Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, January--March 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design. Develop a process flow sheet simulation (PFS) model. This report summarizes the activities completed during the period December 23, 1992 through March 15, 1992. In Task 1, Baseline Design and Alternates, the following activities related to the tradeoff studies were completed: approach and basis; oxygen purity; F-T reactor pressure; wax yield; autothermal reformer; hydrocarbons (C{sub 3}/C{sub 4}s) recovery; and hydrogenrecovery. In Task 3, Engineering Design Criteria, activities were initiated to support the process tradeoff studies in Task I and to develop the environmental strategy for the Illinois site. The work completed to date consists of the development of the F-T reactor yield correlation from the Mobil dam and a brief review of the environmental strategy prepared for the same site in the direct liquefaction baseline study.Some work has also been done in establishing site-related criteria, in establishing the maximum vessel diameter for train sizing and in coping with the low H{sub 2}/CO ratio from the Shell gasifier. In Task 7, Project Management and Administration, the following activities were completed: the subcontract agreement between Amoco and Bechtel was negotiated; a first technical progress meeting was held at the Bechtel office in February; and the final Project Management Plan was approved by PETC and issued in March 1992.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst (CO/MgO/silica) was reduced and slurried in combination with reduced Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]0[sub 3] water-gas-shift catalyst. Combined catalyst system was run at fixed process conditions for more than 400 hours. The system showed stable selectivity. The Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]0[sub 3] water-gas-shift catalyst remained reasonably active in the presence of the cobalt catalyst. Hydrocarbon selectivity of the cobalt and Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]0[sub 3] catalyst system compared favorably to selectivity of iron-based catalysts. Methane selectivity was slightly higher for the cobalt-based system, but C[sub 5][sup +] selectivity was essentially the same. The hydrocarbon product distribution appeared to exhibit a double-a behavior. a[sub 1] was near 0.80 which is higher than that of iron catalysts, while a[sub 2] was calculated to be 0.86 which is somewhat lower than would be typical for an iron-based catalyst.

Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Studies on KIT-6 Supported Cobalt Catalyst for Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

KIT-6 molecular sieve was used as a support to prepare cobalt catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) using an incipient wetness impregnation method to produce cobalt loadings of 15 and 25 wt%. The catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission election microscopy (STEM), extended X-ray absorption fine spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy. The catalytic properties for FTS were evaluated using a 1L CSTR reactor. XRD, pore size distribution, and STEM analysis indicate that the KIT-6 mesostructure remains stable during and after cobalt impregnation and tends to form smaller cobalt particles, probably located inside the mesopores. The mesoporous KIT-6 exhibited a slightly higher cobalt dispersion compared to amorphous SiO{sub 2} supported catalyst. With the higher Co loading (25 wt%) on KIT-6, partial structural collapse was observed after the FTS reaction. Compared to an amorphous SiO{sub 2} supported cobalt catalyst, KIT-6 supported cobalt catalyst displayed higher methane selectivity at a similar Co loading, likely due to diffusion effects.

Gnanamani, M.; Jacobs, G; Graham, U; Ma, W; Pendyala, V; Ribeiro, M; Davis, B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Silylated Co/SBA-15 catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of silylated Co/SBA-15 catalysts were prepared via the reaction of surface Si-OH of SBA-15 with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) under anhydrous, vapor-phase conditions, and then characterized by FT-IR, N{sub 2} physisorption, TG, XRD, and TPR-MS. The results showed that organic modification led to a silylated SBA-15 surface composed of stable hydrophobic Si-(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} species even after calcinations and H{sub 2} reduction at 673 K. Furthermore, the hydrophobic surface strongly influenced both metal dispersion and reducibility. Compared with non-silylated Co/SBA, Co/S-SBA (impregnation after silylation) showed a high activity, due to the better cobalt reducibility on the hydrophobic support. However, S-Co/SBA (silylation after impregnation) had the lowest FT activity among all the catalysts, due to the lower cobalt reducibility along with the steric hindrance of grafted -Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} for the re-adsorption of {alpha}-olefins. -- Graphical abstract: The silylation of an SBA-15 before cobalt impregnation enhanced the reducibility of cobalt oxides on an SBA-15-supported cobalt catalyst and consequently increased the catalytic activity for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Display Omitted

Jia Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jia Litao [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Li Debao, E-mail: dbli@sxicc.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Hou Bo [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Wang Jungang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun Yuhan, E-mail: yhsun@sxicc.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

CO activation pathways and the mechanism of Fischer–Tropsch synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Unresolved mechanistic details of monomer formation in Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) and of its oxygen rejection routes are addressed here by combining kinetic and theoretical analyses of elementary steps on representative Fe and Co surfaces saturated with chemisorbed CO. These studies provide experimental and theoretical evidence for hydrogen-assisted CO activation as the predominant kinetically-relevant step on Fe and Co catalysts at conditions typical of FTS practice. H2 and CO kinetic effects on FTS rates and oxygen rejection selectivity (as H2O or CO2) and density functional theory estimates of activation barriers and binding energies are consistent with H-assisted CO dissociation, but not with the previously accepted kinetic relevance of direct CO dissociation and chemisorbed carbon hydrogenation elementary steps. H-assisted CO dissociation removes O-atoms as H2O, while direct dissociation forms chemisorbed oxygen atoms that desorb as CO2. Direct CO dissociation routes are minor contributors to monomer formation on Fe and may become favored at high temperatures on alkali-promoted catalysts, but not on Co catalysts, which remove oxygen predominantly as H2O because of the preponderance of Hassisted CO dissociation routes. The merging of experiment and theory led to the clarification of persistent mechanistic issues previously unresolved by separate experimental and theoretical inquiries.

Ojeda, Manuel; Nabar, Rahul P.; Nilekar, Anand U.; Ishikawa, Akio; Mavrikakis, Manos; Iglesia, Enrique

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished at conditions that do not entrain the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds. That is, a constant carbon-number distribution in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. Three major tasks are being undertaken to evaluate our proposed SCF extraction process. Task 1: Equilibrium solubility measurements for model F-T wax components in supercritical fluids at conditions representative of those in a SBC reactor. Task 2: Thermodynamic modeling of the measured VLE data for extending our results to real wax systems. Task 3: Process design studies of our proposed process. Additional details of the task structure are given.

MARK C. THIES; PATRICK C. JOYCE

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical reaction media. Progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Construction of the automated high pressure reactor unit was completed. Testing of the reactor and trial runs are currently in progress. An HP 5890 GC/FID system interfaced with an BP 3365 Chemstation is now in place for analysis of F-T synthesis products. Calibration methods are currently under development. The pressure transducers were successfully calibrated using high precision Heise gauges. Figure 1 shows the linearity of the transducer response. The HPLC pump, used for pumping n-hexane was also tested and calibrated. The agitated sand bath surrounding the reactor (meant for absorbing the high heat of reaction produced in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) was assembled in place and successfully tested. The entire system was tested to withstand the operating pressures and to be free of leaks. A cold wax trap was fabricated and added to the existing setup. This is similar in nature to the hot wax trap and will serve to collect condensables from the product stream not collected in the hot wax trap and from the GC exhaust stream. Pressure control (using the stepping-motor-driven micrometering valve) and temperature control tests are currently in progress aimed at establishing the control parameters. Thereafter, the experimental investigations consisting of the blank runs and sub-, near-, and supercritical experiments will be commenced. Progress was made in the development of both on-line and off-line analyses. Off-line analysis determines retention times (compound identification) and response factors (quantitative analysis).

Subramaniam, B.; Bochniak, D.; Snavely, K.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to develop the technology for the production of physically robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry phase synthesis reactor development. The catalysts that are developed shall be suitable for testing in the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas, to produce either low- or high-alpha product distributions. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the ``standard-catalyst`` developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst this is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, select and aging characteristics. The research is divided into four major topical areas: (a) catalyst preparation and characterization, (b) product characterization, (c) reactor operations, and (d) data assessment. Accomplishments for this period are described.

Davis, B.H.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

The Prospects for Coal-To-Liquid Conversion: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the economics of coal-to-liquid (CTL) conversion, a polygeneration technology that produces liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity by coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch process. CTL is more expensive ...

Chen, Y.-H. Henry

145

NETL: Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids - Solicitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by Gasification. Small-Scale Coal-biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis; FE0010231 Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal...

146

COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

volume of liquids. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is an indirecthydrocarbons. The Fischer- Tropsch synthesis method produces

Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Aspen Process Flowsheet Simulation Model of a Battelle Biomass-Based Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch Liquefaction and Combined-Cycle Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

This study was done to support the research and development program of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels using current state-of-the-art technology. The Mitretek study investigated the use of two biomass gasifiers; the RENUGAS gasifier being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, and the indirectly heated gasifier being developed by Battelle Columbus. The Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio indirectly heated biomass gasifier was selected for this model development because the syngas produced by it is better suited for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with an iron-based catalyst for which a large amount of experimental data are available. Bechtel with Amoco as a subcontractor developed a conceptual baseline design and several alternative designs for indirect coal liquefaction facilities. In addition, ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation models were developed for each of designs. These models were used to perform several parametric studies to investigate various alternatives for improving the economics of indirect coal liquefaction.

None

1998-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

148

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1996--31 March 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200--300 {degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two major factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished without entraining the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds, i.e., a constant carbon-number distribution of the alkanes in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. During this quarter work focused on task 1b, experimental measurement of selected model systems. Vapor-liquid equilibrium experiments for the n- hexane/squalane system, which we initiated in the previous quarter, were continued and results are discussed in this report.

Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has been studied over the best low-alpha catalyst developed at the CAER. A wide range of synthesis gas conversions were obtained by varying the space velocity. The experimental results show that: (1) the rate of the water gas shift reaction is lower than the rate of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction at low conversions (< 60%) whereas it closely approaches the rate of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at high conversions, (2) the fraction of CO converted to hydrocarbons is higher at low and intermediate conversions whereas it is smaller at high conversions, (3) the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the product gas is equal to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the inlet synthesis gas at an intermediate conversion level of 67%. These findings suggest that it would be beneficial to carry out the reaction at intermediate conversions. This would result in an optimum use of CO to produce hydrocarbons rather than CO{sub 2}. High overall conversions can be obtained by either using a second reactor or recycling the product gas using a single reactor. If the intermediate conversion in a single pass is maintained at 67% there would be no need to adjust the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the recycle stream or the feed to the second reactor as the product gas from a single pass would have the same H{sub 2}/CO ratio as the feed synthesis gas. The optimum reaction rate expression for synthesis gas conversion which has been developed for this catalyst shows that CO is strongly adsorbed on the catalyst and that the reaction products such as water and CO{sub 2} do not inhibit the reaction rate.

Davis, B.H.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

151

The limiting mutual diffusion coefficients of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products in near-critical hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is used to convert synthesis gas into petroleum products such as gasoline and diesel fuel. It was developed in Germany during WW 11 as an alternative fuel source during the fuel embargo and is still used as a major source of fuel in South Africa. The objective of our work will be to run the reaction in the supercritical region with a hydrocarbon solvent in order to utilize the advantages of supercritical fluids (SCFs). SCFs have the advantages of high diffusivities, low viscosities, and increased mass transfer. Effective pore diffusivities for the reactants and reaction products become important when modeling the reaction. One of the most important factors in determining effective diffusivities is the molecular diffusivity of the organic in the supercritical fluid. However, data for diffusivities in supercritical fluids are scarce. Because diffusion coefficients cannot be determined a priofi, it is necessary to measure them. We have utilized the Taylor dispersion technique to measure the limiting mutual diffusion coefficients of some FTS products, namely 1-octene and 1-tetradecene, in subcritical and supercritical ethane and propane in the temperature range 293.2-338.25 K and the pressure range 55.2-110.3 bar. It has been found that diffusion coefficients are a strong function of the solvent density and the molecular weight and diameter of the solute and solvent. We have correlated the data to predict the diffusion coefficients using the rough-hard-spheres (RHS) theory; however, it has been found that this theory underpredicts the data. Therefore, we have used modifications to the RHS theory of diffusion by Sung and Stell (1984) to better predict the data. These modifications to the RHS theory predict the data we obtained within the experimental limits.

Noel, James Michael

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

An exploratory program for using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers as Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to investigate the potential of hydrous metal oxide (HMO) ion exchangers, invented at Sandia National Laboratories, as Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalysts. Metals known to be active in F-T synthesis (e.g. Fe, Co) were ion exchanged on hydrous metal oxide supports. Although HMO catalysts based on Zr, Nb, and Ta have been investigated in direct coal liquefaction studies, this effect focused on formulations based on the hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) system. The program has the goals of developing a catalyst with (1) high activity, (2) selectively to fuel range or other useful products, and (3) better properties for use in slurry reactors. The program has three main tasks: (1) catalyst synthesis, to develop methods for preparing catalysts having desirable F-T properties, (2) characterization, to investigate catalysts proving to have desirable properties by a variety of analytical techniques to determine correlations between activity and material properties and (3) testing to determine activity and selectivity of catalysts. This paper discussed results of activity testing of Ruhrchemie catalyst and some catalyst formulations prepared using ion exchange on hydrous titanium oxide and precipitation. For example, at 250{degree}C the Ruhrchemie catalyst converts {approximately}50% of the syngas feed to reaction products. In comparison, iron catalysts prepared by ion exchange and precipitation had conversions ranging from 20 to 50% over a temperature range of 250 to 275{degree}C of the syngas feed. In addition, results are Auger surface analysis of Ruhrchemie catalyst are presented. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Lynch, A.W.; Dosch, R.G.; Sault, A.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Studying Fischer-Tropsch catalysts using transmission electron microscopy and model systems of nanoparticles on planar supports.  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticle model systems on planar supports form a versatile platform for studying morphological and compositional changes of catalysts due to exposure to realistic reaction conditions. We review examples from our work on iron and cobalt catalysts, which can undergo significant rearrangement in the reactive environment of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The use of specially designed, silicon based supports with thin film SiO{sub 2} enables the application of transmission electron microscopy, which has furnished important insight into e.g. the mechanisms of catalyst regeneration.

Thune, P. C.; Weststrate, C. J.; Moodley, P.; Saib, A. M.; van de Loosdrecht, J.; Miller, J. T.; Niemantsverdriet, J. W. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology); (Sasol Technology)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Development of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1996--31 March 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall contract objectives are to: (1) demonstrate repeatability of performance and preparation procedure of two high activity, high alpha iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts synthesized at Texas A&M University (TAMU); (2) seek potential improvements in the catalyst performance through variations in process conditions, pretreatment procedures and/or modifications in catalyst synthesis; (3) investigate performance of catalysts in a small scale bubble column slurry reactor, and (4) investigate feasibility of producing catalysts on a large scale in collaboration with a catalyst manufacturer. In order to achieve these objectives the work is divided into ten tasks, which are described and their accomplishments are reported.

Bukur, D.B.

1996-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

155

Spray drying and attrition behavior of iron catalysts for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating attrition resistant iron catalysts prepared by spray drying technique. These catalysts are intended for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR). One of the major challenges associated with the use of SBCR for this purpose is the problem of catalyst/wax separation. If the catalyst particles break up into smaller ones during the F-T synthesis, these small particles (>5-10 ?m in diameter) will cause problems with the catalyst/wax separation. Several research groups have worked on development of attrition resistant spray-dried iron catalysts, and methodology to measure and predict their attrition behavior. However, these attrition tests were not conducted under conditions representative of those encountered in a SBCR. In this work, the attrition behavior of six spray-dried catalysts and two precipitated catalysts was evaluated under slurry reaction conditions in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR). Spray-dried catalysts used in this study were prepared at Texas A&M University (TAMU) and at Hampton University (HU), employing different preparation procedures and silica sources (potassium silicate, tetraethyl orthosilicate or colloidal silica). The attrition properties of F-T catalysts were determined by measuring particle size distribution (PSD) of catalysts before and after F-T synthesis in the STSR. This provides a direct measure of changes in particle size distribution in the STSR, and accounts for both physical and chemical attrition effects. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the mechanism of attrition - erosion vs. fracture, and to obtain morphological characteristics of catalysts. Spray dried 100Fe/3Cu/5K/16SiO2 catalyst (WCS3516-1), prepared from wet precursors using colloidal silica as the silica source, was the best in terms of its attrition strength. After 337 hours of F-T synthesis in the STSR, the reduction in the average particle size and generation of particles less than 10 ?m in diameter were found to be very small. This indicates that both particle fracture and erosion were insignificant during testing in the STSR. All other catalysts, except one of the spray dried catalysts synthesized at Hampton University, also had a good attrition resistance and would be suitable for use in slurry reactors for F-T synthesis.

Carreto Vazquez, Victor Hugo

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Development of a stable cobalt-ruthenium Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. Technical progress report No. 14, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to examine the relationship between catalytic properties and the function of cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts and to apply this fundamental knowledge to the development of a stable cobalt-based catalyst with a low methane-plus-ethane selectivity for use in slurry reactors.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, January 1, 1989--March 31, 1989  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most of this quarter has been devoted to design, construction and installation of a new external catalyst reduction unit. In this report, methods of reducing cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are reviewed, in an effort to develop an understanding of the important parameters which affect the reduction of cobalt catalysts. Design considerations for the external reduction unit are also presented.

Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.A.; Satterfield, C.N.

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

158

Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer lab evaluation; cold-start test-cell evaluations; overall feasibility, economics, and efficiency of SFP fuel production; and an economic analysis. Two unexpected issues that arose during the project were further studied and resolved: variations in NOx emissions were accounted for and fuel-injection nozzle fouling issues were traced to the non-combustible (ash) content of the engine oil, not the F-T fuel. The F-T fuel domestically produced and evaluated in this effort appears to be a good replacement candidate for petroleum-based transportation fuels. However, in order for domestic F-T fuels to become a viable cost-comparable alternative to petroleum fuels, the F-T fuels will need to be produced from abundant U.S. domestic resources such as coal and biomass, rather than stranded natural gas.

Stephen P. Bergin

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

159

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Technical progress report No. 12, June 26, 1993--September 26, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this contract are to develop a technology for the production of active and stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to develop a scale-up procedure for large-scale synthesis of such catalysts for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. With a feed containing hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the molar ratio of 0.5 to 1.0 to the slurry bubble column reactor, the catalyst performance target is 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion at a minimum space velocity of 2.4 NL/hr/g Fe. The desired sum of methane and ethane selectivities is no more than 4%, and the conversion loss per week is not to exceed 1%.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Technical progress report No. 5, September 26, 1991--December 26, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective is to develop producing active, stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to synthesize such catalysts on a large scale for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. A mixed oxalate of Fe, Cu, and K was prepared; a catalyst will be prepared from this material. An evaluation run was performed on an Fe-based UCI catalyst, which was shown to produce low levels of C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} paraffins; e.g., at the end of the run, when the catalyst was converting 60% of the CO, the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} paraffin selectivities were 4.2 and 1.0, respectively.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, June 30, 1988--September 30, 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details experiments performed on three different copper-based catalysts: Cu/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cu/MnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Of these three catalysts, the Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits the greatest stability when slurried in octacosane. More than 1000 hours-on-stream indicate that the catalyst activity is not detrimentally affected by high pressure, high H{sub 2}/CO ratio, or the presence of alkenes. All of these are necessary stability characteristics for the water-gas shift catalyst, if it is to be used in combination with a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. A review of documented reduction procedures for cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is presented.

Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, October 1, 1989--December 31, 1989  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The rate of synthesis gas consumption over a cobalt FischerTropsch catalyst was measured in a well-mixed, continuous-flow, slurry reactor at 220 to 240{degrees}C, 0.5 to 1.5 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO feed ratios of 1.5 to 3.5 and conversions of 7 to 68% of hydrogen and 11 to 73% of carbon monoxide. The inhibiting effect of carbon monoxide was determined quantitatively and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type equation of the following form was found to best represent the results: -R{sub H{sub 2+Co}} = (a P{sub CO}P{sub H{sub 2}})/(1 + b P{sub CO}){sup 2}. The apparent activation energy was 93 to 95 kJ/mol. Data from previous studies on cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are also well correlated with this rate expression.

Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Determination of the Effect of Coal/Biomass-Derived Syngas Contaminants on the Performance of Fischer-Tropsch and Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To investigate the impact of CB gasification on the production of transportation fuels by FT synthesis, RTI International conducted thermodynamic studies to identify trace contaminants that will react with water-gas-shift and FT catalysts and built several automated microreactor systems to investigate the effect of single components and the synergistic effects of multiple contaminants on water-gas-shift and FT catalyst performance. The contaminants investigated were sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and combinations thereof. This report details the thermodynamic studies and the individual and multi-contaminant results from this testing program.

