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Sample records for biomass waste fuel

  1. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  2. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II

  3. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-09-24

    Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable

  4. Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production Adapting biomass waste molecules for energy production May 1, 2013 Lab research can yield energy from non-food biomass Lab research can yield energy from non-food biomass Contact Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office

  5. Abundance of {sup 14}C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellner, Johann Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-05-15

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO{sub 2} emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes {sup 14}C and {sup 12}C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in {sup 14}C and reflect the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying {sup 14}C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper {sup 14}C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated {sup 14}C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135 pMC.

  6. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofer, S.S.; Zaborsky, O.R.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  7. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  8. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin; Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia; Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell; Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester .

    2009-03-31

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and enzymatic

  9. Superheater Corrosion Produced By Biomass Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, William; Singbeil, Douglas; Keiser, James R

    2012-01-01

    About 90% of the world's bioenergy is produced by burning renewable biomass fuels. Low-cost biomass fuels such as agricultural wastes typically contain more alkali metals and chlorine than conventional fuels. Although the efficiency of a boiler's steam cycle can be increased by raising its maximum steam temperature, alkali metals and chlorine released in biofuel boilers cause accelerated corrosion and fouling at high superheater steam temperatures. Most alloys that resist high temperature corrosion protect themselves with a surface layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, this Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fluxed away by reactions that form alkali chromates or volatilized as chromic acid. This paper reviews recent research on superheater corrosion mechanisms and superheater alloy performance in biomass boilers firing black liquor, biomass fuels, blends of biomass with fossil fuels and municipal waste.

  10. Diesel fuel from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A project to convert various biomass materials to diesel type transportation fuel compatible with current engine designs and the existing distribution system is described. A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction approach is used. The system consists of a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide followed by a catalytic liquefaction step to convert the synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The major emphasis on the project at the present time is to maximize product yield. A level of 60 gals of diesel type fuel per ton of feedstock (dry, ash free basis) is expected. Numerous materials have been processed through the conversion system without any significant change in product quality (essentially C/sub 7/-C/sub 17/ paraffinic hydrocarbons with cetane indicies of 50+). Other tasks in progress include factor studies, process simplification, process control and scale-up to a 10 ton/day Engineering Test Facility. 18 references, 4 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Fluidized bed combustion of pelletized biomass and waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chirone, R.; Scala, F.; Solimene, R.; Salatino, P.; Urciuolo, M.

    2008-10-15

    The fluidized bed combustion of three pelletized biogenic fuels (sewage sludge, wood, and straw) has been investigated with a combination of experimental techniques. The fuels have been characterized from the standpoints of patterns and rates of fuel devolatilization and char burnout, extent of attrition and fragmentation, and their relevance to the fuel particle size distribution and the amount and size distribution of primary ash particles. Results highlight differences and similarities among the three fuels tested. The fuels were all characterized by limited primary fragmentation and relatively long devolatilization times, as compared with the time scale of particle dispersion away from the fuel feeding ports in practical FBC. Both features are favorable to effective lateral distribution of volatile matter across the combustor cross section. The three fuels exhibited distinctively different char conversion patterns. The high-ash pelletized sludge burned according to the shrinking core conversion pattern with negligible occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The low-ash pelletized wood burned according to the shrinking particle conversion pattern with extensive occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The medium-ash pelletized straw yielded char particles with a hollow structure, resembling big cenospheres, characterized by a coherent inorganic outer layer strong enough to prevent particle fragmentation. Inert bed particles were permanently attached to the hollow pellets as they were incorporated into ash melts. Carbon elutriation rates were very small for all the fuels tested. For pelletized sludge and straw, this was mostly due to the shielding effect of the coherent ash skeleton. For the wood pellet, carbon attrition was extensive, but was largely counterbalanced by effective afterburning due to the large intrinsic reactivity of attrited char fines. The impact of carbon attrition on combustion efficiency was negligible for all the fuels tested. The size

  12. Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Valorization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Valorization of Lignin. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Valorization ...

  13. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquid Tr anspor tation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and ... technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid fuels that are deployable by ...

  14. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Åmand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Håkan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Two strategies to reduce PCDD/F formation when co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and biomass. • They were co-combustion with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and addition of ammonium sulphate. • PCDD/Fs were significantly reduced for a biomass rich in chlorine when adding ammonium sulphate. • MSS had a suppressing effect on PCDD/F formation during co-combustion with SRF. • A link is presented between gaseous alkali chlorides, chlorine in deposits and PCDD/F formation. - Abstract: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (<700 °C), incineration of electronic waste and plastic waste containing chlorine are all factors influencing the formation of PCDD/Fs in boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS

  15. A Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 21, 2013 Gasification Mike Schultz, PhD., Project PI A Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas Project Goal A hybrid biorefinery design that enables the production of jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels from waste biomass System Integration, Optimization and Analysis Integration Gasification & Syngas Conditioning Fermentation & Alcohol Recovery Catalysis Catalysis Gasoline Jet Fuel Diesel Butadiene MEK EtOH 2,3BD Wood Stover Switchgrass Improve Economics and Process

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be Fueled by Biomass

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When construction is complete in 2011, Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s biomass steam plant will be fueled by roughly 50,000 tons of waste wood per year.

  17. Regional Waste Systems Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Systems Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Regional Waste Systems Biomass Facility Facility Regional Waste Systems Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid...

  18. Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Valorization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomass: Valorization of Lignin Mike Kent Deconstruction Division Joint BioEnergy Institute Outline 1. Introduction: -fuels and chemicals from Ngnocellulosic biomass -need ...

  19. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  20. Liquid Fuels from Biomass

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  1. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated ... renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels * ...

  2. American Ref-Fuel of Hempstead Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hempstead Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of Hempstead Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of Hempstead Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  3. Kent County Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kent County Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility Facility Kent County Waste to Energy...

  4. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, James L.; Chen, Guang Jiong

    1998-01-01

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

  5. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  6. Biomass fuel use in agriculture under alternative fuel prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hillsman, E.L.; Tepel, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    A linear programming model is used to analyze cost-competitiveness of biomass fuels in agricultural applications for the projected year 1990. With all else held constant, the prices of conventional fuels are increased and analytically compared to prices for biomass fuel products across a variety of end uses. Potential penetration of biomass fuels is measured as the share of each conventional fuel for which cost savings could be realized by substituting biomass fuels. This study examines the cost competitiveness of biomass fuels produced on farms, relative to conventional fuels (diesel, gasoline, natural gas, LPG, fuel oil, and electricity), as the prices of conventional fuels change. The study is targeted at the year 1990 and considers only fuel use in the agricultural sector. The method of analysis is to project fuel demands for ten farm operations in the year 1990 and to match these with biomass fuel substitutes from ten feedstock and nine process alternatives. In all, 61 feedstock/process combinations are possible. The matching of fuel demands and biomass fuels occurs in a linear programming model that seeks to meet fuel demands at minimum cost. Two types of biomass fuel facilities are considered, assuming a decentralized fuel distribution system. The first includes on-farm production units such as oil presses, low-Btu gasifiers, biogas digestors and direct combustion units. The second type of facility would be run by a farm co-operative. The primary data describing the biomass technologies are cost per unit output, where costs are calculated as first-year capital charges, plus al l allocable operating expenses, less any by-products of value. All costs assume commercial purchase of equipment. Homemade or makeshift installations are not considered. 1 reference.

  7. Waste-to-Energy Biomass Digester with Decreased Water Consumption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Waste-to-Energy Biomass Digester with Decreased Water Consumption Colorado State University Contact ...

  8. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  9. Los Alamos improves biomass-to-fuel process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass-to-fuel Process Improved Los Alamos improves biomass-to-fuel process Los Alamos scientists and collaborators published an article in the scientific journal Nature Chemistry...

  10. State Grid Biomass Fuel and Combustion Technology Laboratory...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Fuel and Combustion Technology Laboratory Jump to: navigation, search Name: State Grid Biomass Fuel and Combustion Technology Laboratory Place: Beijing Municipality, China...

  11. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at...

  12. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  13. Biomass Fuels Ltd BFL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd BFL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biomass Fuels Ltd (BFL) Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: EC1Y 2BJ Sector: Renewable Energy Product: London-based company that secures...

  14. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  15. American Ref-Fuel of Delaware Valley Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ref-Fuel of Delaware Valley Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of Delaware Valley Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of Delaware Valley...

  16. Vimmerstedt, L. J.; Bush, B. W. 09 BIOMASS FUELS BIOMASS; BIOFUEL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Investment on the Growth of the Biofuels Industry Vimmerstedt, L. J.; Bush, B. W. 09 BIOMASS FUELS BIOMASS; BIOFUEL; DEMONSTRATION; DEPLOYMENT; LEARNING; POLICY; SYSTEM DYNAMICS;...

  17. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  18. Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

    2006-06-30

    The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow through

  19. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantaged Jet Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 May, 2013 Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion Randy Cortright PhD Virent, Inc WBS: 2.3.1.8 Goal Statement Project Goal - Integrate Virent's BioForming® Process with NREL's biomass deconstruction technology to efficiently produce cost effective "drop-in" fuels from corn stover with particular focus in maximizing jet fuel yields.  Improve pretreatment strategies for deconstruction of cellulose and hemicellulose while significantly reducing or eliminating costly enzymes

  20. Biomass and Waste-to-Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion & Biogas: Industry Perspectives ... waste and manure, and municipal commercial food waste. ... Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast ...

  1. Port Graham Woody Biomass Community Waste Heat Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Woody Biomass Community Waste Heat Project Charlie Sink, Chugachmiut For Port Graham Tribal Council U.S. of Energy Tribal Energy Program Annual Tribal Energy Conference 2012 November 13-16, 2012 Nanwalek Nanwalek Port Graham, Alaska Approximately 134 people Annual fuel consumption 53,100 gallons diesel fuel for heat Annual electrical usage 1,340,000 kWh/yr Funding Agencies US Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program (DOE/TEP) http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/tribalenergy/ Alaska Energy Authority

  2. Biomass 2008: Fueling Our Future Conference | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass 2008: Fueling Our Future Conference Biomass 2008: Fueling Our Future Conference April 18, 2008 - 10:49am Addthis Remarks as Prepared for Delivery by Secretary of Energy...

  3. Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler Uses a Combination of Wood Waste and Tire-Derived Fuel In 2011, the ...

  4. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  5. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Santosh Gangwal, Director-Business Development, Energy Technologies, Southern Research Institute gangwal_biomass_2014.pdf (1.36

  6. Economics of producing fuel pellets from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, S.; Sokhansanj, S.; Bi, X.; Turhollow, A.

    2006-05-15

    An engineering economic analysis of a biomass pelleting process was performed for conditions in North America. The pelletization of biomass consists of a series of unit operations: drying, size reduction, densifying, cooling, screening, and warehousing. Capital and operating cost of the pelleting plant was estimated at several plant capacities. Pellet production cost for a base case plant capacity of 6 t/h was about $51/t of pellets. Raw material cost was the largest cost element of the total pellet production cost followed by personnel cost, drying cost, and pelleting mill cost. An increase in raw material cost substantially increased the pellet production cost. Pellet plants with a capacity of more than 10 t/h decreased the costs to roughly $40/t of pellets. Five different burner fuels - wet sawdust, dry sawdust, biomass pellets, natural gas, and coal were tested for their effect on the cost of pellet production. Wet sawdust and coal, the cheapest burner fuels, produced the lowest pellet production cost. The environmental impacts due to the potential emissions of these fuels during the combustion process require further investigation.

  7. ECONOMICS OF PRODUCING FUEL PELLETS FROM BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2005-09-01

    An engineering economic analysis of a biomass pelleting process was performed for conditions in North America. The biomass pelleting process consists of a series of unit operations namely drying, size reduction, pelletization, cooling, screening and warehousing. Capital and operating cost of the pelleting plant was estimated at several plant capacities. Pellet production cost for a base case plant capacity of 6 t/h was about $51/t of pellets. Raw material cost was the largest cost factor on the total pellet production cost followed by personnel cost, drying cost and pelleting mill cost. An increase in raw material cost substantially increased the pellet production cost. Large-scale pellet plants with a plant capacity of more than 10t/h decreased the costs to roughly $40/t of pellets. Five different burner fuels wet sawdust, dry sawdust, biomass pellets, natural gas and coal were tested for their effect on the cost of pellet production. Wet sawdust and coal, the cheapest burner fuels, produced the lowest pellet production cost. Tthe environmental impacts due to the potential emissions of these fuels during the combustion process require further investigation.

  8. Fuel cell power plants using hydrogen from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A.; Onischak, M.; Lau, F.S.

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses a power generation system that offers high energy efficiency, ultra-clean environmental performance, and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass from agricultural and forestry wastes or dedicated energy farms can be used efficiently for power generation in integrated biomass gasification-fuel cell (IBGFC) systems. The energy efficiency of these systems has been projected to approach 55% or even higher if cogeneration opportunities can be utilized. Such systems, in addition to being ultra-efficient, can boast very low emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates, and are essentially CO{sub 2}-neutral. With the mounting concern about greenhouse gas emissions, this approach to renewable energy is very attractive for small distributed generation markets in the US and worldwide. Biomass wastes alone, by current estimates, have the potential to provide as much as 338 GW of electrical power worldwide if utilized in this fashion, and offer the best near- to mid-term market entry opportunities for this technology. Power demand in the US will be driven by the opening of niche markets as a result of deregulation and environmental concerns, and markets in other regions will be driven by economic growth as well. In this paper, the integration of a pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell and expansion turbine bottoming cycle will be presented. Two cycles are suggested: one using conventional technology for biomass drying, feeding, and gasification, and a second, more advanced cycle using wet feeding direct to the gasifier and in-bed steam reforming to boost cycle efficiency and reduce capital costs. Both cycles use state-of-the-art molten carbonate fuel cells with an expansion turbine bottoming cycle. These options are presented along with recommended technical development activities and targets.

  9. American Ref-Fuel of Niagara Biomass Facility | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Niagara Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of Niagara Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of Niagara Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal...

  10. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration at Biorefineries | Department of Energy Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries DOE Biomass Program perspective on anaerobic digestion and fuel cell integratin at biorefineries. Presented by Brian Duff, DOE Biomass Program, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  11. Biomass 2009: Fueling Our Future | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09: Fueling Our Future Biomass 2009: Fueling Our Future We would like to thank everyone who attended Biomass 2009: Fueling Our Future, including the speakers, moderators, sponsors, and exhibitors who helped make the conference a great success. Biomass 2009: Fueling Our Future was held on March 17 and 18, 2009, at the Gaylord National Harbor in National Harbor, Maryland. More than 600 participants from industry, finance, government, and academia were in attendance, including several large and

  12. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion of Biomass to Fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into fuels. February 7, 2013 Artist's conception of the process: Researchers open up a component of the biofuel molecule, called a furan ring, to make it easier to chemically alter. Opening these rings into linear chains is a necessary step in the production of energy-dense fuels, so these linear chains can then be converted

  13. Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    The current status and future plans for a project to convert waste cellulosic (biomass) materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels is described. The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, diesel fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. The following tasks were specified in the statement of work for the contract period: (1) feedstock studies; (2) gasification system optimization; (3) waste stream characterization; and (4) liquid fuels synthesis. In addition, several equipment improvements were implemented.

  14. Biomass Fueling America’s Growing Clean Energy Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Biomass is the most abundant biological material on the planet. It is renewable; it grows almost everywhere; and it provides fuel, power, chemicals, and many other products. Find out how biomass is helping grow America's clean energy economy.

  15. Rural electrification: Waste biomass Russian northern territories. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamian, S.

    1998-02-01

    The primary objective of this pre-feasibility evaluation is to examine the economic and technical feasibility of replacing distillate fuel with local waste biomass in the village of Verkhni-Ozerski, Arkhangelsk Region, Russia. This village is evaluated as a pilot location representing the off-grid villages in the Russian Northern Territories. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has agreed to provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MFE). MFE has identified the Northern Territories as a priority area requiring NREL`s assistance. The program initially affects about 900 off-grid villages. Biomass and wind energy, and to a lesser extent small hydro (depending on resource availability) are expected to play the dominant role in the program, Geothermal energy may also have a role in the Russian Far East. The Arkhangelsk, Kariela, and Krasnoyarsk Regions, all in the Russian Northern Territories, have abundant forest resources and forest products industries, making them strong candidates for implementation of small-scale waste biomass-to-energy projects. The 900 or so villages included in the renewable energy program span nine administrative regions and autonomous republics. The regional authorities in the Northern Territories proposed these villages to MFE for consideration in the renewable energy program according to the following selection criteria: (a) Remote off-grid location, (b) high cost of transporting fuel, old age of existing power generation equipment, and (d) preliminary determination as to availability of alternative energy resources. Inclusion of indigenous minorities in the program was also heavily emphasized. The prefeasibility study demonstrates that the project merits continuation and a full feasibility analysis. The demonstrated rate of return and net positive cash flow, the willingness of Onegales and local/regional authorities to cooperate, and the immense social benefits are all good reasons to continue the project.

  16. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Technology published the research. Trash to Treasure "Efficient conversion of non-food biomass into fuels and chemical feedstocks could reduce society's dependence on...

  17. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email Efficient conversion of non-food biomass into fuels and chemical feedstocks could reduce society's dependence on...

  18. Food Security and Nutrition NONE 09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOFUELS;...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition NONE 09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOFUELS; PRODUCTION; AGRICULTURE; ENERGY POLICY; SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS; SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT;...

  19. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, ...

  20. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions. The journal Catalysis Science & Technology published the research. Trash to Treasure "Efficient conversion of non-food biomass into fuels and chemical...

  1. Woody biomass production in waste recycling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockwood, D.L.; Snyder, G.H.; Sprinkle, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    Combining woody biomass production with waste recycling offers many mutual advantages, including increased tree growth and nutrient and water reclamation. Three biomass/recycling studies collectively involving Eucalyptus amplifolia, E. camaldulensis, and E. grandis, rapidly growing species potentially tolerant of high water and nutrient levels, are (1) evaluating general potential for water/nutrient recycling systems to enhance woody biomass production and to recycle water and nutrients, (2) documenting Eucalyptus growth, water use, and nutrient uptake patterns, and (3) identifying Eucalyptus superior for water and nutrient uptake in central and southern Florida. In a 1992-93 study assessing the three Eucalyptus species planted on the outside berms of sewage effluent holding ponds, position on the berms (top to bottom) and genotypes influenced tree size. The potential of the trees to reduce effluent levels in the ponds was assessed. In a stormwater holding pond planted in 1993, these Eucalyptus genotypes varied significantly for tree size but not for survival. E. camaldulensis appears generally superior when flooded with industrial stormwater. Potential sizes of ponds needed for different stormwater applications were estimated. Prolonged flooding of 4- and 5-year-old E. camaldulensis with agricultural irrigation runoff has had no observable effects on tree growth or survival. Younger E. camaldulensis, E. amplifolia, and E. grandis were assessed for water use and nutrient uptake during a Summer 1994 flooding.

  2. Turning Waste Into Fuel: How the INEOS Biorefinery Is Changing the Clean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Game | Department of Energy Waste Into Fuel: How the INEOS Biorefinery Is Changing the Clean Energy Game Turning Waste Into Fuel: How the INEOS Biorefinery Is Changing the Clean Energy Game February 9, 2011 - 1:40pm Addthis Turning Waste Into Fuel: How the INEOS Biorefinery Is Changing the Clean Energy Game Paul Bryan Biomass Program Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy How does it work? Vegetative and agricultural waste reacts with oxygen to produce synthesis

  3. Los Alamos improves biomass-to-fuel process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass-to-fuel Process Improved Los Alamos improves biomass-to-fuel process Los Alamos scientists and collaborators published an article in the scientific journal Nature Chemistry this week that could offer a big step on the path to renewable energy. April 26, 2013 Los Alamos research better converts energy from fields into fuel tanks. Los Alamos research better converts energy from fields into fuel tanks. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email This work describes a

  4. Los Alamos improves biomass-to-fuel process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improves biomass-to-fuel process Los Alamos improves biomass-to-fuel process Los Alamos scientists published an article in the scientific journal Nature Chemistry that could offer a big step on the path to renewable energy. April 30, 2013 Los Alamos research better converts energy from fields into fuel tanks. Los Alamos research better converts energy from fields into fuel tanks. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email This work describes a completely new approach, an

  5. Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    break down biomass into useful components Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose) is an attractive alternative as a feedstock for the...

  6. American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  7. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a Light Duty Vehicle Workshop in Washington, D.C. on July 26, 2010. liquid_trans_tech.pdf (584.34 KB) More Documents & Publications February GBTL Webinar GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses

  8. Commercialization of IH2® Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and ...

  9. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to

  10. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Power Plants Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean FuelCell Energy, Inc. * ...

  11. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation by Frank Wolak, Fuel Cell Energy, at the Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held Jan. 13, 2011 wastewolak.pdf (1.99 MB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell ...

  12. Energy from biomass and wastes V. Proceedings of the fifth symposium, Lake Buena Vista, FL, January 26-30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Papers are presented in the areas of biomass production and procurement, biomass and waste combustion, gasification processes, liquefaction processes, environmental effects and government programs. Specific topics include a water hyacinth wastewater treatment system with biomass production, the procurement of wood as an industrial fuel, the cofiring of densified refuse-derived fuel and coal, the net energy production in anaerobic digestion, photosynthetic hydrogen production, the steam gasification of manure in a fluidized bed, and biomass hydroconversion to synthetic fuels. Attention is also given to the economics of deriving alcohol for power applications from grain, ethanol fermentation in a yeast-immobilized column fermenter, a solar-fired biomass flash pyrolysis reactor, particulate emissions from controlled-air modular incinerators, and the DOE program for energy recovery from urban wastes.

  13. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  14. Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource? (Technical Report) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; AGRICULTURAL WASTES; ASH CONTENT; BAMBOO; BIOMASS; ENERGY RECOVERY ...

  15. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  16. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  17. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presented by Brian Duff, DOE Biomass Program, at the NRELDOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado. june2012biogasworkshopduff.pdf (1.31 MB) ...

  18. Property:RenewableFuelStandard/BiomassBasedDiesel | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:RenewableFuelStandardBiomassBasedDiesel Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages...

  19. States Biomass/Clean Cities Information Exchange: Food and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Roya Stanley (Iowa Office of Energy Independence) discussed the food versus fuel issue

  20. Production of biomass fuel for resource recovery: Trash recycling in Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauriello, P.J.; Brooks, K.G.

    1997-12-01

    Dade County, Florida has been in the forefront of resources recovery from municipal solid waste since the early 1980`s. The County completed its 3,000 tons per day (six days per week) refuse derived fuel waste-to-energy facility in 1982. The Resources Recovery facility is operated under a long-term agreement with Montenay-Dade, Ltd. The trash processing capability of this facility was upgraded in 1997 to process 860 tons per day (six days per week) of trash into a biomass fuel which is used off-site to produce electrical energy. Under current Florida law, facilities like trash-to-fuel that produce alternative clean-burning fuels for the production of energy may receive credit for up to one-half of the state`s 30 percent waste reduction goal.

  1. American Ref-Fuel of Essex Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Essex Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of Essex Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of Essex Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid...

  2. Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Electrical Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Pd Nanoparticles," Nanotechnology, 23, 29404. 34 Presentations * Adhikari, S., C. Brodbeck, S. Taylor. 2012. Biomass gasification for heat and power applications. ...

  3. MacArthur Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MacArthur Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name MacArthur Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility Facility MacArthur Waste to Energy Facility...

  4. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  5. Transportation fuels from biomass via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2013-09-21

    Biomass is a renewable source of carbon, which could provide a means to reduce the greenhouse gas impact from fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Biomass is the only renewable source of liquid fuels, which could displace petroleum-derived products. Fast pyrolysis is a method of direct thermochemical conversion (non-bioconversion) of biomass to a liquid product. Although the direct conversion product, called bio-oil, is liquid; it is not compatible with the fuel handling systems currently used for transportation. Upgrading the product via catalytic processing with hydrogen gas, hydroprocessing, is a means that has been demonstrated in the laboratory. By this processing the bio-oil can be deoxygenated to hydrocarbons, which can be useful replacements of the hydrocarbon distillates in petroleum. While the fast pyrolysis of biomass is presently commercial, the upgrading of the liquid product by hydroprocessing remains in development, although it is moving out of the laboratory into scaled-up process demonstration systems.

  6. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  7. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  8. Feasibility study for a 10-MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... -- Alcohol Fuels-- Preparation from Wastes or Biomass-- (1976-1989); 140504 -- Solar Energy Conversion-- Biomass Production & Conversion-- (-1989); 151000 -- Geothermal ...

  9. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  10. Biomass 2008: Fueling Our Future Conference | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2008: Fueling Our Future Conference Biomass 2008: Fueling Our Future Conference April 18, 2008 - 10:49am Addthis Remarks as Prepared for Delivery by Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman Thank you and good afternoon. It's good to be with you. I want to thank John Mizroch for introducing me, and to congratulate him and all the folks at the Energy Department's biomass office for pulling together what appears to be a very successful event. Our national energy policy centers around one key idea: we must

  11. FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.; Carter, J.

    2010-10-13

    The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S; (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated; (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass; and (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

  12. FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J.

    2011-01-03

    The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S. (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated. (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass. (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

  13. Alternative fuel comprised of sewage sludge and a liquid hydrocarbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 32 ... Fuels-- Preparation from Wastes or Biomass-- (1976-1989); 320604 -- Energy ...

  14. Biomass Burner Cogenerates Jobs and Electricity from Lumber Mill Waste |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Burner Cogenerates Jobs and Electricity from Lumber Mill Waste Biomass Burner Cogenerates Jobs and Electricity from Lumber Mill Waste December 6, 2011 - 3:57pm Addthis Dale and Sharon Borgford, small business owners in Stevens County, WA, break ground with Peter Goldmark, Washington State Commissioner of Public Lands. The pair brought more than 75 jobs to the area with help from DOE's State Energy Program and the U.S. Forest Service. | Photo courtesy of Washington DNR.

  15. Thermodynamics of Binding Biomass to Cellulases for Renewable Fuel |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Thermodynamics of Binding Biomass to Cellulases for Renewable Fuel PI Name: Michael Crowley PI Email: michael.crowley@nrel.gov Institution: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 70 Million Year: 2013 Research Domain: Energy Technologies The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has stipulated that 30% of the gasoline demand be displaced by renewable transportation fuels from non-food feedstock by 2030. The

  16. Municipal waste to vehicle fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henrich, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of water as a scrubbing agent for biogas from wastewater treatment plants and landfills is described. The purified gas containing 98% CH/sub 4/ is a viable and potentially cost-effective fuel for traction. A biogas-purification process (the Binax system), delivery of the gas, quality and economics of the purified gas, the Binax design specifications, and a vehicle-conversion system to operate on gasoline or CH/sub 4/ are discussed. Biogas manufacture from wastewater-treatment plants is generally approximately 0.25 -3 cubic ft/capita-day depending on digester design and operating efficiency, solid removal efficiency (primary treatment vs. secondary treatment), and on the amount of industrial and agricultural waste flowing into the facilities. A treatment facility serving a population of 100,000 might produce 50,000-300,000 cubic ft digester gas/day.

  17. Biomass and Coal into Liquid Fuel with CO2 Capture - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Biomass and Coal into Liquid Fuel with CO2 Capture New Single-step hydrolysis process co-converts coal and any biomass to liquid fuel Savannah ...

  18. A small scale biomass fueled gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, J.D.; Purvis, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWd) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The new power plants are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth materials (such as rice hulls, cotton gin trash, nut shells, and various straws, grasses, and animal manures) that are not normally considered as fuel for power plants. This paper summarizes the new power generation concept with emphasis on the engineering challenges presented by the gas turbine component.

  19. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was

  20. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, J. D.; Collins, E. D.; Crum, J. V.; Ebert, W. L.; Frank, S. M.; Garn, T. G.; Gombert, D.; Jones, R.; Jubin, R. T.; Maio, V. C.; Marra, J. C.; Matyas, J.; Nenoff, T. M.; Riley, B. J.; Sevigny, G. J.; Soelberg, N. R.; Strachan, D. M.; Thallapally, P. K.; Westsik, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle's Waste Haulers are Going Green

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Seattle's Waste Haulers are Going Green to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle's Waste Haulers are Going Green on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle's Waste Haulers are Going Green on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle's Waste Haulers are Going Green on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle's Waste Haulers are Going Green on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle's Waste Haulers are Going

  2. Health and environmental research. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1981. [Health and environmental effects of waste and biomass to energy processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Progress on the following studies is summarized: health and environmental impact of waste and biomass to energy processes; characterization of organic pollutants; environmental effects of using municipal solid wastes as a supplementary fuel; microbiological air quality of the Ames Municipal Solid Waste Recovery System; solid waste to methane study; high resolution luminescence spectroscopy (x-ray laser excited Shpol'skii spectroscopy, rotationally cooled fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy); lead mission-environmental aspects of energy recovery from waste and biomass; risk assessment of municipal wastes as a supplemental fuel. An executive summary of a report on the health and environmental effects of refuse-derived fuel production and coal co-firing technologies is also included. (JGB)

  3. Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing Raymond Wissinger, Manager, Renewable Energy & Chemicals, Research & Development, UOP wissinger_biomass_2014.pdf (735 KB) More Documents

  4. Impact study on the use of biomass-derived fuels in gas turbines for power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, C.A.; Bernstein, H.

    1994-01-01

    This report evaluates the properties of fuels derived from biomass, both gaseous and liquid, against the fuel requirements of gas turbine systems for gernating electrical power. The report attempts to be quantitative rather than merely qualitative to establish the significant variations in the properties of biomass fuels from those of conventional fuels. Three general categories are covered: performance, durability, and storage and handling.

  5. Direct Conversion of Biomass into Transportation Fuels - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Direct Conversion of Biomass into Transportation Fuels Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryLos Alamos National Laboratory is developing a portfolio of technologies related to catalytic processes for converting oligosaccharides into hydrocarbons under mild conditions.DescriptionWe are seeking a co-development partner interested in teaming to further develop the technology, including pursuit of Federal-funding opportunities, and

  6. Waste Stream Analyses for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. R. Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    A high-level study was performed in Fiscal Year 2009 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) to provide information for a range of nuclear fuel cycle options (Wigeland 2009). At that time, some fuel cycle options could not be adequately evaluated since they were not well defined and lacked sufficient information. As a result, five families of these fuel cycle options are being studied during Fiscal Year 2010 by the Systems Analysis Campaign for the DOE NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. The quality and completeness of data available to date for the fuel cycle options is insufficient to perform quantitative radioactive waste analyses using recommended metrics. This study has been limited thus far to qualitative analyses of waste streams from the candidate fuel cycle options, because quantitative data for wastes from the front end, fuel fabrication, reactor core structure, and used fuel for these options is generally not yet available.

  7. No Fossils in This Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... that burn diesel fuel. biomass - any organic plant or animal matter (wood, wood wastes, agricultural residues, animal wastes, micro-algae and other aquatic plants) that can be ...

  8. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  9. NREL Research on Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) scientists are developing technology to allow it to be made from cellulose and hemicellulose, the fibrous material that makes up the bulk of most plant matter. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease. It can be used as an additive (typically 20%) to reduce vehicle emissions or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html

  10. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A. Tolis, Athanasios I. Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  11. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Overview: 2011 Waste-to-Energy Using Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop | Department of Energy 2011 Waste-to-Energy Using Fuel Cells Workshop DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Overview: 2011 Waste-to-Energy Using Fuel Cells Workshop Presentation by Sunita Satyapal, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program, at the Waste-to-Energy Using Fuel Cells Workshop help January 13, 2011. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Overview (1.77 MB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell Technologies Program - DOD-DOE Workshop: Shipboard APUs Overview DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office:

  12. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E. C. D.; Laurens, L. M. L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  13. Small Modular Biomass Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-12-01

    This fact sheet provides information about modular biomass systems. Small modular biomass systems can help supply electricity to rural areas, businesses, and the billions of people who live without power worldwide. These systems use locally available biomass fuels such as wood, crop waste, animal manures, and landfill gas.

  14. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a domestic energy resource with the ...

  15. Estimating externalities of biomass fuel cycles, Report 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of the biomass fuel cycle, in which biomass is combusted to produce electricity. The major objectives of this study were: (1) to implement the methodological concepts which were developed in the Background Document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles, and by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the biomass fuel cycle; (2) to develop, given the time and resources, a range of estimates of marginal (i.e., the additional or incremental) damages and benefits associated with selected impact-pathways from a new wood-fired power plant, using a representative benchmark technology, at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information available to support energy decision making and the estimation of externalities, and by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The demonstration of methods, modeling procedures, and use of scientific information was the most important objective of this study. It provides an illustrative example for those who will, in the future, undertake studies of actual energy options and sites. As in most studies, a more comprehensive analysis could have been completed had budget constraints not been as severe. Particularly affected were the air and water transport modeling, estimation of ecological impacts, and economic valuation. However, the most important objective of the study was to demonstrate methods, as a detailed example for future studies. Thus, having severe budget constraints was appropriate from the standpoint that these studies could also face similar constraints. Consequently, an important result of this study is an indication of what can be done in such studies, rather than the specific numerical estimates themselves.

  16. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    The University of Alabama will develop fuel-flexible, low-emissions burner technology for the metal processing industry that is capable of using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas. By replacing a fossil fuel with biomass fuels, this new burner will enable a reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and an increase in fuel flexibility.

  17. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  18. Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources that are used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form or energy product that are available on a renewable basis are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, algae, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated Energy Crops Dedicated energy crops are non-food

  19. Renewing Rock-Tenn: A Biomass Fuels Assessment for Rock-Tenn's St. Paul Recycled Paper Mill.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Carl

    2007-03-31

    In the summer of 2006 the Green Institute started the study for the RockTenn paper mill that would evaluate the economics and supply chain reliability of wood waste and other clean biomass as a fuel for the facility. The Green Institute obtained sponsorship from a broad coalition representing the community and the project team included other consultants and university researchers specializing in biomass issues. The final product from the project was a report to: 1) assess the availability of clean biomass fuel for use at the Rock-Tenn site; 2) roughly estimate costs at various annual usage quantities; and 3) develop the building blocks for a supply chain procurement plan. The initial report was completed and public presentations on the results were completed in spring of 2007.

  20. A Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LanzaTech. All rights reserved. 1 A Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas BETO's Project Peer Review, March 2015 Alexandria, VA Alice Havill Senior Process Engineer Project Principle Investigator Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas Project Objective: develop a hybrid conversion technology for catalytic upgrading of biomass- derived syngas to jet fuel and chemicals while ensure the cost, quality and environmental requirements of the aviation industry are met System

  1. Biomass 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... * 2 Anaerobic digesters using swine manure as principle feedstock; * Solid fuel pellets from woody biomass; and * 2 Biodiesel from waste greases and oils. 11 Scope * ...

  2. Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass, Bioenergy Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-01-01

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique facility dedicated to researching thermochemical processes to produce fuels from biomass.

  3. Densified fuels from wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickering, W.H.

    1995-11-01

    Wood compressed to a specific gravity of about 1.2 constitutes an excellent clean burning fuel. {open_quotes}Prestologs{close_quotes} were marketed before 1940, but in the past ten years a much larger and growing market is densified pellet fuel has developed. The market for pellet fuel is about 90% residential, using special pellet burning stoves. Initial sales were almost entirely in the northwest, but sales in other parts of the country are now growing rapidly. Approximately 300,000 stoves are in use. Note that this industry developed from the private sector with little or no support from federal or state governments. Densified fuel is manufactured by drying and compressing sawdust feedstock. Combustion is different than that of normal wood. For example, wood pellets require ample supplies of air. They then burn with a hot flame and very low particulate emissions. Volatile organic compounds are burned almost completely and carbon monoxide can also be kept very low. Stoves burning pellets easily meet EPA standards. This paper discusses technical and economic factors associated with densified fuel and considers the future of the industry.

  4. Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Energy Co-Evolution of Biofuels Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae ... HomeBiomass Permalink One-Pot-to-Prep Biomass for Biofuels Biofuels, Biomass, Energy, ...

  5. Waste Management Planned for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg

    2007-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program has been proposed to develop and employ advanced technologies to increase the proliferation resistance of spent nuclear fuels, recover and reuse nuclear fuel resources, and reduce the amount of wastes requiring permanent geological disposal. In the initial GNEP fuel cycle concept, spent nuclear fuel is to be reprocessed to separate re-useable transuranic elements and uranium from waste fission products, for fabricating new fuel for fast reactors. The separated wastes would be converted to robust waste forms for disposal. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is proposed by DOE for developing and demonstrating spent nuclear fuel recycling technologies and systems. The AFCF will include capabilities for receiving and reprocessing spent fuel and fabricating new nuclear fuel from the reprocessed spent fuel. Reprocessing and fuel fabrication activities will generate a variety of radioactive and mixed waste streams. Some of these waste streams are unique and unprecedented. The GNEP vision challenges traditional U.S. radioactive waste policies and regulations. Product and waste streams have been identified during conceptual design. Waste treatment technologies have been proposed based on the characteristics of the waste streams and the expected requirements for the final waste forms. Results of AFCF operations will advance new technologies that will contribute to safe and economical commercial spent fuel reprocessing facilities needed to meet the GNEP vision. As conceptual design work and research and design continues, the waste management strategies for the AFCF are expected to also evolve.

  6. Biomass Resources Overview and Perspectives on Best Fits for Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Biomass resources overview and perspectives on best fits for fuel cells. Presented by Darlene Steward, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  7. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  8. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2013-09-30

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  9. The coprocessing of fossil fuels and biomass for CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji; Borgwardt, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    Research is underway to evaluate the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. These products are valuable in the market either as fuel or as chemical commodities. As fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, either independently or in slurry form, in efficient heat energies (turbines and internal combustion engines) for both mobile and stationary single and combined cycle power plants. When considering CO{sub 2} emission control in the utilization of fossil fuels, the copressing of those fossil fuels with biomass (which may include, wood, municipal solid waste and sewage sludge) is a viable mitigation approach. By coprocessing both types of feedstock to produce methanol and carbon while sequestering all or part of the carbon, a significant net CO{sub 2} reduction is achieved if the methanol is substituted for petroleum fuels in the transportation sector. The Hydrocarb process has the potential, if the R&D objectives are achieved, to produce alternative transportation fuel from indigenous resources at lower cost than any other biomass conversion process. These comparisons suggest the resulting fuel can significantly displace gasoline at a competitive price while mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions and reducing ozone and other toxics in urban atmospheres.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    in clean technology and renewable energy businesses, such as clean vehicle technologies, and cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, biomass power, green waste, and fuel cell production. ...

  11. Low-emission vortex combustion of biomass and fossil fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finker, F.Z.; Kubischkin, I.B.; Akhmedov, D.B.

    1995-11-01

    The article introduces the results of development and industrial experience of low-emission vortex combustion technology (LEVC) of biomass and fossil fuel in industrial and utility boilers in Russian timber and paper industries and Polish power plants. The LEVC technology is based on aerodynamics method of multiple circulation of gases and fuel in the furnaces. LEVC technology accumulates the advantages of conventional and fluidized bed combustion technology. Existing boilers could be easily retrofitted for the application of LEVC technology without requiring major investment. The repowering of boiler with LEVC was the result the reduction NOx emission to the level 170g/GJ without installation additional flue gas cleaning equipment and it gave the opportunity for an injection of sulfur sorbent in the furnace. The authors discussed Russian-Polish experiment on utility boiler retrofitted with the application of LEVC. As the result the efficiency of the boiler increased in 2%. The reduction of the emission is: NOx-40%, SO2-17%.

  12. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  13. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. biomass resource can be used several ways that provide domestic, renewable energy to users. Understanding the capacity of the biomass resource, its potential in energy markets, and the most economic utilization of biomass is important in policy development and project selection. This study analyzed the potential for biomass within markets and the competition between them. The study found that biomass has the potential to compete well in the jet fuel and gasoline markets, penetration of biomass in markets is likely to be limited by the size of the resource, and that biomass is most cost effectively used for fuels instead of power in mature markets unless carbon capture and sequestration is available and the cost of carbon is around $80/metric ton CO2e.

  14. Small-scale biomass fueled cogeneration systems - A guidebook for general audiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1993-12-01

    What is cogeneration and how does it reduce costs? Cogeneration is the production of power -- and useful heat -- from the same fuel. In a typical biomass-fueled cogeneration plant, a steam turbine drives a generator, producing electricity. The plant uses steam from the turbine for heating, drying, or other uses. The benefits of cogeneration can mostly easily be seen through actual samples. For example, cogeneration fits well with the operation of sawmills. Sawmills can produce more steam from their waste wood than they need for drying lumber. Wood waste is a disposal problem unless the sawmill converts it to energy. The case studies in Section 8 illustrate some pluses and minuses of cogeneration. The electricity from the cogeneration plant can do more than meet the in-house requirements of the mill or manufacturing plant. PURPA -- the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 -- allows a cogenerator to sell power to a utility and make money on the excess power it produces. It requires the utility to buy the power at a fair price -- the utility`s {open_quotes}avoided cost.{close_quotes} This can help make operation of a cogeneration plant practical.

  15. Building biomass into the utility fuel mix at NYSEG: System conversion and testing results for Greenidge Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin, W.

    1996-12-31

    NYSEG is in the second phase of developing resources and systems for cofiring biomass with coal. In the first phase, stoker boilers were fired with biomass (typically wood waste products). Encouraged by positive results at the older stokers, NYSEG decided to develop the process for its pulverized coal boilers beginning with Greenidge Station, a 108-MW pulverized coal (PC) unit with a General Electric turbine generator and a 665,000-lb Combustion Engineering, tangentially fired boiler. Greenidge Station is in the center of New York, surrounded by farms, forests, vineyards, and orchards. The test bums at Greenidge Station demonstrated that a parallel fuel feed system can effectively provide wood products to a PC unit. Emission results were promising but inconclusive. Additional testing, for longer durations, at varied loads and with different woods needs to be conducted to clarify and establish relationships between the percent wood fired at varying moisture contents. Loads need to be varied to develop continuous emission monitor emission data that can be compared to coal-only data. Economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to further refine the equipment and systems. Refinements may include chipping and drying equipment, plus installation of fuel storage and feed systems with permanent boiler penetration. NYSEG will attempt to identify the problems associated with cofiring by direct injection, compared to cofiring a biomass/coal mixture through the existing fuel handling system. Specifically, an examination will be made of fuel size criteria and the system modifications necessary for minimal impacts on coal-fired operation.

  16. Production of liquid fuels out of plant biomass and refuse: Methods, cost, potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woick, B.; Friedrich, R.

    1981-09-01

    Different ways of producing biomass and its conversion into high grade fuel for vehicles are reviewed with particular reference to physical and geographical factors, pertaining in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Even with the potentially small amount of biomass in the FRG, the fueling of diesel engines with rape oil or modified ethanol, which can be obtained from any cellulosic feedstock, seems to pose the fewest difficulties and promises greatest efficiency. However, the amount of fuel produced from biomass can probably only meet a very small percentage of the total amount required.

  17. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic ... Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in ...

  18. Waste-to-Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation by Robert Remick, NREL, at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy Using Fuel Cells ... Integration at Biorefineries Report of the DOD-DOE Workshop on Converting Waste to Energy ...

  19. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_crane.pdf (549.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle Applications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS,

  20. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Availability of Feedstock and Technology | Department of Energy 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a domestic energy resource with the potential to provide a significant amount of energy to meet US liquid fuel requirements. MSW is defined as household waste, commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt, small quantity hazardous

  1. Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Overall Purpose * To identify DOD-DOE waste-to-energy and fuel cells ... Background Materials Provided * DOD-DOE MOU - http:www.energy.govnews...

  2. Advanced technologies for co-processing fossil and biomass resources for transportation fuels and power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Y.

    2004-07-01

    Over the past few decades, a number of processes have been proposed or are under development for coprocessing fossil fuel and biomass for transportation fuels and power generation. The paper gives a brief description of the following processes: the Hydrocarb system for converting biomass and other carbonaceous fuels to elemental carbon and hydrogen, methane or methanol; the Hynol process where the second step of the Hydrocarb process is replaced with a methane steam reformer to convert methane to CO and H{sub 2}S without deposition of carbon; the Carnol process where CO{sub 2} from coal and the biomass power plants is reacted with hydrogen to produce methanol; and advanced biomass high efficiency power generator cycle where a continuous plasma methane decomposition reactor (PDR) is used with direct carbon fuel cell to produce power and carbon and hydrogen. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Converting biomass to fuels and high-value chemicals | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Converting biomass to fuels and high-value chemicals The goal of this research is to develop low cost catalysts based on graphene-derived nanomaterials, and use them to improve the...

  4. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  5. From Gasoline to Grassoline: Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A microbe that can produce an advanced biofuel directly from biomass was developed by researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint BioEnergy Institute.

  6. Biomass and Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-D: Natural Gas & Biomass to Liquids Josephine Elia, Graduate Student, Princeton University

  7. Fact #897 November 2, 2015 Fuel Wasted in Traffic Congestion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Total Fuel Wasted Due To Congestion, 1982-2014 Year Fuel Wasted (Billion gallons) 1982 0.5 1983 0.5 1984 0.6 1985 0.7 1986 0.8 1987 0.9 1988 1.0 1989 1.1 1990 1.2 1991 1.2 1992 1.3 ...

  8. Fact #774: April 8, 2013 Fuel Wasted in Traffic Congestion |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Total Fuel Wasted Due To Congestion Year Fuel Wasted (Billion gallons) 1982 0.53 1983 0.58 1984 0.65 1985 0.75 1986 0.88 1987 1.00 1988 1.15 1989 1.28 1990 1.36 1991 1.41 1992 1.50 ...

  9. Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-D: Working Together: Conventional Refineries and Bio-Oil R&D Technologies Corinne Valkenburg, Staff Engineer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory biomass13_male_2-d.pdf (891.45 KB) More Documents & Publications FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil Feeds 2013

  10. A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-01

    Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

  11. Issues Impacting Refractory Service Life in Biomass/Waste Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.A.

    2007-03-01

    Different carbon sources are used, or are being considered, as feedstock for gasifiers; including natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass. Biomass has been used with limited success because of issues such as ash impurity interactions with the refractory liner, which will be discussed in this paper.

  12. Breaking the ties that bind: New hope for biomass fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... the United States currently lacks an energy-efficient and cost-effective method for turning inedible biomass such as switch grass or corn husks into a sweet source of biofuels. ...

  13. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... control, tilth * Berms, spill control products * Flowerpots, molded products * Fuel pellets * Organic fertilizer, liquid nutrient solutions, "teas" * Enormous, untapped potential ...

  14. US EPA biomass fuel analytical laboratory. Report for January-April 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baskin, E.; Lee, C.W.; Natschke, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the U.S. EPA`s biomass fuel analytical laboratory at its Environmental Research Center in Research Triangle Park, NC. There is increasing interest in utlizing biomass-based fuels in thermal energy systems as an effective means for global warming remediation. The laboratory is examining biomass fuels and the variation in products of incomplete combustion (PICs) with combustion conditions. The objectives are to evaluate the kinetics of combustion and emission characteristics (e.g., structure and composition) of representative samples of relevant types of biomass fuels by studying (1) the local pyrolysis and combustion processes and products, and (2) the overall degradation rate as influenced by heat transmission. Biomass fuel samples will be examined by thermogravimetric analysis with an on-line Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TGA-FTIR). EPA has built a prototype TGA, capable of handling a 100 g sample with 1 microgram resolution for this laboratory. This instrument is capable of heating the sample to 1200 C. Samples can be pyrolyzed and combusted sequentially by automated gas switching.