Trembly, Jason; Cooper, Matthew; Farmer, Justin; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Research guidance studies to assess gasoline from coal by methanol-to-gasoline and sasol-type Fischer--Tropsch technologies. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study provides a technical and economic comparison between the new Mobil methanol-to-gasoline technology under development and the commercially available Fischer--Tropsch technology for the production of motor gasoline meeting U.S. quality standards. Conceptual plant complexes, sited in Wyoming, are complete grass-roots facilities. The Lurgi dry-ash, pressure technology is used to gasify sub-bituminous strip coal. Except for the Mobil process, processes used are commercially available. Coproduction of products, namely SNG, LPG and gasoline, is practiced. Four sensitivity cases have also been developed in less detail from the two base cases. In all areas, the Mobil technology is superior to Fischer--Tropsch: process complexity, energy usage, thermal efficiency, gasoline selectivity, gasoline quality, investment and gasoline selectivity, gasoline quality, investment and gasoline cost. Principal advantages of the Mobil process are its selective yield of excellent quality gasoline with minimum ancillary processing. Fischer--Tropsch not only yields a spectrum of products, but the production of a gasoline meeting U.S. specifications is difficult and complex. This superiority results in about a 25% reduction in the gasoline cost. Sensitivity study conclusions include: (1) the conversion of methanol into gasoline over the Mobil catalyst is highly efficient, (2) if SNG is a valuable product, increased gasoline yield via the reforming of SNG is uneconomical, and (3) fluid-bed operation is somewhat superior to fixed-bed operation for the Mobil methanol conversion technology.

Schreiner, M.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The affect of copper promotion on the activity and selectivity of hydrogen pretreated, precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts was studied. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was carried out in the slurry phase in one in one liter continuous stirred tank reactors at a space velocity of 3.lNL h{sup {minus}1} g{sup {minus}1}(Fe), H{sub 2}:CO = 0.7 at either 270{degree}C or 230{degree}C. Catalysts with atomic compositions relative to iron of 10OFe/4.4Si/l.OK and 10OFe/4.4Si/2.6Cu/l.OK were used at 270{degree}C and catalysts with the compositions of 100Fe/4.4Si/4.2K and 10OFe/4.4Si/2.6Cu/4.2K were used at 230{degree}C. XRD and Moessbauer spectroscopy both show that the 10OFe/4.4Si/2.6Cu/l.OK catalyst contained approximately 24% {alpha}-Fe with the remainder Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} after a 24 h pretreatment with hydrogen at 220{degree}C. Copper promotion was found to substantially increase the activity and productivity of the catalysts. Catalysts promoted with copper reached maximum activity within 100 h of synthesis while catalysts with no copper went through an induction period. The activity of the hydrogen pretreated 10OFe/4.4Si/2.6Cu/1.0K catalyst operated at 270{degree}C was comparable to the activity of the the 100Fe/4.4Si/l.OK catalyst after pretreatment with carbon monoxide or syngas at one atmosphere pressure. However, the activity of the hydrogen pretreated 1O0Fe/4.4Si/2.6Cu/4.2K catalyst at 230{degree}C was found to be substantially lower than the same catalyst pretreated with carbon monoxide or syngas at one atmosphere pressure.

Davis, B.H.

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

166

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methyl esters (DME) and Fischer-Tropsch liquids, as well astransport fuels using Fischer-Tropsch or other conversionconcluded that biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch synthetic kerosene

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

The role of catalyst activation on the activity and attrition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of this work indicate that magnetite is not catalytically active for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) in precipitated, unsupported iron catalysts, but the formation of the carbide phase is necessary to obtain FTS activity. The transformation of magnetite to carbide, though essential to obtain FTS activity, also causes the catalyst to break down. This can lead to severe problems during operation in a commercial slurry phase reactor. The results presented here imply that activation and attrition are simultaneous and complementary processes. In another study, we show that the catalyst can also under go attrition on a micron scale which is caused by lack of strength of the forces binding the catalyst primary particles in the agglomerates. Both these processes can make wax separation and product recovery extremely difficult. In this study, we have also shown that H{sub 2} reduction of this catalyst to metallic iron is detrimental to subsequent catalyst activity and causes a loss of surface area due to sintering of the iron crystallites. Reduction to metallic Fe also causes impurities such as S to segregate to the surface causing a complete loss of FTS activity. It has been shown that even submonolayer amounts of S can cause a dramatic decrease in FTS activity, hence reduction to metallic Fe should be avoided during activation of these catalysts. We have shown, however, that a mild H{sub 2} reduction to magnetite does not lead to S segregation to the surface, and is therefore acceptable.

Datye, A.K.; Shroff, M.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harrington, M.S.; Coulter, K.E.; Sault, A.G.; Jackson, N.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Technical progress report No. 9, September 26, 1992--December 26, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this contract are to develop a technology for the production of active and stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to develop a scaleup procedure for large-scale synthesis of such catalysts for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. With a feed containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the molar ratio of 0.5 to 1.0 to the slurry bubble-column reactor, the catalyst performance target is 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion at a minimum space velocity of 2.4 NL/hr/gFe. The desired sum of methane and ethane selectivities is no more than 4%, and the conversion loss per week is not to exceed 1%. Contract Tasks are as follows: 1.0--Catalyst development, 1.1--Technology assessment, 1.2--Precipitated catalyst preparation method development, 1.3--Novel catalyst preparation methods investigation, 1.4--Catalyst pretreatment, 1.5--Catalyst characterization, 2.0--Catalyst testing, 3.0--Catalyst aging studies, and 4.0--Preliminary design and cost estimate of a catalyst synthesis facility. This paper reports progress on Task 1.3.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

169

Proposal of a new product characterization model for the iron-based low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new product characterization model has been proposed for the iron-based low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (Fe-LTFT) synthesis. The chain-length-dependent desorption model is based on the premise that the increase in chain-growth probability and decrease in the olefin/paraffin ratio with the carbon number in the Fe-LTFT synthesis is essentially a characteristic of the primary product spectrum. The model could successfully describe the olefin and paraffin distributions in the C{sub 3+} range. The ethylene/ethane ratio is overestimated by the model because of the high reactivity of ethylene for secondary hydrogenation. However, the total C{sub 2} formation rate was predicted almost perfectly, while the methane formation rate was described adequately, using parameter values that were obtained from the C{sub 3}-C{sub 10} product fraction. This is a true extrapolation, because the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} data were not used at all for the estimation of the parameter values. This may be the first product characterization model that can successfully be extrapolated to the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} components without introducing additional (unique) parameter values for these products. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

F. Gideon Botes [Sasol Technology, Sasolburg (South Africa). R& amp; D Division

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Technical progress report No. 4, June 26, 1991--September 26, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objectives are to develop active, stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to develop a scaleup procedure for large-scale synthesis of such catalysts for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. For a H{sub 2}-CO in molar ratio of 0.5 to 1.0, catalyst performance target is 88% CO+H{sub 2} conversion at a minimum space velocity of 2.4 NL/hr/gFe, with no more than 4% methane/ethane selectivity and 1% conversion loss per week. During this period, it was found that the performance of the slurry-phase iron and copper oxide-based catalyst depends on the amount of K. Five catalysts with differing K contents were studied. The catalysts with the lowest K were more active than the ones with higher K levels. The one with the middle K level was judged best.

Frame, R.R.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

171

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to develop the technology for the production of physically robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry phase synthesis reactor development. The catalysts that are developed shall be suitable for testing in the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas, to produce either low- or high-alpha product distributions. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the ``standard-catalyst`` developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics. The research is divided into four major topical areas: (a) catalyst preparation and characterization, (b) product characterization, (c) reactor operations, and (d) data assessment. Accomplishments for this period are discussed.

Davis, B.H.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to develop the technology for the production of physically robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry phase synthesis reactor development. The catalysts that are developed shall be suitable for testing in the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas, to produce either low- or high-alpha product distributions. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the ``standard-catalyst`` developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst this is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics. The research is divided into four major topical areas: (a) catalyst preparation and characterization, (b) product characterization, (c) reactor operations, and (d) data assessment. Accomplishments to date are described.

Davis, B.H.

1996-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

173

Availability Assessment of Carbonaceous Biomass in California as a Feedstock for Thermo-chemical Conversion to Synthetic Liquid Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and waxes in the Fischer-Tropsch reactor (FTR). Conversionof 144 million bbl of Fischer-Tropsch products annually.

Valkenburg, C; Norbeck, J N; Park, C S

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Availability and Assessment of Carbonaceous Biomass in the United States as a Feedstock for Thermo-chemical Conversion to Synthetic Liquid Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and waxes in the Fischer-Tropsch reactor (FTR). Conversionof 144 million bbl of Fischer-Tropsch products annually.

Valkenburg, C; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

KINETIC MODELING OF A FISCHER-TROPSCH REACTION OVER A COBALT CATALYST IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR FOR INCORPORATION INTO A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLUID DYNAMICS MODEL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Currently multi-tubular fixed bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors, and slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) are used in commercial Fischer Tropsch (FT) synthesis. There are a number of advantages of the SBCR compared to fixed and fluidized bed reactors. The main advantage of the SBCR is that temperature control and heat recovery are more easily achieved. The SBCR is a multiphase chemical reactor where a synthesis gas, comprised mainly of H2 and CO, is bubbled through a liquid hydrocarbon wax containing solid catalyst particles to produce specialty chemicals, lubricants, or fuels. The FT synthesis reaction is the polymerization of methylene groups [-(CH2)-] forming mainly linear alkanes and alkenes, ranging from methane to high molecular weight waxes. The Idaho National Laboratory is developing a computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) model of the FT process in a SBCR. This paper discusses the incorporation of absorption and reaction kinetics into the current hydrodynamic model. A phased approach for incorporation of the reaction kinetics into a CMFD model is presented here. Initially, a simple kinetic model is coupled to the hydrodynamic model, with increasing levels of complexity added in stages. The first phase of the model includes incorporation of the absorption of gas species from both large and small bubbles into the bulk liquid phase. The driving force for the gas across the gas liquid interface into the bulk liquid is dependent upon the interfacial gas concentration in both small and large bubbles. However, because it is difficult to measure the concentration at the gas-liquid interface, coefficients for convective mass transfer have been developed for the overall driving force between the bulk concentrations in the gas and liquid phases. It is assumed that there are no temperature effects from mass transfer of the gas phases to the bulk liquid phase, since there are only small amounts of dissolved gas in the liquid phase. The product from the incorporation of absorption is the steady state concentration profile of the absorbed gas species in the bulk liquid phase. The second phase of the model incorporates a simplified macrokinetic model to the mass balance equation in the CMFD code. Initially, the model assumes that the catalyst particles are sufficiently small such that external and internal mass and heat transfer are not rate limiting. The model is developed utilizing the macrokinetic rate expression developed by Yates and Satterfield (1991). Initially, the model assumes that the only species formed other than water in the FT reaction is C27H56. Change in moles of the reacting species and the resulting temperature of the catalyst and fluid phases is solved simultaneously. The macrokinetic model is solved in conjunction with the species transport equations in a separate module which is incorporated into the CMFD code.

Anastasia Gribik; Doona Guillen, PhD; Daniel Ginosar, PhD

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Fossil-fuel processing technical/professional services: comparison of Fischer-Tropsch reactor systems. Phase I, final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch reaction was commercialized in Germany and used to produce military fuels in fixed bed reactors. It was recognized from the start that this reactor system had severe operating and yield limitations and alternative reactor systems were sought. In 1955 the Sasol I complex, using an entrained bed (Synthol) reactor system, was started up in South Africa. Although this reactor was a definite improvement and is still operating, the literature is filled with proponents of other reactor systems, each claiming its own advantages. This report provides a summary of the results of a study to compare the development potential of three of these reactor systems with the commercially operating Synthol-entrained bed reactor system. The commercial Synthol reactor is used as a benchmark against which the development potential of the other three reactors can be compared. Most of the information on which this study is based was supplied by the M.W. Kellogg Co. No information beyond that in the literature on the operation of the Synthol reactor system was available for consideration in preparing this study, nor were any details of the changes made to the original Synthol system to overcome the operating problems reported in the literature. Because of conflicting claims and results found in the literature, it was decided to concentrate a large part of this study on a kinetic analysis of the reactor systems, in order to provide a theoretical analysis of intrinsic strengths and weaknesses of the reactors unclouded by different catalysts, operating conditions and feed compositions. The remainder of the study considers the physical attributes of the four reactor systems and compares their respective investment costs, yields, catalyst requirements and thermal efficiencies from simplified conceptual designs.

Thompson, G.J.; Riekena, M.L.; Vickers, A.G.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Kinetically Relevant Steps and H2/D2 Isotope Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Fe and Co Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

H2/D2 isotope effects on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) rate and selectivity are examined here by combining measured values on Fe and Co at conditions leading to high C5+ yields with theoretical estimates on model Fe(110) and Co(0001) surfaces with high coverages of chemisorbed CO (CO*). Inverse isotope effects (rH/rD < 1) are observed on Co and Fe catalysts as a result of compensating thermodynamic (H2 dissociation to H*; H* addition to CO* species to form HCO*) and kinetic (H* reaction with HCO*) isotope effects. These isotopic effects and their rigorous mechanistic interpretation confirm the prevalence of H-assisted CO dissociation routes on both Fe and Co catalysts, instead of unassisted pathways that would lead to similar rates with H2 and D2 reactants. The small contributions from unassisted pathways to CO conversion rates on Fe are indeed independent of the dihydrogen isotope, as is also the case for the rates of primary reactions that form CO2 as the sole oxygen rejection route in unassisted CO dissociation paths. Isotopic effects on the selectivity to C5+ and CH4 products are small, and D2 leads to a more paraffinic product than does H2, apparently because it leads to preference for chain termination via hydrogen addition over abstraction. These results are consistent with FTS pathways limited by H-assisted CO dissociation on both Fe and Co and illustrate the importance of thermodynamic contributions to inverse isotope effects for reactions involving quasi-equilibrated H2 dissociation and the subsequent addition of H* in hydrogenation catalysis, as illustrated here by theory and experiment for the specific case of CO hydrogenation.

Ojeda, Manuel; Li, Anwu; Nabar, Rahul P.; Nilekar, Anand U.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Iglesia, Enrique

2010-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

179

Annual Energy Outlook 2012  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

which, in total, have a lower specific gravity than the crude oil processed. 5 Includes pyrolysis oils, biomass-derived Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and renewable feedstocks used for...

180

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1990--September 30, 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was operated simultaneously with a Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift catalyst in a slurry reactor for over 400 hours. The process conditions were held constant at a temperature of 240{degrees}C, a pressure of 0.79 MPa, and a 1.1 H{sub 2}/CO feed of 0.065 Nl/min-g.cat. The Fischer-Tropsch activity remained constant at the level predicted by the operation of the Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} catalyst alone. The water-gas-shift reaction was near equilibrium. The hydrocarbon product distribution of the combined catalyst system was stable and matched that of the CO/MgO/SiO{sub 2} operating alone under similar conditions. The combined catalyst system exhibited a high selectivity to n-alkanes. Neither catalysts`s operation appeared to have a detrimental effect on that of the other, showing promise for future option.

Chanenchuk, C.A.; Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Research guidance studies to assess gasoline from coal by methanol-to-gasoline and Sasol-type Fischer--Tropsch technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary purpose of this study is to provide a technical and economic comparison between the commercial Fischer-Tropsch technology and the new Mobil methanol-to-gasoline technology for the production of motor gasoline. Several technical sensitivity cases are also part of the study and will be included in the final report. Two conceptual plant complexes - Base Case I: Mobil Technology and Base Case II: Fischer-Tropsch Technology--have been developed. They are self-supporting, grass roots facilities assumed to be located in a Wyoming coal field. Plant size is equivalent to the proposed large commercial SNG plants. Except for the Mobil methanol conversion technology, all processes used are commercial. Co-production of all products has been assumed. Products have been upgraded to meet U.S. market specifications. A summary comparison of the two base cases shows that the Mobil technology is somewhat more efficient and more effective in producing gasoline. Moreover, the number of processing steps required is considerably fewer. All products meet the target specifications.

Schreiner, M.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of iron-catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Moessbauer spectroscopy investigations were carried out on 16 iron-based catalysts during the period under review. A set of 10 samples subjected to different pretreatments and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were investigated to understand the effect of reduction in different gas atmospheres on the iron phases formed. Another set of 5 catalysts pretreated in CO and subjected to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using two kinds of wax viz., (a) a low molecular wt. wax and (b) heavy wax were also studied. Although it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions from the data, some plausible trends are noticed: (1) pretreatment of a catalyst in H{sub 2} leads to the formation of {var_epsilon}-carbide; (2) pretreatment of a catalyst in H{sub 2}/CO leads to the formation of {chi}-carbide; (3) reduction of UCI-1185-149-2ND catalyst in CO leads to the formation of {chi}-carbide; and (4) reduction of DOE catalysts in CO leads to the formation of {var_epsilon}-carbide. Data are presented on the phases found in the various catalysts.

Huffman, G.P.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested. Task 3: Chemical Synthesis: Promising process routes will be identified for synthesis of selected chemicals from biomass-derived syngas. A project milestone was to select promising mixed alcohol catalysts and screen productivity and performance in a fixed bed micro-reactor using bottled syngas. This milestone was successfully completed in collaboration withour catalyst development partner. Task 4: Modeling, Engineering Evaluation, and Commercial Assessment: Mass and energy balances of conceptual commercial embodiment for FT and chemical synthesis were completed.

David C. Dayton

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

184

Safety and Techno-Economic Analysis of Solvent Selection for Supercritical Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis is a primary pathway for gas-to-liquid technology. In order to overcome commercial problems associated with reaction and transport phenomena, the use of supercritical solvents has been proposed to increase chemical conversion and improve temperature control. One of the major challenges in designing the supercritical FTS systems is the solvent selection. Numerous alternatives exist and should be screened based on relevant criteria. The main aim of the thesis was to develop a safety metric that can be incorporated in the selection of an optimal supercritical solvent or a mixture of solvents. The objective was to minimize the cost while satisfying safety constraints or to establish tradeoffs between cost and safety. Hydrocarbons from C3 to C9 were identified as feasible solvents for FTS purposes. The choice of these solvents is dependent on their mixture critical temperature and pressure requirements that need to be satisfied upon entry into the FTS reactor. A safety metric system was developed in order to compare the risk issues associated with using the aforementioned solvents. In addition, an economic analysis of using the different solvents was performed. Finally, a case study was solved to illustrate the use of the proposed metrics and the selection of solvents based on safety and techno-economic criteria.

Hamad, Natalie

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, April--June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to: Develop a baseline design and two alternative designs for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology. The baseline design uses Illinois No. 6 Eastern Coal and conventional refining. There is an alternative refining case using ZSM-5 treatment of the vapor steam from the flurry F-T reactor and an alternative coal case using Western coal from the Powder River Basin. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design and the alternatives. Individual plant costs for the alternative cases will be prorated on capacity, wherever possible, from the baseline case, develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis and computer model will be major research planning tools that Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center will use to plan, guide and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. During the reporting period, work progressed on Tasks 1, 4, 5, 6 and 7. This report covers work done during the period and consists of six sections: introduction and summary; Task 1, baseline design and alternatives; Task 4, process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model; Task 5, perform sensitivity studies using the PFS model; Task 6, document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use, and project management and staffing report.

NONE

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of iron-catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Moessbauer spectroscopy investigations were carried out on 7 iron-based catalysts during the period under review. A set of four samples subjected to activation in syn gas and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sent by R.J. Gormley, to understand the behavior of the low alpha catalyst used in these runs. Another three used catalyst samples extracted from the LaPorte Run II were sent By Dr. Bharat Bhatt to understand the phase distribution and any correlation with the run results. The high alpha UCI catalyst used in the LaPorte Run I was studied to compare with the UCI low alpha catalyst used in LaPorte Run II. All together 10 Moessbauer measurements both at room and low temperatures were carried out to identify the iron phases present in these catalyst samples. Results to date are presented and some plausible trends are outlined.