  15. Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  16. Mild, Nontoxic Production of Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fossil fuel resources supply almost 90 percent of the world's energy and the vast majority of its organic chemicals. This dependency is insupportable in light of rising emissions, ...

  17. Review of the Regional Biomass Energy Program: Technical projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-31

    This article summarizes technical projects of the regional Biomass Energy Program. Projects included are as follows: economic impact studies for renewable energy resources; alternative liquid fuels; Wood pellets fuels forum; residential fuel wood consumption; waste to energy decision-makers guide; fuel assessment for cogeneration facilities; municipal solid waste combustion characteristics.

  18. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  1. Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Kinchin, C.; McCormick, R.

    2013-12-01

    The study summarizes the best available public data on the production, capacity, cost, market demand, and feedstock availability for the production of biomass-based diesel and jet fuel. It includes an overview of the current conversion processes and current state-of-development for the production of biomass-based jet and diesel fuel, as well as the key companies pursuing this effort. Thediscussion analyzes all this information in the context of meeting the RFS mandate, highlights uncertainties for the future industry development, and key business opportunities.

  2. Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, Gerald

    2012-12-31

    This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation's urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

  3. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1998-11-03

    A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

  4. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

  5. Huizenga leads safety of spent fuel management, radioactive waste

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    management meeting in Vienna | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Huizenga leads safety of spent fuel management, radioactive waste management meeting in Vienna Tuesday, May 26, 2015 - 12:10pm NNSA Blog David Huizenga, NNSA's Principal Assistant Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, recently served as president of the Fifth Review Meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management at the

  6. Waste-to-Energy Workshop Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... conversion of manure and organic substrates (waste) to middle distillate fuels ... with solid feedstocks (biomass, coal, pet coke, etc.) - Catalytic hydrothermal ...

  7. Anticipating Potential Waste Acceptance Criteria for Defense Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechard, R.P.; Lord, M.E.; Stockman, C.T.; McCurley, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for the safe management and disposal of DOE owned defense spent nuclear fuel and high level waste (DSNF/DHLW). A desirable option, direct disposal of the waste in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, depends on the final waste acceptance criteria, which will be set by DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). However, evolving regulations make it difficult to determine what the final acceptance criteria will be. A method of anticipating waste acceptance criteria is to gain an understanding of the DOE owned waste types and their behavior in a disposal system through a performance assessment and contrast such behavior with characteristics of commercial spent fuel. Preliminary results from such an analysis indicate that releases of 99Tc and 237Np from commercial spent fuel exceed those of the DSNF/DHLW; thus, if commercial spent fuel can meet the waste acceptance criteria, then DSNF can also meet the criteria. In large part, these results are caused by the small percentage of total activity of the DSNF in the repository (1.5%) and regulatory mass (4%), and also because commercial fuel cladding was assumed to provide no protection.

  8. The Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... solid waste PADD Petroleum Administration for ... using biomass-based diesel and jet fuel in the United States. ... technology used in petroleum refineries. ...

  9. An atlas of thermal data for biomass and other fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaur, S.; Reed, T.B.

    1995-06-01

    Biomass is recognized as a major source of renewable energy. In order to convert biomass energy to more useful forms, it is necessary to have accurate scientific data on the thermal properties of biomass. This Atlas has been written to supply a uniform source of that information. In the last few decades Thermal analysis (TA) tools such as thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, thermo mechanical analysis, etc. have become more important. The data obtained from these techniques can provide useful information in terms of reaction mechanism, kinetic parameters, thermal stability, phase transformation, heat of reaction, etc. for gas-solid and gas-liquid systems. Unfortunately, there are no ASTM standards set for the collection of these types of data using TA techniques and therefore, different investigators use different conditions which suit their requirements for measuring this thermal data. As a result, the information obtained from different laboratories is not comparable. This Atlas provides the ability to compare new laboratory results with a wide variety of related data available in the literature and helps ensure consistency in using these data.

  10. Effects of Biomass Fuels on Engine & System Out Emissions for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine A European Perspective of EURO 5U.S. 07 Heavy-Duty Engine Technologies and Their Related Consequences ...

  11. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation

  12. Evaluation of Waste Arising from Future Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas; Taiwo, Temitope; Wigeland, Roald

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study was recently completed at the request of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to evaluate and screen nuclear fuel cycles. The final report was issued in October 2014. Uranium- and thorium-based fuel cycles were evaluated using both fast and thermal spectrum reactors. Once-through, limited-recycle, and continuous-recycle cases were considered. This study used nine evaluation criteria to identify promising fuel cycles. Nuclear waste management was one of the nine evaluation criteria. The waste generation criterion from this study is discussed herein.

  13. EA-1870: Utah Coal and Biomass Fueled Pilot Plant, Kanab, Kane County, Utah

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared an Environmental Assessment to evaluate the potential impacts of providing financial assistance to Viresco Energy, LLC, for its construction and operation of a Coal and Biomass Fueled Pilot Plant, which would be located in Kanab, Utah.

  14. Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

  15. Investigation of an integrated switchgrass gasification/fuel cell power plant. Final report for Phase 1 of the Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Smeenk, J.; Steinfeld, G.

    1998-09-30

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program, has the goal of converting switchgrass grown on marginal farmland in southern Iowa into electric power. Two energy conversion options are under evaluation: co-firing switchgrass with coal in an existing utility boiler and gasification of switchgrass for use in a carbonate fuel cell. This paper describes the second option under investigation. The gasification study includes both experimental testing in a pilot-scale gasifier and computer simulation of carbonate fuel cell performance when operated on gas derived from switchgrass. Options for comprehensive system integration between a carbonate fuel cell and the gasification system are being evaluated. Use of waste heat from the carbonate fuel cell to maximize overall integrated plant efficiency is being examined. Existing fuel cell power plant design elements will be used, as appropriate, in the integration of the gasifier and fuel cell power plant to minimize cost complexity and risk. The gasification experiments are being performed by Iowa State University and the fuel cell evaluations are being performed by Energy Research Corporation.

  16. Small scale biomass fueled gas turbine power plant. Report for February 1992--October 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purvis, C.R.; Craig, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses a new-generation, small-scale (<20 MWe) biomass-fueled power plant that is being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. Such power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The new power plants are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth material (e.g., straw, grass, rice hulls, animal manure, cotton gin trash, and nut shells) that are not normally considered as fuel for power plants. The paper summarizes the new power generation concept with emphasis on the engineering challenges presented by the gas turbine component.

  17. Producing Clean, Renewable Diesel from Biomass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean, Renewable Diesel from Biomass Producing Clean, Renewable Diesel from Biomass November 30, 2011 - 12:08pm Addthis ThermoChem Recovery International's process demonstration unit -- where wood waste and forest residue is converted into renewable fuel. | Courtesy of TRI. ThermoChem Recovery International's process demonstration unit -- where wood waste and forest residue is converted into renewable fuel. | Courtesy of TRI. Paul Bryan Biomass Program Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency &

  18. Waste management plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel characterization activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chastain, S.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Spinks, R.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-17

    A joint project was initiated between Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to address critical issues associated with the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) stored at the Hanford Site. Recently, particular attention has been given to remediation of the SNF stored in the K Basins. A waste management plan (WMP) acceptable to both parties is required prior to the movement of selected material to the PNL facilities for examination. N Reactor and Single Pass Reactor (SPR) fuel has been stored for an extended period of time in the N Reactor, PUREX, K-East, and K-West Basins. Characterization plans call for transport of fuel material form the K Basins to the 327 Building Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL) in the 300 Area for examination. However, PNL received a directive stating that no examination work will be started in PNL hot cell laboratories without an approved disposal route for all waste generated related to the activity. Thus, as part of the Characterization Program Management Plan for Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel, a waste management plan which will ensure that wastes generated as a result of characterization activities conducted at PNL will be accepted by WHC for disposition is required. This document contains the details of the waste handling plan that utilizes, to the greatest extent possible, established waste handling and disposal practices at Hanford between PNL and WHC. Standard practices are sufficient to provides for disposal of most of the waste materials, however, special consideration must be given to the remnants of spent nuclear fuel elements following examination. Fuel element remnants will be repackaged in an acceptable container such as the single element canister and returned to the K Basins for storage.

  19. Compositional and Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Biomass as a Potential Feedstock for Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlberg, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Bean, B.; Rooney, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee was to replace 30% of current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. This will take mixtures of various feedstocks; an annual biomass feedstock such as sorghum will play an important role in meeting this goal. Commercial forage sorghum samples collected from field trials grown in Bushland, TX in 2007 were evaluated for both agronomic and compositional traits. Biomass compositional analysis of the samples was performed at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden, CO following NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedures. Depending on the specific cultivar, several additional years of yield data for this location were considered in establishing agronomic potential. Results confirm that sorghum forages can produce high biomass yields over multiple years and varied growing conditions. In addition, the composition of sorghum shows significant variation, as would be expected for most crops. Using theoretical estimates for ethanol production, the sorghum commercial forages examined in this study could produce an average of 6147 L ha{sup -1} of renewable fuels. Given its genetic variability, a known genomic sequence, a robust seed industry, and biomass composition, sorghum will be an important annual feedstock to meet the alternative fuel production goals legislated by the US Energy Security Act of 2007.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Republic Services Reduces Waste with 87 CNG

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles Republic Services Reduces Waste with 87 CNG Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Republic Services Reduces Waste with 87 CNG Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Republic Services Reduces Waste with 87 CNG Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Republic Services Reduces Waste with 87 CNG Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Republic Services Reduces Waste with 87 CNG Vehicles on

  1. Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 The United States currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel is stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal envisioned in a deep mined geologic repository. This report provides an estimate of potential waste inventory and waste form characteristics for the DOE used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive

  2. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces This tip sheet recommends installing waste heat recovery systems for fuel-fired furnaces to increase the energy efficiency of process heating systems. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #8 Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (September 2005) (280.81 KB) More Documents & Publications Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System Using

  3. Biomass Fuel Characterization : Testing and Evaluating the Combustion Characteristics of Selected Biomass Fuels : Final Report May 1, 1988-July, 1989.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Haluzok, Charles; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas

    1990-04-01

    Results show that two very important measures of combustion efficiency (gas temperature and carbon dioxide based efficiency) varied by only 5.2 and 5.4 percent respectively. This indicates that all nine different wood fuel pellet types behave very similarly under the prescribed range of operating parameters. The overall mean efficiency for all tests was 82.1 percent and the overall mean temperature was 1420 1{degree}F. Particulate (fly ash) ad combustible (in fly ash) data should the greatest variability. There was evidence of a relationship between maximum values for both particulate and combustible and the percentages of ash and chlorine in the pellet fuel. The greater the percentage of ash and chlorine (salt), the greater was the fly ash problem, also, combustion efficiency was decreased by combustible losses (unburned hydrocarbons) in the fly ash. Carbon monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen showed the next greatest variability, but neither had data values greater than 215.0 parts per million (215.0 ppm is a very small quantity, i.e. 1 ppm = .001 grams/liter = 6.2E-5 1bm/ft{sup 3}). Visual evidence indicates that pellets fuels produced from salt laden material are corrosive, produce the largest quantities of ash, and form the only slag or clinker formations of all nine fuels. The corrosion is directly attributable to salt content (or more specifically, chloride ions and compounds formed during combustion). 45 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Novel Approach for Biomass Synthesis Gas Cleaning for Liquid Fuel Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel Approach for Biomass Synthesis Gas Cleaning for Liquid Fuel Applications WBS 3.2.5.9 May 22, 2013 Thermo-chemical Platform Review Presented by: Ben Phillips, Emery Energy Lyman Frost, Ceramatec 2 Project Overview * Start Date - 9/30/2008 * Completion Date - Dec 2012 * Construction - 100% complete * Project - 100% complete 1. Tt-C - Gasification of Wood, Biorefinery Residue Streams and Low Sugar Biomass 2. Tt-F - Syngas Cleanup & Conditioning 3. Tt-H - Validation of Syngas Quality Total

  5. Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Oma, K.H.; Smith, R.I.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1986-05-01

    Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration.

  6. Preliminary waste acceptance criteria for the ICPP spent fuel and waste management technology development program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify requirements to be met by the Producer/Shipper of Spent Nuclear Fuel/High-LeveL Waste SNF/HLW in order for DOE to be able to accept the packaged materials. This includes defining both standard and nonstandard waste forms.

  7. DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent ... level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a single repository or repositories. ...

  8. Nuclear waste actinides as fissile fuel in hybrid blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahin, S.; Al-Kusayer, T.A.

    1983-12-01

    The widespread use of the present LWRs produces substantial quantities of nuclear waste materials. Among those, actinide nuclear waste poses a serious problem of stockage because the associated half life times for actinides is measured in terms of geological time periods (several millions of years) so that no waste disposal guarantee over such time intervals can be given, except for space disposal. On the other hand, these nuclear waste actinides are very good fissionable materials for high energetic (D,T) fusion neutrons. It is therefore worthwhile to investigate their quality as potential nuclear fuel in hybrid blankets. The present study investigates the neutronic performance of hybrid blankets containing Np/sup 237/ and Cm/sup 244/ as fissile materials. The isotopic composition of Americium has been adjusted to the spent fuel isotope composition of a LWR. The geometrical design has been made, according to the AYMAN fussion-fission (hybrid) experimental facility, now in the very early phase of planning.

  9. Radiant flash pyrolysis of biomass as a source of fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Hofman, L.; Moreira, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Last year a team of US and French scientists using the Odeillo (France) 1MW/sub th/ solar furnace showed concentrated solar radiation to be an effective means for rapidly volatilizing biomass materials. The results of continuing research in the U.S. on radiant flash pyrolysis of biomass as a source of fluid fuels, industrial feedstocks and chemicals are described. Bench scale sources of intense, visible radiant energy have been used to simulate the concentrated solar flux available at the focus of solar towers. Windowed transport reactors are being developed, which act as cavity receivers for the focused radiant energy and provide a means for direct use of the radiation to rapidly pyrolyze the entering biomass. One of these reactors will be operated at the focus of the Georgia Tech 400kW/sub th/ solar furnace next August. Preliminary results from the bench scale reactor experiments, and plans for the Georgia Tech experiments are detailed.

  10. Spent fuel storage and waste management fuel cycle optimization using CAFCA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinton, S.; Kazimi, M.

    2013-07-01

    Spent fuel storage modeling is at the intersection of nuclear fuel cycle system dynamics and waste management policy. A model that captures the economic parameters affecting used nuclear fuel storage location options, which complements fuel cycle economic assessment has been created using CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycles Assessment) of MIT. Research has also expanded to the study on dependency of used nuclear fuel storage economics, environmental impact, and proliferation risk. Three options of local, regional, and national storage were studied. The preliminary product of this research is the creation of a system dynamics tool known as the Waste Management Module which provides an easy to use interface for education on fuel cycle waste management economic impacts. Storage options costs can be compared to literature values with simple variation available for sensitivity study. Additionally, a first of a kind optimization scheme for the nuclear fuel cycle analysis is proposed and the applications of such an optimization are discussed. The main tradeoff for fuel cycle optimization was found to be between economics and most of the other identified metrics. (authors)

  11. Closing the Loop: Ionic Liquids from Biomass Waste Could Pretreat Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Destined for Biofuels | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Closing the Loop: Ionic Liquids from Biomass Waste Could Pretreat Plants Destined for Biofuels Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Community Resources Contact Information Advanced Scientific Computing Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-21/Germantown Building 1000 Independence

  12. Closing the Loop: Ionic Liquids from Biomass Waste Could Pretreat Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Destined for Biofuels | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Closing the Loop: Ionic Liquids from Biomass Waste Could Pretreat Plants Destined for Biofuels Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S.

  13. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  14. Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Workshop Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) ... on January 13, 2011, in Washington, DC, to discuss waste-to-energy and fuel cell use. ...

  15. Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Webinar Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Webinar The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) ... July 13, 2011, in Washington, DC, to discuss waste-to-energy for fuel cell applications. ...

  16. Process Improvement to Biomass Pretreatment for Fuels and Chemicals Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Peer Review Process Improvement to Biomass Pretreatment for Fuels and Chemicals March 24 th 2015 Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion Principal investigator: Farzaneh Teymouri Organization: MBI, Lansing MI Tel.: (517) 337-3181, www.mbi.org This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement Feedstock supply, including logistics systems and sustainable high quality feedstock, inadequate supply chain

  17. Multidisciplinary Design of an Innovative Natural Draft, Forced Diffusion Cookstove for Woody and Herbaceous Biomass Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multidisciplinary Design of an Innovative Natural Draft, Forced Diffusion Cookstove for Woody and Herbaceous Biomass Fuels March 26, 2015 Technology Area Review Principal Investigators: Jonathan Posner and John Kramlich University of Washington - Seattle This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement * Develop a natural draft cookstove that performs at the Tier 4 level for particulate matter, CO, efficiency, and safety that

  18. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dayton, David C

    2010-03-24

    Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested

  19. Storage of comminuted forest biomass and its effect on fuel quality.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afzal, M; Bedane, A.H.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Mahmood, W.

    2009-11-01

    White birch was stored in the form of bundles, wood chips and loose slash for a period of one year to examine the change in biomass fuel properties. The samples were collected at regular quarterly intervals to measure the moisture content, CNS content, ash content and calorific value. Data loggers were also placed into the woody biomass to measure the temperature change inside the piles. After the first quarter of the storage period and continuing into the next three months of storage, the moisture content showed most significant change. The moisture content of the biomass bundles increased from 29 % to above 80 % (db). The moisture content of the pile of wood chips covered with a tarp decreased from 51% to 26% and showed a continuous decline in moisture content to the end of storage period. However, the moisture content of uncovered wood chip piles were observed to continuously increase throughout the storage period resulting in more than double in magnitude from 59% to 160% (db). The dry matter loss was higher in wood chip piles (8-27%) than in bundles (~3%). Among the other properties, there was slightly higher loss of calorific value in wood chips (~1.6%) as compared to bundles (~0.7%) at the end of one year. Other changes in woody biomass properties were also discussed. The proposed two-dimensional mathematical model predicted the moisture content and temperature profile in the woody biomass pile closely to the experimental data.

  20. Fact #581: July 27, 2009 Fuel Wasted in Traffic Congestion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 1: July 27, 2009 Fuel Wasted in Traffic Congestion Fact #581: July 27, 2009 Fuel Wasted in Traffic Congestion The researchers at the Texas Transportation Institute have recently published new estimates of the effects of traffic congestion. Nearly 3 billion gallons of fuel is wasted each year due to traffic congestion. In 2007, the amount of wasted fuel declined slightly due to an overall decline in vehicle miles traveled when fuel prices skyrocketed. The wasted fuel amounts to 1.6% of

  1. Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Map of the United States of America showing the locations of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste.

  2. Evaluation of cement kiln laboratories testing hazardous waste derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    Cement kiln operators wishing to burn hazardous waste derived fuels in their kilns must submit applications for Resource Conservation Recovery Act permits. One component of each permit application is a site-specific Waste Analysis Plan. These Plans describe the facilities` sampling and analysis procedures for hazardous waste derived fuels prior to receipt and burn. The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted on-site evaluations of several cement kiln facilities that were under consideration for Resource Conservation Recovery Act permits. The purpose of these evaluations was to determine if the on-site sampling and laboratory operations at each facility complied with their site-specific Waste Analysis Plans. These evaluations covered sampling, laboratory, and recordkeeping procedures. Although all the evaluated facilities were generally competent, the results of those evaluations revealed opportunities for improvement at each facility. Many findings were noted for more than one facility. This paper will discuss these findings, particularly those shared by several facilities (specific facilities will not be identified). Among the findings to be discussed are the ways that oxygen bombs were scrubbed and rinsed, the analytical quality control used, Burn Tank sampling, and the analysis of pH in hazardous waste derived fuels.

  3. Process for the conversion of and aqueous biomass hydrolyzate into fuels or chemicals by the selective removal of fermentation inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hames, Bonnie R.; Sluiter, Amie D.; Hayward, Tammy K.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    2004-05-18

    A process of making a fuel or chemical from a biomass hydrolyzate is provided which comprises the steps of providing a biomass hydrolyzate, adjusting the pH of the hydrolyzate, contacting a metal oxide having an affinity for guaiacyl or syringyl functional groups, or both and the hydrolyzate for a time sufficient to form an adsorption complex; removing the complex wherein a sugar fraction is provided, and converting the sugar fraction to fuels or chemicals using a microorganism.

  4. Biogas and alcohol fuels production. Proceedings of the Seminar on Biomass, Energy for City, Farm, and Industry, Chicago, IL, October 25, 26, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, J.

    1980-01-01

    Basic principles of anaerobic digestion are considered along with the status of the Imperial Valley Biogas Project, the Department of Energy program for the recovery of energy and materials from urban waste, the principles of alcohol production from wastes, the mechanical recovery of a refuse-derived cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production, and the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Attention is given to on-farm alcohol fuel production, the current status and future role of gasohol production, methane generation from small scale farms, farmsite installations of energy harvester anaerobic digesters, biogas/composting and landfill recovery, farm-scale composting as an option to anaerobic digestion, designing a high-quality biogas system, and methane as fuel of the future. A description is presented of subjects which are related to landfill gas recovery, biogas purification with permselective membranes, and anaerobic digestion of marine biomass. Other topics studied include the application of biogas technology in India, biogas production in China, biogasification of organic wastes in the Republic of the Philippines, and economics and operational experience of full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester.

  5. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost.

  6. Thermochemical Conversion of Woody Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2015-09-30

    Maine and its industries identified more efficient utilization of biomass as a critical economic development issue. In Phase I of this implementation project, a research team was assembled, research equipment was implemented and expertise was demonstrated in pyrolysis, hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis oils, catalyst synthesis and characterization, and reaction engineering. Phase II built upon the infrastructure to innovate reaction pathways and process engineering, and integrate new approaches for fuels and chemical production within pulp and paper and other industries within the state. This research cluster brought together chemists, engineers, physicists and students from the University of Maine, Bates College, and Bowdoin College. The project developed collaborations with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory. The specific research projects within this proposal were of critical interest to the DoE - in particular the biomass program within EERE and the catalysis/chemical transformations program within BES. Scientific and Technical Merit highlights of this project included: (1) synthesis and physical characterization of novel size-selective catalyst/supports using engineered mesoporous (1-10 nm diameter pores) materials, (2) advances in fundamental knowledge of novel support/ metal catalyst systems tailored for pyrolysis oil upgrading, (3) a microcalorimetric sensing technique, (4) improved methods for pyrolysis oil characterization, (5) production and characterization of woody biomass-derived pyrolysis oils, (6) development of two new patented bio oil pathways: thermal deoxygenation (TDO) and formate assisted pyrolysis (FASP), and (7) technoeconomics of pyrolysis of Maine forest biomass. This research cluster has provided fundamental knowledge to enable and assess pathways to thermally convert biomass to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals.

  7. Recycled waste oil: A fuel for medium speed diesel engines?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A.B.L.; Poynton, W.A.; Howard, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the exploratory engine trials that Mirrlees Blackstone has undertaken to investigate the effect of fueling an engine using waste oil derived from used lubricants. The effect on the engine`s mechanical components, and thermal performance are examined, and the steps taken to overcome problems are discussed. The proposed engine is sited within the Research and Development facilities, housed separately from the manufacturing plant. The unit is already capable of operating on two different types of fuel with single engine set up. It is a 3 cylinder, 4-stroke turbocharged direct injection engine mounted on an underbase and it operates at 600 rpm, 15.0 bar B.M.E.P. (Brake Mean Effective Pressure). It is a mature engine, built {approximately} 20 years previously, and used for emergency stand-by duties in the company`s powerhouse. The test engine is coupled to an alternator and the electricity generated is fed to the national grid. Initial samples of treated fuel oil, analyzed by an independent oil analysis consultant, indicated that the fuel oil does not correspond to a normal fuel oil. They contained high concentrations of trace elements (i.e. calcium, phosphorus, lead, aluminum and silicon) which was consistent with sourcing from waste lubricating oils. The fuel oil was considered to be too severe for use in an engine.