Huffman, G.P.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of iron-catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

University of Kentucky has been developing Fischer-Tropsch catalysts which are active at a low H{sub 2}/CO ratio. It is of interest to find out any relationships that may exist between the iron phases that are produced during activation and FT synthesis and the activity of the catalysts. Moessbauer spectroscopy investigations were carried out on 16 iron-based catalysts during the period under review. Moessbauer measurements on two of the samples were also carried out at 13.5 K. The composition of one set of the catalysts studied consists of 100Fe/3.6Si/0.71K (all atomic % relative to Fe). Activation was carried out in syngas at a low pressure of 1 atm to investigate the effect of low pressure activation as compared to high pressure activation. The composition of a second set of catalysts consisted of 100Fe/3.6Si/2.6Cu/0.71K (all atomic % relative to Fe) and activation was carried out in syngas at a relatively high pressure of 12 atm. The composition of a third set of catalysts consisted of 100Fe/4.4Si/2.6Cu/1.0K (all atomic % relative to Fe) and activation was carried out in H{sub 2} at 1 atm. In all the cases the temperature was kept at 270 C and space velocity at 3.3nL/hr-g(Fe) for 24hrs. Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was carried out at 13 atm at 270 C, 3.4nL/hr-g(Fe) syngas/g-Fe/hrs.

Huffman, G.P.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Investigation on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with nitrogen-containing syngas over CoPtZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with nitrogen-containing syngas derived from combined air partial oxidation and CO{sub 2} reforming of methane has been performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of key factors including reaction temperature, pressure, and nitrogen content of the syngas on the performance of CoPtZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst were mainly investigated. The results indicate that the syngas containing a high content of nitrogen is suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and that a high initial catalytic activity can be achieved under typical operating conditions. The decreasing of catalytic activity with time on stream before reaching steady state was observed, which is mainly due to the blockage of catalyst pores by heavy hydrocarbons. 22 refs., 7 figs.

Dongyan Xu; Hongmin Duan; Wenzhao Li; Hengyong Xu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian (China). Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. Final report : January 1, 2001 - December 31, 2008.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory carried out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry-specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it was desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. It was desired that selectivity be directed toward producing diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. The original goal was to produce shape-selective catalysts that had the potential to limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' This cage would also restrict their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. The first stage of this program was to prepare and evaluate iron-containing particulate catalysts. Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity and strength was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. Since there was no improvement, the program plan was modified as discussed below. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those expected for complete monolayer coverage. In addition, there was likely to be significant variation in the Fe and Ru loading among the membranes due to difficulties in nucleating these materials on the aluminum oxide surfaces. The first series of experiments using coated membranes demonstrated that the technology needed further improvement. Specifically, observed catalytic FT activity was low. This low activity appeared to be due to: (1) low available surface area, (2) atomic deposition techniques that needed improvements, and (3) insufficient preconditioning of the catalyst surface prior to FT testing. Therefore, experimentation was expanded to the use of particulate silica supports having defined channels and reasonably high surface area. An effective FT catalyst consisting of ALD-deposited Co and Pt on a silica support has been prepared and demonstrated. This catalyst was more effective than a similar catalyst deposited upon a support of ALD-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on silica. This result implies that the deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to form a support is not as effective as desired. The addition of Pt as a Co-containing catalyst promoter has been demonstrated; it appears to primarily affect the catalyst pre-conditioning step. Co on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst prepared by the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) is more effective than Argonne-prepared ALD-deposited Co on ALD-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The FT activity of ALD-coated Co catalyst on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is about linear with Co level from about 9 to 25%. A cooperative research effort was undertaken to test the deposition of platinum on Co FT catalysts; this Pt influences the effectiveness of catalyst conditioning and its continuing activity. In summary, the ALD Pt at a low concentration (0.1 wt %) was as effective as that of the wet chemical deposition technique of CAER (specifically incipient deposition on a Co catalyst that had been prepared and calcined before the Pt deposition.) The ALD technique appeared to be nominally better than the incipient wetness technique that involved co-deposition of

Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

190

Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. Final report : January 1, 2001 - December 31, 2008.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory carried out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry-specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it was desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. It was desired that selectivity be directed toward producing diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. The original goal was to produce shape-selective catalysts that had the potential to limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' This cage would also restrict their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. The first stage of this program was to prepare and evaluate iron-containing particulate catalysts. Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity and strength was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. Since there was no improvement, the program plan was modified as discussed below. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those expected for complete monolayer coverage. In addition, there was likely to be significant variation in the Fe and Ru loading among the membranes due to difficulties in nucleating these materials on the aluminum oxide surfaces. The first series of experiments using coated membranes demonstrated that the technology needed further improvement. Specifically, observed catalytic FT activity was low. This low activity appeared to be due to: (1) low available surface area, (2) atomic deposition techniques that needed improvements, and (3) insufficient preconditioning of the catalyst surface prior to FT testing. Therefore, experimentation was expanded to the use of particulate silica supports having defined channels and reasonably high surface area. An effective FT catalyst consisting of ALD-deposited Co and Pt on a silica support has been prepared and demonstrated. This catalyst was more effective than a similar catalyst deposited upon a support of ALD-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on silica. This result implies that the deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to form a support is not as effective as desired. The addition of Pt as a Co-containing catalyst promoter has been demonstrated; it appears to primarily affect the catalyst pre-conditioning step. Co on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst prepared by the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) is more effective than Argonne-prepared ALD-deposited Co on ALD-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The FT activity of ALD-coated Co catalyst on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is about linear with Co level from about 9 to 25%. A cooperative research effort was undertaken to test the deposition of platinum on Co FT catalysts; this Pt influences the effectiveness of catalyst conditioning and its continuing activity. In summary, the ALD Pt at a low concentration (0.1 wt %) was as effective as that of the wet chemical deposition technique of CAER (specifically incipient deposition on a Co catalyst that had been prepared and calcined before the Pt deposition.) The ALD technique appeared to be nominally better than the incipient wetness technique that involved co-deposition of

Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

191

Fischer Tropsch synthesis : influence of Mn on the carburization rates and activities of Fe-based catalysts by TPR-EXAFS/XANES and catalyst testing.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fe-based catalysts containing different amounts of Mn were tested for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using a stirred tank reactor at 270 C, 1.21 MPa, and H{sub 2}:CO = 0.7. Catalyst activation by carburization with 10% CO/He was followed by Temperature Programmed Reduction/X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (TPR-EXAFS/XANES) from room temperature to 300 C. {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was converted into iron carbides, whereas MnO{sub x} was reduced to oxygen deficient MnO. Mn hindered Fe carburization, such that the carburized catalyst displayed higher Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} content than the catalyst without Mn. EXAFS fitting indicates that the carburized catalyst contained a mixture of Hgg carbide, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Mn oxides. Increasing Mn content led to higher CH{sub 4} and light product selectivities, and lower light olefin selectivities. Higher and stable conversions were obtained with a catalyst containing an almost equimolar Fe/Mn ratio relative to the catalyst without Mn. Selectivity trends are attributed to the higher WGS rates observed on the FeMn catalysts, consistent with the structural differences observed.

Ribeiro, M. C.; Jacobs, G.; Pendyala, R.; Davis, B. H.; Cronauer, D. C.; Kropf, A. J.; Marshall, C. L. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Univ. of Kentucky)

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

192

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of SCF extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer- Tropsch (F-T) slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300{degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two major factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished without entraining the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds, i.e., a constant carbon-number distribution of the alkanes in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. To implement our objectives, the following task structure is being implemented: Task 1 equilibrium solubility measurements; Task 2 thermodynamic modeling; and Task 3 process design studies. Progress reports are presented for each task.

Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Influence of gas feed composition and pressure on the catalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons using a traditional cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The hydrogenation of CO{sub 2} using a traditional Fischer-Tropsch Co-Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for the production of valuable hydrocarbon materials is investigated. The ability to direct product distribution was measured as a function of different feed gas ratios of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} (3:1, 2:1, and 1:1) as well as operating pressures (ranging from 450 to 150 psig). As the feed gas ratio was changed from 3:1 to 2:1 and 1:1, the production distribution shifted from methane toward higher chain hydrocarbons. This change in feed gas ratio is believed to lower the methanation ability of Co in favor of chain growth, with possibly two different active sites for methane and C2-C4 products. Furthermore, with decreasing pressure, the methane conversion drops slightly in favor of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} paraffins. Even though under certain reaction conditions product distribution can be shifted slightly away from the formation of methane, the catalyst studied behaves like a methanation catalyst in the hydrogenation of CO{sub 2}. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Robert W. Dorner; Dennis R. Hardy; Frederick W. Williams; Burtron H. Davis; Heather D. Willauer [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States). Navy Technology Center for Safety and Survivability Branch

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.  

SciTech Connect

This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, October 1, 1988--December 31, 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst (CO/MgO/silica) was reduced and slurried in combination with reduced Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} water-gas-shift catalyst. Combined catalyst system was run at fixed process conditions for more than 400 hours. The system showed stable selectivity. The Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} water-gas-shift catalyst remained reasonably active in the presence of the cobalt catalyst. Hydrocarbon selectivity of the cobalt and Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} catalyst system compared favorably to selectivity of iron-based catalysts. Methane selectivity was slightly higher for the cobalt-based system, but C{sub 5}{sup +} selectivity was essentially the same. The hydrocarbon product distribution appeared to exhibit a double-a behavior. a{sub 1} was near 0.80 which is higher than that of iron catalysts, while a{sub 2} was calculated to be 0.86 which is somewhat lower than would be typical for an iron-based catalyst.

Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

196

Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of iron-catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Moessbauer spectroscopy investigations were carried out on 14 iron-based catalysts during the period under review. The catalyst 100Fe/4.4Si/0.71K (all atomic ratios) was subjected to activation first in syngas and subsequently in CO gas atmosphere. Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was carried out on the above catalyst. Another catalyst 100Fe/4.4Si/2.6Cu/0.71K (all atomic ratios) activated in syngas and subjected to FT synthesis was also studied to understand the effect of added Cu on the phase distribution and its effect on the FT activity. The following trends were observed: (1) activation of the catalyst in syngas, H{sub 2}/CO, lead to the formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and no carbides were formed, the FT activity was found to be low at 9--12% (H{sub 2}+CO) conversion; (2) activation of the catalyst in CO for 22hrs lead to the formation of 33% of {chi}-carbide and the FT activity was found to be high at 88% maximum; (3) addition of copper to the catalyst has improved the FT activity for those catalysts pretreated in syngas at elevated pressures.

Huffman, G.P.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of iron-catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Texas A and M University has been developing Fischer-Tropsch catalysts which are active at a low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of 0.67. It is of interest to find out any relationships that may exist between the iron phases that are produced during activation and FT synthesis and the activity of the catalysts. Moessbauer spectroscopy investigations were carried out on 13 iron-based catalysts during the period under review. The catalysts were taken from fixed bed reactors at the end of the tests. All the catalysts were mixed with glass beads. The glass beads were removed to a large extent by a hand held magnet. For each run, samples were taken from both top and bottom of the reactor to find out whether there are any differences between the two samples taken from different regions of the reactor. The catalysts with 24 parts of SiO{sub 2} were reduced with H{sub 2} at 250C for 24h, and the catalysts with 16 parts of SiO{sub 2} were reduced with H{sub 2} at 240C for 2h. All the test were carried out at 250C, 200 psig, 2.0nL(syngas)/g-cat/h with H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio of 0.67. The compositions of the catalysts studied are given in a table. Three catalysts consisted of Ca in addition to Cu and K.

Huffman, G.P.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1995--31 December 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer-Tropsch slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300{degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. During the reporting period, work on the small-scale, continuous-flow apparatus continued. Initial experiments have been performed on a binary mixture of n-hexane (solvent) and squalane (model compound) at 200{degrees}C. A total of fifteen samples were collected at 135, 160, and 208 psig, with pressures being controlled to within {plus_minus}2 psi. Results indicate that the equilibrium phase compositions can in principle be measured to a reproducibility of {plus_minus}0.5% in the squalane-rich bottomphase and {plus_minus}2% in the hexane-rich top phase, with respect to the minor component. However, other data measured at these same conditions at another time exhibited scatter that was as much as 5 times greater. We believe that improvements in (1) the method of preheating the feed to the view cell/phase separator and to (2) the sample collection technique are required before data of high accuracy can consistently be generated. The apparatus modifications required to effect these improvements are currently underway and should be completed by the middle of February.

Thies, M.C.; Joyce, P.C.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Influence of pH of the impregnation solution on the catalytic properties of Co/{gamma}-alumina for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The Co/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were prepared by the slurry impregnation of an aqueous solution of cobalt(II) nitrate precursor. Nitric acid or ammonium hydroxide was added to the cobalt nitrate solution, during impregnation, to give an acidic or basic environment. The changes in the particle size of cobalt species were estimated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and hydrogen chemisorption. The reduction degree of cobalt oxides was measured by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). The catalysts prepared under acidic conditions showed a higher reduction degree compared to those prepared at higher pH because of the reduced salt-support interaction. During the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at 220{sup o}C, employing the catalysts prepared at a different pH (0.80, 4.94, 9.96, and 11.12), a considerable difference in the initial activity was observed, depending upon the cobalt metal surface area. However, after stabilization, all of the catalysts attained a similar level of conversion, possibly because of the active-site rearrangement, deactivation, and wax formation on the catalyst surface. At a higher reaction temperature of 240{sup o}C, the catalysts prepared at lower solution pH exhibited higher conversion than those prepared at higher solution pH. The cobalt species on the catalysts prepared under acidic conditions had a heterogeneous particle size distribution, showing higher steady-state activity, because of the reduced interaction with the support. The product distribution revealed a higher selectivity to C{sub 1} and C{sub 8+} on the catalyst prepared with a higher solution pH. 44 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Jong Wook Bae; Yun-Jo Lee; Jo-Yong Park; Ki-Won Jun [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Daejeon (Republic of Korea). Alternative Chemicals/Fuel Research Center

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for production of Fischer Tropsch liquids and power viahigher value is for Fischer-Tropsch liquids. See Section 4.cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel from wood

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

953-996. Klerk, A. d. Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Refinery Design.into liquid fuels via FischerTropsch chemistry. 16 Bothproduce liquid fuels via Fischer–Tropsch technology. 3 The

Sathrum, Aaron John

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for production of Fischer Tropsch liquids and power viahigher value is for Fischer-Tropsch liquids. See Section 4.cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel from wood

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

204

Poisoning of a silica supported cobalt catalyst due to the presence of sulfur impurities in syngas during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Effect of chelating agent  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur compounds that are generally found in syngas derived from coal and biomass are a poison to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts. The presence of sulfur impurities in the ppm range can limit the life of a FT catalyst to a few hours or a few days. In this study, FT synthesis was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at 230 °C, 20 bar, and 13,500 Ncm3/h/gcat for 72 h using syngas with H2/CO = 2.0. Cobalt-based catalysts were subjected to poisoning by 10 and 50 ppm sulfur in the syngas. The performance of FT catalyst was compared in context of syngas conversion, product selectivities and yields, during the poisoning as well as post-poisoning stages. At both the impurity concentrations, the sulfur was noted to cause permanent loss in the activity, possibly by adsorbing irreversibly on the surface. The sulfur poison affects the hydrogenation and the chain-propagation ability of the catalysts, and shifts the product selectivity towards short-chain hydrocarbons with higher percentages of olefins. Additional diffusion limitations caused due to sulfur poisoning are thought to alter the product selectivity. The shifts in product selectivities suggest that the sulfur decreases the ability of the catalyst to form C-C bonds to produce longer-chain hydrocarbons. The selective blocking of sulfur is thought to affect the hydrogenation ability on the catalyst, resulting in more olefins in the product after sulfur poisoning. The sulfur poisoning on the cobalt catalyst is expected to cause an increase in the number of sites responsible for WGS or to influence the Boudouard reaction, resulting in a higher CO2 selectivity. Both the sites responsible for CO adsorptions as well as the sites for chain growth are poisoned during the poisoning. Additionally, the performance of a base-case cobalt catalyst is compared with that of catalysts modified by chelating agents (CAs). The superior performance of CA-modified catalysts during sulfur poisoning is attributed to the presence of smaller crystallite sizes and higher dispersions of cobalt on the support. Finally, the sulfur deactivation data is modeled by a simple kinetic expression to determine the deactivation constant, deactivation rates and half-life of the FT catalyst.

Bambal, A.S.; Gardner, T.H.; Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Resource Limits and Conversion Efficiency with Implications for Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3.3 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of Liquid Fuels . 3.3.1Conversion in the U.S. – Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, NaturalConversion in the U.S. – Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Natural

Croft, Gregory Donald

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Computational Modeling of Combined Steam Pyrolysis and Hydrogasification of Ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to FT fuel in a fischer tropsch reactor. The equilibrium1 ratio is fed into the Fischer-Tropsch reactor. Liquid fuelsteam methane reformer. Fischer-Tropsch reactor need H2/CO

Singh, S; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Southern Research Institute Project Number: FE0010231 Project Description Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, called syngas, into liquid hydrocarbons. It is a leading technology for converting syngas derived from gasification of coal and coal-biomass mixtures to hydrocarbons in coal to liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes. However, conventional FTS catalysts produce undesirable waxes (C21+) that need to be upgraded to liquids (C5-C20) by hydrotreating. This adds significantly to the cost of FTS. The objectives of this project are (i) to demonstrate potential for CBTL cost reduction by maximizing the production of C5-C20 hydrocarbon liquids using a selective FTS catalyst and (ii) to evaluate the impacts of the addition of biomass to coal on product characteristics, carbon foot print, and economics.

208

Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : iron-containing particulate catalysts. Activity report : January 1, 2001 - December 31, 2004.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry--specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. It is desired that selectivity be directed toward producing diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. The goal is to produce shape-selective catalysts that have the potential to limit the formation of longchain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage'. This cage also restricts their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. The first stage of this program was to prepare and evaluate iron-containing particulate catalysts. This activity report centers upon this first stage of experimentation with particulate FT catalysts. (For reference, a second experimental stage is under way to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes.) To date, experimentation has centered upon the evaluation of a sample of iron-based, spray-dried catalyst prepared by B.H. Davis of the Center of Applied Energy Research (CAER) and samples of his catalyst onto which inorganic 'shells' were deposited. The reference CAER catalyst contained a high level of dispersed fine particles, a portion of which was removed by differential settling. Reaction conditions have been established using a FT laboratory unit such that reasonable levels of CO conversion can be achieved, where therefore a valid catalyst comparison can be made. A wide range of catalytic activities was observed with SiO{sub 2}-coated FT catalysts. Two techniques were used for SiO{sub 2}coating. The first involved a caustic precipitation of SiO{sub 2} from an organo-silicate onto the CAER catalyst. The second was the acidic precipitation of an organo-silicate with aging to form fractal particles that were then deposited onto the CAER catalyst. Several resulting FT catalysts were as active as the coarse catalyst on which they were prepared. The most active ones were those with the least amount of coating, namely about 2.2 wt% SiO{sub 2}. In the case of the latter acid technique, the use of HCl and HNO{sub 3} was much more effective than that of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe and analyze as-received and treated FT catalysts. It was observed that (1) spherical particles of CAER FT catalyst were made up of agglomerates of particles that were, in turn, also agglomerates; (2) the spray drying process of CAER apparently concentrated the Si precursor at the surface during drying; (3) while SEM pointed out broad differences in the appearance of the prepared catalyst particles, there was little indication that the catalysts were being uniformly coated with a cage-like protective surface, with perhaps the exception of HNO{sub 3}-precipitated catalyst; and (4) there was only a limited penetration of carbon (i.e., CO) into the FT catalyst during the conditioning and FT reaction steps.

Cronauer, D.; Chemical Engineering

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

209

Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : atomic layer deposition of active catalytic metals. Activity report : January 1, 2005 - September 30, 2005.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry - specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. The broad goal is to produce diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. Originally the goal was to prepare shape-selective catalysts that would limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. We are currently awaiting follow-up experiments to determine the attrition strength of these catalysts. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those expected for complete monolayer coverage. In addition, there was likely to be significant variation in the Fe and Ru loading among the membranes due to difficulties in nucleating these materials on the aluminum oxide surfaces. The first series of experiments using coated membranes demonstrated that the technology needed further improvement. Specifically, observed catalytic FT activity was low. This low activity appeared to be due to: (1) low available surface area, (2) atomic deposition techniques that needed improvements, and (3) insufficient preconditioning of the catalyst surface prior to FT testing. Therefore, experimentation was expanded to the use of particulate silica supports having defined channels and reasonably high surface area. This later experimentation will be discussed in the next progress report. Subsequently, we plan to evaluate membranes after the ALD techniques are improved with a careful study to control and quantify the Fe and Ru loadings. The preconditioning of these surfaces will also be further developed. (A number of improvements have been made with particulate supports; they will be discussed in the subsequent report.) In support of the above, there was an opportunity to undertake a short study of cobalt/promoter/support interaction using the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne. Five catalysts and a reference cobalt oxide were characterized during a temperature programmed EXAFS/XANES experimental study with the combined effort of Argonne and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) of the University of Kentucky. This project was completed, and it resulted in an extensive understanding of the preconditioning step of reducing Co-containing FT catalysts. A copy of the resulting manuscript has been submitted and accepted for publication. A similar project was undertaken with iron-containing FT catalysts; the data is currently being studied.

Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

211

Enhanced conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C[sub 5][sup +] hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising a SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, P.K.; Rabo, J.A.

1985-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

213

Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Liquid and Solid Carriers Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts based on Fe oxide precursors modified by Cu and K: structure, WI 53562 The reduction, carburization, and catalytic properties of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rates, apparently by decreasing the size of the carbide crystallites formed

217

Catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Enhanced catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

1M o n t a n a ' s A g e n d a : I s s u e s S h a p i n g O u r S t a t e W I N T E R 2 0 0 6  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is performed using absorption in ethanolamines and PSA. Once the syngas is prepared the Fischer - Tropsch) technologies based on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Wilhelm et al., 2001) Fischer-Tropsch liquids can be refined process conditions. Depending on the types and quantities of Fischer- Tropsch products desired, either low

Crone, Elizabeth

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Optimal Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen and Liquid Fuels from Glycerol: Integrating the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuel production Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis . Moreover, under the reaction conditions hydrocarbons through the Fischer-Tropsch process. To do this, it is necessary to partially oxidize the CH4 production Fischer- Tropsch . Moreover, under the reaction conditions explored, no CO2 was detected, i

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

222

Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

Wang, Yong (Richland, WA), Liu; Wei (Richland, WA)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

226

An efficient didehydroxylation method for the biomass-derived polyols glycerol and erythritol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

method for the biomass-derived polyols glycerol andfor simple diols and for biomass-derived polyols (glycerolcarbon double bond. Biomass is an abundant and readily

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Engineering Project Solar-Boosted  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessment of CTL · Coal & the Department of Defense · Fischer-Tropsch Fuel & EngineTesting · Coal & Biomass Methanol Methyl Acetate Acetic Anhydride Naphtha Waxes Fischer Tropsch Liquids Diesel/Jet/Gas Fuels

228

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY RESEARCH PIER Transportation Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Fischer- Tropsch process, an updated version of the Bergius method, to change coal to synthetic natural gas and distill the gas into liquid fuel. Fischer-Tropsch remains the principal coal-to-liquids facility. How does Fischer-Tropsch work? First coal is crushed and loaded into a gasification unit, where

229

Energy Security in Nova Scotia Larry Hughes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ved March 30, 2007 Interest in the gas-to-liquid process (GTL) using Fischer-Tropsch reactors (F-T) has The Fischer Tropsch (F-T) synthesis was originally devel- oped in Germany in the 1920s by Franz Fischer into syngas and, then, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of syngas into synthetic liquid fuels. A first plant

Hughes, Larry

230

Energy sources for a secure (?) and clean (?) energy future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively are suitable for use in compression ignition engines. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a variety

Hughes, Larry

231

34 AEROSPACE AMERICA/MAY 2011 Copyright 2011 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Long gone are the days when weekend  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ved March 30, 2007 Interest in the gas-to-liquid process (GTL) using Fischer-Tropsch reactors (F-T) has The Fischer Tropsch (F-T) synthesis was originally devel- oped in Germany in the 1920s by Franz Fischer into syngas and, then, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of syngas into synthetic liquid fuels. A first plant

232

AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY e m e r g i n g c e r a m i c s & g l a s s t e c h n o l o g y  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively are suitable for use in compression ignition engines. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a variety

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

233

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 11 for thrid quarter FY 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

234

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 15 fourth quarter FY 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

235

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 23 for second quarter FY 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 19 for first quarter FY 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch from biomass; cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch. Ethanol is produced from lignocellulose through The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process is a chemical reaction that converts a synthesis gas to liquid fuels

Sheridan, Jennifer

238

818 nature geoscience | VOL 2 | DECEMBER 2009 | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience commentarY | focus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessmentof Biomass Conversionto Fischer-Tropsch Cooking Fuels for Rural China Eric D. Larson and Haiming Jin A variety of liquid hydrocarbonscan beproducedvia Fischer-Tropsch synthesis from biomass. We ~ via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis for use in i .cooking. F-T synthesisinvolves the ; production

Schrag, Daniel

239

1100 , SNBL 1100 , SNBL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessmentof Biomass Conversionto Fischer-Tropsch Cooking Fuels for Rural China Eric D. Larson and Haiming Jin A variety of liquid hydrocarbonscan beproducedvia Fischer-Tropsch synthesis from biomass. We ~ via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis for use in i .cooking. F-T synthesisinvolves the ; production

Titov, Anatoly

240

Catalysis Letters Vol. 77, No. 4, 2001 197 Effects of Zn, Cu, and K promoters on the structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and industry, ExxonMobil announced a $600 million program [10-12]. However, the use of Fischer Tropsch the economics, we can help bridge the gap between current fuels and biofuels by using Fischer Tropsch technology is purified, the syngas consisting of H2 and CO follows the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to produce liquid

Iglesia, Enrique

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Visit the National Academies Press online and register for... Instant access to free PDF downloads of titles from the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is implemented in the plant. Keywords: Energy, Biofuels, Alternative fuels, Diesel, Fisher ­ Tropsch is performed using absorption in ethanolamines and PSA. Once the syngas is prepared the Fischer - Tropsch) technologies based on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Wilhelm et al., 2001) Fischer-Tropsch liquids can be refined

242

[Page Intentionally Left Blank] Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is implemented in the plant. Keywords: Energy, Biofuels, Alternative fuels, Diesel, Fisher ­ Tropsch is performed using absorption in ethanolamines and PSA. Once the syngas is prepared the Fischer - Tropsch) technologies based on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Wilhelm et al., 2001) Fischer-Tropsch liquids can be refined

Reuter, Martin

243

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier DOE Hydrogen Program Contractors biomass #12;Approach Outline Gasifier Pilot Plant· Develop subsystems for the hydrogen production system heated gasifier Q Air N2 H2O CO2 O2 Steam H2 CO CO2 CmHn Biomass 45 kg/hr Biomass 180 kg/hr Sand Bed: 43

244

DOE studies on coal-to-liquids  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued reports that examine the feasibility of coal-to-liquids (CTL) facilities, both general and site specific, which are available at www.netl.gov/energy-analyses/ref-shelf.html. The US Department of Defence has been investigating use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Congress is considering various CTL proposals while the private sector is building pilot plants and performing feasibility studies for proposed plants. The article includes a table listing 14 coal-to-liquids plants under consideration. The private sector has formed the coal-to-liquids coalition (www.futurecoalfuels.org). The article mentions other CTL projects in South Africa, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and New Zealand. 1 tab.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

12/ Includes liquids converted from natural gas via the Fischer-Tropsch coal-to-liquids process. 13/ Includes liquids produced from kerogen (oil shale, ...

246

Vapor Phase Catalytic Upgrading of Model Biomass-Derived Oxygenate Compounds  

SciTech Connect

When biomass is converted to a liquid bio-oil through pyrolysis, it has a significantly higher oxygen content compared to petroleum fractions. In order to convert the pyrolysis products into infrastructure-compatible fuels, oxygen removal is required. Oxygen removal can be achieved by both hydrotreating (which requires the addition of hydrogen) and decarboxylation or decarbonylation, whereby oxygen is rejected as CO2 and CO, respectively. In the present contribution, a number of catalysts were tested for their activity and selectivity in deoxygenation of model biomass-derived oxygenated compounds (e.g., acetic acid, phenol). Comparison of catalytic activity of materials for different compounds, as well as material characterization results will be discussed. Materials tested will include modified zeolites and supported transition metal catalysts.

Yung, M. M.; Gomez, E.; Kuhn, J. N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the atmosphere from biomass burning.  Climatic Change Introduction to pyrolysis of biomass.  J.  Anal.  Appl.  Molecular Structure of Plant Biomass-derived Black Carbon (

Keiluweit, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

NETL: Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids - Systems and Industry Analyses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

C&CBTL > Systems Analyses C&CBTL > Systems Analyses Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Reference Shelf – Systems and Industry Analyses Studies DOE/NETL possesses strong systems analysis and policy-support capabilities. Systems analysis in support of the Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Program consists of conducting various energy analyses that provide input to decisions on issues such as national plans and programs, resource use, environmental and energy security policies, technology options for research and development programs, and paths to deployment of energy technology. Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Program's Systems and Industry Analyses Studies Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Presentation

249

Corrosion Studies Of Raw And Treated Biomass-Derived Pyrolysis Oils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rapid pyrolysis of biomass generates a liquid with properties that are particularly attractive for production of hydrocarbons that could be substituted for liquid fuels derived from petroleum. However, the high oxygen content of the biomass derived liquids presents a number of problems because of the high water content and the considerable concentration of carboxylic acids. Measurements of total acid number (TAN) of pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) samples show that values in the 90-100 range are fairly common. This level of acidity has been shown to cause corrosion problems that have to be addressed in the selection of structural materials that are used in the production, subsequent processing, storage and transport of the pyrolysis oils. Chemical analyses have been performed and laboratory corrosion studies have been conducted in order to assess the aggressiveness of the raw pyrolysis oil from several sources as well as the corrosion caused by a bio-oil that has been treated to reduce the acid and oxygen content. Components of biomass pyrolyzers have also been fabricated from various candidate alloys, and these components have been exposed for extended periods during operation of the pyrolyzers. This paper will report on results of these analyses and corrosion studies.

Keiser, James R [ORNL; Howell, Michael [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Connatser, Raynella M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gas, a reactant involved in many important industrial catalytic processes, including the Fischer-Tropsch process for making liquid hydrocarbons, the oxidation process in...

251

CX-009372: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination Small Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09172012 Location(s): California...

252

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY HEADWATERS TECHNOLOGY...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of work entitled, "Production and Optimization of Coal-Derived High Hydrogen Content Fischer-Tropsch Liquids". The purpose of the cooperative agreement is to select the...

253

NETL: News Release - DOE Seeks Proposals for 22nd Year of University...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- the chemistry involved in reforming hydrocarbons -- specifically coal-derived Fischer-Tropsch liquids -- needs to be better understood, particularly the nature of the...

254

NETL: News Release - DOE Releases Feasibility Study for Small...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

seeks out solutions towards energy independence, liquefaction technologies, such as Fischer-Tropsch, that can produce liquid fuels from coal are becoming more and more...

255

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

shale gas or natural gas into syngas for downstream liquid fuels production utilizing Fischer-Tropsch technology Stranded and flared natural gas represent a significant...

256

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuels Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Synthesis Liquid transportation hydrocarbon fuels and various other chemical products can be produced from syngas via the well-known and established...

257

Small Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels Via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis University of Kentucky Project Number: FE0010482 Project Description The overarching goal...

258

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop an indirectly heated gasification system that converts switchgrass into hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells. The project includes investigations of the indirectly-heated gasifier, development of particulate removal equipment, evaluation of catalytic methods for upgrading producer gas, development of contaminant measurement and control techniques, modeling of the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier, and estimation of the cost of hydrogen from the proposed gasification system. Specific technologies investigated include a thermally ballasted gasifier, a moving bed granular filter, and catalytic reactors for steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. The approach to this project was to employ a pilot-scale (5 ton per day) gasifier to evaluate the thermally ballasted gasifier as a means for producing hydrogen from switchgrass. A slipstream from the gasifier was used to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. Other tests were conducted with laboratory-scale equipment using simulated producer gas. The ballasted gasifier operated in conjunction with a steam reformer and two-stage water-gas shift reactor produced gas streams containing 54.5 vol-% H2. If purge gas to the feeder system could be substantially eliminated, hydrogen concentration would reach 61 vol-%, which closely approaches the theoretical maximum of 66 vol-%. Tests with a combined catalyst/sorbent system demonstrated that steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction could be substantially performed in a single reactor and achieve hydrogen concentrations exceeding 90 vol-%. Cold flow trials with a laboratory-scale moving bed granular filter achieved particle removal efficiencies exceeding 99%. Two metal-based sorbents were tested for their ability to remove H2S from biomass-derived producer gas. The ZnO sorbent, tested at 450? C, was effective in reducing H2S from 200 ppm to less than 2 ppm (>99% reduction) while tests with the MnO sorbent were inconclusive. A computer model was developed that successfully predicted the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier. An economic comparison of an air-blown gasification plant and a ballasted gasifier plant found that operating costs for ballasted gasification plant are about 31% higher than for the air blown gasifier plant. Hydrogen from the ballasted gasification plant and air blown gasification plant are projected to be $2.43/kg and $1.85/kg, respectively. This is lower than U.S. DOE’s 2010 target price of $2.90/kg and comparable to U.S. DOE’s 2015 target price of $2.00/kg.

Robert C. Brown

2007-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

259

Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

260

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds and Biomass-Derived Lignin using Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCD of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.; McKinney, K. A.; Lawrence, K. R.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Attrition Resistant Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Based on FCC Supports  

SciTech Connect

Commercial spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts provided by Engelhard and Albemarle were used as supports for Fe-based catalysts with the goal of improving the attrition resistance of typical F-T catalysts. Catalysts with the Ruhrchemie composition (100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/25 spent FCC on mass basis) were prepared by wet impregnation. XRD and XANES analysis showed the presence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in calcined catalysts. FeC{sub x} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were present in the activated catalysts. The metal composition of the catalysts was analyzed by ICP-MS. F-T activity of the catalysts activated in situ in CO at the same conditions as used prior to the attrition tests was measured using a fixed bed reactor at T = 573 K, P = 1.38 MPa and H{sub 2}:CO ratio of 0.67. Cu and K promoted Fe supported over Engelhard provided spent FCC catalyst shows relatively good attrition resistance (8.2 wt% fines lost), high CO conversion (81%) and C{sub 5}+ hydrocarbons selectivity (18.3%).

Adeyinka Adeyiga

2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

263

IMPROVED IRON CATALYSTS FOR SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Victor Carreto-Vazquez; Dr. Wen-Ping Ma

2001-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

264

Support Defined Novel Catalyst for Enhanced Fischer-Tropsch Activity.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Four distinct Fisher-Tropsch catalysts were prepared through the incipient wetness technique. These catalysts were Fe-Zn-Ru/alumina, Fe-Zn-Ru/K/alumina, Fe-Zn-Ru/silica, and Fe-Zn-Ru/K/silica. The physical characterization of the catalysts… (more)

Lievers, Ashley Ann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development  

SciTech Connect

Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing Fischerâ??Tropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through the EERCâ??U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding for BP1 was provided by the North Dakota Industrial Commissionâ??s (NDIC) Renewable Energy Council.

Joshua Strege; Anthony Snyder; Jason Laumb; Joshua Stanislowski; Michael Swanson

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

APPENDIX D: CO2 EQUIVALENCY FACTORS An Appendix to the Report, "A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of different biofuels can be produced, including Fisher-Tropsch liquids (FTL), dimethyl ether (DME that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively

Delucchi, Mark

267

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Biofuel production technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of different biofuels can be produced, including Fisher-Tropsch liquids (FTL), dimethyl ether (DME that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively

268

The outcome of our research can be utilized by metal foam manufacturers to improve their product. An example of this is Recemat International, a producer of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of different biofuels can be produced, including Fisher-Tropsch liquids (FTL), dimethyl ether (DME that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

269

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

270

STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor NOTICE OF PROPOSED AWARDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of lignocellulosic biomass via gasification and a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process into diesel fuel, and algae/Gas-to-Liquid Fischer-Tropsch Poly-gen SMR Gasification Liquefication CH2 Area wind Area solar Geothermal Unconventional, grease, tallow, waste oil, algae Nuclear Oil resources Unconventional: oil shale liquid, oil sands Coal

271

Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current status and future plans for a project to convert waste cellulosic (biomass) materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels is described. The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, diesel fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. The following tasks were specified in the statement of work for the contract period: (1) feedstock studies; (2) gasification system optimization; (3) waste stream characterization; and (4) liquid fuels synthesis. In addition, several equipment improvements were implemented.

Kuester, J.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Group includes individuals from DOE, the national laboratories, industry, and academia. Corn Stover Harvest Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming Distributed reforming of biomass derived...

273

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: INstItute for INterfacIaL cataLysIs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Chemistry University of Calgary,Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4 New Orleans National Meeting Modeling the Fischer-Tropsch study Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: An Introduction First discovered by Sabatier and Sanderens in 1902: CO + H2 CH4 Ni,Fe,Co Fischer and Tropsch reported in 1923 the synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons with high

274

The Chemical Origin and Evolution of Titan's Volatiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's farmland Coal-to-liquids (Fischer-Tropsch) 500 litres/t 2.5 Mt coal/yr 5.5 Mt coal/yr (2.5 Mt transport + 3 Mt electricity) or 40 years supply Forest biomass (Fischer-Tropsch) 210 litres/t 5.8Mt biomass 145

Kaiser, Ralf I.

275

Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).

Kuester, J.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Structure and Reactions of Carbon and Hydrogen on Ru(0001): A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reactions, including Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, whereby coalcatalytic activity in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, hydrocarbon

Shimizu, Tomoko K.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

followed by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Biomethane is methanerefining — through Fischer- Tropsch (FT) synthesis,

Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

279

This Week at NETL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

23, 2013 NETL Conducts Analysis of Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch The key challenges to converting natural gas to liquid (GTL) are (1) the risk...

280

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY CONOCO, INC., FOR AN ADVANCE...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

gas to syngas (Conoco's CoPOX T ) and synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from syngas via Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. It has plans to build a Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) semi-works plant...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

NETL: News Release - 23rd University Coal Grant Solicitation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is an objective of the Vision 21 program; Conversion of Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas to Fischer-Tropsch Liquids - converting coal-based gas to liquids using iron-based catalysts....

282

Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the catalysts used in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol and other liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids) have been found to be very sensitive to the low levels of...

283

Liguid and Solid Carriers Group - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to H 2 is too high for existing reversible liquid carriers Uncertainty regarding which Fischer-Tropsch liquids make the best H 2 carriers Safety in vehicle accidents is key...

284

Advanced Fuels Synthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Fuels Synthesis Advanced Fuels Synthesis Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Advanced Fuels Synthesis The Advanced Fuels Synthesis Key Technology is focused on catalyst and reactor optimization for producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal/biomass mixtures, supports the development and demonstration of advanced separation technologies, and sponsors research on novel technologies to convert coal/biomass to liquid fuels. Active projects within the program portfolio include the following: Fischer-Tropsch fuels synthesis Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal/Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels Via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Coal Fuels Alliance: Design and Construction of Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery

285

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2007 with Projections to 2030 - Market...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

in 2030. In AEO2007, CTL technology is represented as an IGCC coal plant equipped with a Fischer-Tropsch reactor to convert the synthesis gas to liquids. Of the total amount of...

286

NETL: Gasification Systems - Gasifier Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Optimization Small-Scale Coal-biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal...

287

Annual Energy Outlook 2007: With Projections to 2030  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

2030. In AEO2007, CTL technology is repre- sented as an IGCC coal plant equipped with a Fischer-Tropsch reactor to convert the synthesis gas to liquids. Of the total amount of...

288

EA-1642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY...

289

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, Kentucky http:energy.gov...

290

Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Document details the evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch diesel, a gas-to-liquid fuel, in medium-duty delivery vehicles at Yosemite Waters. The study was conducted by NREL at the company's Fullerton, California, bottling headquarters.

Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Alleman, T. L.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)  

SciTech Connect

Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ('biochar'). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. BET-N{sub 2} surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous, but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved, (ii) in amorphous chars the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed, (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases, and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. The molecular variations among the different char categories translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents.

Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P.S.; Johnson, M.G.; Kleber, M.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Hot Corrosion of Nickel-Base Alloys in Biomass-Derived Fuel Simulated Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass fuels are considered to be a promising renewable source of energy. However, impurities present in the fuel may cause corrosion problems with the materials used in the hot sections of gas turbines and only limited data are available so far. As part of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy, the present study provides initial data on the hot corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys against sodium sulfate-induced corrosion as a baseline, and against salt compositions simulating biomass-derived fuel deposits. Single crystal nickel-superalloy Rene N5, a cast NiCrAlY alloy, a NiCoCrAlY alloy representing industrially used overlay compositions, and a model {beta}NiAl+Hf alloy were tested in 1h thermal cycles at 950 C with different salt coatings deposited onto the surfaces. Whereas the NiCoCrAlY alloy exhibited reasonable resistance against pure sodium sulfate deposits, the NiCrAiY alloy and Rene N5 were attacked severely. Although considered to be an ideal alumina former in air and oxygen at higher temperatures, {beta}NiAl+Hf also suffered from rapid corrosion attack at 950 C when coated with sodium sulfate. The higher level of potassium present in biomass fuels compared with conventional fuels was addressed by testing a NiCoCrAlY alloy coated with salts of different K/Na atomic ratios. Starting at zero Na, the corrosion rate increased considerably when sodium was added to potassium sulfate. In an intermediate region the corrosion rate was initially insensitive to the K/Na ratio but accelerated when very Na-rich compositions were deposited. The key driver for corrosion of the NiCoCrAlY alloy was sodium sulfate rather than potassium sulfate, and no simple additive or synergistic effect of combining sodium and potassium was found.