  8. Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). SNF is nuclear fuel that has been used as fuel in a reactor...

  9. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Overview: 2011 Waste-to-Energy Using...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Satyapal, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program, at the Waste-to-Energy Using Fuel Cells Workshop help January 13, 2011. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Overview (1.77 MB) More Documents & ...

  10. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Anindita; Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 ; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 ?m (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ? Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on cardiovascular

  11. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  12. Analysis of vehicle fuel release resulting in waste tank fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STEPHENS, L.S.

    2003-03-21

    This document reevaluates several aspects of the in-tank vehicle fuel fire/deflagration accident formally documented as an independent accident (representative accident [rep acc] 2). This reevaluation includes frequencies for the accidents and incorporates the behavior of gasoline and diesel fuel in more detail than previous analysis. This reevaluation uses data from RPP-13121, ''Historical Summary of Occurrences from the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report'', Table B-1, ''Tank Farm Events, Off-Normal and Critiques,'' and B-2, ''Summary of Occurrences,'' and from the River Protection Project--Occurrence Reporting & Processing System (ORPS) reports as a basis for changing some of the conclusions formally reported in HNF-SD-WM-CN-037, ''Frequency Analysis of Vehicle Fuel Releases Resulting in Waste Tank Fire''. This calculation note will demonstrate that the in-tank vehicle fuel fire/deflagration accident event may be relocated to other, more bounding accidents.

  13. Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy

  14. APEX nuclear fuel cycle for production of LWR fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed which eliminates all the radioactive fission product waste effluent and the need for geological-age high level waste storage and provides a long term supply of fissile fuel for an LWR power reactor economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 years old) to remove the stable nonradioactive (NRFP, e.g. lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived fission products (SLFP e.g. half-lives of (1 to 2 years) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived fission products, ((LLFPs, e.g. 30 y half-life Cs, Sr, and 10 y Kr, and 16 x 10/sup 6/ y I) and the transuranics (TUs, e.g. Pu, Am, Cm, and Np) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel are to be supplied through the use of a Spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel-producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the Chelox process which consists of Airox treatment (air oxidation and hydrogen reduction) followed by chelation with an organic reagent (..beta..-diketonate) and vapor distillation of the organometallic compounds for separation and partitioning of the fission products.

  15. Apex nuclear fuel cycle for production of light water reactor fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Hiroshi, T.; Powell, J.R.

    1982-09-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed that eliminates all the radioactive fission product (FP) waste effluent and the need for geological age high-level waste storage and provides a longterm supply of fissile fuel for a light water reactor (LWR) economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 yr old) to remove the stable nonradioactive FPs (NRFPs) e.g., lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived FPs (SLFP) (e.g., half-lives of less than or equal to 1 to 2 yr) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived FPs (LLFPs) (e.g., 30-yr half-life cesium and strontium, 10-yr krypton, and 16 X 10/sup 6/-yr iodine) and the transuranics (TUs) (e.g., plutonium, americium, curium, and neptunium) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel (FF) are to be supplied through the use of the spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the chelox process, which consists of chopping and leaching with an organic chelating reagent (..beta..-diketonate) and distillation of the organometallic compounds formed for purposes of separating and partitioning the FPs. The stable NRFPs and SLFPs are allowed to decay to background in 10 to 20 yr for final disposal to the environment.

  16. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  17. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  18. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  19. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  20. Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, D.O.; Buxton, S.R.

    1980-06-16

    Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M; (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound; (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete; and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

  1. Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, David O.; Buxton, Samuel R.

    1981-01-01

    Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M, (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound, (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete, and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

  2. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, M. M.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Daugaard, D. E.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01

    This study develops techno-economic models for assessment of the conversion of biomass to valuable fuel products via fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading. The upgrading process produces a mixture of naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and diesel-range (diesel blend stock) products. This study analyzes the economics of two scenarios: onsite hydrogen production by reforming bio-oil, and hydrogen purchase from an outside source. The study results for an nth plant indicate that petroleum fractions in the naphtha distillation range and in the diesel distillation range are produced from corn stover at a product value of $3.09/gal ($0.82/liter) with onsite hydrogen production or $2.11/gal ($0.56/liter) with hydrogen purchase. These values correspond to a $0.83/gal ($0.21/liter) cost to produce the bio-oil. Based on these nth plant numbers, product value for a pioneer hydrogen-producing plant is about $6.55/gal ($1.73/liter) and for a pioneer hydrogen-purchasing plant is about $3.41/gal ($0.92/liter). Sensitivity analysis identifies fuel yield as a key variable for the hydrogen-production scenario. Biomass cost is important for both scenarios. Changing feedstock cost from $50-$100 per short ton changes the price of fuel in the hydrogen production scenario from $2.57-$3.62/gal ($0.68-$0.96/liter).

  3. Effects of lipid concentration on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yifei; Wang, Dian; Yan, Jiao; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. • A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. • The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. • Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid concentration when lipid concentrations were below 60%, but when lipid concentration was set as 65% or higher, methane yields decreased sharply. When lipid concentrations were below 60%, the pH values were in the optimum range for the growth of methanogenic bacteria and the ratios of volatile fatty acid (VFA)/alkalinity were in the range of 0.2–0.6. When lipid concentrations exceeded 65%, the pH values were below 5.2, the reactor was acidized and the values of VFA/alkalinity rose to 2.0. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with increasing lipid content. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process, thereby inhibiting anaerobic digestion.

  4. TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

    2001-08-01

    With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined

  5. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  6. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  7. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gug, JeongIn Cacciola, David Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-15

    higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette sample composition was similar to biomass fuels but had significant advantages due to addition of waste plastics that have high energy content compared to other waste types. Addition of PP and HDPE presented better benefits than addition of PET due to lower softening temperature and lower oxygen content. It should be noted that while harmful emissions such as dioxins, furans and mercury can result from burning plastics, WTE facilities have been able to control these emissions to meet US EPA standards. This research provides a drop-in coal replacement that reduces demand on landfill space and replaces a significant fraction of fossil-derived fuel with a renewable alternative.

  8. Washington State biomass data book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  9. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Bradley, D.J.; Fletcher, J.F.; Konzek, G.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Nightingale, R.E.

    1991-04-01

    Since 1976, the International Program Support Office (IPSO) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has collected and compiled publicly available information concerning foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. This National Briefing Summaries is a printout of an electronic database that has been compiled and is maintained by the IPSO staff. The database contains current information concerning the radioactive waste management programs (with supporting information on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle) of most of the nations (except eastern European countries) that now have or are contemplating nuclear power, and of the multinational agencies that are active in radioactive waste management. Information in this document is included for three additional countries (China, Mexico, and USSR) compared to the prior issue. The database and this document were developed in response to needs of the US Department of Energy.

  10. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  11. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  12. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar

  13. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage.

  14. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy Biomass is any organic material that has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy, such as plants, agricultural crops or residues, municipal wastes, and algae. DOE is focusing on new and better ways to make liquid transportation fuels, or "biofuels," like ethanol, biodiesel, and renewable gasoline. DOE is also investigating the potential of producing power and a range of products from biomass. Biomass

  15. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a methodmore » for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.« less

  16. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a method for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.

  17. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  18. Method for producing synthetic fuels from solid waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Antal, Jr., Michael J.

    1976-11-23

    Organic solid wastes represented by the general chemical formula C.sub.X H.sub.Y O.sub.Z are reacted with steam at elevated temperatures to produce H.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The overall process is represented by the reaction C.sub.X H.sub.Y O.sub.Z + 2(X-Z/2)H.sub.2 O.fwdarw..sup..delta.XCO.sub.2 + [(Y/2) + 2(X-Z/2)] H.sub.2 . (1) reaction (1) is endothermic and requires heat. This heat is supplied by a tower top solar furnace; alternatively, some of the solid wastes can be burned to supply heat for the reaction. The hydrogen produced by reaction (1) can be used as a fuel or a chemical feedstock. Alternatively, methanol can be produced by the commercial process CO.sub.2 + 3H.sub.2 .fwdarw. CH.sub.3 OH + H.sub.2 O . (2) since reaction (1) is endothermic, the system represents a method for storing heat energy from an external source in a chemical fuel produced from solid wastes.

  19. Biomass energies: resources, links, constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: radiation and photosynthesis; primary production and biomass; resources; wood for energy; silviculture; requirements and effects; crop residues; residues for energy conversion; sugar crops and grain; cassava; fuel crops; aquatic plants; freshwater plants; ocean algae; animal wastes; Chinese biogas generation; and ecodisasters.

  20. Fact #667: March 21, 2011 Fuel Wasted in Traffic Congestion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 7: March 21, 2011 Fuel Wasted in Traffic Congestion Fact #667: March 21, 2011 Fuel Wasted in Traffic Congestion The researchers at the Texas Transportation Institute have recently published new estimates of the effects of traffic congestion. The trend toward increased congestion eased in 2007 and 2008 with the downturn in the economy but began to rise again in 2009 along with economic activity. In 2009, nearly 4 billion gallons of fuel were wasted due to traffic congestion; up 160

  1. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1988-12-01

    The National Briefing Summaries is a compilation of publicly available information concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management strategies and programs of 21 nations, including the United States and three international agencies that have publicized their activities in this field. It presents available highlight information with references that may be used by the reader for additional information. The information in this document is compiled primarily for use by the US Department of Energy and other US federal agencies and their contractors to provide summary information on radioactive waste management activities in other countries. This document provides an awareness to managers and technical staff of what is occurring in other countries with regard to strategies, activities, and facilities. The information may be useful in program planning to improve and benefit United States' programs through foreign information exchange. Benefits to foreign exchange may be derived through a number of exchange activities.

  2. Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agenda for the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held Jan. 13, 2011 wastetoenergyagenda.pdf (124.26 KB) More Documents & Publications DOD -DOE MOU WTE Using Fuel ...

  3. Internal curing with lightweight aggregate produced from biomass-derived waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lura, Pietro; Wyrzykowski, Mateusz; Tang, Clarence; Lehmann, Eberhard

    2014-05-01

    Shrinkage of concrete may lead to cracking and ultimately to a reduction of the service life of concrete structures. Among known methods for shrinkage mitigation, internal curing with porous aggregates was successfully utilized in the last couple of decades for decreasing autogenous and drying shrinkage. In this paper, the internal curing performance of pre-saturated lightweight aggregates produced from biomass-derived waste (bio-LWA) was studied. In the first part of this paper, the microstructure of the bio-LWA is investigated, with special focus on their pore structure and on their water absorption and desorption behavior. The bio-LWA has large porosity and coarse pore structure, which allows them to release the entrained water at early age and counteract self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage. In the second part, the efficiency of internal curing in mortars incorporating the bio-LWA is examined by neutron tomography, internal relative humidity and autogenous deformation measurements.

  4. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.; Chum, Helena L.; Evans, Robert J.; Rejai, Bahman; Bain, Richard L.; Overend, Ralph P.

    1996-01-01

    A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

  5. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1996-04-02

    A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

  6. Technician's Perspective on an Ever-Changing Research Environment: Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thibodeaux, J.; Hensley, J.

    2013-01-01

    The biomass thermochemical conversion platform at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) develops and demonstrates processes for the conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals including gasification, pyrolysis, syngas clean-up, and catalytic synthesis of alcohol and hydrocarbon fuels. In this talk, I will discuss the challenges of being a technician in this type of research environment, including handling and working with catalytic materials and hazardous chemicals, building systems without being given all of the necessary specifications, pushing the limits of the systems through ever-changing experiments, and achieving two-way communication with engineers and supervisors. I will do this by way of two examples from recent research. First, I will describe a unique operate-to-failure experiment in the gasification of chicken litter that resulted in the formation of a solid plug in the gasifier, requiring several technicians to chisel the material out. Second, I will compare and contrast bench scale and pilot scale catalyst research, including instances where both are conducted simultaneously from common upstream equipment. By way of example, I hope to illustrate the importance of researchers 1) understanding the technicians' perspective on tasks, 2) openly communicating among all team members, and 3) knowing when to voice opinions. I believe the examples in this talk will highlight the crucial role of a technical staff: skills attained by years of experience to build and operate research and production systems. The talk will also showcase the responsibilities of NREL technicians and highlight some interesting behind-the-scenes work that makes data generation from NREL's thermochemical process development unit possible.

  7. Production of High-Quality Syngas via Biomass Gasification for Catalytic Synthesis of Liquid Fuels Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project 2015 Peer Review NC A&T Renewable Energy Center -Production of High-Quality Syngas via Biomass Gasification for Catalytic Synthesis of Liquid Fuels March 26 th 2015 Technology Area Review: Biomass Gasification Ghasem Shahbazi Biological Engineering North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University Goal Statement The major goal of this project is to study an integrated biomass gasification and hot syngas cleaning process to produce high- quality syngas from woody biomass and

  8. NREL: Biomass Research - Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities At NREL's state-of-the-art biomass research facilities, researchers design and optimize processes to convert renewable biomass feedstocks into transportation fuels and...

  9. NREL: Biomass Research - Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is then separated, purified, and recovered for use as a transportation fuel. NREL biomass researchers and scientists have strong capabilities in many facets of biomass...

  10. Composition of high fission product wastes resulting from future reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, J.L

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies, aimed at defining appropriate glass compositions for future disposal of high-level wastes, have developed composition ranges for the waste that will likely result during reprocessing of Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) fuels. The purpose of these studies was to provide baseline waste characterizations for possible future commercial high-level waste so that waste immobilization technologies (e.g., vitrification) can be studied. Ranges in waste composition are emphasized because the waste will vary with time as different fuels are reprocesses, because choice of process chemicals is nuclear, and because fuel burnups will vary. Consequently, composition ranges are based on trends in fuel reprocessing procedures and on achievable burnups in operating reactors. In addition to the fission product and actinide elements, which are the primary hazardous materials in the waste, likely composition ranges are given for inert elements that may be present in the waste. These other elements may be present because of being present in the fuel, because of being added as process chemical during reprocessing, because of being added during equipment decontamination, or because of corrosion of plant equipment and/or fuel element cladding. This report includes a discussion of the chemicals added in variation of the PUREX process, which is likely to remain the favored reprocessing technique for commercial nuclear fuels. Consideration is also given to a pyrochemical process proposed for the reprocessing of some LMR fuels.

  11. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  12. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model - 13413

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djokic, Denia [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Piet, Steven J.; Pincock, Layne F.; Soelberg, Nick R. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity. (authors)

  13. Assessment of spent-fuel waste-form/stabilizer alternatives for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, R.E.; Himes, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is studying the possibility of burying canisterized unreprocessed spent fuel in a deep geologic repository. One aspect of this study is an assessment of the possible spent fuel waste forms. The fuel performance portion of the Waste Form Assessment was to evaluate five candidate spent fuel waste forms for postemplacement performance with emphasis on their ability to retard the release of radionuclides to the repository geology. Spent fuel waste forms under general consideration were: (1) unaltered fuel assembly; (2) fuel assembly with end fittings removed to shorten the length; (3 rods vented to remove gases and resealed; (4) disassembled fuel bundles to close-pack the rods; and (5) rods chopped and fragments immobilized in a matrix material. Thirteen spent fuel waste forms, classified by generic stabilizer type, were analyzed for relative in-repository performance based on: (1) waste form/stabilizer support against lithostatic pressure; (2) long-term stability for radionuclide retention; (3) minimization of cladding degradation; (4) prevention of canister/repository breach due to pressurization; (5) stabilizer heat transfer; (6) the stabilizer as an independent barrier to radionuclide migration; and (7) prevention of criticality. The waste form candidates were ranked as follows: (1) the best waste form/stabilizer combination is the intact assembly, with or without end bells, vented (and resealed) or unvented, with a solid stabilizer; (2) a suitable alternative is the combination of bundled close-packed rods with a solid stabilizer around the outside of the bundle to resist lithostatic pressure; and (3) the other possible waste forms are of lower ranking with the worst waste form/stabilizer combination being the intact assembly with a gas stabilizer or the chopped fuel.

  14. Fact #897: November 2, 2015 Fuel Wasted in Traffic Congestion - Dataset |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 7: November 2, 2015 Fuel Wasted in Traffic Congestion - Dataset Fact #897: November 2, 2015 Fuel Wasted in Traffic Congestion - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Fuel Wasted in Traffic Congestion fotw#897_web.xlsx (14.14 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings - Dataset Fact #881: July 13, 2015 Powertrain Efficiency Improvements, 2005 to 2013 - Dataset Fact #883: July 27,

  15. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used

  16. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  17. Acceptance of spent nuclear fuel in multiple element sealed canisters by the Federal Waste Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This report is one of a series of eight prepared by E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc. (JAI) under ORNL's contract with DOE's OCRWM Systems Integration Program and in support of the Annual Capacity Report (ACR) Issue Resolution Process. The report topics relate specifically to the list of high priority technical waste acceptance issues developed jointly by DOE and a utility-working group. JAI performed various analyses and studies on each topic to serve as starting points for further discussion and analysis leading eventually to finalizing the process by which DOE will accept spent fuel and waste into its waste management system. The eight reports are concerned with the conditions under which spent fuel and high level waste will be accepted in the following categories: (1) failed fuel; (2) consolidated fuel and associated structural parts; (3) non-fuel-assembly hardware; (4) fuel in metal storage casks; (5) fuel in multi-element sealed canisters; (6) inspection and testing requirements for wastes; (7) canister criteria; (8) spent fuel selection for delivery; and (9) defense and commercial high-level waste packages. 14 refs., 27 figs.

  18. Strategic Minimization of High Level Waste from Pyroprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Michael F.; Benedict, Robert W.

    2007-09-01

    The pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel results in two high-level waste streams--ceramic and metal waste. Ceramic waste contains active metal fission product-loaded salt from the electrorefining, while the metal waste contains cladding hulls and undissolved noble metals. While pyroprocessing was successfully demonstrated for treatment of spent fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in 1999, it was done so without a specific objective to minimize high-level waste generation. The ceramic waste process uses “throw-away” technology that is not optimized with respect to volume of waste generated. In looking past treatment of EBR-II fuel, it is critical to minimize waste generation for technology developed under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). While the metal waste cannot be readily reduced, there are viable routes towards minimizing the ceramic waste. Fission products that generate high amounts of heat, such as Cs and Sr, can be separated from other active metal fission products and placed into short-term, shallow disposal. The remaining active metal fission products can be concentrated into the ceramic waste form using an ion exchange process. It has been estimated that ion exchange can reduce ceramic high-level waste quantities by as much as a factor of 3 relative to throw-away technology.

  19. Biodyne Pontiac Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pontiac Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Biodyne Pontiac Biomass Facility Facility Biodyne Pontiac Sector Biomass Facility Type Non-Fossil Waste Location...

  20. Wheelabrator Saugus Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Saugus Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheelabrator Saugus Biomass Facility Facility Wheelabrator Saugus Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste...

  1. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zygarlicke, C J; Schmidt, D D; Olson, E S; Leroux, K M; Wocken, C A; Aulich, T A; WIlliams, K D

    2008-07-28

    Biomass utilization is one solution to our nation’s addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nation’s reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with

  2. Chapter 7: Advancing Systems and Technologies to Produce Cleaner Fuels | Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics Chapter 7: Technology Assessments Introduction The sustainable supply of quality, cost-effective feedstocks to future biorefineries is fundamental to growing the bioenergy industry. The Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant contributions to ensuring a sustainably supply of biomass. However, the inherently dispersed, highly-variable, aerobically unstable nature of biomass, among other characteristics, are still a challenge. Technologies need to be

  3. Waste-to-Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stationary Fuel Cell Products Currently on the Market are Configured to Operate on Natural Gas UTC Power, Inc. ... commercial technology. gy * Integration of stationary fuel cells ...

  4. Integrated data base report - 1994: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Except for transuranic wastes, inventories of these materials are reported as of December 31, 1994. Transuranic waste inventories are reported as of December 31, 1993. All spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  5. AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy Feedstocks-From Field to Fuel AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Glenn Farris, Marketing Manager Biomass, AGCO Corporation farris_biomass_2014.pdf (2.11 MB) More Documents & Publications High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Feedstock Supply and Logistics Feedstock Supply and

  6. Geek-Up[5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Did you know 50 percent of the energy generated annually from all sources is lost as waste heat? What scientists are doing to take advantage of this opportunity to save money and new developments in harvesting fuel through photosynthesis.

  7. Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste is a framework for moving toward a sustainable program to deploy an integrated system capable of...

  8. EM Prepares Report for Convention on Safety of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – EM supported DOE in its role as the lead technical agency to produce a report recently for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management.

  9. Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Issued on January 11, 2013, the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste is a framework for moving toward a sustainable program to deploy an...

  10. SERI biomass program annual technical report: 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, P.W.; Corder, R.E.; Hill, A.M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M.Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  11. Cermet Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks and Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Dole, Leslie R.

    2007-07-01

    Multipurpose transport, aging, and disposal casks are needed for the management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Self-shielded cermet casks can out-perform current SNF casks because of the superior properties of cermets, which consist of encapsulated hard ceramic particulates dispersed in a continuous ductile metal matrix to produce a strong high-integrity, high-thermal conductivity cask. A multi-year, multinational development and testing program has been developing cermet SNF casks made of steel, depleted uranium dioxide, and other materials. Because cermets are the traditional material of construction for armor, cermet casks can provide superior protection against assault. For disposal, cermet waste packages (WPs) with appropriate metals and ceramics can buffer the local geochemical environment to (1) slow degradation of SNF, (2) reduce water flow though the degraded WP, (3) sorb neptunium and other radionuclides that determine the ultimate radiation dose to the public from the repository, and (4) contribute to long-term nuclear criticality control. Finally, new cermet cask fabrication methods have been partly developed to manufacture the casks with the appropriate properties. The results of this work are summarized with references to the detailed reports. (authors)

  12. Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

    1992-07-01

    Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

  13. Nuclear Solid Waste Processing Design at the Idaho Spent Fuels Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dippre, M. A.

    2003-02-25

    A spent nuclear fuels (SNF) repackaging and storage facility was designed for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with nuclear solid waste processing capability. Nuclear solid waste included contaminated or potentially contaminated spent fuel containers, associated hardware, machinery parts, light bulbs, tools, PPE, rags, swabs, tarps, weld rod, and HEPA filters. Design of the nuclear solid waste processing facilities included consideration of contractual, regulatory, ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) exposure, economic, logistical, and space availability requirements. The design also included non-attended transfer methods between the fuel packaging area (FPA) (hot cell) and the waste processing area. A monitoring system was designed for use within the FPA of the facility, to pre-screen the most potentially contaminated fuel canister waste materials, according to contact- or non-contact-handled capability. Fuel canister waste materials which are not able to be contact-handled after attempted decontamination will be processed remotely and packaged within the FPA. Noncontact- handled materials processing includes size-reduction, as required to fit into INEEL permitted containers which will provide sufficient additional shielding to allow contact handling within the waste areas of the facility. The current design, which satisfied all of the requirements, employs mostly simple equipment and requires minimal use of customized components. The waste processing operation also minimizes operator exposure and operator attendance for equipment maintenance. Recently, discussions with the INEEL indicate that large canister waste materials can possibly be shipped to the burial facility without size-reduction. New waste containers would have to be designed to meet the drop tests required for transportation packages. The SNF waste processing facilities could then be highly simplified, resulting in capital equipment cost savings, operational

  14. The EU Approach for Responsible and Safe Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste - 12118

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blohm-Hieber, Ute; Necheva, Christina [European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy, Luxembourg L-2920 (Luxembourg)

    2012-07-01

    In July 2011 legislation on responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste was adopted in the European Union (EU). It aims at ensuring a high level of safety, avoiding undue burdens on future generations and enhancing transparency. EU Member States are responsible for the management of their spent fuel and/or radioactive waste. Each Member State remains free to define its fuel cycle policy. The spent fuel can be regarded either as a valuable resource that may be reprocessed or as radioactive waste that is destined for direct disposal. Whatever option is chosen, the disposal of high level waste, separated at reprocessing, or of spent fuel regarded as waste should be considered. The storage of radioactive waste, including long-term storage, is an interim solution, but not an alternative to disposal. To this end, each Member State has to establish, maintain and implement national policy, framework and programme for management of spent fuel and/or radioactive waste in the long term. Member States will invite international peer reviews to ensure that high safety standards are achieved. The EU approach is anchored in internationally endorsed principles and requirements of the IAEA safety standards and the Joint Convention and in this context makes them legally binding and enforceable in the EU. The EU approach of regulating the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste is anchored in the competence of the national regulatory authorities and in the internationally endorsed principles and requirements of the IAEA Safety Standards and the Joint Convention. Member States have to report to the Commission on the implementation of Directive 2011/70/Euratom for the first time by 23 August 2015, and every 3 years thereafter, taking advantage of the review and reporting under the Joint Convention. On the basis of the Member States' reports, the Commission will submit to the European Parliament and the Council a report on progress made and an inventory of

  15. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Materials and Fuels Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Debris Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. P. Grant; P. J. Crane; S. Butler; M. A. Henry

    2010-02-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes the information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of transuranic (TRU) waste between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP). The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and the applicable portion of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and treatment of TRU debris waste in AMWTP. This report has been prepared for contact-handled TRU debris waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at MFC. The TRU debris waste will be shipped to AMWTP for purposes of supercompaction. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU debris waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for waste originating from MFC.

  16. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  17. Method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Delphin, Walter H.

    1979-07-24

    A method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions containing these and other values by contacting the waste solution with an extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert hydrocarbon diluent which extracts the palladium and technetium values from the waste solution. The palladium and technetium values are recovered from the extractant and from any other coextracted values with a strong nitric acid strip solution.

  18. Maximim Accelerations On The Fuel Assemblies Of a 21-PWR Waste Package During End Impacts 

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. DeLa Brosse

    2003-03-27

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the acceleration of the fuel assemblies contained in a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities of the waste package is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the acceleration of the fuel assemblies during the impact.

  19. Maximim Accelerations On The Fuel Assemblies Of a 21-PWR Waste Package During End Impacts 

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Schmitt

    2005-08-17

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the acceleration of the fuel assemblies contained in a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities of the waste package is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the acceleration of the fuel assemblies during the impact.

  20. Summary of non-US national and international fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Kelman, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    Brief program overviews of fuel cycle, spent fuel, and waste management activities in the following countries are provided: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, German Federal Republic, India, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, USSR, and the United Kingdom. International nonproliferation activities, multilateral agreements and projects, and the international agencies specifically involved in the nuclear fuel cycle are also described.

  1. Analyzing Losses: Transuranics into Waste and Fission Products into Recycled Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert E. Cherry; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros; Candido Pereira; Denia Djokic

    2010-11-01

    All mass streams from separations and fuel fabrication are products that must meet criteria. Those headed for disposal must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the eventual disposal sites corresponding to their waste classification. Those headed for reuse must meet fuel or target impurity limits. A loss is any material that ends up where it is undesired. The various types of losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of transuranic (TRU) material into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. We have analyzed four separation options and two fuel fabrication options in a generic fuel cycle. The separation options are aqueous uranium extraction plus (UREX+1), electrochemical, Atomics International reduction oxidation separation (AIROX), and melt refining. UREX+1 and electrochemical are traditional, full separation techniques. AIROX and melt refining are taken as examples of limited separations, also known as minimum fuel treatment. The fuels are oxide and metal. To define a generic fuel cycle, a fuel recycling loop is fed from used light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel (UOX) at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup. The recycling loop uses a fast reactor with TRU conversion ratio (CR) of 0.50. Excess recovered uranium is put into storage. Only waste, not used fuel, is disposed unless the impurities accumulate to a level so that it is impossible to make new fuel for the fast reactor. Impurities accumulate as dictated by separation removal and fission product generation. Our model approximates adjustment to fast reactor fuel stream blending of TRU and U products from incoming LWR UOX and recycling FR fuel to compensate for impurity accumulation by adjusting TRU:U ratios. Our mass flow model ignores postulated fuel impurity limits; we compare the calculated impurity values with those limits to identify elements of concern. AIROX and melt refining cannot be used to separate used LWR UOX-51 because they cannot

  2. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  3. A Novel Fuel/Reactor Cycle to Implement the 300 Years Nuclear Waste Policy Approach - 12377

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carelli, M.D.; Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Petrovic, B.

    2012-07-01

    A thorium-based fuel cycle system can effectively burn the currently accumulated commercial used nuclear fuel and move to a sustainable equilibrium where the actinide levels in the high level waste are low enough to yield a radiotoxicity after 300 years lower than that of the equivalent uranium ore. The second step of the Westinghouse approach to solving the waste 'problem' has been completed. The thorium fuel cycle has indeed the potential of burning the legacy TRU and achieve the waste objective proposed. Initial evaluations have been started for the third step, development and selection of appropriate reactors. Indications are that the probability of show-stoppers is rather remote. It is, therefore, believed that development of the thorium cycle and associated technologies will provide a permanent solution to the waste management. Westinghouse is open to the widest collaboration to make this a reality. (authors)

  4. Trends in characteristics of hazardous waste-derived fuel burned for energy recovery in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, M.G.; Campbell, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) is a national trade association representing virtually all the U.S. cement companies involved in the use of waste-derived fuel in the cement manufacturing process as well as those companies involved in the collection, processing, managing, and marketing of such fuel. CKRC, in conjunction with the National Association of Chemical Recyclers (NACR), completed several data collection activities over the past two years to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other interested parties with industry-wide trend analyses. The analyses evaluated the content of specific metals in waste fuels utilized by cement kilns, average Btu value of substitute fuels used by kilns, and provides insight into the trends of these properties. With the exception of the data collected by NACR, the study did not evaluate materials sent to hazardous waste incinerators or materials that are combusted at {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} facilities.

  5. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5: Wood and Biomass Waste Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2014 State Prices Expenditures Wood Wood and Biomass Waste a Total b Wood Wood and Biomass Waste a Total b Residential ...

  6. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-07-01

    During the period April 1, 2003--June 30, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of biomass cofiring into commercial operations. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  7. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Factsheet summarizing Univ. of Alabama project to save energy and reduce emissions with fuel-flexible burners

  8. Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

    2013-10-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

  9. Management of salt waste from electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.F.; Patterson, M.N.; Lee, J.; Wang, Y.; Versey, J.; Phongikaroon, S.

    2013-07-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electro-refiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form. (authors)

  10. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  11. Graphical and tabular summaries of decay characteristics for once-through PWR, LMFBR, and FFTF fuel cycle materials. [Spent fuel, high-level waste fuel can scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Liberman, M.S.; Morrison, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Based on the results of ORIGEN2 and a newly developed code called ORMANG, graphical and summary tabular characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and fuel assembly structural material (cladding) waste are presented for a generic pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The characteristics include radioactivity, thermal power, and toxicity (water dilution volume). Given are graphs and summary tables containing characteristic totals and the principal nuclide contributors as well as graphs comparing the three reactors for a single material and the three materials for a single reactor.

  12. One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

    2014-03-18

    The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

  13. Process Modeling Results of Bio-Syntrolysis: Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuel with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; M. G. McKellar; R. Wood; M. M. Plum

    2010-06-01

    A new process called Bio-Syntrolysis is being researched at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigating syngas production from renewable biomass that is assisted with high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE). The INL is the world leader in researching HTSE and has recently produced hydrogen from high temperature solid oxide cells running in the electrolysis mode setting several world records along the way. A high temperature (~800°C) heat source is necessary to heat the steam as it goes into the electrolytic cells. Biomass provides the heat source and the carbon source for this process. Syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, can be used for the production of synthetic liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch processes. This concept, coupled with fossil-free electricity, provides a possible path to reduced greenhouse gas emissions and increased energy independence, without the major infrastructure shift that would be required for a purely hydrogen-based transportation system. Furthermore, since the carbon source is obtained from recyclable biomass, the entire concept is carbon-neutral

  14. EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide federal funding to Flambeau River Biofuels (FRB) to construct and operate a biomass-to-liquid biorefinery in Park Falls, Wisconsin, on property currently used by Flambeau Rivers Paper, LLC (FRP) for a pulp and paper mill and Johnson Timber Corporation's (JTC) Summit Lake Yard for timber storage. This project would design a biorefinery which would produce up to 1,150 barrels per day (bpd) of clean syncrude. The biorefinery would also supply steam to the FRP mill, meeting the majority of the mill's steam demand and reducing or eliminating the need for the existing biomass/coal-fired boiler. The biorefinery would also include a steam turbine generator that will produce "green" electrical power for use by the biorefinery or for sale to the electric utility.

  15. Summary of national and international fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.

    1984-07-01

    Worldwide activities related to nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs are summarized. Several trends have developed in waste management strategy: All countries having to dispose of reprocessing wastes plan on conversion of the high-level waste (HLW) stream to a borosilicate glass and eventual emplacement of the glass logs, suitably packaged, in a deep geologic repository. Countries that must deal with plutonium-contaminated waste emphasize pluonium recovery, volume reduction and fixation in cement or bitumen in their treatment plans and expect to use deep geologic repositories for final disposal. Commercially available, classical engineering processing are being used worldwide to treat and immobilize low- and intermediate-level wastes (LLW, ILW); disposal to surface structures, shallow-land burial and deep-underground repositories, such as played-out mines, is being done widely with no obvious technical problems. Many countries have established extensive programs to prepare for construction and operation of geologic repositories. Geologic media being studied fall into three main classes: argillites (clay or shale); crystalline rock (granite, basalt, gneiss or gabbro); and evaporates (salt formations). Most nations plan to allow 30 years or longer between discharge of fuel from the reactor and emplacement of HLW or spent fuel is a repository to permit thermal and radioactive decay. Most repository designs are based on the mined-gallery concept, placing waste or spent fuel packages into shallow holes in the floor of the gallery. Many countries have established extensive and costly programs of site evaluation, repository development and safety assessment. Two other waste management problems are the subject of major R and D programs in several countries: stabilization of uranium mill tailing piles; and immobilization or disposal of contaminated nuclear facilities, namely reactors, fuel cycle plants and R and D laboratories.

  16. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4: Wood and Biomass Waste Consumption Estimates, 2014 State Wood Wood and Biomass Waste a Residential Commercial Industrial Electric Power Total b Thousand Cords Trillion Btu ...

  17. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  18. Thermal conversion of biomass to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peters, William A.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Vogel, Fredreric; Steffin, Carsten R.

    2009-02-24

    A continuous process for the conversion of biomass to form a chemical feedstock is described. The biomass and an exogenous metal oxide, preferably calcium oxide, or metal oxide precursor are continuously fed into a reaction chamber that is operated at a temperature of at least 1400.degree. C. to form reaction products including metal carbide. The metal oxide or metal oxide precursor is capable of forming a hydrolizable metal carbide. The reaction products are quenched to a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less. The resulting metal carbide is separated from the reaction products or, alternatively, when quenched with water, hydolyzed to provide a recoverable hydrocarbon gas feedstock.

  19. Design Concepts for Co-Production of Power, Fuels & Chemicals Via Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, A. D.; Chen, Q.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of the program is to develop design concepts, incorporating advanced technologies in areas such as oxygen production, feed systems, gas cleanup, component separations and gas turbines, for integrated and economically viable coal and biomass fed gasification facilities equipped with carbon capture and storage for the following scenarios: (i) coproduction of power along with hydrogen, (ii) coproduction of power along with fuels, (iii) coproduction of power along with petrochemicals, and (iv) coproduction of power along with agricultural chemicals. To achieve this goal, specifically the following objectives are met in this proposed project: (i) identify advanced technology options and innovative preliminary design concepts that synergistically integrate plant subsections, (ii) develop steady state system simulations to predict plant efficiency and environmental signature, (iii) develop plant cost estimates by capacity factoring major subsystems or by major equipment items where required, and then capital, operating and maintenance cost estimates, and (iv) perform techno- economic analyses for the above described coproduction facilities. Thermal efficiencies for the electricity only cases with 90% carbon capture are 38.26% and 36.76% (HHV basis) with the bituminous and the lignite feedstocks respectively. For the coproduction cases (where 50% of the energy exported is in the form of electricity), the electrical efficiency, as expected, is highest for the hydrogen coproduction cases while lowest for the higher alcohols (ethanol) coproduction cases. The electrical efficiencies for Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases are slightly higher than those for the methanol coproduction cases but it should be noted that the methanol (as well as the higher alcohol) coproduction cases produce the finished coproduct while the Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases produce a coproduct that requires further processing in a refinery. The cross comparison of the thermal

  20. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-09-15

    A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

  1. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is

  2. Arbor Fuel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Biomass Product: Arbor Fuel is developing micro-organisms to convert biomass into alternative fuels like biobutanol. References: Arbor Fuel1 This article is a stub. You...

  3. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, Februray 1, 1980-April 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The project will result in two distinct products: (1) a biomass allocation model which will serve as a tool for the energy planner. (2) the experimental data is being generated to help compare and contrast the behavior of a large number of biomass material in thermochemical environments. Based on information in the literature, values have been developed for regional biomass costs and availabilities and for fuel costs and demands. This data is now stored in data banks and may be updated as better data become available. Seventeen biomass materials have been run on the small TGA and the results partially analyzed. Ash analysis has been performed on 60 biomass materials. The Effluent Gas Analyzer with its associated gas chromatographs has been made operational and some runs have been carried out. Using a computerized program for developing product costs, parametric studies on all but 1 of the 14 process configurations being considered have been performed. Background economic data for all the configuration have been developed. Models to simulate biomass gasifications in an entrained and fixed bed have been developed using models previously used for coal gasification. Runs have been carried out in the fluidized and fixed bed reactor modes using a variety of biomass materials in atmospheres of steam, O/sub 2/ and air. Check aout of the system continues using fabricated manufacturing cost and efficiency data. A users manual has been written.

  4. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  5. Densified biomass as an alternative Army heating and power plant fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hathaway, S.A.; Magrino, T.; Lin, J.S.; Duster, K.; Mahon, D.

    1980-03-01

    This investigation evaluated the technical and economic potential of using densified biomass (principally wood pellets) as a coal substitute in Army heating and power plants. The report reviews Department of Defense (DOD) experience with and tests of wood pellets; production of wood pellets (excluding silvicultural aspects); handling, storing, and feeding; combustion; major environental considerations; and economics of use.

  6. Corrosion of Nuclear Fuel Inside a Failed Copper Nuclear Waste Container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broczkowski, Michael E.; Goldik, Jonathan S.; Santos, Billy G.; Noel, James J.; Shoesmith, David

    2007-07-01

    Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization has recommended to the Canadian federal government an adaptive phased management approach to the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. This approach includes isolation in a deep geologic repository. In such a repository, the fuel would be sealed inside a carbon steel-lined copper container. To assist the development of performance assessment models studies of fuel behaviour inside a failed waste container are underway. Using an iterative modeling and experimental approach, the important features and processes that determine fuel behaviour have been identified and studied. These features and processes are discussed and the results of studies to elucidate specific mechanisms and determine important parameter values summarized. (authors)

  7. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  8. Plant That Makes Fuel Out Of Garbage and Waste Called A Success

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant That Makes Fuel Out Of Garbage and Waste Called A Success For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., May 5, 1999 — The final report on a demonstration of a technology for turning organic wastes into fuel, energy and other products calls the project a success and concludes there are no major issues standing in the way of the technology being commercialized on a larger scale. The report is on the operation of the high solids anaerobic digester (HSAD) in Stanton,

  9. Recent Developments in the Management of Cameco Corporation's Fuel Services Division Waste - 13144

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Thomas P.

    2013-07-01

    Cameco Corporation is a world leader in uranium production. Headquartered in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan our operations provide 16% of the world uranium mine production and we have approximately 435 million pounds of proven and probable uranium reserves. Cameco mining operations are located in Saskatchewan, Wyoming, Nebraska and Kazakhstan. Cameco is also a major supplier of uranium processing services required to produce fuel for the generation of clean energy. These operations are based in Blind River, Cobourg and Port Hope, Ontario and are collectively referred to as the Fuel Services Division. The Fuel Services Division produces uranium trioxide from uranium ore concentrate at the Blind River Refinery. Cameco produces uranium hexafluoride and uranium dioxide at the Port Hope Conversion Facility. Cameco operates a fuel manufacturing facility in Port Hope, Ontario and a metal fabrication facility located in Cobourg, Ontario. The company manufactures fuel bundles utilized in the Candu reactors. Cameco's Fuel Services Division produces several types of low-level radioactively contaminated wastes. Internal processing capabilities at both the Blind River Refinery and Port Hope Conversion Facility are extensive and allow for the recycling of several types of waste. Notwithstanding these capabilities there are certain wastes that are not amenable to the internal processing capabilities and must be disposed of appropriately. Disposal options for low-level radioactively contaminated wastes in Canada are limited primarily due to cost considerations. In recent years, Cameco has started to ship marginally contaminated wastes (<500 ppm uranium) to the United States for disposal in an appropriate landfill. The landfill is owned by US Ecology Incorporated and is located near Grand View, Idaho 70 miles southeast of Boise in the Owyhee Desert. The facility treats and disposes hazardous waste, non-hazardous industrial waste and low-activity radioactive material. The site's arid

  10. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.; Bondin, V.V.; Manakova, L.F.; Jardine, L.J.

    2001-12-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration

  11. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  13. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U andor Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings * Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, ...

  14. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces;...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical ...

  15. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  16. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis S. Lau

    2003-09-01

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Natural gas and waste coal fines were evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. A design was developed for a cofiring combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures in a power generation boiler, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. Following the preliminary design, GTI evaluated the gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembled an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test were used to confirm the process design completed in Phase Task 1. As a result of the testing and modeling effort, the selected biomass feedstocks gasified very well, with a carbon conversion of over 98% and individual gas component yields that matched the RENUGAS{reg_sign} model. As a result of this work, the facility appears very attractive from a commercial standpoint. Similar facilities can be profitable if they have access to low cost fuels and have attractive wholesale or retail electrical rates for electricity sales. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. Phase II has not been approved for construction at this time.

  17. Biomass Feedstocks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Biomass Feedstocks Biomass Feedstocks An alternate text version of this video is available online. A feedstock is defined as any renewable, biological material that can be used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form of fuel or energy product. Biomass feedstocks are the plant and algal materials used to derive fuels like ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, and other hydrocarbon fuels. Examples of biomass feedstocks include corn starch, sugarcane juice, crop

  18. Biomass conversion to mixed alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtzapple, M.T.; Loescher, M.; Ross, M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the MixAlco Process which converts a wide variety of biomass materials (e.g. municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, agricultural residues) to mixed alcohols. First, the biomass is treated with lime to enhance its digestibility. Then, a mixed culture of acid-forming microorganisms converts the lime-treated biomass to volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. To maintain fermentor pH, a neutralizing agent (e.g. calcium carbonate or lime) is added, so the fermentation actually produces VFA salts such as calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The VFA salts are recovered and thermally converted to ketones (e.g. acetone, methylethyl ketone, diethyl ketone) which are subsequently hydrogenated to mixed alcohols (e.g. isopropanol, isobutanol, isopentanol). Processing costs are estimated at $0.72/gallon of mixed alcohols making it potentially attractive for transportation fuels.

  19. Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Feed and Gasification The Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology will advance scientific knowledge of the feeding and conversion of biomass and coal-biomass mixtures as essential upstream steps for production of liquid transportation fuels with a lower net GHG emissions than conventional oil refining. Activities support research for handling and processing of coal-biomass mixtures, ensuring those mixtures are compatible with feed delivery systems, identifying potential impacts on

  20. Reactive Dehydration technology for Production of Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dr. James R. Kittrell, KSE, Inc. Dr. Carl R. Dupre, KSE, Inc. Dr. Michael F. Malone (Subcontractor) U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 Project Objective Commercialize a novel reactive distillation technology using the iCARD platform (Intensified Catalytic and Reactive Distillation) for compact, inexpensive production of biomass-based

  1. Waste Stream to Energy source: What if America's Next Big Fuel Source is

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    its Trash? | The Ames Laboratory Waste Stream to Energy source: What if America's Next Big Fuel Source is its Trash? Ames Laboratory Waste Stream to Energy According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the United States produced 254 million tons of municipal solid waste in 2013. And though 87 million tons of that material from the landfill was diverted through recycling and composting, what if the nation could do better? What if landfills could become local sources of clean energy

  2. Comparison of emissions from landfills, municipal waste combustors, and fossil fuel-fired utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    Landfilling is the most popular disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). However, air emissions from MSW landfills have generally been unregulated until recently. Instead, EPA has focused on emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), even though they only manage 15% of MSW generated in the United States. In the past, little data have been available comparing landfill and MWC air emissions. Such information is provided by this paper. It also compares emissions from waste-to-energy MWCs and fossil fuel-fired utilities with equivalent electrical generation capacity. 1 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Development and Demonstration of a Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, in collaboration with Frito-Lay, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, CPL Systems, Inc., Alpha Boilers, and Kansas State University will demonstrate use of a biomass boiler in the food processing industry. The 60,000 lb/hr innovative biomass boiler system utilizing a combination of wood waste and tire-derived fuel (TDF) waste will offset all natural gas consumption at Frito-Lay's Topeka, Kansas, processing facility.

  4. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantaged Jet Fuel Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 March, 2015 Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion Randy Cortright PhD Virent, Inc WBS: 2.4.1.200 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information © Virent 2015 Slide 2 Goal Statement Project Goal - Integrate Virent's Catalytic BioForming® Process with NREL's Biochemical deconstruction technology to efficiently produce cost effective "drop-in" fuels from corn stover with particular focus in maximizing jet fuel yields. 

  5. Municipal solid waste fueled power generation in China: a case study of waste-to-energy in Changchun city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hefa Cheng; Yanguo Zhang; Aihong Meng; Qinghai Li

    2007-11-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization in China, many cities face the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. With the lack of space for new landfills, waste-to-energy incineration is playing an increasingly important role in waste management. Incineration of MSW from Chinese cities presents some unique challenges because of its low calorific value (3000-6700 kJ/kg) and high water content (about 50%). This study reports a novel waste-to-energy incineration technology based on co-firing of MSW with coal in a grate-circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator, which was implemented in the Changchun MSW power plant. In 2006, two 260 ton/day incinerators incinerated 137,325 tons, or approximately one/sixth of the MSW generated in Changchun, saving more than 0.2 million m{sup 3} landfill space. A total of 46.2 million kWh electricity was generated (38,473 tons lignite was also burned as supplementary fuel), with an overall fuel-to-electricity efficiency of 14.6%. Emission of air pollutants including particulate matters, acidic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins was low and met the emission standards for incinerators. As compared to imported incineration systems, this new technology has much lower capital and operating costs and is expected to play a role in meeting China's demands for MSW disposal and alternative energy. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Reburn system with feedlot biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Sweeten, John M.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention pertains to the use of feedlot biomass as reburn fuel matter to reduce NO.sub.x emissions. According to one embodiment of the invention, feedlot biomass is used as the reburn fuel to reduce NO.sub.x. The invention also includes burners and boiler in which feedlot biomass serves a reburn fuel.

  7. NREL: Biomass Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectrometer analyzes vapors during the gasification and pyrolysis processes. NREL's biomass projects are designed to advance the production of liquid transportation fuels from...