Leyens, C.; Pint, B.A.; Wright, I.G.

1999-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

294

ANNUAL REPORT OCTOBER 1, 1979-SEPTEMBER 30, 1980 CHEMISTRY AND MORPHOLOGY OF COAL LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

problem with conventional Fischer-Tropsch synthesis b1 thatby conventional Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Two approaches toas supports for Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Published studies

Heinemann, Heinz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AP, Dry ME, eds. , Fischer-Tropsch Technology: Studies infor Production of Synthetic Fischer Tropsch Diesel: SpecificFG, Steigleder KZ. Fischer–Tropsch wax characterization and

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Process Optimization of FT-Diesel Production from Lignocellulosic Switchgrass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.................................................................................................................. 20 Fischer-Tropsch Kerosene Global Biomass Fischer-Tropsch Fuel Chains...................................................... 39 Fisher Tropsch Quantitative Analysis ­ Parameters & Assumptions .................... 43 Fischer-Tropsch

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

297

SURFACE AND ADSORBATE STRUCTURAL STUDIES BY PHOTOEMISSION IN THE hV = 50-500 eV RANGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

First, consider Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The desiredmaterial ingre­ dients for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are allsubsequent fate in It a Fischer-Tropsch reactor depends on

Shirley, D.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ruthenium Cluster Complexes as Catalysts for Fischer-TropschImmobi- lized Homogeneous Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst," J. Am.Intermediates in Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis Over Supported

Authors, Various

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

California's Energy Future - The View to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cellulosic ethanol Fischer-Tropsch diesel Hydrogen-treatedfrom syngas, known as Fischer-Tropsch, is well understood.Guo (2010) Making Fischer- Tropsch Fuels and Electricity

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

A Multi-Country Analysis of Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels and Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

like fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process, or emissions fromvehicles. FTD = Fischer-Tropsch diesel, CNG = compressedvolume % in LPG) FTD = Fischer-Tropsch dieses (volume % in

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Triple Oxygen Isotope Measurement of Nitrate to Analyze Impact of Aircraft Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

present trends of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Appl.Catal. ,at Figure 3: Overview of Fischer-Tropsch process. Carbonand undergoes the Fischer Tropsch process through catalysts

Chan, Sharleen

302

Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stavinoha. Properties of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) blends for useof fuels derived through Fischer Tropsch (FT) synthesis, afrom coal via the Fischer-Tropsch process, or “FT” fuel,

Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

encountered in Fischer-Tropsch catalysis by heterogeneousthe on polystyrene" Fischer~Tropsch catalysts activityty 3 and 5 in the Fischer~Tropsch. reaction. The conditions

Benner, Linda S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

A MULTI-COUNTRY ANALYSIS OF LIFECYCLE EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND MOTOR VEHICLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

like fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process, or emissions fromvehicles. FTD = Fischer-Tropsch diesel, CNG = compressedvolume % in LPG) FTD = Fischer-Tropsch dieses (volume % in

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

California’s Energy Future: The View to 2050 - Summary Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cellulosic ethanol Fischer-Tropsch diesel Hydrogen-treatedfrom syngas, known as Fischer-Tropsch, is well understood.Guo (2010) Making Fischer- Tropsch Fuels and Electricity

Yang, Christopher

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION, ANNUAL REPORT 1976  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Soluable Fischer- Tropsch Catalysts . . . . . . 9.AND EVALUATION OF SOLUABLE FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS J. L.methanation and Fischer- Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons.

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the gasification to Fischer- Tropsch fuel pathway may turnEther Flash Pyrolysis Fischer Tropsch Fuels Renewable Dieselblendstocks (e.g. Fischer-Tropsch fuels, renewable diesel,

Jones, Andrew; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Process Modeling Results of Bio-Syntrolysis: Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuel with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A new process called Bio-Syntrolysis is being researched at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigating syngas production from renewable biomass that is assisted with high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE). The INL is the world leader in researching HTSE and has recently produced hydrogen from high temperature solid oxide cells running in the electrolysis mode setting several world records along the way. A high temperature (~800°C) heat source is necessary to heat the steam as it goes into the electrolytic cells. Biomass provides the heat source and the carbon source for this process. Syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, can be used for the production of synthetic liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch processes. This concept, coupled with fossil-free electricity, provides a possible path to reduced greenhouse gas emissions and increased energy independence, without the major infrastructure shift that would be required for a purely hydrogen-based transportation system. Furthermore, since the carbon source is obtained from recyclable biomass, the entire concept is carbon-neutral

G. L. Hawkes; M. G. McKellar; R. Wood; M. M. Plum

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: SFP Construction and Fuel Production, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Fleet Testing at WMATA and Denali National Park, Demonstration of Clean Diesel Fuels in Diesel Electric Generators in Alaska, and Economic Analysis. ICRC provided overall project organization and budget management for the project. ICRC held meetings with various project participants. ICRC presented at the Department of Energy's annual project review meeting. The plant began producing fuel in October 2004. The first delivery of finished fuel was made in March of 2004 after the initial start-up period.

Steve Bergin

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

310

THE MECHANISM AND KINETICS OF FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS OVER SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structure of Metallic Catalysts", Academic Press Inc. , Newselectivity of these catalysts. Several appendices dealingOver Supported Ruthenium Catalysts ABSTRACT The effects of

Kellner, Carl Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, July--September 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is Bechtel`s twelfth quarterly technical progress report and covers the period of July through September, 1994. All major tasks associated with the contract study have essentially been completed. Effort is under way in preparing various topical reports for publication. The objectives of this study are to: Develop a baseline design and two alternative designs for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology. The baseline design uses Illinois No. 6 Eastern Coal and conventional refining. There is an alternative refining case using ZSM-5 treatment of the vapor stream from the slurry F-T reactor and an alternative coal case using Western coal from the Powder River Basin. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design and the alternatives. Individual plant costs for the alternative cases win be prorated on capacity, wherever possible, from the baseline case. Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model; establish the baseline design and alternatives; evaluate baseline and alternative economics; develop engineering design criteria; develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model; perform sensitivity studies using the PFS model; document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use; and perform project management, technical coordination and other miscellaneous support functions. Tasks 1, 2, 3 and 5 have essentially been completed. Effort is under way in preparing topical reports for publication. During the current reporting period, work progressed on Tasks 4, 6 and 7. This report covers work done during this period and consists of four sections: Introduction and Summary; Task 4 - Process Flowsheet Simulation (PFS) Model and Conversion to ASPEN PLUS; Task 6 - Document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use; and Project Management and Staffing Report.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

312

Coproduction of electric power and Fischer-Tropsch products (CATL-078)  

SciTech Connect

Because the coal gas produced from modern coal gasifiers can be purified to be compatable with slurry-phase F-T systems, it is feasible to integrate F-T synthesis with an IGCC facility to coproduce clean electric power and excellent quality nation fuels with high overall efficiency. This is similar in concept to coproducing electric power and methanol in a once-through process, and the feasibility of this concept has been extensively studied by EPRI. In the once-through methanol concept, the methanol could be used as peaking fuel in the power plant or sold as a chemical or fuel. This paper analyses this once-through F-T concept to determine the cost and efficiency advantages of a facility that coproduces power and transporation fuels compared to stand-alone IGCC and F-T facilities. The results of this analysis indicate that a coproduction facility can reduce the required selling price of transportation fuels by up to 15 percent compared to stand-alone facilities, and do so with no additional cost of electric power over the stand-alone IGCC case. This cost savings can also be achieved at a higher overall efficiency. Such a coproduction facility may allow coal-based IGCC technology to penetrate more rapidly into the marketplace. An independent power producer (IPP) may find this concept attractive since it allows the flexible production of power (for load following) and fuel as dictated by demand with no overall loss of plant capacity. In addition, the risk of plant investment is lowered by producing products for two markets.

Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Ultra-Clean Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Production and Demonstration Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: Dynamometer Durability Testing, the Denali Bus Fleet Demonstration, Bus Fleet Demonstrations Emissions Analysis, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Emissions Analysis, Feasibility Study of SFPs for Rural Alaska, and Cold Weather Testing of Ultra Clean Fuel.

Steve Bergin

2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

314

Processes and palladium-promoted catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A process for hydrocarbon synthesis comprising the step of reacting a synthesis gas in the presence of a cobalt catalyst promoted with palladium.

Singleton, Alan H. (Baden, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Gibsonia, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Cranberry Township, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical reaction media. Progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Efforts were focused on testing and preparing the reactor. Testing was done for pressure and temperature control. Heating elements will have to be added to the Al blocks surrounding the reactor. Analytical method development (GC) is also reported; retention indices compare favorably with White et al.

Subramaniam, B.; Bochniak, D.; Snavely, K.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Fischer-Tropsch activity for non-promoted cobalt-on-alumina catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cobalt catalysts, and processes employing these inventive catalysts, for hydrocarbon synthesis. The inventive catalyst comprises cobalt on an alumina support and is not promoted with any noble or near noble metals. In one aspect of the invention, the alumina support preferably includes a dopant in an amount effective for increasing the activity of the inventive catalyst. The dopant is preferably a titanium dopant. In another aspect of the invention, the cobalt catalyst is preferably reduced in the presence of hydrogen at a water vapor partial pressure effective to increase the activity of the cobalt catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis. The water vapor partial pressure is preferably in the range of from 0 to about 0.1 atmospheres.

Singleton, Alan H. (Baden, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Gibsonia, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Gibsonia, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Reducing fischer-tropsch catalyst attrition losses in high agitation reaction systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reducing catalyst attrition losses in hydrocarbon synthesis processes conducted in high agitation reaction systems; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst; a catalyst produced by such method; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support; and a catalyst support produced by such method. The inventive method of reducing catalyst attrition losses comprises the step of reacting a synthesis gas in a high agitation reaction system in the presence of a catalyst. In one aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support including an amount of titanium effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support which has been treated, after calcination, with an acidic, aqueous solution. The acidic aqueous solution preferably has a pH of not more than about 5. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support wherein the cobalt has been applied to the .gamma.-alumina support by totally aqueous, incipient wetness-type impregnation. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support with an amount of a lanthana promoter effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support produced from boehmite having a crystallite size, in the 021 plane, in the range of from about 30 to about 55 .ANG.ngstrons. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst comprises the step of treating a .gamma.-alumina support, after calcination of and before adding catalytic material to the support, with an acidic solution effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support comprises the step of treating calcined .gamma.-alumina with an acidic, aqueous solution effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the .gamma.-alumina.

Singleton, Alan H. (Baden, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Gibsonia, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Cranberry Township, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Fischer Tropsch synthesis in supercritical fluids. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Our objective for this quarter was to compare performance of the Ruhrchemie catalyst in different modes of operation: fixed bed reactor (conventional and supercritical mode of operation), and stirred tank slurry reactor. Diffusion coefficients are discussed.

Akgerman, A.; Bukur, D.B.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Fischer Tropsch synthesis in supercritical fluids. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Our objective for this quarter was to study the effect of co-feeding a 1-olefin on the Ruhrchemie catalyst activity and selectivity, during-both conventional Fisher-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) and FTS under supercritical conditions. We used propane as the supercritical fluid and 1-dodecene (1-C{sub 12}H{sub 24}) in this test. Motivation for this study was the work of Fujimoto and co-workers who reported that suppression of methane and enhancement of high molecular weight hydrocarbons selectivities occurs with co-feeding of 1-olefins (1-heptene, 1-tetradecene, or 1-hexadecene) during FTS under supercritical conditions, but not during the conventional FTS (Co-La catalyst supported on silica in supercritical n-pentane).The diffusion coefficients of products in supercritical fluids is discussed.

Akgerman, A.; Bukur, D.B.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Moessbauer studies of pretreated ultrafine iron oxide catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Moessbauer spectroscopy indicates that a 24 hour-pretreatment in CO at 260{degrees}C and 8 atm. in a tetralin solvent almost completely converts uftrafine iron oxide (about 3 nm) to iron carbide. However, pretreatment in hydrogen under the same conditions resulted in reduction of about 33% of the iron to metallic Fe; the remainder was Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Exposure of the CO pretreated catalyst to a 1:1 HDCO synthesis gas resulted in the gradual reoxidation of the carbides to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. During the first 2 hours of exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreated sample to synthesis gas,.the metallic Fe was converted to iron carbides. Further exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreatment sample to synthesis gas did not result in a composition change of the catalyst. Therefore, it is concluded that iron carbides with different oxidation characteristics were formed in these two cases.

Chenshi Huang; Davis, B.H. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research); Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Inst. for Mining and Minerals Research)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: SFP Construction and Fuel Production, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Fleet Testing at WMATA and Denali National Park, Demonstration of Clean Diesel Fuels in Diesel Electric Generators in Alaska, and Economic Analysis. ICRC provided overall project organization and budget management for the project. ICRC held meetings with various project participants. ICRC presented at the Department of Energy's annual project review meeting. The plant began producing fuel in October 2004. The first delivery of finished fuel was made in March of 2004 after the initial start-up period.

Steve Bergin

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

322

Fischer Tropsch synthesis in supercritical fluids. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objectives for this quarter were to attempt to develop a model to predict the molecular diffusion coefficients to a high degree of accuracy so the authors may be able to predict both the molecular diffusion coefficient and thus the effective diffusivity a priori. They are working on a semi-empirical equation based on the rough hard sphere theory to predict diffusion coefficients in supercritical fluids. In addition, they planned to take additional data in order to extend the database available for development of the predictive equation. The paper discusses accomplishments and problems related to the diffusion coefficients of F-T products in supercritical fluids. Data are presented on the diffusion coefficients of 1-octene in ethane, propane, and hexane.

Akgerman, A.; Bukur, D.B. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

ATTACHMENT IX Review of Air Products Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that would be typical of the gasification of natural gas were made. The work on the preparation-mixed. The Air Products workers wrote, "One of the more important aspects of gas flowing through a tubular to as gas holdup or void fraction, are values which are extremely important to optimum reactor design

Kentucky, University of

324

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. [Pretreatment of catalyst in carbon monoxide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present study shows that activation of a high surface area Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in CO in a (CSTR), continuously stirred tank reactor using tetralin as solvent results in an activated that is three times of material that is activated in H{sub 2} or directly in the syngas.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Impact study on the use of biomass-derived fuels in gas turbines for power generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates the properties of fuels derived from biomass, both gaseous and liquid, against the fuel requirements of gas turbine systems for gernating electrical power. The report attempts to be quantitative rather than merely qualitative to establish the significant variations in the properties of biomass fuels from those of conventional fuels. Three general categories are covered: performance, durability, and storage and handling.

Moses, C.A.; Bernstein, H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

California’s Energy Future: Transportation Energy Use in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

jet (HRJ) fuel and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels, which are “running on hydrogen) Fischer-Tropsch Gallons of Gasoline

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M; Hwang, Roland; Sperling, Daniel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

SYNTHESIS OF OXYGENATED PRODUCTS FROM CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN OVER SILICA- AND ALUMINA-SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. B. , "The Fischer-Tropsch and Related Syntheses", Wiley,with hydrocarbons during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over iron

Kellner, C.Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Synergistic routes to liquid fuel for a petroleum-deprived future  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When compared with biomass gasification/Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO)-based processes have a potential to achieve high biomass carbon conversion to liquid fuel with much lower amounts of supplementary H{sub 2}. On the basis of this observation, we suggest a Hydrogen Bio-oil (H{sub 2}Bioil) process using fast hydropyrolysis/HDO that has a potential to produce nearly double the amount of liquid fuel when compared with the existing biofuel processes while requiring only modest quantities of supplementary H{sub 2}. The optimal operating mode for the H{sub 2}Bioil process is suggested to be in an entrained bed mode in presence of H{sub 2} with gas phase HDO of hydropyrolyzed vapors. A remarkable result due to reduced need for the supplementary H{sub 2} is that it provides synergistic integration of the H(2)Bioil process with a coal gasification power plant or a small scale steam natural gas (NG) reformer leading to a dramatic increase in the liquid fuel production from biomass and coal or NG. Here, hot synthesis gas (T>500{sup o}C) from a coal gasifier or methane reformer supplies H{sub 2}/CO for hydropyrolysis and deoxygenation as well as heat for the process. This result is exciting, because it presents us with an option to build integrated H{sub 2}Bioil processes sooner rather than later when the cost effective H{sub 2}, becomes available from a carbon-free energy source such as solar or nuclear. The H{sub 2}Bioil process and its integrated version with a small scale NG reformer have strong potential to be attractive on a small scale while being more efficient than any current biomass to liquid fuel process in operation.

Agrawal, R.; Singh, N.R. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Conversion of MixAlco Process Sludge to Liquid Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

About 8 tons of dry undigested solid waste is generated by the MixAlco process for every 40 tons of food residue waste fed into the process. This MixAlco process produces liquid fuels and the sludge generated can be further converted into synthesis gas using the process of pyrolysis. The hydrogen component of the product synthesis gas may be separated by pressure swing adsorption and used in the hydrogenation of ketones into fuels and chemicals. The synthesis gas may also be catalytically converted into liquid fuels via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process. The auger-type pyrolyzer was operated at a temperature between 630-770 degrees C and at feed rates in the range of 280-374 g/minute. The response surface statistical method was used to obtain the highest syngas composition of 43.9 +/- 3.36 v % H2/33.3 +/- 3.29 v % CO at 740 degrees C. The CH4 concentration was 20.3 +/- 2.99 v %. For every ton of sludge pyrolyzed, 5,990 g H2 (719.3 MJ), 65,000 g CO (660 MJ) and 21,170 g CH4 (1055.4 MJ) were projected to be produced at optimum condition. At all temperatures, the sum of the energies of the products was greater than the electrical energy needed to sustain the process, making it energy neutral. To generate internal H2 for the MixAlco process, a method was developed to efficiently separate H2 using pressure swing adsorption (PSA) from the synthesis gas, with activated carbon and molecular sieve 5A as adsorbents. The H2 can be used to hydrogenate ketones generated from the MixAlco process to more liquid fuels. Breakthrough curves, cycle mass balances and cycle bed productivities (CBP) were used to determine the maximum hydrogen CBP using different adsorbent amounts at a synthesis gas feed rate of 10 standard lpm and pressure of 118 atm. A 99.9 % H2 purity was obtained. After a maximum CBP of 66 % was obtained further increases in % recovery led to a decrease in CBP. The synthesis gas can also be catalytically converted into liquid fuels by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) process. A Co-SiO2/Mo-Pd-Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst with a metal-metal-acid functionality was synthesized with the aim of increasing the selectivity of JP-8 (C10-C17) fuel range. The specific surface areas of the two catalysts were characterized using the BET technique. The electron probe microanalyzer (with WDS and EDS capabilities) was then used to confirm the presence of the applied metals Co, Mo, Pd and Pt on the respective supports. In addition to the gasoline (C4-C12) also produced, the synthesis gas H2:CO ratio was also adjusted to 1.90 for optimum cobalt performance in an enhanced FTS process. At 10 atm (150 psig) and 250 degrees C, the conventional FTS catalyst Co-SiO2 produced fuels rich in hydrocarbons within the gasoline carbon number range. At the same conditions the Co-SiO2-Mo-Pd-Pt/HZSM-5 catalyst increased the selectivity of JP-8. When Co-SiO2/Mo-Pd-Pt-HZSM-5 was used at 13.6 atm (200 psig) and 250 degrees C, a further increase in the selectivity of JP-8 and to some extent diesel was observed. The relative amounts of olefins and n-paraffins decreased with the products distribution shifting more towards the production of isomers.

Teiseh, Eliasu 1973-

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier Robert C. Brown, Glenn Norton, Andy Suby, Jerod Smeenk, Keith Cummer, and Josh Nunez  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier Robert C. Brown, Glenn Norton, Andy fuel cells. We have developed a thermally ballasted gasifier that uses a single reactor for both compared to conventional gasifiers. The carbon monoxide, along with steam used to fluidize the reactor, can

331

Simulation, integration, and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas-to-liquid (GTL) process involves the chemical conversion of natural gas (or other gas sources) into synthetic crude that can be upgraded and separated into different useful hydrocarbon fractions including liquid transportation fuels. A leading GTL technology is the Fischer Tropsch process. The objective of this work is to provide a techno-economic analysis of the GTL process and to identify optimization and integration opportunities for cost saving and reduction of energy usage and environmental impact. First, a basecase flowsheet is synthesized to include the key processing steps of the plant. Then, computer-aided process simulation is carried out to determine the key mass and energy flows, performance criteria, and equipment specifications. Next, energy and mass integration studies are performed to address the following items: (a) heating and cooling utilities, (b) combined heat and power (process cogeneration), (c) management of process water, (c) optimization of tail-gas allocation, and (d) recovery of catalystsupporting hydrocarbon solvents. Finally, an economic analysis is undertaken to determine the plant capacity needed to achieve the break-even point and to estimate the return on investment for the base-case study. After integration, 884 million $/yr is saved from heat integration, 246 million $/yr from heat cogeneration, and 22 million $/yr from water management. Based on 128,000 barrels per day (BPD) of products, at least 68,000 BPD capacity is needed to keep the process profitable, with the return on investment (ROI) of 5.1%. Compared to 8 $/1000 SCF natural gas, 5 $/1000 SCF price can increase the ROI to 16.2%.

Bao, Buping

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Argonne Transportation Technology R&D Center - Alternative Fuels -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Fischer-Tropsch Fuels SunDiesel fuel This Sun Diesel BTL fuel, made from wood chips, results in lower particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions. Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels are synthetic diesel fuels produced by converting gaseous hydrocarbons, such as natural gas and gasified coal or biomass, into liquid fuel. These fuels are commonly categorized into the following groups: Biomass to liquids (BTL) Gas to liquids (GTL) Coal to liquids (CTL) Argonne engineers are investigating the performance and emissions data of F-T fuels for both older and newer vehicles. The goal is to provide this data to the U.S. Department of Energy, the auto industry and energy suppliers. Part of the lab's strategy also includes publishing the data to solicit ideas and input from the fuels and combustion community.

333

Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

334

EA-1642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and 642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY EA-1642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY SUMMARY This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE's proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

335

The significance of trace constituents in the solar Sushil K. Atreya  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, both the Bergius and Fisher-Tropsch synthetic fuel processes build up longer chain hydrocarbons from Fischer and Tropsch, low-temperature catalysts were used to promote hydrogen's reaction with coal gas-to-liquids" (GTL) technology based on the Fischer-Tropsch process converts natural gas to liquid fuels. Essentially

Atreya, Sushil

336

AMERICA'S NEW NATURAL GAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, both the Bergius and Fisher-Tropsch synthetic fuel processes build up longer chain hydrocarbons from Fischer and Tropsch, low-temperature catalysts were used to promote hydrogen's reaction with coal gas-to-liquids" (GTL) technology based on the Fischer-Tropsch process converts natural gas to liquid fuels. Essentially

Boufadel, Michel

337

THE LIPID WORLD DANIEL SEGR1, DAFNA BEN-ELI1, DAVID W. DEAMER2 and DORON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, both the Bergius and Fisher-Tropsch synthetic fuel processes build up longer chain hydrocarbons from Fischer and Tropsch, low-temperature catalysts were used to promote hydrogen's reaction with coal gas-to-liquids" (GTL) technology based on the Fischer-Tropsch process converts natural gas to liquid fuels. Essentially

Segrè, Daniel

338

Exergy Analysis of a GTL Process Based on Low-Temperature Slurry F-T Reactor Technology with a Cobalt Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Hans Tropsch; their aim was to use a mixture of CO and H2 (referred to as synthesis gas, syngas) to produce hydrocarbons, chemicals, and liquid fuels. The production of syngas was achieved by coal into syngas and, then, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of syngas into synthetic liquid fuels. A first plant

Kjelstrup, Signe

339

Development of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 July 1995--30 September 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following accomplishments were made on task 4. Reproducibility of Catalyst Preparation: (1) Five slurry reactor tests were completed. Three tests were conducted using catalyst C (100 Fe/3 Cu/4 K/16 SiO{sub 2}) from three different batches (runs SB-2695, SB-2145 and SA-2715), and two tests were conducted with catalyst B (100 Fe/5 Cu/6 K/24 SiO{sub 2}) from two different preparation batches (runs SA-2615 and SB-2585). Performance of catalysts from different batches (activity, selectivity and deactivation rates) was similar to that of catalysts from the original batch (synthesized during DOE Contract DE- AC22-89PC89868). Thus, another major objective of the present contract, demonstration of reproducibility of catalyst preparation procedure and performance, has been accomplished. With these tests the work on Task 4 has been successfully completed. Two fixed bed reactor tests of catalysts B and C synthesized using potassium silicate solution as the source of potassium promoter were completed during this period (Task 5. The Effect of Source of Potassium and Basic Oxide Promoter). Activity of catalysts prepared using potassium silicate as the source of potassium promotion was somewhat higher, and their methane selectivities were higher than those of the corresponding catalysts prepared by incipient wetness impregnation using KHCO{sub 3} as the source of potassium promoter. However, these differences were not large, and may have been caused by experimental artifacts (e.g. existence of local hot spots in a reactor). A slurry reactor test (SA-2405) of catalyst with nominal composition 100 Fe/5 Cu/2 Ca/24 SiO{sub 2} was completed (Task 5). In general, the catalyst activity, space-time-yield, and hydrocarbon selectivities in this run during testing at:260{degrees}C, 2.17 MPa (300 psig), 2-2.6 Nl/g-cat/h and H{sub 2}CO=0.67 were quite good, and comparable to the best results obtained in our Laboratory.

Bukur, D.B.

1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

340

Development of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1995--31 March 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the reporting period we completed synthesis of about 100 g of catalyst with nominal composition 100 Fe/3 Cu/4 K/16 SiO{sub 2} (S-3416-2), and of another batch (173 g) of the same catalyst (S-3416-3). Also, we synthesized two additional batches of catalyst with nominal composition 100 Fe/5 Cu/6 K/24 SiO{sub 2}, in the amounts of 240 g (S-5624-3) and 200 g (S-5624-4). These amounts are sufficient for all planned tests with these two catalysts for the entire duration of this contract. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by atomic absorption, and BET surface area and pore size distribution measurements.

Bukur, D.B.; Lang, X.; Reddy, B.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical fluids. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For the task on diffusion coefficients of F-T products in supercritical fluids, we attempted to find a model for the {beta} parameter to predict the molecular diffusion coefficients to a high degree of accuracy so we may be able to predict both the molecular diffusion coefficient and thus the effective diffusivity a priori. The dependency of solvent/solute interactions on the {beta} parameter was analyzed and a correlation developed to predict the functionality. This allowed us to develop an empirical formula to correlate the molecular diffusion coefficient to ratios of mass, size, and density. Thus finally allowing for supercritical fluid diffusion predictions a priori. Figure 6 shows our predictions of the data available on the self diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide (Chen, 1983; Takahashi and Iwasaki, 1966) ethylene (Arends et al., 1981; Baker et al., 1984), toluene (Baker et al., 1985) and chlorotrifuoromethane (Harris, 1978). The predictions, with no parameters adjusted from the data, are excellent with an average absolute error of 3.64%.

Akgerman, A.; Bukur, D.B. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical fluids. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our objective in this quarter was to develop an equation to predict the molecular coefficients to a high degree of accuracy so we may be able to predict both the molecular diffusion coefficient and thus the effective diffusivity a priori. To accomplish this task we developed a correlation between the molecular dynamic simulations and semi- empirical correlation. A DEC alpha station was purchased for aid in this endeavor. With the new workstation the theory can be fully checked to a high degree of accuracy in a reasonable amount of time. Accomplishments for the development of the diffusion coefficients of F-T products in supercritical fluids are discussed.

Akgerman, A.; Bukur, D.B.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Development of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1995--31 December 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two stirred tank slurry reactor tests of catalysts with nominal compositions 100 Fe/3Cu/4 K/2 Ca/16 SiO{sub 2} (run SB-3115) and 100 Fe/5 Cu/6 K/24 SiO{sub 2} (run SA-3155) were completed under task 5, The Effect of Source of Potassium and Basic Oxide Promoter, during the reporting period. Our assessment of the effects of addition of CaO promoter to our baseline catalysts B and C and the use of potassium silicate as the source of potassium promoter is as follows: in general, the addition of CaO promoter did not result in improved performance of the baseline catalysts; the use of CaO promoter may be best suited for operation at higher reaction pressures; the baseline procedure utilizing impregnation of Fe-Cu-SiO{sub 2} precursor with aqueous solution of KHCO{sub 3} as the source of potassium promoter is the preferred method of preparation; and the procedure which utilizes aqueous K{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} solution as the source of potassium also provides satisfactory results, and may be used as an alternative. A slurry reactor test (run SB-3425) was completed during the reporting period, following the catalyst pretreatment with H{sub 2} at 250{degrees}C for 4 h (Task 6. Pretreatment Effect Research). This pretreatment resulted in higher catalyst activity than our baseline procedure (H{sub 2} at 240{degrees}C for 2 h) but also higher methane and gaseous hydrocarbon selectivities (about 10-20% higher).

Bukur, D.B.

1996-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

344

Development of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work on Task 3. Testing of Previously Synthesized Catalysts was initiated in early October as scheduled. Two initial tests were not successful (runs SB-2764 and SB-3064). It took us a great deal of time and effort to overcome these problems, which included conducting a blank test (run SB-3184) and a test of commercial Ruhrchemie catalyst (run SB-3254). Finally, a successful test of catalyst with nominal composition 100 Fe/5 Cu/6 K/24 SiO{sub 2} (run SB-3354) was completed using a different slurry medium (Ethylflo 164 oil). Low activities in unsuccessful tests SB-2764 and SB-3064 may be due to catalyst poisoning by impurities in the initial slurry medium (purified n-octacosane from Humphrey Chemical Co.).

Bukur, D.B.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Moessbauer studies of pretreated ultrafine iron oxide catalysts. Partial quarterly progress report, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

Moessbauer spectroscopy indicates that a 24 hour-pretreatment in CO at 260{degrees}C and 8 atm. in a tetralin solvent almost completely converts uftrafine iron oxide (about 3 nm) to iron carbide. However, pretreatment in hydrogen under the same conditions resulted in reduction of about 33% of the iron to metallic Fe; the remainder was Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Exposure of the CO pretreated catalyst to a 1:1 HDCO synthesis gas resulted in the gradual reoxidation of the carbides to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. During the first 2 hours of exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreated sample to synthesis gas,.the metallic Fe was converted to iron carbides. Further exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreatment sample to synthesis gas did not result in a composition change of the catalyst. Therefore, it is concluded that iron carbides with different oxidation characteristics were formed in these two cases.

Chenshi Huang; Davis, B.H. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Inst. for Mining and Minerals Research

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels from Coal and Biomass Thomas G. Kreutz, Eric D. Larson, Guangjian Liu, Robert H. Williams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pyrolysis Processes. Developments in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion", Eds. Bridgwater, A.V. and BoocockHydrogen from Biomass for Urban Transportation Y. D. Yeboah (PI), K. B. Bota and Z. Wang Clark amounts of fossil-derived CO2 are released to the atmosphere. Renewable biomass is an attractive

347

Development of improved iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1992--31 March 1992  

SciTech Connect

Three tests (two fixed bed and one stirred tank slurry reactor) were completed during the reporting period. Also, the work on catalyst characterization by different techniques (atomic absorption, BET surface area and pore size distribution and x-ray powder diffraction).The performance of a precipitated iron catalyst with nominal composition lOOFe/0.3Cu/0.8K has been evaluated in two fixed bed reactor tests designated FB-0142 and FB-0352 following pretreatment with syngas (H{sub 2}/CO=0.67) at 280{degree}C, 3Nl/g-cat/h and atomspheric pressure for 8 hours. Flow interruption occurred in the first test (FB-0142) at about 72h on stream, and the second test (FB-0352) was to assess any potential adverse effects of this flow interruption on performance of the catalyst. The catalyst was tested at 250{degree}C, 200 psig, 2Nl/g-cat/h using syngas of the same composition as that employed during the pretreatment. Initial conversions in both tests were high (about 84%) but the catalyst deactivated fairly rapidly. The (H{sub 2} + CO) conversion at the end of the first test (120h on stream) was about 52%, whereas the syngas conversion at the end of the second test (150h) was about 55%, indicating that the brief flow interruption during test FB-0142 had resulted in higher deactivation rate. Hydrocarbon selectivities in both tests were similar and their average values werr: (CH{sub 4})=4.7, (C{sub 2}{minus}C{sub 4})=19.5, (C{sub 5}{minus}C{sub 11})=25.3 and C{sub 12}{sup +}=50.5 wt%.

Bukur, D.B.

1992-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

348

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. Quarterly technical progress report for period ending March 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present study shows that activation of a high surface area Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in CO in a (CSTR), continuously stirred tank reactor using tetralin as solvent results in an activated that is three times of material that is activated in H{sub 2} or directly in the syngas.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

349

Emissions and in-cylinder combustion characteristics of Fischer-Tropsch and conventional diesel fuels in a modern CI engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent emissions regulations, rising oil prices, and an increased focus on environmental awareness are driving the search for clean, alternative fuels. Derived from natural gas, coal, and even biomass ...

Sappok, Alexander G. (Alexander Georg)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

Gerald P. Huffman

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

352

The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inc. Dry, M.E. , The fischer-tropsch process - commercialBiomass Conversion to Fischer- Tropsch Products. Energy &heavy oil residuals and Fischer-Tropsch oils. Pyrolysis and

He, Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

A BRIEF HISTORY OF INDUSTRIAL CATALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a solvent, and the Fischer-Tropsch process involving theWorld War II, and a Fischer-Tropsch plant was built in South50) Conventional iron-type Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are

Heinemann, Heinz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. I. MOLECULAR CRITERIA FOR HYDROCARBON GENESIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at present. I The Fischer-Tropsch reaction has beenof petrol.eum. (The Fischer-Tropsch reaction is a catalyticcharacterised in the Fischer-Tropsch Z s reaction product.

McCarthy, Eugene D.; Calvin, Kevin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT 1980  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and E. L. Muetterties, Fischer-Tropsch Chemistry: StructureIntermediates Involved in Fischer-Tropsch Syn­ thesis OverH2/D2 Isotope Effects on Fischer-Tropsch Syn­ thesis Over

Searcy, Alan W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS RESEARCH MEETING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production of SNG or Fischer-Tropsch products Therefore, abe trying to obtain from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis? Answer:intermediates in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis? Answer: It was

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of char and gases. The Fischer-Tropsch process is an exampleprocess economics, the Fischer-Tropsch process has not beenevaluations for a Fischer-Tropsch plant in the United

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3. Studies of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Supported6. An Immobilized Homogeneous Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst 7.hydrocarbons during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. 3, S1lJDIES

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2003. 25. M.E Dry, The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Catalysis,a precipitated iron Fischer–Tropsch catalyst— A pilot plantfrom biomass via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: new insights in

Luo, Qian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is fed into a Fischer-Tropsch reactor under conditionsExothermic heat from the Fischer-Tropsch reaction can becan be subjected to a Fischer-Tropsch process to produce

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

HYDROGENATION OF CO AND CO ON CLEAN RHODIUM AND IRON FOILS. CORRELATIONS OF REACTIVITIES AND SURFACE COMPOSITIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. B. Anderson, The Fischer- Tropsch and Related Syntheses (carbons are called the Fischer-Tropsch reaction named afterwere produced by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction because of the

Dwyer, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

finished jet fuel product. 13. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis ofwinglets/. ] 38. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of transportationfuel (HRJ) 12 and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels. 13 A plant- or

McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Life Cycle Analysis of the Production of Aviation Fuels Using the CE-CERT Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methane reformer FTR: Fischer-Tropsch reactor LCA: life3–8, 17 Mark E. Dry, The Fischer–Tropsch process: 1950–2000,From the internet, Fischer–Tropsch process Wikipedia site:

Hu, Sangran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

SYNTHESES AND REACTIONS OF POLYMER-BOUND MOLYBDENUM COMPLEXES AND HYDROGENOLYSES OF AN ALKYNYL COBALT CARBONYL CLUSTER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E.L.Muetterties Fischer-Tropsch Chemistry, see J.Stein,e.g. , the Wacker Fischer-Tropsch 5 processes. One classInterest in Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis is

Frommer, Jane Elizabeth

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION Annual Report 1977.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2. Studies of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Supportedthat discrete metal Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are iron,o t:. Z. STUDIES OF FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS ON SUPPORTED

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Influence of the cobalt particle size in the CO hydrogenation reaction studied by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cobalt, nanoparticles, Fischer-Tropsch, X-ray absorption (oxides [5] and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis [6,7]. Itswhich is inactive for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This oxide

Herranz, Tirma

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT 1981  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isotope Effects on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over SupportedSe'iactivity of Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts," LBL-13578.On the Purported Fischer-Tropsch Alkylation of Benzene: The

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

ISHHC XIII International Symposium on the Relations between Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

size e?ect in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. ” Stud. Surf.E. Rytter, A. Holmen ”Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over ?-Al 2Rytter, A. Holmen ”Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on Co supported

Somorjai Ed., G.A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this program in its third year, as briefly summarized below. (1) Nanoscale iron-based catalysts containing molybdenum, palladium, or nickel and supported on alumina have been developed that are very effective for the dehydrogenation of methane and ethane to produce pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes, a potentially valuable byproduct. Some of the nanotube structures are being investigated as a safe storage medium for hydrogen. Dehydrogenation of higher hydrocarbons, including several liquids that are compatible with vehicular transportation under fuel cell power, is currently under investigation. (2) Operation of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis under supercritical fluid (SCF) solvent conditions increases liquid fuel yields and improves the selectivity of the process to produce desired products. (3) Small additions ({approx}1%) of organic probe molecules with carbon-carbon triple bonds to the FT reaction markedly shift the molecular weight distribution and increase the oxygenate content of the products. The goal is to develop better technology for producing cleaner burning diesel fuel and other fuels. (4) Several different types of catalyst are under investigation to develop better control of FT fuel product distributions. (5) C1 processes have been developed for producing ethylene and propylene, two high-value products, from methanol. Novel silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) catalysts containing nickel and other metals are used. (6) Binary tungsten-cobalt carbide catalysts have been found to have excellent activities and lifetimes for reforming of methane into synthesis gas using carbon dioxide. This type of catalyst is being further investigated for synthesis gas reactions relevant to the goal of producing hydrogen from coal.

Gerald P. Huffman

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

370

Proceedings, twenty-fourth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered include: gasification technologies; coal production and preparation; combustion technologies; environmental control technologies; synthesis of liquid fuels, chemicals, materials and other non-fuel uses of coal; hydrogen from coal; advanced synthesis gas cleanup; coal chemistry, geosciences and resources; Fischer-Tropsch technology; coal and sustainability; global climate change; gasification (including underground gasification); materials, instrumentation and controls; and coal utilisation byproducts.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the production of a synthetic crude oil product by direct contact of coal with an appropriate catalyst, with abundant domestic coal resources but lim- ited oil and gas resources, the conversion of coal into liquid in South Africa (for Fischer- Tropsch fuels). Also, the US Department of Energy an- nounced its financial

372

2 0 0 0 A N N U A L P R O G R E S S R E P O R T U.S. Department of Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

one liter of Fischer- Tropsch liquid product varies between 4.6 liters to 6.8 liters (1.2-1.8 gal emissions inventory for Fischer­Tropsch fuels. Report Prepared for the US Department of Energy, Energy Resources Research44,W00A02,doi:10.1029/2007WR006683, 2008. Mulder, K., N. Hagens, and B. Fisher. 2007

373

Alaska coal gasification feasibility studies - Healy coal-to-liquids plant  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Study entailed a two-phase analysis of the prospects for greater use of Alaska's abundant coal resources in industrial applications. Phase 1, Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study (Report DOE/NETL 2006/1248) assessed the feasibility of using gasification technology to convert the Agrium fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska, from natural gas to coal feedstock. The Phase 1 analysis evaluated coals from the Beluga field near Anchorage and from the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, both of which are low in sulfur and high in moisture. This study expands the results of Phase 1 by evaluating a similar sized gasification facility at the Usibelli Coal mine to supply Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids to central Alaska. The plant considered in this study is small (14,640 barrels per day, bbl/d) compared to the recommended commercial size of 50,000 bbl/d for coal-to-liquid plants. The coal supply requirements for the Phase 1 analysis, four million tons per year, were assumed for the Phase 2 analysis to match the probable capacity of the Usibelli mining operations. Alaska refineries are of sufficient size to use all of the product, eliminating the need for F-T exports out of the state. The plant could produce marketable by-products such as sulfur as well as electric power. Slag would be used as backfill at the mine site and CO{sub 2} could be vented, captured or used for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The unexpected curtailment of oil production from Prudhoe Bay in August 2006 highlighted the dependency of Alaskan refineries (with the exception of the Tesoro facility in Nikiski) on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude. If the flow of oil from the North Slope declines, these refineries may not be able to meet the in-state needs for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Additional reliable sources of essential fuel products would be beneficial. 36 refs., 14 figs., 29 tabs., 3 apps.