  8. Biomass: Wood as Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coordinator USDA Forest Service State & Private Forestry ... habitat and forest health Modern Woody Biomass ... Requires manual fuel delivery & stoking Pellets Meter ...

  9. Co-firing biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Tennant, D.

    2009-11-15

    Concern about global warming has altered the landscape for fossil-fuel combustion. The advantages and challenges of co-firing biomass and coal are discussed. 2 photos.

  10. Biomass Feasibility Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipscomb, Brian

    2015-03-30

    Feasibility study to determine technical and economic viability of a co-generation biomass fuel power plant for the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes.

  11. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  12. Recovery Act. Demonstration of a Pilot Integrated Biorefinery for the Efficient, Direct Conversion of Biomass to Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetzle, Dennis; Tamblyn, Greg; Caldwell, Matt; Hanbury, Orion; Schuetzle, Robert; Rodriguez, Ramer; Johnson, Alex; Deichert, Fred; Jorgensen, Roger; Struble, Doug

    2015-05-12

    The Renewable Energy Institute International, in collaboration with Greyrock Energy and Red Lion Bio-Energy (RLB) has successfully demonstrated operation of a 25 ton per day (tpd) nameplate capacity, pilot, pre-commercial-scale integrated biorefinery (IBR) plant for the direct production of premium, “drop-in”, synthetic fuels from agriculture and forest waste feedstocks using next-generation thermochemical and catalytic conversion technologies. The IBR plant was built and tested at the Energy Center, which is located in the University of Toledo Medical Campus in Toledo, Ohio.

  13. Co-conversion of Biomass, Shale-natural gas, and process-derived CO2 into Fuels and Chemicals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-D: Natural Gas & Biomass to Liquids Suresh Babu, Senior Program Manager, Biomass Program Development, Brookhaven National Laboratory

  14. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  15. Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lignocellulosic Biomass - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  16. Biomass Conversion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Feedstocks to Final Products To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today's vehicles and infrastructure. Advanced biofuels are part of the United States' "all-of-the-above" energy strategy to develop domestic energy resources and win

  17. Waste fuel, EMS may save plant $1M yearly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1982-05-24

    A mixture of paper trash and coal ash fueling an Erie, Pa. General Electric plant and a Network 90 microprocessor-based energy-management system (EMS) to optimize boiler efficiency will cost about $3 million and have a three-to-four-year payback. Over half the savings will come from the avoided costs of burning plant-generated trash. The EMS system will monitor fuel requirements in the boiler and compensate for changes in steam demand. It will also monitor plant electrical needs and control the steam diverted for cogeneration. (DCK)

  18. Operational programs for national radioactive waste and spent fuel management programme in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Kralj, Metka; Mele, Irena

    2007-07-01

    The first separate National Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Programme (National Programme) was prepared in Slovenia in 2005 as a supplementary part of the National Environmental Action Programme and was adopted in February 2006 by the Slovenian Parliament. The new National Programme includes all topics being relevant for the management of the radioactive waste and spent fuel which are produced in Slovenia, from the legislation and identification of different waste streams, to the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of (TE)NORM in the near future from 2006 up to the 2015. The National Programme identified the existing and possible future problems and proposed the technical solutions and action plans for two distinctive periods: 2006-2009 and 2010- 2015. According to the requirement of Act on Protection against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety the national Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO) prepared the operational programmes for the four year period with technical details on implementation of the National programme. ARAO gained the detailed plans of different involved holders and proposed 9 operational programmes with aims, measures, individual organizations in charge, expenses and resources for each of the programmes. The Operational programmes were already reviewed by the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning and are under acceptance. The orientation of the radioactive waste management according to the National Programme and operational activities within additional limitations based on the strategical decisions of Slovenian Government is presented in the paper. (authors)

  19. Catalytic hydrotreating of biomass liquefaction products to produce hydrocarbon fuels: Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1986-03-01

    Research catalytic hydrotreatment of biomass liquefaction products to a gasoline has been technically demonstrated in a bench-scale continuous processing unit. This report describes the development of the chemistry needed for hydrotreatment of both high pressure and pyrolyzate biomass liquefaction products and outlines the important processing knowledge gained by the research. Catalyst identity is important in hydrotreatment of phenolics. Hydrogenation catalysts such as palladium, copper chromite, cobalt and nickel show activity with nickel being the most active. Major products include benzene, cyclohexane, and cyclohexanone. The hydrotreating catalysts cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-molybdenum and nickel-tungsten exhibit some activity when added to the reactor in the oxide form and show a great specificity for hydrodeoxygenation of phenol without saturation of the benzene product. The sulfide form of these catalysts is much more active than the oxide form and, in the case of the cobalt-molybdenum, much of the specificity for hydrodeoxygenation is retained. Substitution on the phenolic ring has only marginal effects on the hydrotreating reaction. However, the methoxy (OCH/sub 3/) substituent on the phenol ring is thermally unstable relative to other phenolics tested. The pyrolysis products dominate the product distribution when cobalt-molybdenum is used as the hydrotreating catalyst for methoxyphenol. The product from catalytic hydrotreatment of high-pressure biomass liquefaction products confirms the model compounds studies. Catalytic processing at 350 to 400/sup 0/C and 2000 psig with the sulfided cobalt-molybdenum or nickel-molybdenum catalyst produced a gasoline-like product composed of cyclic and aromatic compounds. Oxygen contents in products were in the range of 0 to 0.7 wt % and hydrogen to carbon atomic ratios ranged from 1.5 to 2.0. 46 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Feasibility study of the commercial production of densified biomass fuel at Klamath Falls, Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The project began with assessments of local biomass resources which could serve as feedstock for a DBF plant, and the potential customer markets for DBF. Based on these analyses, a pilot densification plant was designed and installed for purposes of trial operations and evaluation. In addition, exploration for geothermal resources was conducted in order to confirm a suitable feedstock dehydration heat source. The results of this exploration, and of the pilot plant's trial operations, were then used to determine requirements for a commercial-scale DBF plant, and the feasibility of upgrading the pilot plant for commercial-scale operations.

  1. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  2. Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F.; Bradley, D.J.

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. Geologic repository design and disposal: GNEP spent fuel processing-waste volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, T.H.; Wigeland, R.A.

    2007-07-01

    Previous work has shown that removal of key heat generating elements from spent fuel would allow greater utilization of space in a geologic repository such as Yucca Mountain by factors of 100 or more without increasing the estimated peak dose rate to an exposed individual. However, achieving such utilization increases within a repository storage drift requires the density of the remaining fission products, actinide elements, etc. to be increased by roughly the same factor as the utilization increase, itself. This paper analyzes several alternative drift configurations possible within a designated repository area that could: (1) allow greater volume for waste storage and (2) maintain significant utilization benefit. For a representative range of GNEP-generated waste streams, computed results show that increase in repository area space utilization by a factor {approx}100 can be maintained with such configurations as long as waste stream volume can be reduced from that of the original spent fuel by a factor of {approx}10. (authors)

  4. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted.

  5. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galvagno, S. Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-02-15

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

  6. Transuranic Waste Burning Potential of Thorium Fuel in a Fast Reactor - 12423

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenner, Michael; Franceschini, Fausto; Ferroni, Paolo; Sartori, Alberto; Ricotti, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company (referred to as 'Westinghouse' in the rest of this paper) is proposing a 'back-to-front' approach to overcome the stalemate on nuclear waste management in the US. In this approach, requirements to further the societal acceptance of nuclear waste are such that the ultimate health hazard resulting from the waste package is 'as low as reasonably achievable'. Societal acceptability of nuclear waste can be enhanced by reducing the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste, which is currently driven primarily by the protracted radiotoxicity of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes. Therefore, a transition to a more benign radioactive waste can be accomplished by a fuel cycle capable of consuming the stockpile of TRU 'legacy' waste contained in the LWR Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) while generating waste which is significantly less radio-toxic than that produced by the current open U-based fuel cycle (once through and variations thereof). Investigation of a fast reactor (FR) operating on a thorium-based fuel cycle, as opposed to the traditional uranium-based is performed. Due to a combination between its neutronic properties and its low position in the actinide chain, thorium not only burns the legacy TRU waste, but it does so with a minimal production of 'new' TRUs. The effectiveness of a thorium-based fast reactor to burn legacy TRU and its flexibility to incorporate various fuels and recycle schemes according to the evolving needs of the transmutation scenario have been investigated. Specifically, the potential for a high TRU burning rate, high U-233 generation rate if so desired and low concurrent production of TRU have been used as metrics for the examined cycles. Core physics simulations of a fast reactor core running on thorium-based fuels and burning an external TRU feed supply have been carried out over multiple cycles of irradiation, separation and reprocessing. The TRU burning capability as well as the core isotopic content have been characterized

  7. Activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and risk of lung cancer among rural women in India who cook with biomass fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayali; Dutta, Anindita; Siddique, Shabana; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-02-15

    The impact of indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel burning on the risk of carcinogenesis in the airways has been investigated in 187 pre-menopausal women (median age 34 years) from eastern India who cooked exclusively with biomass and 155 age-matched control women from same locality who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Compared with control, Papanicolau-stained sputum samples showed 3-times higher prevalence of metaplasia and 7-times higher prevalence of dysplasia in airway epithelial cell (AEC) of biomass users. Immunocytochemistry showed up-regulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt{sup ser473} and p-Akt{sup thr308}) proteins in AEC of biomass users, especially in metaplastic and dysplastic cells. Compared with LPG users, biomass-using women showed marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicating oxidative stress. There were 25 times more particulate pollutants (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), 72% more nitrogen dioxide and 4-times more particulate-laden benzo(a)pyrene, but no change in sulfur dioxide in indoor air of biomass-using households, and high performance liquid chromatography estimated 6-fold rise in the concentration of benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine of biomass users. Metaplasia and dysplasia, p-Akt expression and ROS generation were positively associated with PM and t,t-MA levels. It appears that cumulative exposure to biomass smoke increases the risk of lung carcinogenesis via oxidative stress-mediated activation of Akt signal transduction pathway. -- Highlights: ? Carcinogenesis in airway cells was examined in biomass and LPG using women. ? Metaplasia and dysplasia of epithelial cells were more prevalent in biomass users. ? Change in airway cytology was associated with oxidative stress and Akt activation. ? Biomass users had greater exposure to respirable PM, B(a)P and benzene. ? Cooking with biomass increases cancer

  8. Treatment of high-level wastes from the IFR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, T.R.; Lewis, M.A.; Newman, A.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is being developed as a future commercial power source that promises to have important advantages over present reactors, including improved resource conservation and waste management. The spent metal alloy fuels from an IFR will be processed in an electrochemical cell operating at 500{degree}C with a molten chloride salt electrolyte and cadmium metal anode. After the actinides have been recovered from several batches of core and blanket fuels, the salt cadmium in this electrorefiner will be treated to separate fission products from residual transuranic elements. This treatment produces a waste salt that contains the alkali metal, alkaline earth, and halide fission products; some of the rare earths; and less than 100 nCi/g of alpha activity. The treated metal wastes contain the rest of the fission products (except T, Kr, and Xe) small amounts of uranium, and only trace amounts of transuranic elements. The current concept for the salt waste form is an aluminosilicate matrix, and the concept for the metal waste form is a corrosion-resistant metal alloy. The processes and equipment being developed to treat and immobilize the salt and metal wastes are described.

  9. Treatment of high-level wastes from the IFR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, T.R.; Lewis, M.A.; Newman, A.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is being developed as a future commercial power source that promises to have important advantages over present reactors, including improved resource conservation and waste management. The spent metal alloy fuels from an IFR will be processed in an electrochemical cell operating at 500{degree}C with a molten chloride salt electrolyte and cadmium metal anode. After the actinides have been recovered from several batches of core and blanket fuels, the salt cadmium in this electrorefiner will be treated to separate fission products from residual transuranic elements. This treatment produces a waste salt that contains the alkali metal, alkaline earth, and halide fission products; some of the rare earths; and less than 100 nCi/g of alpha activity. The treated metal wastes contain the rest of the fission products (except T, Kr, and Xe) small amounts of uranium, and only trace amounts of transuranic elements. The current concept for the salt waste form is an aluminosilicate matrix, and the concept for the metal waste form is a corrosion-resistant metal alloy. The processes and equipment being developed to treat and immobilize the salt and metal wastes are described.

  10. Biomass-derived Lignin to Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Pei, Haisheng; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin P.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-09-14

    A catalytic process, involving the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the dilute alkali extracted corn stover lignin catalysed by noble metal catalyst (Ru/Al2O3) and acidic zeolite (H+-Y), to produce lignin-substructure-based hydrocarbons (C7-C18), primarily C12-C18 cyclic structure hydrocarbons in the jet fuel range, was demonstrated.

  11. Biomass Scenario Model Documentation: Data and References Lin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Documentation: Data and References Lin, Y.; Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.; Stright, D. 09 BIOMASS FUELS BIOMASS SCENARIO MODEL; BSM; BIOMASS; BIOFUEL; MODEL; DATA; REFERENCES;...

  12. Ethanol from biomass: A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, R.

    1996-12-31

    Programmatic and technical activities of SWAN Biomass, a company formed by Amoco Corporation and Stone & Webster, to convert non-grain biomass material to ethanol, are highlighted in this presentation. The potential ethanol markets identified are: (1) fuel oxygenate and octane additive, and (2) waste reduction in the agricultural and forestry industries and in municipal waste streams. Differences in the SWAN process from that used in corn-based ethanol facilities include more intense pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, different enzymes, hydrolysis and fermentation of sugar polymers is performed in the same vessel, and a typical solid residue of lignin. The major market and technical risks have been assessed as being manageable. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Workshop Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Integrated Biorefinery for the Direct Production of Synthetic Fuel from Waste Carbonaceous Feedstocks

  14. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  15. Characterization of Irradiated Metal Waste from the Pyrometallurgical Treatment of Used EBR-II Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; K.C. Marsden; W.M. McCartin; S.M. Frank; D.D. Keiser, Jr.; T.S. Yoo; D. Vaden; D.G. Cummings; K.J. Bateman; J. J. Giglio; T. P. O'Holleran; P. A. Hahn; M. N. Patterson

    2013-03-01

    As part of the pyrometallurgical treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel, a metal waste stream is generated consisting primarily of cladding hulls laden with fission products noble to the electrorefining process. Consolidation by melting at high temperature [1873 K (1600 degrees C)] has been developed to sequester the noble metal fission products (Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Te, and Pd) which remain in the iron-based cladding hulls. Zirconium from the uranium fuel alloy (U-10Zr) is also deposited on the hulls and forms Fe-Zr intermetallics which incorporate the noble metals as well as residual actinides during processing. Hence, Zr has been chosen as the primary indicator for consistency of the metal waste. Recently, the first production-scale metal waste ingot was generated and sampled to monitor Zr content for Fe-Zr intermetallic phase formation and validation of processing conditions. Chemical assay of the metal waste ingot revealed a homogeneous distribution of the noble metal fission products as well as the primary fuel constituents U and Zr. Microstructural characterization of the ingot confirmed the immobilization of the noble metals in the Fe-Zr intermetallic phase.

  16. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels This factsheet describes a project that ...

  17. Synthetic fuels handbook: properties, process and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speight, J.

    2008-07-01

    The handbook is a comprehensive guide to the benefits and trade-offs of numerous alternative fuels, presenting expert analyses of the different properties, processes, and performance characteristics of each fuel. It discusses the concept systems and technology involved in the production of fuels on both industrial and individual scales. Chapters 5 and 7 are of special interest to the coal industry. Contents: Chapter 1. Fuel Sources - Conventional and Non-conventional; Chapter 2. Natural Gas; Chapter 3. Fuels From Petroleum and Heavy Oil; Chapter 4. Fuels From Tar Sand Bitumen; Chapter 5. Fuels From Coal; Chapter 6. Fuels From Oil Shale; Chapter 7. Fuels From Synthesis Gas; Chapter 8. Fuels From Biomass; Chapter 9. Fuels From Crops; Chapter 10. Fuels From Wood; Chapter 11. Fuels From Domestic and Industrial Waste; Chapter 12. Landfill Gas. 3 apps.

  18. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  19. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  20. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2012-04-10

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  1. Integrated data base report--1995: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    The information in this report summarizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data base for inventories, projections, and characteristics of domestic spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. This report is updated annually to keep abreast of continual waste inventory and projection changes in both the government and commercial sectors. Baseline information is provided for DOE program planning purposes and to support DOE program decisions. Although the primary purpose of this document is to provide background information for program planning within the DOE community, it has also been found useful by state and local governments, the academic community, and some private citizens.

  2. Waste stream to energy source: What if America's next big fuel source is

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    its trash? | The Ames Laboratory Waste stream to energy source: What if America's next big fuel source is its trash? According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the United States produced 254 million tons of municipal solid waste in 2013. And though 87 million tons of that material from the landfill was diverted through recycling and composting, what if the nation could do better? What if landfills could become local sources of clean energy production? Better yet, what if all

  3. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  4. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation TRI Technology Update & IDL R&D ... ClearFuels-Rentech Pilot-Scale Biorefinery Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation ...

  5. Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    S. 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY BIOMASS; BIOFUEL; BSM; SYSTEM DYNAMICS; BIOFUEL INCENTIVES; SCENARIOS; Bioenergy;...

  6. NREL: Biomass Research - What Is a Biorefinery?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What Is a Biorefinery? A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery...

  7. Biomass Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biomass Energy Resources Place: Dallas, Texas Product: A start up fuel processing technology References: Biomass Energy Resources1...

  8. NREL: Learning - Student Resources on Biomass Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Energy The following resources can provide you with more information on biomass energy. Alternative Fuels Data Center U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy...

  9. DOE 2014 Biomass Conference | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE 2014 Biomass Conference Breakout Session 1C-Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels DOE 2014 Biomass Conference Jim Williams, ...

  10. Sunrise Agri Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agri Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sunrise Agri Fuels Place: Bird Island, Minnesota Zip: 55310 Sector: Biomass Product: Manufacturer of Biomass Fuel Pellets for Pellet...

  11. Literature review of intrinsic actinide colloids related to spent fuel waste package release rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, P.; Steward, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Existence of actinide colloids provides an important mechanism in the migration of radionuclides and will be important in performance of a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. Actinide colloids have been formed during long-term unsaturated dissolution of spent fuel by groundwater. This article summarizes a literature search of actinide colloids. This report emphasizes the formation of intrinsic actinide colloids, because they would have the opportunity to form soon after groundwater contact with the spent fuel and before actinide-bearing groundwater reaches the surrounding geologic formations.

  12. The role of Z-pinch fusion transmutation of waste in the nuclear fuel cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, James Dean; Drennen, Thomas E.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Martin, William Joseph; Kamery, William; Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat; Grady, Ryan; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Guild-Bingham, Avery; Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich

    2007-10-01

    The resurgence of interest in reprocessing in the United States with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has led to a renewed look at technologies for transmuting nuclear waste. Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver to burn actinide waste in a sub-critical reactor. The baseline design has been modified to solve some of the engineering issues that were identified in the first year of work, including neutron damage and fuel heating. An on-line control feature was added to the reactor to maintain a constant neutron multiplication with time. The transmutation modeling effort has been optimized to produce more accurate results. In addition, more attention was focused on the integration of this burner option within the fuel cycle including an investigation of overall costs. This report presents the updated reactor design, which is able to burn 1320 kg of actinides per year while producing 3,000 MWth.

  13. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony

    2012-04-13

    This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

  15. Fact #775: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to Traffic Congestion, 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The top ten urban areas across the U.S. accounted for nearly 40% of the total fuel wasted due to traffic congestion in 2011. Highway congestion caused vehicles in the combined urban areas of New...

  16. National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is the first National Report prepared under the terms of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management hereafter referred to as...

  17. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, David; Lemar, Paul

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  18. Acetylene from the co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste tires or coal in the H{sub 2}/Ar plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, W.; Cao, Q.; Lv, Y.; Chang, L.

    2008-07-01

    Acetylene from carbon-containing materials via plasma pyrolysis is not only simple but also environmentally friendly. In this article, the acetylene produced from co-pyrolyzing biomass with waste tire or coal under the conditions of H{sub 2}/Ar DC arc plasma jet was investigated. The experimental results showed that the co-pyrolysis of mixture with biomass and waste tire or coal can improve largely the acetylene relative volume fraction (RVF) in gaseous products and the corresponding yield of acetylene. The change trends for the acetylene yield of plasma pyrolysis from mixture with raw sample properties were the same as relevant RVF. But the yield change trend with feeding rate is different from its RVF. The effects of the feeding rate of raw materials and the electric current of plasmatron on acetylene formation are also discussed.

  19. Epsilon Metal Waste Form for Immobilization of Noble Metals from Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Rohatgi, Aashish; Zumhoff, Mac R.

    2013-10-01

    Epsilon metal (?-metal), an alloy of Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Tc, is being developed as a waste form to treat and immobilize the undissolved solids and dissolved noble metals from aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel. Epsilon metal is an attractive waste form for several reasons: increased durability relative to borosilicate glass, it can be fabricated without additives (100% waste loading), and in addition it also benefits borosilicate glass waste loading by eliminating noble metals from the glass and thus the processing problems related there insolubility in glass. This work focused on the processing aspects of the epsilon metal waste form development. Epsilon metal is comprised of refractory metals resulting in high reaction temperatures to form the alloy, expected to be 1500 - 2000C making it a non-trivial phase to fabricate by traditional methods. Three commercially available advanced technologies were identified: spark-plasma sintering, microwave sintering, and hot isostatic pressing, and investigated as potential methods to fabricate this waste form. Results of these investigations are reported and compared in terms of bulk density, phase assemblage (X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy).

  20. Integrated data base report--1996: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Inventories of most of these materials are reported as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1996, which is September 30, 1996. Commercial SNF and commercial uranium mill tailings inventories are reported on an end-of-calendar year (CY) basis. All SNF and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are SNF, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through FY 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  1. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  2. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  3. Overview of mineral waste form development for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, C.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    Argonne is developing a method to treat spent nuclear fuel in a molten salt electrorefiner. Wastes from this treatment will be converted into metal and mineral forms for geologic disposal. A glass-bonded zeolite is being developed to serve as the mineral waste form that will contain the fission products that accumulate in the electrorefiner salt. Fission products are ion exchanged from the salt into the zeolite A structure. The crystal structure of the zeolite after ion exchange is filled with salt ions. The salt-loaded zeolite A is mixed with glass frit and hot pressed. During hot pressing, the zeolite A may be converted to sodalite which also retains the waste salt. The glass-bonded zeolite is leach resistant. MCC-1 testing has shown that it has a release rate below 1 g/(m{sup 2}day) for all elements.

  4. The need for a characteristics-based approach to radioactive waste classification as informed by advanced nuclear fuel cycles using the fuel-cycle integration and tradeoffs (FIT) model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djokic, D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 3115B Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Piet, S.; Pincock, L.; Soelberg, N. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. Because heat generation is generally the most important factor limiting geological repository areal loading, this analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. Waste streams generated in different fuel cycles and their possible classification based on the current U.S. framework and international standards are discussed. It is shown that the effects of separating waste streams are neglected under a source-based radioactive waste classification system. (authors)

  5. Assessment of PM[sub 10] concentrations from domestic biomass fuel combustion in two rural Bolivian highland villages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albalak, R.; Haber, M. . Rollins School of Public Health); Keeler, G.J.; Frisancho, A.R. )

    1999-08-01

    PM[sub 10] concentrations were measured in two contrasting rural Bolivian villages that cook with biomass fuels. In one of the villages, cooking was done exclusively indoors, and in the other, it was done primarily outdoors. Concentrations in all potential microenvironments of exposure (i.e., home, kitchen, and outdoors) were measured for a total of 621 samples. Geometric mean kitchen PM[sub 10] concentrations were 1830 and 280 [micro]g/m[sup 3] and geometric mean home concentrations were 280 and 440 [micro]g/m[sup 3] for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. An analysis of pollutant concentrations using generalized estimating equation techniques showed significant effects of village location, and interaction of village and location on log-transformed PM[sub 10] concentrations. Pollutant concentrations and activity pattern data were used to estimate total exposure using the indirect method of exposure assessment. Daily exposure for women during the nonwork season was 15 120 and 6240 [micro]g h[sup [minus]1]m[sup [minus]3] for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. Differences in exposure to pollution between the villages were not as great as might be expected based on kitchen concentration alone. This study underscores the importance of measuring pollutant concentrations in all microenvironments where people spend time and of shifting the focus of air pollution studies to include rural populations in developing countries.