Lawrence Van Bibber; Charles Thomas; Robert Chaney [Research & Development Solutions, LLC (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

375

Kinetic Consequences of Chemisorbed Oxygen Atoms during Methane Oxidation on Group VIII Metal Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reactants in methanol and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses. 1,2 H 2hydrodesulfurization, 2,3 and Fischer- Tropsch 4 reactions.

Chin, Ya Huei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION AND REACTION OF CO AND H2 ON ALUMINA-SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and R. Anderson, "The Fischer-Tropsch Related Synthesis",carbide theory of Fischer and Tropsch postulated that thereactions are still (Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) from CO and

Low, Gordon Gongngai

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dry, M. E. 2002. The Fischer-Tropsch process: 1950-2000.gasification and Fischer Tropsch (FT) processes yields a CO

Sperling, Daniel; Farrell, Alexander

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dry, M. E. 2002. The Fischer-Tropsch process: 1950-2000.gasification and Fischer Tropsch (FT) processes yields a CO

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

products of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocrbons.hydrogenation of CO by the Fischer-Tropsch process have been

Cairns, E.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Neutral and Cationic Vanadium Bisimido Complexes: Their Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in the Binding, Activation, and Catalytic Functionalization of Small Molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to non-selective Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. 1-14 Inin the heterogeneous Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. In order

La Pierre, Henry Storms

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Bench- and Pilot-Scale Studies of Reaction and Regeneration of Ni-Mg-K/Al2O3 for Catalytic Conditioning of Biomass-Derived Syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is collaborating with both industrial and academic partners to develop technologies to help enable commercialization of biofuels produced from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The focus of this paper is to report how various operating processes, utilized in-house and by collaborators, influence the catalytic activity during conditioning of biomass-derived syngas. Efficient cleaning and conditioning of biomass-derived syngas for use in fuel synthesis continues to be a significant technical barrier to commercialization. Multifunctional, fluidizable catalysts are being developed to reform undesired tars and light hydrocarbons, especially methane, to additional syngas, which can improve utilization of biomass carbon. This approach also eliminates both the need for downstream methane reforming and the production of an aqueous waste stream from tar scrubbing. This work was conducted with NiMgK/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. These catalysts were assessed for methane reforming performance in (i) fixed-bed, bench-scale tests with model syngas simulating that produced by oak gasification, and in pilot-scale, (ii) fluidized tests with actual oak-derived syngas, and (iii) recirculating/regenerating tests using model syngas. Bench-scale tests showed that the catalyst could be completely regenerated over several reforming reaction cycles. Pilot-scale tests using raw syngas showed that the catalyst lost activity from cycle to cycle when it was regenerated, though it was shown that bench-scale regeneration by steam oxidation and H{sub 2} reduction did not cause this deactivation. Characterization by TPR indicates that the loss of a low temperature nickel oxide reduction feature is related to the catalyst deactivation, which is ascribed to nickel being incorporated into a spinel nickel aluminate that is not reduced with the given activation protocol. Results for 100 h time-on-stream using a recirculating/regenerating reactor suggest that this type of process could be employed to keep a high level of steady-state reforming activity, without permanent deactivation of the catalyst. Additionally, the differences in catalyst performance using a simulated and real, biomass-derived syngas stream indicate that there are components present in the real stream that are not adequately modeled in the syngas stream. Heavy tars and polycyclic aromatics are known to be present in real syngas, and the use of benzene and naphthalene as surrogates may be insufficient. In addition, some inorganics found in biomass, which become concentrated in the ash following biomass gasification, may be transported to the reforming reactor where they can interact with catalysts. Therefore, in order to gain more representative results for how a catalyst would perform on an industrially-relevant scale, with real contaminants, appropriate small-scale biomass solids feeders or slip-streams of real process gas should be employed.

Magrini-Bair, K. A.; Jablonski, W. S.; Parent, Y. O.; Yung, M. M.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Catalysis for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis from Biomass Derived Syngas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-292  

SciTech Connect

The Dow Chemical Company (Dow) developed and tested catalysts for production of mixed alcohols from synthesis gas (syngas), under research and development (R&D) projects that were discontinued a number of years ago. Dow possesses detailed laboratory notebooks, catalyst samples, and technical expertise related to this past work. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting R&D in support of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to develop methods for economically producing ethanol from gasified biomass. NREL is currently conducting biomass gasification research at an existing 1/2 ton/day thermochemical test platform. Both Dow and NREL believe that the ability to economically produce ethanol from biomass-derived syngas can be enhanced through collaborative testing, refinement, and development of Dow's mixed-alcohol catalysts at NREL's and/or Dow's bench- and pilot-scale facilities. Dow and NREL further agree that collaboration on improvements in catalysts as well as gasifier operating conditions (e.g., time, temperature, upstream gas treatment) will be necessary to achieve technical and economic goals for production of ethanol and other alcohols.

Hensley, J.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

September 2008 UCD-ITS-RR-08-23 Identifying Options for Deep Reductions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oil shale - Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuels from biomass, coal, natural gas More significant changes

California at Davis, University of

384

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY HEADWATERS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION GROUP FOR AN  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HEADWATERS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION GROUP FOR AN HEADWATERS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION GROUP FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FC26-05NT42448; W(A)-05-023, CH-1287 The Petitioner, Headwaters Technology Innovation Group (HTI) was awarded a cooperative agreement for the performance of work entitled, "Production and Optimization of Coal-Derived High Hydrogen Content Fischer-Tropsch Liquids". The purpose of the cooperative agreement is to select the optimum Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst for producing high-hydrogen content FT liquids based on bench-scale testing of high and medium alpha iron-based catalysts and to produce barrel quantity samples of high-hydrogen content FT liquids in a process demonstration unit. This waiver is only for inventions of HTI made under its cooperative

385

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10231 10231 Southern Research Institute FE Nexant, Inc. SCC/Gasification Division 2013-2015/31 months Arun C Bose San Francisco, CA Small Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Nexant will conduct comparative process economic analysis by paper and computer studies for coal to liquids (CTL) and coal biomass to liquids (CBTL) production by the Fischer-Tropsch process. Arun Bose Digitally signed by Arun Bose DN: cn=Arun Bose, o=NETL, ou=SCC-Gasification Division, email=arun.bose@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2012.09.17 07:58:22 -04'00' 09 17 2012 john ganz Digitally signed by john ganz DN: cn=john ganz, o=environmental compliance division, ou=office of general counsel, email=john.ganz@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2012.09.17 14:26:15 -04'00'

386

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

11 - 13320 of 31,917 results. 11 - 13320 of 31,917 results. Download Vision for 2025: A Framework for Change http://energy.gov/downloads/vision-2025-framework-change Page EA-1642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY Draft SEA: Comment Period Ends 01/22/14 This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE's proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

387

EA-1642S: Supplemental Draft Environmental Assessment | Department of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EA-1642S: Supplemental Draft Environmental Assessment EA-1642S: Supplemental Draft Environmental Assessment EA-1642S: Supplemental Draft Environmental Assessment Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, Kentucky This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of DOE providing financial assistance to the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) to partially fund the completion of the design, construction and operation of a small-scale pilot plant for research related to the gasification of coal and coal-biomass blends and conversion of derived syngas to liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. This project is intended to evaluate the commercial and technical viability of

388

Preliminary Screening -- Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In principle, syngas (primarily consisting of CO and H2) can be produced from any hydrocarbon feedstock, including: natural gas, naphtha, residual oil, petroleum coke, coal, and biomass. The lowest cost routes for syngas production, however, are based on natural gas, the cheapest option being remote or stranded reserves. Economic considerations dictate that the current production of liquid fuels from syngas translates into the use of natural gas as the hydrocarbon source. Nevertheless, the syngas production operation in a gas-to-liquids plant amounts to greater than half of the capital cost of the plant. The choice of technology for syngas production also depends on the scale of the synthesis operation. Syngas production from solid fuels can require an even greater capital investment with the addition of feedstock handling and more complex syngas purification operations. The greatest impact on improving the economics of gas-to liquids plants is through (1) decreasing capital costs associated with syngas production and (2) improving the thermal efficiency with better heat integration and utilization. Improved thermal efficiency can be obtained by combining the gas-to-liquids plant with a power generation plant to take advantage of the availability of low-pressure steam. The extensive research and development efforts devoted to syngas conversion to fuels and chemicals are documented in a vast amount of literature that tracks the scientific and technological advancements in syngas chemistry. The purpose of this report is to review the many syngas to products processes and summarize the salient points regarding the technology status and description, chemistry, catalysts, reactors, gas cleanliness requirements, process and environmental performances, and economics. Table 1 lists the products examined in this study and gives some facts about the technology as well as advantages and disadvantages. Table 2 summarizes the catalysts, process conditions, conversions, and selectivities for the various syngas to products processes. Table 3 presents catalyst poisons for the various products.

Spath, P. L.; Dayton, D. C.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, April 1, 1990--June 30, 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments on cobalt-catalyzed reactions of light 1-alkenes added to synthesis gas were performed. Data have been collected at 220C, 0.45 to 1.48 MPa and a synthesis gas flow rate between 0.015 and 0.030 Nl/(gcat{center_dot}min) with H{sub 2}/CO of 1.45 to 2.25. Ethylene, propene, and butene were added to synthesis gas feed from 0.5 to 1.2 mole% of total feed. For each material balance in which 1-alkenes were added, a material balance was performed at similar process conditions without 1-alkenes added, as ``base case``. Material balances without added 1-alkenes were also repeated to verify of catalyst selectivity stability. 49 material balances were performed during a single run lasting over 2,500 hours-on-stream. The hydrocarbon data have been completely analyzed; data correlations are still being made. Since C{sub 3}/C{sub 1} ratios by ethene addition, C{sub 4}/C{sub 1} ratios by propene addition, and C{sub 5}/C{sub 1} ratios by 1-butene addition, it appears that 1-alkenes may incorporate into growing chains on the surface of the catalyst. Further evidence for incorporation can be seen by comparing selectivity to n-alcohol one carbon number higher than added 1-alkene. Yield of this n-alcohol increases when alkenes are present. Sensitivity of hydrocarbon distribution to process variables seems to be greater on Co than on Fe catalysts.

Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over CO/SiO{sub 2} Catalyst Modified by a Chelating Agent: Characterization, Activity and Selectivity  

SciTech Connect

In this study, modification of a support with a chelating agent (CA) has been proposed to improve the performance of the Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst.

Bambal, Ashish, S.; Kababji, Alaa; Guggilla, Vidya, Sagar; Gardner, Todd; Gardner, Edwin L.; Dadyburjor, Dady, B.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF JP-8, JP-900, FISCHER-TROPSCH (FT) AND JP-8/FT BLENDS IN A MODEL GAS TURBINE COMBUSTOR.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The increasing usage of coal-based fuels in aviation turbines and fluctuating prices of the crude oil imports emphasizes the need to study and analyze alternate… (more)

Kalaskar, Vickey

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Development of improved iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. [Iron catalyst with nominal composition 100Fe/0. 3Cu/0. 8K  

SciTech Connect

Three tests (two fixed bed and one stirred tank slurry reactor) were completed during the reporting period. Also, the work on catalyst characterization by different techniques (atomic absorption, BET surface area and pore size distribution and x-ray powder diffraction).The performance of a precipitated iron catalyst with nominal composition lOOFe/0.3Cu/0.8K has been evaluated in two fixed bed reactor tests designated FB-0142 and FB-0352 following pretreatment with syngas (H{sub 2}/CO=0.67) at 280{degree}C, 3Nl/g-cat/h and atomspheric pressure for 8 hours. Flow interruption occurred in the first test (FB-0142) at about 72h on stream, and the second test (FB-0352) was to assess any potential adverse effects of this flow interruption on performance of the catalyst. The catalyst was tested at 250{degree}C, 200 psig, 2Nl/g-cat/h using syngas of the same composition as that employed during the pretreatment. Initial conversions in both tests were high (about 84%) but the catalyst deactivated fairly rapidly. The (H{sub 2} + CO) conversion at the end of the first test (120h on stream) was about 52%, whereas the syngas conversion at the end of the second test (150h) was about 55%, indicating that the brief flow interruption during test FB-0142 had resulted in higher deactivation rate. Hydrocarbon selectivities in both tests were similar and their average values werr: (CH{sub 4})=4.7, (C{sub 2}{minus}C{sub 4})=19.5, (C{sub 5}{minus}C{sub 11})=25.3 and C{sub 12}{sup +}=50.5 wt%.

Bukur, D.B.

1992-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

393

International Energy Agency Programme of Research and Development on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fischer- Tropsch or Methanol Synthesis 2nH2 + nCO (- CH2-)n + nH2O CO + 2H2 CH3OHMethane (SNG) Methanation StorageH2 in ICEs H2 & NG Blends Indirect Liquefaction SNG Carbon Products 26.1% H2 Separation Membranes Coal Strategies Central Hydrogen Production Liquid Fuel Production SNG Production Regional or Local

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

394

Experimental techniques for hydrodynamic characterization of multiphase flows in slurry-phase bubble-column reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Slurry-phase bubble-column Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactors are recognized as one of the more promising technologies for converting synthesis gas from coal into liquid fuel products (indirect liquefaction). However, hydrodynamic effects must be considered when attempting to scale these reactors to sizes of industrial interest. The objective of this program is to facilitate characterization of reactor hydrodynamics by developing and applying noninvasive tomographic diagnostics capable of measuring gas holdup spatial distribution in these reactors.

Torczynski, J.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.; Shollenberger, K.A.; Mondy, L.A.; Jackson, N.B.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

UK FT PDU Facility Draft EA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2S 2S Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment for University of Kentucky Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Lexington, KY December 2013 Prepared for: Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory This page intentionally left blank. Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment DOE/EA-1642S Fischer-Tropsch Process Development Unit December 2013 Cover Sheet Proposed Action: The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes, through a cooperative agreement with the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), to partially fund the completion of the design, construction, and operation of a small-scale pilot plant for research related to the gasification of coal

396

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis F-T Efficiency & Performance - DOE R&D Comparing liquid transportation fuels production from coal gasification to fuels from traditional production methods is a difficult undertaking because of the vastly diverse configuration options available for gasification processing. Traditionally, fuels like gasoline and diesel are refined from crude oil, a (comparatively) more uniform feedstock than coal -or, for that matter, biomass, petcoke, refinery waste, etc. Each potential feedstock, even between different coal ranks, has variable characteristics that can necessitate design changes (ash content, sulfur concentration, feed handling issues, etc.). Additionally, as a relatively new approach to producing liquid fuels, gasification has not had years of refinement to develop a "best," most productive or cost-efficient approach, in part, due to the aforementioned flexibility in choosing feedstock, product, synthesis gas (syngas) cleaning and conditioning units. In fact, besides multiple gasifier options and configurations, the liquid fuel synthesis component itself can be approached multiple ways: methanol-to-gasoline or Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, to name the two most important. Essentially, comparing petroleum-refinery produced transportation fuels and gasification-derived fuels requires design assumptions and limiting the scope of the comparison in order to arrive at meaningful conclusions.

397

Rough cost estimates of solar thermal/coal or biomass-derived fuels. [Hybrid approach: solar thermal plus either coal or biomass  

SciTech Connect

The production of a synthetic fuel from a solar thermal resource could provide a means of replacing critical liquid and gaseous fossil fuels. The solar thermal resource is large and economics favors a southwestern site. A synthetic fuel would provide a desirable product and a means of transporting solar thermal energy to large load centers outside the southwest. This paper presents cost data for one method of producing synthetic methane. A hybrid approach was chosen, a combination of solar thermal and either coal or biomass. The magnitude of the solar thermal resource is estimated as well as projected cost. Cost projections for coal and biomass are accumulated. The cost of synthetic gas from a hybrid and a conventional fuel source are compared.

Copeland, R. J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

2010-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

399

Refining and end use study of coal liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual design and ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation model was developed for a Battelle biomass-based gasification, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefaction and combined-cycle power plant. This model was developed in a similar manner to those coal liquefaction models that were developed under DOE contract DE-AC22-91PC90027. As such, this process flowsheet simulation model was designed to be a research guidance tool and not a detailed process design tool. However, it does contain some process design features, such as sizing the F-T synthesis reactors. This model was designed only to predict the effects of various process and operating changes on the overall plant heat and material balances, utilities, capital and operating costs.

Choi, G.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Simonetti, Dante A. (Middleton, WI); Kunkes, Edward L. (Madison, WI)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

EUROPEAN MAGAZINEINTERNATIONAL EDITION OF ERDL ERDGAS KOHLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in cellular evolution. However, there are no obvious abiotic pathways for isoprenoid synthesis. Fischer-Tropsch, Simoneit RT (1999) Lipid synthesis under hydrothermal conditions by Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions. Orig

402

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NETL FE P176 ORD 2010 Robert Gormley 4 weeks NETL PGH Building 94 Room 02 Fischer Tropsch Laboratory Decommissioning of the Fischer Tropsch Laboratory. 03 11 2010 Robert Gormley...

403

The Potential for Renewable Energy Sources in Ausilio Bauen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in cellular evolution. However, there are no obvious abiotic pathways for isoprenoid synthesis. Fischer-Tropsch, Simoneit RT (1999) Lipid synthesis under hydrothermal conditions by Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions. Orig

404

FIRST BERKELEY CATALYSIS AND SURFACE SCIENCE CONFERENCE JULY 1980  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as 1913. Then in 19Z6 Fischer and Tropsch published theirThe Technology of the Fischer-Tropsch Process vii Friday,in potentially modifying Fischer-Tropsch reactions is

Authors, Various

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Fourth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, February 9-11, 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and unconventional sources (oil and sands and oil shale), Fisher-Tropsch jet fuel from natural gas, coal and biomass....................................................................................27 6 Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel.....................................................................................................29 6.1 Carbon Capture and Sequestration with Fischer-Tropsch Facilities

Stanford University

406

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943-5138  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and unconventional sources (oil and sands and oil shale), Fisher-Tropsch jet fuel from natural gas, coal and biomass....................................................................................27 6 Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel.....................................................................................................29 6.1 Carbon Capture and Sequestration with Fischer-Tropsch Facilities

407

Journal of Catalysis 248 (2007) 165174 www.elsevier.com/locate/jcat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and unconventional sources (oil and sands and oil shale), Fisher-Tropsch jet fuel from natural gas, coal and biomass....................................................................................27 6 Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel.....................................................................................................29 6.1 Carbon Capture and Sequestration with Fischer-Tropsch Facilities

Regalbuto, John R.

408

HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS RESEARCH MEETING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

costs for the production of SNG or Fischer-Tropsch productsof substitute natural gas (SNG) are highly susceptible to

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

innovative research fa l l 2 0 0 6  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-powered engines. Fig. 1 shows its ability to restore the lubricity of sulfur-free (Fischer-Tropsch) diesel fuel-boron additive concentration in 0 ppm sulfur diesel Fischer-Tropsch fuel with Argonne's boron additives at different concentrations Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel Number 2 diesel fuel sulfur(500ppm) 0

New Mexico, University of

410

Draft 07.09.2008 Charles Sabel, Columbia Law School, USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) production of synthesis gas (syngas), (ii) Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactor and (iii) upgrading units. Various. (1993). "Reaction-Transport selectivity models and the design of fischer-tropsch catalysts. Computer). "Operating strategies for Fischer-Tropsch reactors: A model-directed study", Korean Journal of Chemical

Saxenian, AnnaLee

411

Flex Fuel Polygeneration: Optimizing Cost, Sustainability, and Resiliency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts based on Fe oxide precursors modified by Cu and K: structure, WI 53562 The reduction, carburization, and catalytic properties of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rates, apparently by decreasing the size of the carbide crystallites formed

Daniels, Thomas E.

412

Catalyse et Rayonnement Synchrotron Xavier Carrier, Juliette Blanchard, Catherine Louis,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuels and chemicals derived via the Fischer-Tropsch process (Dry 2002). Supercritical water gasification and CO2 (Kruse 2009). Whereas Fischer-Tropsch reactor modelling is well established in the literature for both the Fischer-Tropsch and SCWG processes. This modelling effort contributes to the overarching goal

Arleo, Angelo

413

A Novel Paradigm in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diesel, low sulfur diesel, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, E-diesel, and biodiesel Battery diesel, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, E-diesel, and biodiesel Spark-Ignition Direct itchgrass #12;23 FT Diesel Can Be Produced from A Variety of Feedstocks Fischer-Tropsch process

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

414

Integrated Energy Policy Report Subsidiary Volume: TRANSPORTATION FUELS,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heads, to be present on primordial earth. Hydrocarbon molecules could be formed in Fischer-Tropsch. 2012b). Notably, the yield of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, while insensitive to the presence of sodium (Nooner et al. 1976; Graf and Muhler 2011). Thus, Fischer-Tropsch-type reac- tions within K+ -rich rocks

415

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, NTNU Sem Slands vei 4, 7491 Trondheim, Norway  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gasoline, diesel oil, and jet fuel--via the Fischer-Tropsch process, which was invented by Franz Fischer the Fischer-Tropsch process. And, concerned about future fuel supplies, the Department of Defense is working & SCIENCE 23 to fly on a 50-50 mixture of jet fuel and a Fischer-Tropsch product by 2011. Getting 1

Bones, Atle M.

416

2010 AGU Fall Meeting You may print by clicking on this Print button. To return to the previous page, close this  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Fischer-Tropsch Diesel. & Reform. Gasoline Fischer-Tropsch Diesel and Naphtha Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and biodiesel Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Vehicles

Sparks, Donald L.

417

JOURNALDE PHYSIQUE IV Colloque C4, supplment au Journal de PhysiqueI,Volume 6,juillet 1996  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gasoline, diesel oil, and jet fuel--via the Fischer-Tropsch process, which was invented by Franz Fischer the Fischer-Tropsch process. And, concerned about future fuel supplies, the Department of Defense is working & SCIENCE 23 to fly on a 50-50 mixture of jet fuel and a Fischer-Tropsch product by 2011. Getting 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

418

Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies and Research European countries are using technologies that appear to allow a reduction in the temperatures at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas for large scale Fischer-Tropsch synthesis." American Chemical Society, Division of Petroleum unit · Pre-reformer · Auto-thermal reformer (ATR) · Fired heater CO2 removal (optional) Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactor: slurry bubble column reactor Fischer-Tropsch products separation #12;8M. Panahi, S

Mukherjee, Amlan

419

Planetary and Space Science 54 (2006) 15521562 On the discovery of CO nighttime emissions on Titan by Cassini/VIMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-valent iron. Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H2 in the presence of metals- plicated as the form of carbon primarily responsible. A mechanism analogous to the Fischer-Tropsch in iron/water systems, which suggested a possible connection to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons

Atreya, Sushil

420

ENGINEERING & SCIENCE su m m e r 201042 a mine for dark matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the syngas is fed to the Fischer - Tropsch reactor. The products obtained are separated while the heavy; Ran and Dell, 2008) On the other hand, the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has been used in moments of Zeolite 5A is recommended. Once the gas is purified, the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is carried out. Over

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

LETTERS TO NATURE Sonochemical synthesis of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the syngas is fed to the Fischer - Tropsch reactor. The products obtained are separated while the heavy; Ran and Dell, 2008) On the other hand, the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has been used in moments of Zeolite 5A is recommended. Once the gas is purified, the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is carried out. Over

Suslick, Kenneth S.

422

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This amor- phous iron powder is a highly active catalyst for the Fischer- Tropsch hydrogenation of carbon important reactions: the Fischer-Tropsch process (hydrogenation of CO) and the hydrogenolysis collected on a Rigaku D-max drffractometer. gas chromatography. The Fischer-Tropsch conversion of carbon

Wilkins, Neal

423

Fuels generated from renewable energy: a possible solution for large scale energy storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-powered engines. Fig. 1 shows its ability to restore the lubricity of sulfur-free (Fischer-Tropsch) diesel fuel-boron additive concentration in 0 ppm sulfur diesel Fischer-Tropsch fuel with Argonne's boron additives at different concentrations Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel Number 2 diesel fuel sulfur(500ppm) 0

Franssen, Michael

424

Journal of Catalysis 211, 422433 (2002) doi:10.1006/jcat.2002.3749  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Fischer-Tropsch Diesel. & Reform. Gasoline Fischer-Tropsch Diesel and Naphtha Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and biodiesel Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Vehicles

Iglesia, Enrique

425

I Reproducedwith pennissionfrom Elsevier Preparedfor Proceedingsof the4thBiomassConferenceof theAmericas,ElsevierScience,Ltd.,Oxford,UK, 1999.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst Using Near-Critical Fluid Extraction: Analysis for the recovery of heavy normal paraffins from a Fischer-Tropsch slurry reactor has been analyzed. Process. The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process is one way to carry out this conversion. In the F-T synthesis, carbon oxides

426

Presentation 2.4: Forest biorefining and implications for future wood energy scenarios Jack N. Saddler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the synthetic fuels examined in the journal paper, namely Fischer-Tropsch fuels (diesel and gasoline blendstocks processes included in our analysis. 2 Synthetic Fuels Included in the Analysis 2.1 Fischer-Tropsch Fuels The product of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a mixture of straight-chain hydrocarbons (olefins

427

Feb., 1958 CARBONFORRIATIONFROM CARBONMONOXIDE-HYDROGEN RIIXTURES 133 550". Thisispiesuniably connectedwith the greater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) production of synthesis gas (syngas), (ii) Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactor and (iii) upgrading units. Various. (1993). "Reaction-Transport selectivity models and the design of fischer-tropsch catalysts. Computer). "Operating strategies for Fischer-Tropsch reactors: A model-directed study", Korean Journal of Chemical

428

Selective Removal of Ethylene, a Deposit Precursor, from a "Dirty" Synthesis Gas Stream via Gas-Phase Partial Oxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The process is based on Fischer- Tropsch technology in which the shale gas is reformed with steam, while and industry; e.g. ExxonMobil announced a $600 million program [10-12]. However, the use of Fischer-Tropsch the gap between current fuels and biofuels by using Fischer-Tropsch (FT) technology with a hybrid source

Dean, Anthony M.

429

Applied reaction dynamics: Efficient synthesis gas production via single collision partial oxidation of methane to CO on Rh,,111...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the synthetic fuels examined in the journal paper, namely Fischer-Tropsch fuels (diesel and gasoline blendstocks processes included in our analysis. 2 Synthetic Fuels Included in the Analysis 2.1 Fischer-Tropsch Fuels The product of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a mixture of straight-chain hydrocarbons (olefins

Sibener, Steven

430

CONFERENCE REPORT The Role of Energy in the Emergence of Biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-valent iron. Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H2 in the presence of metals- plicated as the form of carbon primarily responsible. A mechanism analogous to the Fischer-Tropsch in iron/water systems, which suggested a possible connection to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons

Steinhoff, Heinz-JĂĽrgen

431

Needles in a very dirty haystack: Characterizing the catalytic species in coals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuel production Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis . Moreover, under the reaction conditions hydrocarbons through the Fischer-Tropsch process. To do this, it is necessary to partially oxidize the CH4 production Fischer- Tropsch . Moreover, under the reaction conditions explored, no CO2 was detected, i

Yener, Aylin

432

Optimal use of Hybrid feedstock, Switchgrass and Shale gas, for the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectroscopic and Transient Kinetic Studies of Site Requirements in Iron-Catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch of the initial stages of Fischer- Tropsch synthesis (FTS) with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Oxygen removal and selective Fischer-Tropsch synthesis cata- lysts1 after activation processes that lead to complex mixtures

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

433

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kinetically Relevant Steps and H2/D2 Isotope Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Fe and CoVed: August 4, 2010; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: October 3, 2010 H2/D2 isotope effects on Fischer-Tropsch by theory and experiment for the specific case of CO hydrogenation. 1. Introduction Fischer-Tropsch

Goodman, Wayne

434

THE POTENTIAL FOR MICRO-ALGAE AND OTHER "MICRO-CROPS" TO PRODUCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The process is based on Fischer- Tropsch technology in which the shale gas is reformed with steam, while and industry; e.g. ExxonMobil announced a $600 million program [10-12]. However, the use of Fischer-Tropsch the gap between current fuels and biofuels by using Fischer-Tropsch (FT) technology with a hybrid source

Edwards, Paul N.

435

Between heaven and Earth: the exploration of Titan Tobias C. Owen,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the produced cellulosic ethanol is assumed to have relatively lower costs than Fischer-Tropsch, but that Fisher-Tropsch, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch from biomass; cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch. Ethanol is produced from lignocellulose through

436

Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the produced cellulosic ethanol is assumed to have relatively lower costs than Fischer-Tropsch, but that Fisher-Tropsch, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch from biomass; cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch. Ethanol is produced from lignocellulose through

Hultman, Nathan E.

437

PHYSICSNOVEMBER 1991 VOL. 44 NO. 11  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the produced cellulosic ethanol is assumed to have relatively lower costs than Fischer-Tropsch, but that Fisher-Tropsch, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch from biomass; cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch. Ethanol is produced from lignocellulose through

Suslick, Kenneth S.

438

Albany, OR * Anchorage, AK * Morgantown, WV * Pittsburgh, PA * Sugar Land, TX  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasification Characteristics of Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels Background Domestically abundant coal is a primary energy source and when mixed with optimum levels of biomass during the production of liquid fuels may have lower carbon footprints compared to petroleum fuel baselines. Coal and biomass mixtures are converted via gasification into synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of predominantly carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which can be subsequently converted to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting research focused on using coal and biomass to produce clean and affordable power, fuels and chemicals. The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is partnering with Leland Stanford Junior

439

Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation?s urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

Huffman, Gerald

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

440

Studies on transition metals and alloy Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their electronic and bulk properties. (I: Fe/MnO; II: Fe/TiO/sub 2/; III: Fe/Mord. ). Final report, July 1, 1982-September 30, 1983  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives were: (1) to characterize samples D1, 10% FeO/90% MnO, and D2, 48% FeO/52% MnO, under varying conditions of reduction (at 250/sup 0/C or 350/sup 0/C in H/sub 2/) and of syngas reaction 1:1 of CO:H/sub 2/ at 290/sup 0/C) and in some cases use CO only for reduction and to identify species by Moessbauer Spectroscopy and Magnetization (sigma/sub s) measurement; (2) similarly, to see if there is any metal (oxide)/support (Mordenite) interaction by the same techniques. The characterization was carried out with above techniques and the kinetic results for syngas were obtained on the above systems mostly at PETC. During reduction of Fe-oxide/Mn-oxide an intermediate Mn-ferrite phase was detected. After reduction, species such as Fe/sup 0/+Fe/sup 3 +/+Fe/sup 2 +/ in varying total proportions (45% at 290/sup 0/C and Fe/sup 0/+Fe/sup 2 +/ 75% were found at 350/sup 0/C). Syngas conversion showed Fe-carbides (Fe/sub 2/C/sub 2/+Fe/sub 3/C) depending on the reaction conditions, and the composition of D/sub 1/ and D/sub 2/. With the fresh ..gamma..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (identified by Moessbauer) on Mordenites with varying ratios of SiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, a decrease in (sigma/sub s/) was found with lowering of the ratios from 60 to 17. At 17% ratio (sigma/sub s/) was smallest and the change in the isomer shift was maximum, which established an interaction with the Broensted cities. 24 figures.

Mulay, L.N.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass-derived fischer-tropsch liquids" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Ecotoxicity and environmental fate of diesel and diesel blends produced by Sasol’s Fischer-Tropsch processes using natural gas and coal as feedstock as well as biodiesel and biodiesel blends.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: World crude oil demand and production is set to increase in the long term and is projected to increase from 82 barrels per… (more)

Albertus, Randal Marius Colin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Influence of CO Conversion on Selectivities H2/CO Usage Ratios and Catalyst Stability for a 0.27 percent Ru 25 percent Co/Al2O3 using a Slurry Phase Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The effect of CO conversion on hydrocarbon selectivities (i.e., CH{sub 4}, C{sub 5+}, olefin and paraffin), H{sub 2}/CO usage ratios, CO{sub 2} selectivity, and catalyst stability over a wide range of CO conversion (12-94%) on 0.27%Ru-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied under the conditions of 220 C, 1.5 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio of 2.1 and gas space velocities of 0.3-15 NL/g-cat/h in a 1-L continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Catalyst samples were withdrawn from the CSTR at different CO conversion levels, and Co phases (Co, CoO) in the slurry samples were characterized by XANES, and in the case of the fresh catalysts, EXAFS as well. Ru was responsible for increasing the extent of Co reduction, thus boosting the active site density. At 1%Ru loading, EXAFS indicates that coordination of Ru at the atomic level was virtually solely with Co. It was found that the selectivities to CH{sub 4}, C{sub 5+}, and CO{sub 2} on the Co catalyst are functions of CO conversion. At high CO conversions, i.e. above 80%, CH{sub 4} selectivity experienced a change in the trend, and began to increase, and CO{sub 2} selectivity experienced a rapid increase. H{sub 2}/CO usage ratio and olefin content were found to decrease with increasing CO conversion in the range of 12-94%. The observed results are consistent with water reoxidation of Co during FTS at high conversion. XANES spectroscopy of used catalyst samples displayed spectra consistent with the presence of more CoO at higher CO conversion levels.

W Ma; G Jacobs; Y Ji; T Bhatelia; D Bukur; S Khalid; B Davis

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

Fischer Tropsch synthesis : an in-situ TPR-EXAFS/XANES investigation of the influence of Group I alkali promoters on the local atomic and electronic structure of carburized iron/silica catalysts.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The promoting impact of alkali metals (i.e., Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) on the carburization rate of Fe in Fe/Si catalysts was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A multisample holder was used, allowing nearly simultaneous examination of the catalysts during activation in a CO/He mixture. With the white line intensity and shape as a fingerprint for oxidation state, TPR/XANES analysis enabled us to measure the relative composition of the different compounds as a function of the carburization time, temperature, and atomic number of the group 1 promoter. At the same time, TPR/EXAFS provided information on the changes in local atomic structure that accompanied the oxidation state changes. The rate of carburization increased in the following order: unpromoted < Li < Na < K = Rb = Cs. After 10 h of treatment the samples containing K, Rb, and Cs were completely carburized, and residual quantities of iron oxides were detected in both unpromoted and Li-promoted samples. The EXAFS spectra after carburization could be fitted well by considering a model containing Hagg carbide and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. After 10 h of CO/He treatment at 290 C, the main component observed was Hagg carbide. A model containing Hagg and {var_epsilon}-carbides, and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, was also investigated. However, the r-factor was not significantly impacted by including {var_epsilon}-carbide in the fitting, and the resulting contribution of {var_epsilon}-carbide in each catalyst from the model was virtually negligible. Selectivity differences are thus not likely due to changes in the carbide distribution. Rather, the alkali promoter increases the CO dissociative adsorption rate, resulting in an increase in the surface coverage of dissociated CO and an inhibition in the olefin readsorption rate. This in turn results in higher olefin selectivities, in agreement with previous catalytic tests.

Ribeiro, M. C.; Jacobs, G.; Davis, B. H.; Cronauer, D. C.; Kropf, A. J.; Marshall, C. L. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Univ. of Kentucky)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Topical report No.3, Zirconia promotion of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt catalysts: Behavior in fixed-bed and slurry bubble column reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of cobalt-based F-T catalysts supported on alumina and silica were prepared with different loadings of Zr and different sequences of impregnation of Co and Zr. All catalysts were extensively characterized by different methods. The catalysts were evaluated in terms of their activity and selectivity both in fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactors. Addition of ZrO{sub 2} to both Co/SiO{sub 2} and Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts resulted in at least a twofold increase in the catalyst activity for F-T synthesis in the fixed bed reactor. In the slurry bubble column reactor, a similar promotion effect was observed for the SiO{sub 2}-supported catalysts, while the addition of Zr to a cobalt/alumina catalyst had a less significant effect.

Oukaci, R.; Marcelin, G.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

445

Functional and structural diversity of the microbial communities associated with the use of Fischer–Tropsch GTL Primary Column Bottoms as process cooling water / van Niekerk B.F.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Despite emerging water shortages, most water is only used once, and often with low efficiency. However, with appropriate treatment, water can be re–used to reduce… (more)

Van Niekerk, Bertina Freda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

[Oxygenated octane enhancers: Syngas to isobutylene]. Technical progress report No. 8, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to develop a catalyst and a process for the conversion of syngas to isobutylene. However, due to the low conversion and selectivity generally experienced by the industry in direct conversion of syngas to isobutylene, indirect conversion via branched C{sub 4} alcohol intermediates is being explored. The objectives of the current program are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol and to evaluate the commercial potential of the new process. The research program underway at UOP will identify and optimize key catalyst and process characteristics. This report covers the modification and shake-down of a fixed-bed pilot plant (No. 700) for the testing of catalysts and catalyst combinations. A separate syngas feed system has been added to an existing fixed bed Fischer-Tropsch pilot plant and new reactors are constructed to avoid catalyst cross contamination. Shake-down testing with a commercial Cu/Zn/Al oxide catalyst alone and in combination with a basic Mg/Al MOSS (Metal Oxide Solid Solution) catalyst have demonstrated good CO and H{sub 2} conversion. However, contamination of the product by residual Fischer-Tropsch product in the exit lines and the liquid gas chromatograph (GC) has prevented accurate product analyses. A separate exit system and liquid GC have been added to the plant for use by the higher alcohols synthesis project.

Barger, P.T.

1993-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

447

Comparison of coal liquefaction processes. Final report on Task 006  

SciTech Connect

Five processes were studied to determine which could give best results for supplying hydrocarbon fuels to replace petroleum products. The processes were Fischer-Tropsch; M-Gasoline; H-Coal; Exxon Donor Solvent; and Solvent Refined Coal. The conclusions of the study are that all of the processes are considered commercially feasible and, because the different products from the different processes will meet different market demands, any significant future liquids from coal market will probably use some of each of these processes. The anticipated conversion efficiency values are given to indicate resource utilization. Simplified capital costs are approximated for each process. These are used in combination with product amounts and relative values to achieve a cost ranking. Because the study was concerned solely with liquid products, Fischer-Tropsch was at a disadvantage. The remaining four were relatively close and a final decision would depend upon the actual end use requirements. For a situation with residual fuels selling at severe discounts, M-Gasoline and H-Coal (Syncrude Mode) were the better choices.

Rogers, K.A.; Wilk, A.S.; McBeath, B.C.; Hill, R.F.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in situ par EXAFS de la réductibilité d'un catalyseur Fischer-Tropsch à base de cobalt supporté sur silice'évolution structurale du système à haute température et sous gaz réactionnel [1,21. Le domaine de la synthèse Fischer-Tropsch 25% (massique) Co supporté sur silice,performant en synthèseFischer-Tropsch. 2. PARTIE EXPERIMENTALE

Deng, Baolin

449

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic concepts and applications as well as present future directions for the liquid-liquid extraction process.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Browse wiki | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

, Hydrogen + , Developer of catalysts for room-temperature hydrogen production + , hot steam production and Fischer-Tropsch processes. + , Oxford + , United Kingdom + Place...

451

com  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Additionally, there is the possibility that it may be useful for conversion of bio-gas to artificial fuels via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. ...

452

Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pathways, such as gasification. However, the current studysuch as MSW, the gasification to Fischer- Tropsch fuelof research on biomass gasification to FT-fuels compared to

Jones, Andrew; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When...

454

Characterizing Energy Materials in 3-D Using STEM Tomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... for various acquisition geometries, and the power of the technique demonstrated with applications to energy storage materials and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts.

455

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of CO2 Capture Options for Power Plants Impacts on IGCC Plant Designs Gasoline & Diesel Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Syngas Conversion to Methanol Conversion of Methanol to Gasoline...

456

--No Title--  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of Cincinnati Abstract PDF-14KB Presentation PDF-312KB Attrition Resistant Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Based on FCC Supports Adeyinka Adeyiga, Hampton University...

457

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

tracking into CFD - Hypersonic flow simulation NASA: Alternative Jet Fuels (Grant) - Fischer-Tropsch fuels - Biofuels for jet applications - Mechanism development and...

458

NETL: News Release - DOE to Fund University Research on the Science...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Chemical Engineering Hampton, VA 23668 375,000 125,454 Attrition Resistant Iron-Based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Program Contact: Paula Flenory, National Energy Technology...

459

Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst Nanoscale Chemistry under Realistic Working Conditions SSRL Science Summary - November 2012 Figure Snapshot of 3D elemental mapping (see Rock on Fire)...

460

CX-002358: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

58: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002358: Categorical Exclusion Determination Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Development CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05102010 Location(s): Grand...