  6. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

  7. Infographic: The Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) FCEVs are available now in southern California and coming soon to a neighborhood near you. as fuel cells can be added to the stack to increase power Scales Up Easily Gasoline H₂ from natural gas H₂ from Wind even at highway speeds, since there are no mechanical gears or combustion Runs Quietly from the tailpipe Emits Only Water * natural gas * water (electrolysis) * biomass * waste products Uses Domestic Fuel Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions 50% 90%

  8. Proceedings: 1989 conference on municipal solid waste as a utility fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 1989 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Conference on Municipal Solid Waste as a Utility Fuel. The subject areas included are: Utility cofiring experience, refuse-derived fuel production, firing 100% refuse-derived fuel, mass burn technology, fluidized bed combustion, research reports, environmental control technology, and papers on permitting, environmental risk assessment, and the impact of recycling. The conference was held on October 10--12, 1989, and was proceeded by similar conferences held 11/85 (EPRI publication CS-4900-SR, 1986); 1/82 (EPRI publication CS-2723, 1982) and 1/80 (EPRI Publication WS-79-225, 1980). Individual projects are processed separately for on the databases. (MHB)

  9. Coming to the fields near you? Fuel farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siuru, W.D.

    1997-03-01

    Resources, business aspects, and programs to develop biomass plantations for fuel production are summarized in the article. The Electric Power Research Institute estimates the available supply of wood and agricultural wastes is sufficient to generation up to 10,000 megawatts of power. Although biomass fuels are more expensive than fossil fuels, they produce less sulfur dioxide emissions, reduce carbon dioxide while growing, use simple technology, and provide an economic boost to rural areas. Programs briefly outlined include public utility cofiring with wood waste, US Department of Energy projects, gasification/combined-cycle processing, and fast pyrolysis.

  10. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S.; Meyer, P.; Snowden-Swan, L.; Padmaperuma, A.; Tan, E.; Dutta, A.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  11. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil Raymond G. Wissinger Manager, Renewable Energy & Chemicals Development UOP, LLC This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information © Copyright 2015 UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company 2 File Number Goal Statement * Demonstrate a technically and economically viable approach for converting

  12. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Tan, Eric; Dutta, Abhijit; Jacobson, Jacob; Cafferty, Kara

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  13. Evaluation of Options for Permanent Geologic Disposal of Spent NuclearFuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    [In Support of a Comprehensive National Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy, Volumes I and II (Appendices)] This study provides a technical basis for informing policy decisions regarding strategies for the management and permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in the United States requiring geologic isolation.

  14. Truck and rail charges for shipping spent fuel and nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNair, G.W.; Cole, B.M.; Cross, R.E.; Votaw, E.F.

    1986-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed techniques for calculating estimates of nuclear-waste shipping costs and compiled a listing of representative data that facilitate incorporation of reference shipping costs into varius logistics analyses. The formulas that were developed can be used to estimate costs that will be incurred for shipping spent fuel or nuclear waste by either legal-weight truck or general-freight rail. The basic data for this study were obtained from tariffs of a truck carrier licensed to serve the 48 contiguous states and from various rail freight tariff guides. Also, current transportation regulations as issued by the US Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were investigated. The costs that will be incurred for shipping spent fuel and/or nuclear waste, as addressed by the tariff guides, are based on a complex set of conditions involving the shipment origin, route, destination, weight, size, and volume and the frequency of shipments, existing competition, and the length of contracts. While the complexity of these conditions is an important factor in arriving at a ''correct'' cost, deregulation of the transportation industry means that costs are much more subject to negotiation and, thus, the actual fee that will be charged will not be determined until a shipping contract is actually signed. This study is designed to provide the baseline data necessary for making comparisons of the estimated costs of shipping spent fuel and/or nuclear wastes by truck and rail transportation modes. The scope of the work presented in this document is limited to the costs incurred for shipping, and does not include packaging, cask purchase/lease costs, or local fees placed on shipments of radioactive materials.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR AN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.

    2010-11-30

    A series of ceramic waste forms were developed and characterized for the immobilization of a Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) waste stream anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via XRD and SEM/EDS in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms.

  16. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  17. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  18. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  19. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, Task 17208: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoroso, J. W.; Marra, J. C.

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  20. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, task 17208: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoroso, J. W.; Marra, J. C.

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  1. Mini-biomass electric generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot, G.

    1997-12-01

    Awareness of the living standards achieved by others has resulted in a Russian population which is yearning for a higher standard of living. Such a situation demands access to affordable electricity in remote areas. Remote energy requirements creates the need to transport power or fossil fuels over long distances. Application of local renewable energy resources could eliminate the need for and costs of long distance power supply. Vast forest resources spread over most of Russia make biomass an ideal renewable energy candidate for many off-grid villages. The primary objective for this preliminary evaluation is to examine the economic feasibility of replacing distillate and gasoline fuels with local waste biomass as the primary fuel for village energy in outlying regions of Russia. Approximately 20 million people live in regions where Russia`s Unified Electric System grid does not penetrate. Most of these people are connected to smaller independent power grids, but approximately 8 million Russians live in off-grid villages and small towns served by stand-alone generation systems using either diesel fuel or gasoline. The off-grid villages depend on expensive distillate fuels and gasoline for combustion in small boilers and engines. These fuels are used for both electricity generation and district heating. Typically, diesel generator systems with a capacity of up to 1 MW serve a collective farm, settlement and their rural enterprises (there are an estimated 10,000 such systems in Russia). Smaller gasoline-fueled generator systems with capacities in the range of 0.5 - 5 kW serve smaller farms or rural enterprises (there are about 60,000 such systems in Russia).

  2. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Coal-Biomass to Liquids Turning coal into liquid fuels like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, with biomass to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, is the main goal of the Coal and ...

  3. Assessment of degradation concerns for spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes in monitored retrievalbe storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Slate, S.C.; Partain, W.L.; Divine, J.R.; Kreid, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    It has been concluded that there are no significant degradation mechanisms that could prevent the design, construction, and safe operation of monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facilities. However, there are some long-term degradation mechanisms that could affect the ability to maintain or readily retrieve spent fuel (SF), high-level wastes (HLW), and transuranic wastes (TRUW) several decades after emplacement. Although catastrophic failures are not anticipated, long-term degradation mechanisms have been identified that could, under certain conditions, cause failure of the SF cladding and/or failure of TRUW storage containers. Stress rupture limits for Zircaloy-clad SF in MRS range from 300 to 440/sup 0/C, based on limited data. Additional tests on irradiated Zircaloy (3- to 5-year duration) are needed to narrow this uncertainty. Cladding defect sizes could increase in air as a result of fuel density decreases due to oxidation. Oxidation tests (3- to 5-year duration) on SF are also needed to verify oxidation rates in air and to determine temperatures below which monitoring of an inert cover gas would not be required. Few, if any, changes in the physical state of HLW glass or canisters or their performance would occur under projected MRS conditions. The major uncertainty for HLW is in the heat transfer through cracked glass and glass devitrification above 500/sup 0/C. Additional study of TRUW is required. Some fraction of present TRUW containers would probably fail within the first 100 years of MRS, and some TRUW would be highly degraded upon retrieval, even in unfailed containers. One possible solution is the design of a 100-year container. 93 references, 28 figures, 17 tables.

  4. Biomass Support for the China Renewable Energy Law: Feasibility Report -- Agricultural and Forestry Solid Wastes Power Generation Demonstration, December 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-10-01

    Subcontractor report on feasibility of using agricultural and forestry wastes for power generation in China

  5. Improving the Estimates of Waste from the Recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel - 13410

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Chris; Willis, William; Carter, Robert; Baker, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Estimates are presented of wastes arising from the reprocessing of 50 GWD/tonne, 5 year and 50 year cooled used nuclear fuel (UNF) from Light Water Reactors (LWRs), using the 'NUEX' solvent extraction process. NUEX is a fourth generation aqueous based reprocessing system, comprising shearing and dissolution in nitric acid of the UNF, separation of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium using solvent extraction in a development of the PUREX process using tri-n-butyl phosphate in a kerosene diluent, purification of the plutonium and uranium-plutonium products, and conversion of them to uranium trioxide and mixed uranium-plutonium dioxides respectively. These products are suitable for use as new LWR uranium oxide and mixed oxide fuel, respectively. Each unit process is described and the wastes that it produces are identified and quantified. Quantification of the process wastes was achieved by use of a detailed process model developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler suite of software and based on both first principles equilibrium and rate data, plus practical experience and data from the industrial scale Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at the Sellafield nuclear site in the United Kingdom. By feeding this model with the known concentrations of all species in the incoming UNF, the species and their concentrations in all product and waste streams were produced as the output. By using these data, along with a defined set of assumptions, including regulatory requirements, it was possible to calculate the waste forms, their radioactivities, volumes and quantities. Quantification of secondary wastes, such as plant maintenance, housekeeping and clean-up wastes, was achieved by reviewing actual operating experience from THORP during its hot operation from 1994 to the present time. This work was carried out under a contract from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and, so as to enable DOE to make valid comparisons with other similar work, a number of assumptions

  6. DOE 2014 Biomass Conference | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Biomass Conference DOE 2014 Biomass Conference Breakout Session 1C-Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels DOE 2014 Biomass Conference Jim Williams, Senior Manager, American Petroleum Institute williams_biomass_2014.pdf (516.94 KB) More Documents & Publications High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Underground Storage Tanks: New Fuels and Compatibility A Vehicle Manufacturer's Perspective on

  7. BIOMASS TO BIO-OIL BY LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-10

    Significant efforts have been devoted to develop processes for the conversion of biomass, an abundant and sustainable source of energy, to liquid fuels and chemicals, in order to replace diminishing fossil fuels and mitigate global warming. Thermochemical and biochemical methods have attracted the most attention. Among the thermochemical processes, pyrolysis and liquefaction are the two major technologies for the direct conversion of biomass to produce a liquid product, often called bio-oil. This chapter focuses on the liquefaction, a medium-temperature and high-pressure thermochemical process for the conversion of biomass to bio-oil. Water has been most commonly used as a solvent and the process is known as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Fundamentals of HTL process, key factors determining HTL behavior, role of catalyst in HTL, properties of produced bio-oil, and the current status of the technology are summarized. The liquefaction of biomass by using organic solvents, a process called solvolysis, is also discussed. A wide range of biomass feedstocks have been tested for liquefaction including wood, crop residues, algae, food processing waste, and animal manure.

  8. The ultimate biomass refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bungay, H.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Bits and pieces of refining schemes and both old and new technology have been integrated into a complete biomass harvesting, processing, waste recycle, and marketing complex. These choices are justified with economic estimates and technology assessments.

  9. Radioactive Waste Management at the New Conversion Facility of 'TVEL'{sup R} Fuel Company - 13474

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Indyk, S.I.; Volodenko, A.V.; Tvilenev, K.A.; Tinin, V.V.; Fateeva, E.V.

    2013-07-01

    The project on the new conversion facility construction is being implemented by Joint Stock Company (JSC) 'Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises' (SGChE) within TVEL{sup R} Fuel Company. The objective is to construct the up-to-date facility ensuring the industrial and environmental safety with the reduced impact on the community and environment in compliance with the Russian new regulatory framework on radioactive waste (RW) management. The history of the SGChE development, as well as the concepts and approaches to RW management implemented by now are shown. The SGChE future image is outlined, together with its objectives and concept on RW management in compliance with the new act 'On radioactive waste management' adopted in Russia in 2011. Possible areas of cooperation with international companies are discussed in the field of RW management with the purpose of deploying the best Russian and world practices on RW management at the new conversion facility. (authors)

  10. Steam-reforming of fossil fuels and wastes to produce energy and chemicals without greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Worldwide concern has demanded a re-examination of the energy- and chemical-producing plants that use fossil fuel sources and release large quantities of greenhouse gases. Plant retrofits with steam-reformer/gasifiers will increase plant efficiencies, improve economics and avoid releasing troublesome amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. In this paper, the authors describe and illustrate the several new steam-reforming/gasification plants that are processing waste streams and fossil fuels. These plants range in size from 1 ton/day to 2,000 tons/day. They are commercial and economically successful. These new concepts can be used to both upgrade fossil plants for improved economics while eliminating the release of greenhouse gases. By aggressively retrofitting old coal plants and sequestering CO{sub 2}, a 15% reduction in 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions can be met by the US by 2010.

  11. What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE

    2002-12-01

    Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

  12. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington's industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state's total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state's energy needs.

  13. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-12-31

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington`s industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state`s total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state`s energy needs.

  14. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

  15. DOD -DOE MOU WTE Using Fuel Cells Briefing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program DOD - DOE MOU WTE Using Fuel Cells Briefing Pete Devlin Market Transformation and Intergovernmental Coordination Manager July 13, 2011 Biogas Resource Example: Methane from Waste Water Treatment Biogas from waste water treatment plants is ideally located near urban centers to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. Focus Area Source: NREL report A Geographic Perspective on Current Biomass Resource Availability in the United States, 2005 * 500,000 MT per year of methane available from

  16. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  17. Integrated Data Base for 1992: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payton, M. L.; Williams, J. T.; Tolbert-Smith, M.; Klein, J. A.

    1992-10-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1991. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal.

  18. Integrated Data Base report--1993: U.S. spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel; also, commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1993. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 256 refs., 38 figs., 141 tabs.

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Marra, J.

    2010-09-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a series of ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) and Cesium/Lanthanide/Transition Metal (CS/LN/TM) waste streams anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores, zirconolite, and other minor metal titanate phases. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. XRD and SEM/EDS results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD, and had phase assemblages that were closer to the initial targets. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms. Initial studies of radiation damage tolerance using ion beam irradiation at Los

  20. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Abhijit; Sahir, Asad; Tan, Eric; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Meyer, Pimphan; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructurecompatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis.

  1. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karmis, Michael; Luttrell, Gerald; Ripepi, Nino; Bratton, Robert; Dohm, Erich

    2014-06-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  2. Flash hydrogenation of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M

    1980-01-01

    It is proposed to obtain process chemistry information on the rapid hydrogenation of biomass (wood and other agricultural products) to produce light liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels and feedstocks. The process is referred to as Flash Hydropyrolysis. The information will be of use in the design and evaluation of processes for the conversion of biomass to synthetic fuels and petrochemical feedstocks. Results obtained in an initial experiment are discussed.

  3. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No Name

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  4. Spent nuclear fuel as a waste form for geologic disposal: Assessment and recommendations on data and modeling needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Luik, A.E.; Apted, M.J.; Bailey, W.J.; Haberman, J.H.; Shade, J.S.; Guenther, R.E.; Serne, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Peters, R.; Williford, R.E.

    1987-09-01

    This study assesses the status of knowledge pertinent to evaluating the behavior of spent nuclear fuel as a waste form in geologic disposal systems and provides background information that can be used by the DOE to address the information needs that pertain to compliance with applicable standards and regulations. To achieve this objective, applicable federal regulations were reviewed, expected disposal environments were described, the status of spent-fuel modeling was summarized, and information regarding the characteristics and behavior of spent fuel was compiled. This compiled information was then evaluated from a performance modeling perspective to identify further information needs. A number of recommendations were made concerning information still needed to enhance understanding of spent-fuel behavior as a waste form in geologic repositories. 335 refs., 22 figs., 44 tabs.

  5. Regional biomass fired power plant siting Wisconsin project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    The use of alternative fuels such as wood chips, wood products industry residues, refuse derived fuel, tire derived fuel and processed manufacturing paper waste fuel pellets has been practiced for a number of years in the state of Wisconsin. At present a relatively small quantity of the non-forestry urban wood waste is reclaimed for a variety of uses such as architectural mulch, animal bedding, nature trails in parks and recreational areas. Most is disposed of by landfills. This wood waste has low bulky density, depletes valuable landfill space, and in the Milwaukee area, currently costs $35-$50 per ton for hauling and disposal. This paper reviews the technical and economic feasibility of processing urban wood wastes using existing scrap processing facilities and transporting and supplying the wood fuel to existing stream and power generating facilities at state of Wisconsin institutions. The paper is based on a recent study funded by The Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program. The capability of a large midwest auto shredding/scrap processing facility, one of 200 such facilities in the US, to serve as a central urban waste fuels processor is reviewed.

  6. System dynamics of the competition of municipal solid waste to landfill, electricity, and liquid fuel in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-03-01

    A quantitative system dynamics model was created to evaluate the economic and environmental tradeoffs between biomass to electricity and to liquid fuel using MSW biomass in the state of California as a case study. From an environmental perspective, landfilling represents the worst use of MSW over time, generating more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to converting MSW to liquid fuel or to electricity. MSW to ethanol results in the greatest displacement of GHG emissions per dollar spent compared to MSW to electricity. MSW to ethanol could save the state of California approximately $60 billion in energy costs by 2050 compared to landfilling, while also reducing GHG emissions state-wide by approximately 140 million metric tons during that timeframe. MSW conversion to electricity creates a significant cost within the state's electricity sector, although some conversion technologies are cost competitive with existing renewable generation.

  7. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  8. Report of the DOD-DOE Workshop on Converting Waste to Energy Using Fuel Cells: Workshop Summary and Action Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report discusses the results of a January 13, 2011, workshop that focused on utilizing biowaste as an energy feedstock and converting this feedstock into heat and/or power using fuel cells. DOD and DOE are collaborating under a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to pursue technology-driven solutions that reduce petroleum use, among other objectives. One of the solutions being explored under the MOU is leveraging waste as feedstock for fuel cell applications in fixed and deployed military operations.

  9. Integrated data base for 1993: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.A.; Storch, S.N.; Ashline, R.C.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent fuel; also, commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1992. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste (HLW), transuranic (TRU), waste, low-level waste (LLW), commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) LLW. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year (CY) 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal.

  10. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"-the energy from plants and plant-derived materials-since people began burning wood to cook food and keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can also be used. These include food crops, grassy and woody plants, residues from agriculture or forestry, oil-rich algae, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes. Even the fumes from landfills (which are

  11. US Department of Energy Storage of Spent Fuel and High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandra M Birk

    2010-10-01

    ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) storage management. Like commercial reactor fuel, DOE's SNF and HLW were destined for the Yucca Mountain repository. In March 2010, the DOE filed a motion with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to withdraw the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain. A new repository is now decades away. The default for the commercial and DOE research reactor fuel and HLW is on-site storage for the foreseeable future. Though the motion to withdraw the license application and delay opening of a repository signals extended storage, DOE's immediate plans for management of its SNF and HLW remain the same as before Yucca Mountain was designated as the repository, though it has expanded its research and development efforts to ensure safe extended storage. This paper outlines some of the proposed research that DOE is conducting and will use to enhance its storage systems and facilities.

  12. EA-1957: Cabin Creek Biomass Facility, Placer County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is proposing to provide funding to Placer County, California to construct and operate a two-megawatt wood-to-energy biomass facility at the Eastern Regional Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) and Landfill in unincorporated Placer County. The wood‐to‐energy biomass facility would use a gasification technology. The fuel supply for the proposed project would be solely woody biomass, derived from a variety of sources including hazardous fuels residuals, forest thinning and harvest residuals, and Wildland Urban Interface sourced waste materials from residential and commercial property defensible space clearing and property management activities. NOTE: After review of a final California Environmental Quality Act Environmental Impact Report, DOE has determined that preparation of an EA is not necessary. The propsed action fits within DOE's categorical exclusion B5.20. Therefore, this EA is cancelled.

  13. Miami Dade County Resource Recovery Fac Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Recovery Fac Biomass Facility Facility Miami Dade County Resource Recovery Fac Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Miami-Dade County, Florida...

  14. McKay Bay Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Facility Facility McKay Bay Facility Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Hillsborough County, Florida Coordinates 27.9903597, -82.3017728...

  15. Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of liquid fuels: Subcontract progress report, 1 March 1984-28 February 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Sinskey, A.J.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-07-01

    This project is a coordinated effort to develop process technology for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its utilization for the production of liquid fuels. Current efforts are based on our prior success in developing a single-step microbiological process for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. This process utilizes a mixed culture of Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic celluloytic anaerobe which degrades cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobe which produces high concentrations of ethanol from both hexoses and pentoses. These studies focus on the use of C. thermocellum and its cellulases for enhanced saccharification of lignocellulose and on the direct fermentation of lignocellulose to liquid fuel. Efforts on saccharification are directed to facilitate the adoption of existing fermentation ethanol plants for cellulosic substrates and to overcome the rate limiting step of saccharification in the mixed culture. 9 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Lousiana Green Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lousiana Green Fuels LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lousiana Green Fuels LLC Place: Louisiana Sector: Biomass Product: Developing a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol plant in...

  17. Renewable Fuels Limited RFL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited RFL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Fuels Limited (RFL) Place: York, United Kingdom Zip: YO19 6ET Sector: Biomass Product: Supplies various biomass fuels and...

  18. Natura Bio Fuels Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Natura Bio Fuels Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Natura Bio-Fuels Ltd. Place: Bangalore, Karnataka, India Zip: 560091 Sector: Biomass Product: Bangalore-based biomass project...

  19. An overview of agriforestry waste production and use in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleit, S.; Hoop, C.F. de; Chang, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    Agriculture and forestry are the second largest employers in the state of Louisiana. Natural by-products of these industries are biomass waste in the form of bark, wood chips, sawdust, cotton gin trash, rice hulls and sugar bagasse. Disposing of these wastes poses problems for the air and water. One popular waste management solution is to use them for fuel. To measure the potential for using biomass waste for fuel and other uses, a study was conducted of sugar cane processors, cotton ginners, rice processors and the primary and secondary wood processors in Louisiana. The study revealed that while some firms use waste for their own boilers, or sell it to others for fuel, there is still unused waste. There are many reasons for this including the cost of competing energy sources, lack of marketing innovation and the economies of scale. The study`s mission includes identifying new areas for utilizing waste. To facilitate these innovations, and bridge buyers with sellers of biomass waste, a geographic information system (GIS) was developed to map all sites claiming to produce and/or consume wood waste, as well as processors of cotton gin trash, rice hulls and sugar bagasse. These data are layered with timber supply data from the U.S. Forest Service.

  20. Biomass Processing Photolibrary

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

  1. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Westinghouse Advanced Reactors and Nuclear Fuels Divisions, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S.

    1994-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Sits in southeastern Washington State is to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 5.7 percent of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division (WARD) and the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuels Division (WNFD) in Cheswick, Pennsylvania and shipped to the Hanford Sits for storage. This report characterizes these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews.

  2. Biomass Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education & Workforce Development » Resources » Biomass Basics Biomass Basics Biomass is an energy resource derived from organic matter, which includes wood, agricultural waste, and other living-cell material that can be burned to produce heat energy. It also includes algae, sewage, and other organic substances that may be used to make energy through chemical processes. Biomass currently supplies about 3% of total U.S. energy consumption in the form of electricity, process heat, and

  3. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  4. Management of Legacy Spent Nuclear Fuel Wastes at the Chalk River Laboratories: The Challenges and Innovative Solutions Implemented - 13301

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schruder, Kristan; Goodwin, Derek

    2013-07-01

    AECL's Fuel Packaging and Storage (FPS) Project was initiated in 2004 to retrieve, transfer, and stabilize an identified inventory of degraded research reactor fuel that had been emplaced within in-ground 'Tile Hole' structures in Chalk River Laboratories' Waste Management Area in the 1950's and 60's. Ongoing monitoring of the legacy fuel storage conditions had identified that moisture present in the storage structures had contributed to corrosion of both the fuel and the storage containers. This prompted the initiation of the FPS Project which has as its objective to design, construct, and commission equipment and systems that would allow for the ongoing safe storage of this fuel until a final long-term management, or disposition, pathway was available. The FPS Project provides systems and technologies to retrieve and transfer the fuel from the Waste Management Area to a new facility that will repackage, dry, safely store and monitor the fuel for a period of 50 years. All equipment and the new storage facility are designed and constructed to meet the requirements for Class 1 Nuclear Facilities in Canada. (authors)

  5. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006 (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS biomass, biodiesel, carbon dioxide, feedstocks Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size N...

  6. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: Amyris, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Amyris, Inc. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: Amyris, Inc. Demonstrating the conversion of sweet sorgum biomass to hydrocarbon fuel and chemicals. ibrarraamyris.pdf (253.28 KB) More ...

  7. Biomass Program Factsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    The emerging U.S. bioindustry is using a range of biomass resources to provide a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels and electric power. Displacing an increasing portion of our imported oil with renewable, domestic bioenergy will provide clear benefits:Reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; A cleaner, more secure energy future; Sustainable transportation fuels; Opportunities for economic growth

  8. On the possibility of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste by plasma methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V. Samokhin, A. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Khomyakov, Yu. S.

    2015-12-15

    The concept of plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste is presented. An approach that is based on using an accelerating potential to overcome the energy and angular spread of plasma ions at the separation region inlet and utilizing a potential well to separate spatially the ions of different masses is proposed. It is demonstrated that such separation may be performed at distances of about 1 m with electrical potentials of about 1 kV and a magnetic field of about 1 kG. The estimates of energy consumption and performance of the plasma separation method are presented. These estimates illustrate its potential for technological application. The results of development and construction of an experimental setup for testing the method of plasma separation are presented.

  9. Thermal performance of a buried nuclear waste storage container storing a hybrid mix of PWR and BWR spent fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1988-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will design, model, and test nuclear waste packages for use at the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. One such package would store lightly packed spent fuel rods from both pressurized and boiling water reactors. The storage container provides the primary containment of the nuclear waste and the spent fuel rod cladding provides secondary containment. A series of transient conduction and radiation heat transfer analyses was run to determine for the first 1000 yr of storage if the temperature of the tuff at the borehole wall ever falls below 97{degree}C and whether the cladding of the stored spent fuel ever exceeds 350{degree}C. Limiting the borehole to temperatures of 97{degree}C or greater helps minimize corrosion by assuring that no condensed water collects on the container. The 350{degree}C cladding limit minimizes the possibility of creep-related failure in the spent fuel rod cladding. For a series of packages stored in a 8 x 30 m borehole grid where each package contains 10-yr-old spent fuel rods generating 4.74 kW or more, the borehole wall stays above 97{degree}C for the full 1000-yr analysis period.

  10. Biomass Feedstocks for Renewable Fuel Production: A review of the impacts of feedstock and pretreatment on the yield and product distribution of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Carpenter; Stefan Czernik; Whitney Jablonski; Tyler L. Westover

    2014-02-01

    Renewable transportation fuels from biomass have the potential to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and diversify global fuel supplies. Thermal conversion by fast pyrolysis converts up to 75% of the starting plant material (and its energy content) to a bio-oil intermediate suitable for upgrading to motor fuel. Woody biomass, by far the most widely-used and researched material, is generally preferred in thermochemical processes due to its low ash content and high quality bio-oil produced. However, the availability and cost of biomass resources, e.g. forest residues, agricultural residues, or dedicated energy crops, vary greatly by region and will be key determinates in the overall economic feasibility of a pyrolysis-to-fuel process. Formulation or blending of various feedstocks, combined with thermal and/or chemical pretreatment, could facilitate a consistent, high-volume, lower-cost biomass supply to an emerging biofuels industry. However, the impact of biomass type and pretreatment conditions on bio-oil yield and quality, and the potential process implications, are not well understood. This literature review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the effect of feedstock and pretreatments on the yield, product distribution, and upgradability of bio-oil.

  11. Molecular Breeding Algae For Improved Traits For The Conversion Of Waste To Fuels And Commodities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagwell, C.

    2015-10-14

    This Exploratory LDRD aimed to develop molecular breeding methodology for biofuel algal strain improvement for applications in waste to energy / commodity conversion technologies. Genome shuffling technologies, specifically protoplast fusion, are readily available for the rapid production of genetic hybrids for trait improvement and have been used successfully in bacteria, yeast, plants and animals. However, genome fusion has not been developed for exploiting the remarkable untapped potential of eukaryotic microalgae for large scale integrated bio-conversion and upgrading of waste components to valued commodities, fuel and energy. The proposed molecular breeding technology is effectively sexual reproduction in algae; though compared to traditional breeding, the molecular route is rapid, high-throughput and permits selection / improvement of complex traits which cannot be accomplished by traditional genetics. Genome fusion technologies are the cutting edge of applied biotechnology. The goals of this Exploratory LDRD were to 1) establish reliable methodology for protoplast production among diverse microalgal strains, and 2) demonstrate genome fusion for hybrid strain production using a single gene encoded trait as a proof of the concept.

  12. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  13. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  14. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  15. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  16. Plant No 2 Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    No 2 Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Plant No 2 Biomass Facility Facility Plant No 2 Sector Biomass Facility Type Non-Fossil Waste Location Orange County,...

  17. Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of liquid fuels: Subcontract progress report, 1 March 1983-29 February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Sinskey, A.J.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-07-01

    This project is a coordinated effort to develop process technology for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its utilization for the production of liquid fuels. Current efforts are based on our prior success in developing a single-step microbiological process for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. This process utilizes a mixed culture of Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobe which degrades cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars, and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, a thermo anaerobe which produces high concentrations of ethanol from both hexoses and pentoses. The proposed studies will focus on the use of C. thermocellum and its cellulases for enhanced saccharification of lignocellulose and on the direct fermentation of lignocellulose to the liquid fuel, butanol. Efforts on saccharification are directed to facilitate the adoption of existing fermentation ethanol plants for cellulosic substrates and to overcome the rate limiting step of saccharification in the mixed culture. The effort on butanol will extend the concept of direct fermentation to the production of this liquid fuel. 14 refs.

  18. Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of liquid fuels: Subcontract progress report, 1 September 1981-28 February 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Sinskey, A.J.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-07-01

    This project is a coordinated effort to develop process technology for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its utilization for the production of liquid fuels. Current efforts are based on our prior success in developing a single-step microbiological process for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. This process utilizes a mixed culture of Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobe which degrades cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars, and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobe which produces high concentrations of ethanol from both hexoses and pentoses. The proposed studies will focus on the use of C. thermocellum and its cellulases for enhanced saccharification of lignocellulose and on the direct fermentation of lignocellulose to the liquid fuel, butanol. Efforts on saccharification are directed to facilitate the adoption of existing fermentation ethanol plants for cellulosic substrates and to overcome the rate limiting step of saccharification in the mixed culture. The effort on butanol will extend the concept of direct fermentation to the production of this liquid fuel.

  19. Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of liquid fuels: Subcontract progress report, 1 March 1981-31 August 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Sinskey, A.J.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-07-01

    This project is a coordinated effort to develop process technology for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its utilization for the production of liquid fuels. Current efforts are based on our prior success in developing a single-step microbiological process for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. This process utilizes a mixed culture of Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobe which degrades cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars, and C. thermosaccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobe which produces high concentrations of ethanol from both hexoses and pentoses. The proposed studies will focus on the use of C. therocellum and its cellulases for enhanced saccharification of lignocellulose and on the direct fermentation of lignocellulose to the liquid fuel, butanol. Efforts on saccharification are directed to facilitate the adoption of existing fermentation ethanol plants for cellulosic substrates and to overcome the rate limiting step of saccharification in the mixed culture. The effort on butanol will extend the concept of direct fermentation to the production of this fuel. 55 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of liquid fuels: Subcontract progress report, 1 March 1982-31 August 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Sinskey, A.J.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-07-01

    This project is a coordinated effort to develop process technology for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its utilization for the production of liquid fuels. Current efforts are based on our prior success in developing a single-step microbiological process for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. This process utilizes a mixed culture of Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobe which degrades cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars, and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobic which produces high concentrations of ethanol from both hexoses and pentoses. The proposed studies will focus on the use of C. thermocellum and its cellulases for enhanced saccharification of lignocellulose and on the direct fermentation of lignocellulose to the liquid fuel, butanol. Efforts on saccharification are directed to facilitate the adoption of existing fermentation ethanol plants for cellulosic substrates and to overcome the rate limiting step of saccharification in the mixed culture. The effort on butanol will extend the concept of direct fermentation to the production of this liquid fuel.

  1. Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of liquid fuels: Subcontract progress report, 1 September 1982-28 February 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Sinskey, A.J.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-07-01

    This project is a coordinated effort to develop process technology for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its utilization for the production of liquid fuels. Current efforts are based on our prior success in developing a single-step microbiological process for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. This process utilizes a mixed culture of Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobe which degrades cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars, and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobe which produces high concentrations of ethanol from both hexoses and pentoses. The proposed studies will focus on the use of C. thermocellum and its cellulases for enhanced saccharification of lignocellulose and on the direct fermentation of lignocellulose to the liquid fuel, butanol. Efforts on saccharification are directed to facilitate the adoption of existing fermentation ethanol plants for cellulosic substrates and to overcome the rate limiting step of saccharification in the mixed culture. The effort on butanol will extend the concept of direct fermentation to the production of this liquid fuel.

  2. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  3. Northeast regional biomass program. Retrospective, 1983--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savitt, S.; Morgan, S.

    1995-01-01

    Ten years ago, when Congress initiated the Regional Biomass Energy Program, biomass fuel use in the Northeast was limited primarily to the forest products industry and residential wood stoves. An enduring form of energy as old as settlement in the region, residential wood-burning now takes its place beside modern biomass combustion systems in schools and other institutions, industrial cogeneration facilities, and utility-scale power plants. Biomass today represents more than 95 percent of all renewable energy consumed in the Northeast: a little more than one-half quadrillion BTUs yearly, or five percent of the region`s total energy demand. Yet given the region`s abundance of overstocked forests, municipal solid waste and processed wood residues, this represents just a fraction of the energy potential the biomass resource has to offer.This report provides an account of the work of the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) over it`s first ten years. The NRBP has undertaken projects to promote the use of biomass energy and technologies.

  4. BT16 Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops Factsheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... forests, municipal solid wastes, urban wood waste, and algae, the report includes an evaluation of biomass supply potentially available through production on agricultural land. ...

  5. Range Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Zip: 80021 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Biomass Product: Uses a thermochemical process to turn biomass into synthetic gas and then fuel Website: www.rangefuels.com...

  6. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Abhijit; Sahir, A. H.; Tan, Eric; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis. Both the in situ and ex situ conceptual designs, using the underlying assumptions, project MFSPs of approximately $3.5/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE). The performance assumptions for the ex situ process were more aggressive with higher distillate (diesel-range) products. This was based on an assumption that more favorable reaction chemistry (such as coupling) can be made possible in a separate reactor where, unlike in an in situ upgrading reactor, one does not have to deal with catalyst mixing with biomass char and ash, which pose challenges to catalyst performance and maintenance. Natural gas was used for hydrogen production, but only when off gases from the process was not sufficient to meet the needs; natural gas consumption is insignificant in both the in situ and ex situ base cases. Heat produced from the burning of char, coke, and off-gases allows for the production of surplus electricity which is sold to the grid allowing a reduction of approximately 5¢/GGE in the MFSP.

  7. Bioenergy `96: Partnerships to develop and apply biomass technologies. Volume I and II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The conference proceedings consist of two volumes of papers detailing numerous issues related to biomass energy production and use. An author and keyword index are provided in the proceedings. A total of 143 papers were selected for the database. Papers were selected from the following areas from Volume 1: feedstock production, harvest, storage, and delivery; the DOE biomass power program; technical, economic, and policy barriers and incentives; new developments in biomass combustion; advancements in biomass gasification; liquid fuels production and use; and case studies of bioenergy projects. From Volume 2, subtopics selected included: bioenergy systems for distributed generation; assessment and use of biomass wastes; non-technical barriers to bioenergy implementation; improving commercial viability through integrated systems; and anaerobic digestion.

  8. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Hart, Todd R.

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  9. A Review and Analysis of European Industrial Experience in Handling LWR Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    2001-07-10

    The industrial facilities that have been built or are under construction in France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and West Germany to handle light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and canisters of vitrified high-level waste before ultimate disposal are described and illustrated with drawings and photographs. Published information on the operating performance of these facilities is also given. This information was assembled for consideration in planning and design of similar equipment and facilities needed for the Federal Waste Management System in the United States.

  10. Sets of Reports and Articles Regarding Cement Wastes Forms Containing Alpha Emitters that are Potentially Useful for Development of Russian Federation Waste Treatment Processes for Solidification of Weapons Plutonium MOX Fuel Fabrication Wastes for

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, L J

    2003-06-12

    This is a set of nine reports and articles that were kindly provided by Dr. Christine A. Langton from the Savannah River Site (SRS) to L. J. Jardine LLNL in June 2003. The reports discuss cement waste forms and primarily focus on gas generation in cement waste forms from alpha particle decays. However other items such as various cement compositions, cement product performance test results and some cement process parameters are also included. This set of documents was put into this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) releasable report for the sole purpose to provide a set of documents to Russian technical experts now beginning to study cement waste treatment processes for wastes from an excess weapons plutonium MOX fuel fabrication facility. The intent is to provide these reports for use at a US RF Experts Technical Meeting on: the Management of Wastes from MOX Fuel Fabrication Facilities, in Moscow July 9-11, 2003. The Russian experts should find these reports to be very useful for their technical and economic feasibility studies and the supporting R&D activities required to develop acceptable waste treatment processes for use in Russia as part of the ongoing Joint US RF Plutonium Disposition Activities.

  11. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  12. BT16 Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Municipal Solid Waste Resources Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass ... trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. ...

  13. Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

  14. REGIONAL BINNING FOR CONTINUED STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Lee Poe, Jr

    1998-10-01

    In the Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR) (Reference 1), DOE decided to analyze the environmental consequences of continuing to store the commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at 72 commercial nuclear power sites and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at five Department of Energy sites by region rather than by individual site. This analysis assumes that three commercial facilities pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine-Mile Point, and Dresden and Moms--share common storage due to their proximity to each other. The five regions selected for this analysis are shown on Figure 1. Regions 1, 2, and 3 are the same as those used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in their regulatory oversight of commercial power reactors. NRC Region 4 was subdivided into two regions to more appropriately define the two different climates that exist in NRC Region 4. A single hypothetical site in each region was assumed to store all the SNF and HLW in that region. Such a site does not exist and has no geographic location but is a mathematical construct for analytical purposes. To ensure that the calculated results for the regional analyses reflect appropriate inventory, facility and material degradation, and radionuclide transport, the waste inventories, engineered barriers, and environmental conditions for the hypothetical sites were developed from data for each of the existing sites within the given region. Weighting criteria to account for the amount and types of SNF and HLW at each site were used in the development of the environmental data for the regional site, such that the results of the analyses for the hypothetical site were representative of the sum of the results of each actual site if they had been modeled independently. This report defines the actual site data used in development of this hypothetical site, shows how the individual site data was weighted to develop the regional site, and provides the weighted data used in the CSAR analysis. It is

  15. Consider upgrading pyrolysis oils into renewable fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Holmgren, Jennifer; Marinangelli, Richard; nair, Prabhakar; Bain, Richard

    2008-09-01

    New research is identifying processing routes to convert cellulosic biomass into transportation fuels

  16. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Functionalized ultra-porous titania nanofiber membranes as nuclear waste separation and sequestration scaffolds for nuclear fuels recycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Haiqing; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Sava, Dorina Florentina; Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2012-09-01

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycle concept is interested in reducing separations to a simplified, one-step process if possible. This will benefit from the development of a one-step universal getter and sequestration material so as a simplified, universal waste form was proposed in this project. We have developed a technique combining a modified sol-gel chemistry and electrospinning for producing ultra-porous ceramic nanofiber membranes with controllable diameters and porous structures as the separation/sequestration materials. These ceramic nanofiber materials have been determined to have high porosity, permeability, loading capacity, and stability in extreme conditions. These porous fiber membranes were functionalized with silver nanoparticles and nanocrystal metal organic frameworks (MOFs) to introduce specific sites to capture gas species that are released during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Encapsulation into a durable waste form of ceramic composition was also demonstrated.

  18. Methodology for modeling the devolatilization of refuse-derived fuel from thermogravimetric analysis of municipal solid waste components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritsky, K.J.; Miller, D.L.; Cernansky, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    A methodology was introduced for modeling the devolatilization characteristics of refuse-derived fuel (RFD) in terms of temperature-dependent weight loss. The basic premise of the methodology is that RDF is modeled as a combination of select municipal solid waste (MSW) components. Kinetic parameters are derived for each component from thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) data measured at a specific set of conditions. These experimentally derived parameters, along with user-derived parameters, are inputted to model equations for the purpose of calculating thermograms for the components. The component thermograms are summed to create a composite thermogram that is an estimate of the devolatilization for the as-modeled RFD. The methodology has several attractive features as a thermal analysis tool for waste fuels. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel report assesses the technical options for the safe and permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) managed by the Department of Energy. Specifically, it considers whether DOE-managed HLW and SNF should be disposed of with commercial SNF and HLW in one geologic repository or whether there are advantages to developing separate geologic disposal pathways for some DOE-managed HLW and SNF. The report recommends that the Department begin implementation of a phased, adaptive, and consent-based strategy with development of a separate mined repository for some DOE-managed HLW and cooler DOE-managed SNF.

  20. Wheelabrator Millbury Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facility Facility Wheelabrator Millbury Facility Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Worcester County, Massachusetts Coordinates 42.4096528, -71.8571331...

  1. Hillsborough County Resource Recovery Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facility Hillsborough County Resource Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Hillsborough County, Florida Coordinates 27.9903597, -82.3017728...

  2. Alkali deposits found in biomass boilers: The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers -- Field and laboratory experiences. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, L.L.; Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Jenkins, B.M.; Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A.; Bryers, R.W.; Oden, L.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the major findings of the Alkali Deposits Investigation, a collaborative effort to understand the causes of unmanageable ash deposits in biomass-fired electric power boilers. Volume 1 of this report provide an overview of the project, with selected highlights. This volume provides more detail and discussion of the data and implications. This document includes six sections. The first, the introduction, provides the motivation, context, and focus for the investigation. The remaining sections discuss fuel properties, bench-scale combustion tests, a framework for considering ash deposition processes, pilot-scale tests of biomass fuels, and field tests in commercially operating biomass power generation stations. Detailed chemical analyses of eleven biomass fuels representing a broad cross-section of commercially available fuels reveal their properties that relate to ash deposition tendencies. The fuels fall into three broad categories: (1) straws and grasses (herbaceous materials); (2) pits, shells, hulls and other agricultural byproducts of a generally ligneous nature; and (3) woods and waste fuels of commercial interest. This report presents a systematic and reasonably detailed analysis of fuel property, operating condition, and boiler design issues that dictate ash deposit formation and property development. The span of investigations from bench-top experiments to commercial operation and observations including both practical illustrations and theoretical background provide a self-consistent and reasonably robust basis to understand the qualitative nature of ash deposit formation in biomass boilers. While there remain many quantitative details to be pursued, this project encapsulates essentially all of the conceptual aspects of the issue. It provides a basis for understanding and potentially resolving the technical and environmental issues associated with ash deposition during biomass combustion. 81 refs., 124 figs., 76 tabs.

  3. 1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

  4. Depleted uranium oxides and silicates as spent nuclear fuel waste package fill materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-09-10

    A new repository waste package (WP) concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is being investigated that uses depleted uranium (DU) to improve performance and reduce the uncertainties of geological disposal of SNF. The WP would be filled with SNF and then filled with depleted uranium (DU) ({approximately}0.2 wt % {sup 235}U) dioxide (UO{sub 2}) or DU silicate-glass beads. Fission products and actinides can not escape the SNF UO{sub 2} crystals until the UO{sub 2} dissolves or is transformed into other chemical species. After WP failure, the DU fill material slows dissolution by three mechanisms: (1) saturation of AT groundwater with DU and suppression of SNF dissolution, (2) maintenance of chemically reducing conditions in the WP that minimize SNF solubility by sacrificial oxidation of DU from the +4 valence state, and (3) evolution of DU to lower-density hydrated uranium silicates. The fill expansion seals the WP from water flow. The DU also isotopically exchanges with SNF uranium as the SNF degrades to reduce long-term nuclear-criticality concerns.

  5. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding

  6. Northeast Regional Biomass Program. Ninth year, Fourth quarterly report, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  7. Use of depleted uranium silicate glass to minimize release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel waste packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-01-20

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate Container Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill the void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (a) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (b) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  8. CONVERTING PYROLYSIS OILS TO RENEWABLE TRANSPORT FUELS: PROCESSING CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmgren, Jennifer; Nair, Prabhakar N.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Bain, Richard; Marinangelli, Richard

    2008-03-11

    To enable a sustained supply of biomass-based transportation fuels, the capability to process feedstocks outside the food chain must be developed. Significant industry efforts are underway to develop these new technologies, such as converting cellulosic wastes to ethanol. UOP, in partnership with U.S. Government labs, NREL and PNNL, is developing an alternate route using cellulosic feedstocks. The waste biomass is first subjected to a fast pyrolysis operation to generate pyrolysis oil (pyoil for short). Current efforts are focused on developing a thermochemical platform to convert pyoils to renewable gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. The fuels produced will be indistinguishable from their fossil fuel counterparts and, therefore, will be compatible with existing transport and distribution infrastructure.

  9. Solar thermochemical fuel production. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; BIOMASS; GASIFICATION; LIQUID FUELS; OXIDES; PRODUCTION; REDOX REACTIONS; SOLAR ...

  10. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass ...

  11. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuel sources. Bioenergy, or energy derived from biomass, is a sustainable alternative ... supply of oil vulnerable to global trends. ... To determine if your vehicle is an FFV, check ...

  12. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average * ...

  13. Characterization of Catalysts for Aftertreatment and Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Aftertreatment and Biomass-derived Fuels: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Characterization of Catalysts for Aftertreatment...

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman,...

  15. Bio Fuel Systems BFS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Systems BFS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bio Fuel Systems (BFS) Place: Alicante, Spain Sector: Biomass Product: Bio Fuel Systems focuses on the development of biofuel...

  16. DOE 2014 Biomass Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Biomass Conference Jim Williams Senior Manager American Petroleum Institute July 29, 2014 DRAFT 7/28/14 Let's Agree with the Chicken Developing & Implementing Fuels & Vehicle Standards * Let Free Markets Work - Mandates and subsidies distort the free market - Must meet consumers' needs - Follow automobile company recommendations as found in owner's manuals - Changes must be compatible with transportation fuel infrastructure * Use Sound Science - Adopt a systems approach, addressing

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biomass-based diesel is defined as a renewable transportation fuel, transportation fuel additive, heating oil, or jet fuel, such as biodiesel or non-ester renewable diesel, and ...

  18. Characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive wastes which may require long-term isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this report, and the information contained in the associated computerized data bases, is to establish the DOE/OCRWM reference characteristics of the radioactive waste materials that may be accepted by DOE for emplacement in the mined geologic disposal system as developed under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This report provides relevant technical data for use by DOE and its supporting contractors and is not intended to be a policy document. This document is backed up by five PC-compatible data bases, written in a user-oriented, menu-driven format, which were developed for this purpose.

  19. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  20. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars